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, Júlia Fabianová, , Alžbeta Hegedűsová, Lenka Benzová
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1120-1127;

The research task was focused on an important type of root vegetable – carrot (Daucus carota L.), cultivar ´Romance F1´ (family: Apiaceae). The main goal was to verify the application of soil biostimulant Agriful (based on humic and fulvic acids) and its impact on the yield potential and quality of carrot roots. Nowadays, it is the common need to intensify and increase crop production because of the growing human population and look for environmentally friendly cultivation methods. In general, biostimulants are biologically based products and their purpose is to stimulate the natural nutritional processes in cultivated crops. In the realized experiment, Agriful (treatment of 5 L/300 L water/ha) was applied twice per vegetation period by spraying over the pivot. The increase of average root weight after the application of Agriful was found, concretely about +4.47% compared to the control variant. The higher root weight after Agriful application resulted in a higher total yield of carrot about +2.84% compared to the control variant. The quality of consumable parts of carrots were evaluated based on the classification of roots into quality classes according to the valid standard for fresh carrot marketing (UNECE FFV-10). In the ´Extra class´, there was an increase in the average yield after the application of Agriful about +5.4%; The average carrot yield in ´Class I´ was decreased about -1.0% and the root ratio in the ´Class II´ decreased about -1.9%. The ratio of ´Non-standard´ carrot roots was lower about -2.5%. Based on evaluating qualitative substance content (total carotenoids, refractometric dry matter), the positive influence of the effect of Agriful application was found. The content of total carotenoids was higher about +8.7% compared to the control variant. The refractometric dry matter was higher about +4.1% compared to the control variant. The obtained results can be used in further research on biostimulants and it is possible to create clear recommendations for using Agriful for small growers. It should be useful to verify these results in another vegetation period for recommendation to large-scale producers of carrots.
, Petra Borotová, Veronika Valková,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1093-1103;

The aim of the work was to explore the antioxidant potential and antibiofilm activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil. The DPPH method was used to determine the antioxidant activity. The agar microdilution method was used to determine the minimum biofilm inhibiting concentration (MBIC). The MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper was used to evaluate the antibiofilm activity on the wood and glass surface. Vapor phase antimicrobial analysis was used to determine the effect on the food model. The antioxidant activity was 28.76 % ± 2.68 %. The MBIC for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was 25 µL.mL-1 and for Bacillus subtilis 12.5 µL.mL-1. Analysis of the mass spectra of S. maltophilia revealed an inhibitory effect from the 5th, which persisted until the end of the experiment. Analysis of the mass spectra of B. subtilis showed an inhibitory effect from the 7th of the experiment. The experiments showed an effect on both tested surfaces. The food model showed a more pronounced effect of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil against B. subtilis. We assume that the effect of the essential oil is to disrupt the polysaccharide structure of the biofilm and consequently reduce the resistance of the biofilm. We have established that MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper is a suitable tool for evaluating changes in biofilm structure and could find more significant application for the study of biofilms in food and clinical practice.
Iveta Čičová, , Marek Šnirc, Jarmila Horváthová, Helena Lichtnerová, Hana Franková
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1104-1111;

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most commonly grown vegetables and thanks to its sensory properties, it has an important place in numerous world cuisines. Garlic is also known for its health-promoting properties, which are attributed to its chemical composition. The health benefits of garlic depending on the content of biologically active compounds, which vary between cultivars and geographical areas. Seven cultivars of garlic, namely Sukoradsky, Zahorsky, Germidour, Mojmir, Karel IV., Arkus, Makoi, were analyzed in this study. This study aimed to determine the total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of garlic. Studied characteristics were analyzed by the UV-VIS spectrometry method. Total polyphenol content ranged from 430.26 to 640.04 mg FW. Total flavonoid content ranged from 10.29 to 60.49 mg FW. Antioxidant activity measured by ABTS assay ranged from 1.098 to 1.955 mmol FW. Antioxidant activity measured by FRAP assay ranged from 0.63 to 1.467 FW. Highest TPC, TFC, and AA were determined in the cultivar Mojmir. The lowest TPC and TFC were determined in the cultivar Zahorsky. The lowest AA was determined in the cultivar Sukoradsky. High positive correlations were determined between individual parameters.
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1112-1119;

Fungal food spoilage plays a key role in the deterioration of food products, and finding a suitable natural preservative can solve this problem. Therefore, antifungal activity of green mandarin (Citrus reticulata) essential oil (GMEO) in the vapor phase against the growth of Penicillium (P.) expansum and P. chrysogenum inoculated on wheat bread (in situ experiment) was investigated in the current research. The volatile compounds of the GMEO were analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC–MS), and its antioxidant activity was determined by testing free radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH assay). Moreover, the disc diffusion method was used to analyze the antifungal activity of GMEO in in vitro conditions. The results demonstrate that the Citrus reticulata EO consisted of α-limonene as the most abundant component (71.5%), followed by γ-terpinene (13.9%), and β-pinene (3.5%), and it displayed the weak antioxidant activity with the value of inhibition 5.6 ±0.7%, which corresponds to 103.0 ±6.4 µg TEAC.mL-1. The findings from the GMEO antifungal activity determination revealed that values for the inhibition zone with disc diffusion method ranged from 0.00 ±0.00 (no antifungal effectiveness) to 5.67 ±0.58 mm (moderate antifungal activity). Finally, exposure of Penicillium strains growing on bread to GMEO in vapor phase led to the finding that 250 μL.L-1 of GMEO exhibited the lowest value for mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) of P. expansum (-51.37 ±3.01%) whose negative value reflects even supportive effect of the EO on the microscopic fungus growth. On the other hand, GMEO at this concentration (250 μL.L-1) resulted in the strongest inhibitory action (MGI: 54.15 ±1.15%) against growth of P. chrysogenum. Based on the findings it can be concluded that GMEO in the vapor phase is not an effective antifungal agent against the growth of P. expansum inoculated on bread; however, its antifungal potential manifested against P. chrysogenum suggests GMEO to be an appropriate alternative to the use of chemical inhibitors for bread preservation.
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1082-1092;

The safety of plant-based food with an herbal origin is a priority for producers and final consumers these days. The interest in the high biological value of the final food products enriched with herbal ingredients is rising. We focused on the study of physico-chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two kinds of grape juice with medicinal plant addition in our study. We used 2 varieties of grapes - Welschriesling and Cabernet Sauvignon, six species of medicinal plants - Calendula officinalis L., Ginkgo biloba, Thymus serpyllum, Matricaria recutita, Salvia officinalis L., and Mentha aquatica var. citrata in our experiment. There were14 samples prepared, two of them were control samples and 12 samples were treated with medicinal plants. We tested each of the selected parameters triplicate with an interval of one week. We evaluated the results statistically in 4 levels of significance p <0,01, p <0,001, p <0,0001 and p <0,00001. The content of fructose, glucose, dry matter, density, malic acid, pH, potential alcohol, total acids, and total sugars in the treated samples was significantly lower compared to the control sample, which was probably due to the degree of dilution of grape juice with extracts gained from medicinal plants. The antioxidant effect was demonstrably higher in the samples enriched with medicinal plants than in the control samples. The highest antioxidant effect was measured in the second test in the samples with the addition of Thymus serpyllum (80.93 % - white grape must, 82.33 % - blue grape must), Calendula officinalis L. (79.29 % - white grape must, 80.49 % - blue grape must) and Ginkgo biloba (79.10 % - white grape must, 83.3 % - blue grape must). Generally, we found out that the selected medicinal plants increase the biological quality of grape juice.
Mária Angelovičová, Michal Angelovič, , , Petra Folvarčíková,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1056-1068;

The study aimed to investigate and evaluate the oxidative stability of chicken thighs with skin stored in freezing conditions due to the effect of oregano essential oil for various times. The results were compared with a control group without the use of oregano essential oil. Samples of chicken thighs with skin were obtained from an experiment performed on a poultry farm in a deep litter breeding system. The results obtained from the application of oregano essential oil to chicken thighs with skin did not show a statistically significant difference (p >0.05) in the dry matter content, fat content and acid value compared to the control group, where coccidiostats were used in starter and growth feed mixtures. A statistically significant difference was found in the peroxide value by applying oregano essential oil to chicken thighs with skin compared to a control group containing coccidiostats in starter and growth feed mixtures when stored for 1 day at room temperature (p £0.01) and 12 months in freezing conditions at -18 °C (p £0.05) and a statistically non-significant difference (p >0.05) when thighs with skin were stored for 6 and 9 months in -18 °C freezing conditions. In the conclusion, it was stated that maintaining the oxidative stability of chicken meat means knowing the factors that affect it and prepare the conditions for its maintenance. Chicken meat is generally susceptible to oxidative damage because it is characterized by a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. With a sufficient amount of effective antioxidants, chicken meat could be a homoeostatic system, but it remains limited or free of oxidized compounds and reactive components. These questions are the subject of further research in the field of oxidative stability of chicken meat.
Mária Angelovičová, Michal Angelovič, , , Klaudia Šaraková,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1069-1081;

The study aimed to investigate cholesterol content in chicken breast and thigh muscles by the influence of feed supplements of various content of essential oils. The experiment was carried out under practical conditions in a poultry farm with broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 hybrid combination according to the feed supplement used thyme essential oil, cinnamon essential oil, commercial citrus fruit essential oil, and their combination. The control group was without the use of experimental feed supplements and commercial coccidiostats were used in their feed mixtures. The experiment lasted 40 days in welfare conditions. Broiler chickens were used for sample preparation of breast and thigh muscles with the skin and their analysis for dry matter, fat and cholesterol contents. Samples were analyzed using a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results were processed by the SAS system program, version 8.2. The results, which were evaluated, indicated a tendency to reduce the cholesterol content in chicken breast muscle due to cinnamon essential oil and the combination of cinnamon essential oil with citrus fruit essential oil as well as thyme essential oil with citrus fruit essential. In the achieved results of dry matter, fat, and cholesterol content in breast and thigh muscles, the difference between the effects of the used feed supplements based on essential oils and concerning the control group were not statistically significant p >0.05. The correlation was a statistically significant strong linear relation only between dry matter content and fat content due to thyme and cinnamon essential oils. In conclusion, it was stated that the investigation of the feed supplement effect based on essential oils is an open question concerning the production of safe food of animal origin.
Diah Pitaloka Putri, Aulia Putri Wahyuningtyas, , Nani Maharani
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1049-1055;

Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism and is categorized as hyperuricemia when it reaches >6.0 mg.dL-1 for women and >7.0 mg.dL-1 for men. The chayote leaves (Sechium edule) contain a high amount of flavonoid and might be used as an alternative to reduce hyperuricemia. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of chayote leaves (Sechium edule)’s flavonoid fraction on the level of uric acid and the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in Sprague Dawley Rats. The flavonoid fraction (FF) was obtained by extracting the chayote leaves, fractionating with n-hexane, hydrolyzing with HCl, and finally re-fractionating with ethyl acetate. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were induced for hyperuricemia by potassium oxonate and broth block for 21 days, and the interventions were given orally for 14 days. The rats were divided randomly into five groups: normal control (K-), hyperuricemia control (K+), hyperuricemia with FF dose 50 mg.200g-1 body weight (P1), hyperuricemia with FF dose 100 mg.200g-1 body weight (P2) and hyperuricemia with allopurinol 1.8 mg.200g-1 body weight. Xanthine oxidase activity was measured by CheKineTM Xanthine Oxidase Assay Kit, with simple colorimetry methods. The statistical analysis for XO activity was done using Kruskal-Wallis followed by Mann Whitney. The results showed that chayote leaves (Sechium edule)’s flavonoid fraction contains apigenin, apigenin o-glucoside, and luteolin. It also has antioxidant activity with 98.45% inhibition. There was a significant reduction in xanthine oxidase activity in groups treated with FF (p <0.005). The best dose of FF affecting XO activity was 100 mg.200g-1 body weight. The combination of FF and allopurinol can be more effective in decreasing uric acid levels by inhibiting XO activity.
Aleš Vavřiník, , Adrian Alumbro, Methusela Perrocha, Lenka Sochorová, ,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 995-1004;

The presented work aimed to study the inhibition using nanoparticles produced by the green synthesis in selected acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria, which are related to viticulture. The degree of ability to eliminate silver particles produced by green syntheses was determined using the plate method on Petri dishes. This is done using two different approaches - the method of direct application of the solution to the surface of the inoculated medium (determination of inhibition zones) and the method of application using nanoparticles to the inoculated medium. Gluconobacter oxydans (CCM 3618) and Acetobacter aceti (CCM 3620T) were studied from acet acetic bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria were Lactobacillus brevis (CCM 1815) and Pediococcus damnosus (CCM 2465). The application of silver nanoparticles was always in concentrations of 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 g.L-1. All applied concentrations of silver nanoparticles showed an inhibitory effect on the monitored microorganisms. Silver particles could be used in wine technology for their antibacterial effects, mainly to inhibit microorganisms during vinification, as a substitute for sulfur dioxide.
, , , Mikhail Minaev, Elena Zvereva
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1005-1017;

Because of the increased demand for processed meat, there is an urgent need to introduce specific identification methods. Strategies such as molecular genetics and the physical condition of meat are used to quickly explore multi-component products. However, a single methodology does not always unambiguously classify a product as counterfeit. In laboratory practice, as a rule, screening techniques are rarely used in the first stage, followed by arbitration. This work aimed to study individual methodologies using artificially falsified meat samples as examples and to identify their composition based on muscle tissue. For the experiments, the three most common types of raw meat were selected: pork, beef, and chicken. The calculation of the content of muscle tissue was carried out according to the BEFFE method. The study of muscle protein was carried out by ICA, ELISA, PCR, microstructural analysis, and mass spectrometric identification. In this connection, we proposed a multilevel control system for multicomponent meat products. Both classical methodologies, such as calculation by prescription bookmarks (BEFFE) and microstructural analysis, and approaches of highly sensitive methodologies, such as identification of muscle tissue by marker peptides (LC/MS-MRM) and semi-quantitative PCR analysis, were evaluated.
Sergiy Gunko, Olha Trynchuk, , Hryhorii Podpriatov, Liubomyr Khomichak, Anatoliy Bober, Volodymyr Zavhorodnii, Volodymyr Voitsekhivskyi, Oksana Zavadska, Lesia Bondareva
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1018-1028;

Mushrooms' quality may be significantly changing depending on their type, strain, growing cycle, packing, cooling, postharvest handling (PHH), and conditions of storage. This work aimed to define the influence of the type and mushrooms' strain, the regime of the PHH by carbon dioxide on their preservation (marketability, loss of weight (LW)), changes in the chemical substances, and physiological activity (intensity respiration (IR) and heat release (HR)). Mushrooms Agaricus bisporus (AB) (strains ІБК-25 and ІБК-15) and Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) (strains НК-35 and Amycel 3000) were used for testing. Three regimes of treatment by CO2 with a concentration of 20% were applied: 2 h; 12 h and 22 h. The control was the mushrooms without treatment by CO2. Changes in the chemical substances such as dry matters (DM), protein nitrogen (PN), and ascorbic acid (AA) in the researched mushrooms were observed. The best result of mushroom preservation was provided by the regime of CO2 treatment during 12 h. The yield of marketable AB was 94.9% (IBK-25) and 94.2% (IBK-15) comparison to control 93.5%, and 92.5%, respectively. The regime of PHH 2 h almost has no influence but 22 h harmed this indicator. PHH of mushrooms by carbon dioxide was promoted to preserve the DM and increasing concentration of CO2 was supplied better results. Thus, DM at the end of storage in the AB of strain IBK-25 depend on the regime were 8.5, 8.6, and 8.4%, against – 8.3% in the control variant. Significant quantitative changes in the PN and AA as a result of treatment by CO2 were not established. PHH also affected the IR and HR. The increased duration of treatment by CO2 inhibited the intensity of physiological processes in the mushrooms. But, as in previous cases, the best result was provided PHH by 20% CO2 during 12 h. Similar trends of treatments effect by carbon dioxide were observed in the mushrooms of PO.
Frederick Adzitey, Joseph Yaro, Joseph Kudadam Korese, Mohammad Halim Jeinie,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1039-1048;

This study investigated the sensory, nutritional, and physicochemical characteristics as well as formulation cost of beef sausages formulated with raw pearl millet flour (RaPMF) as an extender. Four treatments were formulated with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% RaPMF. Ash, carbohydrate, fat, and protein contents of the beef sausages were not influenced (p <0.05) by the RaPMF. The calcium, magnesium, potassium, and pH contents were highest (p <0.05) in the 15% RaPMF beef sausages. Cooking loss was at least (p 0.05) the sensory properties (week 1), water holding capacity, peroxide value, lightness (week 1), and yellowness (week 1). The formulation cost was least for 15% RaPMF beef sausages and highest for 0% RaPMF beef sausages. As a general conclusion, RaPMF improved the mineral composition of the beef sausages and reduced production costs without compromising its physicochemical and sensory properties.
, Galina Upadysheva, Tatyana Tumaeva
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 1029-1038;

The influence of seedling and clonal rootstocks of different spreads on Prunus domestica L. plum fruits quality and productivity of Yaichnaya Sinyaya and Utro varieties was studied. The significant change of productivity and the fruit weight of the varieties under study was to determine under the influence of the rootstock. Depending on the scion-stock combination the plum tree's productivity varied from 7.5 kg/tr. (Utro/140-1) to 15.1 kg/tr. (Yаichnaya Sinyaya /Novinka) at the mean value of 11.5 kg/tr. Medium-growing rootstocks Novinka and OPA-15-2 provided the maximum value of the varieties productivity The significant productivity decrease relatively to seedling rootstock was stated for the combinations with low-growing rootstock 140-1. Soluble solids content in the fruits of Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety is higher than in the fruits of Utro variety, moreover, the highest values were determined on Novinka and OPA-15-2 rootstocks: on 4 – 4.5% higher in comparison with the fruits on the seeding rootstock at average. The rootstock causes less influence on titratable acids. The antioxidant activity of Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety fruits is 30% higher than that of Utro variety fruits on average. The maximum values of antioxidant activity in Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety fruits were fixed on OPA-15-2 rootstock (16.37%), the minimal ones – on Skorospelka Krasnaya rootstocks (14.68%). In the fruits of Utro variety the highest values were stated on OP-23-23 rootstock (13.16%), and the lowest ones – on the seedling rootstock (10.93%). The content of phenolic compounds sum is 60% higher in the fruits of Yаichnaya Sinyaya variety than in Utro variety ones on average. The decrease of the content of phenolic compounds sum was stated in the fruits of Utro variety on all the rootstocks in comparison with the combination Utro/seedling rootstock. The decreasing series of ash elements accumulation (K > P > Ca > Mg > Mo > S > Zn > Si) was determined. The strongest variety differences on total mineral element content were overvalued on medium-growing clonal rootstocks (Novinka, OP-23-23 and OPA-15-2). OPA-15-2 and OP-23-23 rootstocks provided the highest fruit quality on the combination of economic and biochemical parameters.
, Oksana Bodnarchuk, Kateryna Kopylova, Pylyp Petrov, ,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 741-748;

The composition and properties of cream with fat levels from 30% to 70% were investigated. It has been established that the decrease of fat level and, accordingly, the increase of plasma level in the cream leads to significant changes in the physicochemical parameters of the fat emulsion. Accordingly, the production of low-fat dairy products requires adjustment of the cream properties. It has been shown that using different doses of structure stabilizers: QNA colloid as a consistency stabilizer in the amount of from 1 to 2% and the Dimodan emulsifier U/G – from 0 to 1 % (Danisco, Denmark) changes the physicochemical properties (effective viscosity, sedimentation stability) and organoleptic properties (consistency, taste) of cream with fat level 40%. It has been conducted mathematical modeling, aimed to calculate dosing for improving the properties of milk-fat emulsions, structure formation and further ensuring of the necessary consistency of cream pastes. Optimal doses of colloid QNA as a consistency stabilizer and a U/G Dimodan emulsifier have been determined. It has been established that their content should be 1,0% and 0,5%, relatively, for pastes with a fat level of 40%. The effectiveness of the joint action of consistency stabilizers and emulsifiers in obtaining milk-fat emulsions were defined by the level of effective viscosity. Moreover, the use of the emulsifier had less effect on the effective viscosity of the milk-fat emulsions. It has been found that using the structure stabilizers could improve the formation of low-fat products and the formation of the desired paste-like consistency of high-fat cream with a fat level of 70%. Thus, it is possible to adjust the composition and properties of raw material as a basis for milk-fat emulsions by optimizing the ratio of structure stabilizers. Comparative evaluation of the physicochemical properties of milk-fat emulsions and high-fat cream makes it possible to predict their potential for conversion into a creamy paste with a given consistency.
Jana Mrázová, Soňa Bӧtӧšová, , Petra Lenártová, , Marta Habánová, Kristína Jančichová
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 672-679;

The study aims to evaluate the monitoring of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in the young population, which significantly contribute to the origin and development of cardiovascular diseases, such as peripheral artery diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, and others. We focused on a group of young adult men (n = 110) in the age range of 30 to 50 years, which we selected from the database of 800 patients hospitalized in the Cardio Center in Nitra during 2010 – 2020. When evaluating the influence of meat products consumption frequency on biochemical parameters and BMI, we recorded a statistically significant effect at the level of p <0.05 in the evaluation of meat products such as salami, brawn, and sausages. When consuming sausages, BMI values also increased with increasing frequency of consumption. The effect on BMI was also observed when eating salami, between consuming 1 – 2 times a week and not at all. We recorded a statistically significant effect (p <0.05) in frequent consumption of brawn (1 – 2 weeks) on the level of HDL cholesterol. The most frequent fish consumption was 1 – 2 times a month for freshwater (51.8%) and marine fish (56.3%). Daily consumption of fruit was reported in 64.6% of men, while daily consumption of vegetables was recorded in only 44.6% of men. In the lifestyle assessment, we focused on probands' time spent on physical activity. Only 35.5% of men stated that they spend more than an hour a day on physical activity. 40% of men from the surveyed respondents were active smokers. Another risk factor for cardiovascular diseases is stress, which significantly affected up to 42.7% of respondents. Nutrition and lifestyle play an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, which significantly affect blood lipid parameters, vascular endothelial elasticity, and factors determining the etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.
Diana Dalevska, Oleg Pokotylo, Mykola Kukhtyn, Nataliia Kopchak, , Yulia Horiuk, Tetyana Uglyar
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 732-740;

Iodine is a vital trace element that must be constantly and daily supplied with food to the organism. Currently, the amount of food that can provide the organism with the required amount of iodine is insufficient. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in organoleptic, microbiological, and biochemical parameters of kefir made with the addition of iodine during its refrigeration storage. It was found that during the storage of samples of kefir with iodine there is a slowdown in the reproduction of lactic acid bacteria, compared with the control sample. In particular, the number of lactic acid bacteria during the first two days of storage increased 1.3 times in the experimental sample and 1.5 times in the control sample of kefir. After 12 days of storage, the number of lactobacilli in the test sample of kefir increased 2.5 times, and in the control 3.2 times, compared with the amount in fresh kefir. Similar patterns were observed in determining the development of yeast. In particular, the reproduction rate of yeast in the control sample of kefir was, on average, 1.3 times faster (8 – 12 days), compared with yeast in the experimental sample. It was also found that during the 12-day storage period at a temperature of +6 °C, the titrated acidity in kefir with iodine increased 1.4 times, and in the control 1.6 times and was 130.5 °T and 154.1 °T, respectively. At such acidity values, the test sample of kefir still met the requirements of the standard, and the control was 24.1 °T higher. In this case, kefir containing iodide had better organoleptic characteristics during 12 days of storage. Produced kefir with the addition of iodine can be considered a functional product to provide the population with sufficient iodine.
, Anatoly Sokolenko, Volodymyr Piddubnuy, Kostiantyn Vasylkivsky, Andrii Chahaida, Viktor Fedoriv
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 680-693;

The article evaluates the energy resources of the components of the environment and the prospects for their use on the redistribution with the creation of local zones of cooling and heating. The physical basis of the principle and systems of redistribution and transformations of energy resources of environments with coverage of the role of compensation processes is given. The use of closed energy circuits with intermediate energy sources, which are subject to phase transitions of evaporation and condensation, and data of energy potentials of ambient air, which are practically achievable for use on this basis, is proposed. The article shows the advantages of arranging systems for redistribution of thermal potentials based on the use of phase transitions of material media. Determination of energy balances of energy redistribution systems is carried out with the indication that in the end, such a method is the most energy-efficient. Upon completion of technological tasks, local areas with different energy potentials and temperatures degrade in dissipation processes and transform to the level of environmental indicators. This means interfering with the environment only at the level of energy costs in compensation processes. The article shows the transition to secondary recovery systems of energy resources based on the use of primary energy sources in environmental transformations at the levels of increasing their energy potentials and providing phase transitions with appropriate mathematical formalizations. A regression analysis of the feasibility of using primary energy potentials is given. It is proved that in the heat pump due to the generated mechanical energy the heat return at the level of the lost one. The estimation of the general condition of processes at power effects is given. The offered air pump and system of realization of a refrigerating cycle are considered. The redistribution of energy potentials of natural, forcibly created environments or systems and the synthesis on this basis of powerful heat fluxes in combination with advanced control methods, allows you to control their values of thermodynamic parameters.
Hana Franková, Ivona Jančo, Natália Čeryová
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 758-767;

The content of selected elements (Ag, Al, and Zn) in wild edible Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera Scop. Singer) collected from five sites in Slovakia – Lazy pod Makytou, Lozorno, Nemečky, Tesáre, and Zbyňov was investigated. The element analysis was determined using the ICP-OES method. The average concentrations of Ag, Al, and Zn in M. procera caps ranged as follows: 0.41 – 3.23, 16.6 – 113, and 73.4 – 111 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Also, Spearman’s correlation test was used to determine the correlations between Parasol mushroom caps and stems in the content of Ag, Al, and Zn. Subsequently, the obtained data on the content of the monitored elements in M. procera caps were used for the evaluation of health risks arising from the consumption of M. procera. Although mushrooms are an important part of the diet, they are consumed mainly as a seasonal delicacy therefore, the intake of the monitored elements from the consumption of M. procera may be limited. Regular and long-term consumption of M. procera caps from investigated sites does not pose any health risks to the consumers.
, Aymen Taani
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 768-775;

The agricultural sector in the Jordan Valley plays an important role in the economic system and that the region is essentially Jordan's food basket. The adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is widely recognized as essential to ensure agricultural sustainability. This study analyzed factors influencing citrus farmer's adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) in the Northern Ghor of Jordan valley. The study used a quantitative approach. Simple random sampling was adopted to select 115 farmers in the study area. A multiple regression analysis was applied to identify factors influencing the sustainability of citrus farming practices. The study found that the largest proportion 44.4% of the citrus farmers had a fairly high adoption rate of SAPs while 13.0% of ones had high adoption of SAPs. In addition, the study revealed that age of farmer, Farm experience, primary education, and tertiary education were factors that affected farmers SAPs adoption. Policy recommendations are proposed to enhance the implementation of sustainable agriculture practices by the citrus farmers in the Northern Ghor of Jordan valley.
Anna Látečková, Michaela Trnková, , Ivan Holúbek
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 694-702;

The presented paper aims to evaluate the development and competitiveness of agri-food foreign trade of the Slovak Republic for the period 2016 – 2020. In the article, we present the priorities of Slovakia within the commodity structure. We use the RCA indicator to identify comparative advantages. In this paper, we also compare the actual and estimated development of agri-food foreign trade of the Slovak Republic in the years 2018 – 2020. Based on the reached results, we can state that we achieve an ever-increasing trade balance deficit in agri-food foreign trade. Produced results confirmed all the research assumptions presented in the paper. Despite the increase in export and import of agri-food products, the negative trade balance is still deeper. A significant deviation of real development from the predicted values can be explained by the influence of the worldwide pandemic of the coronavirus COVID-19, which slowed down the possible further development of agricultural trade.
Darya Panishcheva, , Natalia Kozak
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 723-731;

The demand for natural products, which are rich in biologically active compositions, grows constantly. The choice and production of such products can minimize the deficit of importance for human organism components, which are contained only in plant food. The paper contains the laboratory studying results of the chemical composition of the fruits of two Actinidia Lindl. cultivars of Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Horticultural Research Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology, and Nursery (FSBSI FSC for Horticulture) genetic collection: Actinidia kolomikta (Rupr. et Maxim.) Maxim. and Actinidia polygama (Siebold et Zucc.) Maxim. All the presented samples are grown in field conditions. The fruits were picked up in the phase of harvest maturity while ripening. The data on antioxidant activity of water and methanol extracts, the content of phenolic compounds sum, soluble solids, and titratable acids in the fruits, and on qualitative composition of secondary metabolites (organic acids, fatty acids, mono-, di- and polysaccharides) are given in the paper. The variation limits of the parameters under study depending on the sample are presented. As a result of the laboratory studies, it was stated that A. kolomikta fruits 10 times exceed A. polygama fruits on all the stated parameters. Only the results on the soluble solids content in the fruits of both cultivars are approximately at the same level (A. kolomikta > A. polygama on 1.16%). The positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the general content of polyphenols is confirmed at both cultivars. Actinidia kolomikta genotypes Chempion and Lakomka and Actinidia polygama ones Tselebnaya and Uzorchataya showed the best results. The correct individual choice of actinidia fruits that are the best ones at the biochemical composition and the content of micronutrients allows supplying the consumers with food products.
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 662-671;

An atherogenic diet induces oxidative stress leading to hypercholesterolemia. This condition causes atherosclerosis followed by increased LDL and MDA. Sorghum tempeh contains fiber and antioxidants that can protectively improve LDL and MDA levels. Therefore, this research aims to determine the effect of sorghum tempeh on LDL and MDA levels in atherogenic diet-induced rats compared to sorghum flour. It used a randomized pre-post test with a control group design. The test subjects were 30 male Sprague Dawley rats, consisting of 6 normal conditioned rats (C1), and 24 that were induced by an atherogenic diet (C2, T1, T2, T3) for 2 weeks. Sorghum flour was administered at a dose of 4.095 g (T1) and the sorghum tempeh at 3.041 g (T2) and 6.081 g (T3) for 4 weeks. Furthermore, C2 was constantly induced through an atherogenic diet. Total cholesterol and LDL levels were then analyzed using the CHOD-PAP method, and MDA levels, using the ELISA method. Meanwhile, statistical analysis for these variables was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. The results showed that the administration of sorghum flour and tempeh significantly reduced total cholesterol, LDL, MDA levels in each group (p = 0.001). Furthermore, it showed that there was a significantly strong correlation between LDL and MDA levels before and after treatment (r = 0.610, r = 0.805, and p = 0.001). The administration of sorghum tempeh at a dose of 6.081 g caused the greatest reduction (∆) in LDL levels at -44.19 ±2.58 mg.dL-1, although, it was not the same as normal control. Meanwhile, sorghum flour at a dose of 4.095 g was the most influential in reducing MDA levels to the same as normal control with delta (∆) at -7.67 ±0.37 ng.mL-1. In conclusion, sorghum tempeh and flour were the most effective at reducing LDL and MDA levels, respectively.
Risya Ahriyasna, Tri Winarni Agustini, Kis Djamiatun, Def Primal
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 703-711;

As estimated having an increased incidence of about 50% until 2040, the diabetic condition could be augmented primarily from astaxanthin contained in carotenoids. This research examines and compares the influence of WSSP and AST complement on Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) level and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) induced high-fat diet streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) in T2DM rats. WSSP 0.89gr/200gr/d (X1) and 1.77gr/200gr/d (X2) groups; and AST supplement 0.09mg/200gr/d (X3) groups were compared with both of positive (K1) and negative (K2) groups. The treatments were administered orally for 21 days to 25 Wistar rats which each group consisted of 5 rats. HOMA-IR and TAC levels were measured by ELISA and ABTs method respectively. TAC levels significantly increased in treatment groups than K1 group (p = 0.008). The increase in the TAC level of the X2 group was greater than the X1 group (p = 0.017). HOMA IR levels were significantly lower in treatment groups than K1 group (p = 0.009). X2 group had a greater decrease in HOMA IR levels compared to X1 (p = 0.016). In consequence, the research findings show a utilitarian effect of WSSP in increasing TAC and decreasing the HOMA-IR index.
Nura Malahayati, Tri Wardhani Widowati, Nurul Saniah Alsoyuna
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 712-722;

Calcium deficiency is associated with the risks of bone fracture and osteoporosis. This type of malnutrition has been a concern of governments and the World Health Organization for decades, and extensive efforts have been made to address it. There are several solutions to increase calcium intake. One is to take calcium in the form of nanocalcium. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of extraction time on the physicochemical characteristics of nanocalcium powder extracted from chicken and duck eggshells through precipitation. This research was conducted by using a completely randomized factorial design with two factors, and each treatment analysis was repeated three times. The first factor was the type of eggshell (chicken and duck), and the second was the extraction time (1, 1.5, and 2 hours). The observed parameters were physical (yield and color) and chemical characteristics (moisture, ash, calcium content, and crystalline structure). The results showed that the type of eggshell had a significant effect (p <0.05) on yield, color (lightness), and moisture content and that extraction time had a significant effect (p <0.05) on yield, color (chroma and hue), moisture, and ash content. The highest content of the crystalline structure of nanocalcium formation (100%) was nanocalcium powder from chicken and duck eggshells, with 1 hour of extraction time. The particle size of the crystalline structure of nanocalcium from chicken and duck eggshells were 41.54 nm and 24.90 nm, respectively.
Ololade Abosede Olodude, Victoria Funmilayo Abioye, Yetunde Mary Iranloye
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 776-783;

The potentials of underutilized African yam bean (AYB) and pro-vitamin A cassava in the development of nutritious food products with acceptable sensory properties were studied. Grits were produced from freshly harvested yellow root pro-vitamin A cassava by peeling, washing, cutting, soaking, dewatering, roasting, sieving, and milling to obtain yellow root cassava grits while AYB flour was obtained by cleaning, roasting, dehulling, milling, and sieving (425 µm). A simple lattice design was used to obtain formulations of blends (100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40 and 0:100) of yellow root cassava grits and AYB flour. Gruels were prepared from these formulations using 4:5 w/v in boiling water while meals were prepared using 1:1 w/v of blend in boiling water for 5 min. Moisture, fat, ash, protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate, β-carotene and calorific content of the blends were in the ranges of 4.66 – 7.92%, 2.20 – 2.82%, 2.16 – 2.66%, 2.72 – 20.43%, 1.15 – 1.40%, 68.65 – 83.23%, 1.33 to 3.97 μg/g and 348.37 – 358.96 kcal/100 g, respectively. Saponin, tannin, trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinin, starchyose, raffinose, phytate and Hydrogen Cyanide ranged from 0.039 – 0.087%, 0.11 – 0.15%, 1.24 – 3.15 mg/g, 1.47 – 3.49 mg/100 g, 1.51 – 1.81%, 0.38 – 0.45%, 0.82 – 2.69 mg/g, 0.07 – 4.47 mg/kg, respectively. The sensory evaluation revealed that the meal and the gruel samples had acceptable sensory attributes. The developed products have the potentials in alleviating the problem of protein malnutrition in developing countries.
Natalia Rodionova, Evgeny Popov, Natalia Zakharova, Ekaterina Pozhidaeva, Anna Derkanosova, Nikolay Tychinin, Anatoly Khitrov, Mikhail Syromyatnikov
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 749-757;

The aim of the work is a comparative study of the effect of vegetable nutrients - wheat germ oil (WGO), flour from wheat germ cake (WGC), and animal - concentrated tissue fish oil, origin on lipid metabolism indicators of students and university teachers, as well as an assessment of the probiotic factor in increasing the effectiveness of the target biologically active substances. The data obtained confirm the relation between the nutritional sufficiency of the body and the increase in lipid metabolism effectiveness and atherosclerosis risk reduction in students and teachers of an engineering university with the daily use of bioactive nutrients: WGO, WGCF, CTFO and their combinations with the biomass of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria consortium. The lipid metabolism was evaluated based on the analysis of indicators of the total cholesterol (TC) concentrations, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides (TG), atherogenic index (AI). The values of these indicators were recorded before and after daily consuming the study foods for 30 days. The data obtained were analyzed for 3 age groups: 16 – 24, 25 – 44, and 45 – 65. It was found that WGO has the most effective antiatherosclerotic effect; the decrease in the TC level was 6.4%, the increase in the HDL concentration was 13.7%, the decrease in the LDL concentration was 11.3%, the decrease in the TG concentration was 17.1%, and the AI decreased by 22.6%, respectively. With WGCF, the changes in the studied parameters were 6.0, 12.3, 13.1, 13.1, and 22.1%, respectively. Together with probiotics WGO effectiveness increased in terms of the reduced TC level (1.9%), increased HDL concentration (8.2%), decreased LDL concentration (2.5%), reduced TG concentration (5.7%), and decreased AI (6.3%) for CTFO by 9.1, 26.1, 14.7, 24.1 and 31.2%, respectively. Thus, the dynamics of lipid metabolism indices objectively testifies to the positive effect of bioactive nutrients on human health indicators.
, Mochammad Sja'Bani, Susetyowati, Emy Huriyati
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 961-969;

This study aims to determine the organoleptic quality of liquid food formula made from snail (Pila ampullacea), tempeh, and moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The study was conducted in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It involved 25 moderately trained panelists and also 5 trained panelists, who met the criteria. The measured variable was the organoleptic quality, which included aspects of color, texture, taste, and aroma. The formula tested was a powder formula made from the snail, tempeh, and moringa leaves. The proportion of snail flour, tempeh flour, and moringa leaves flour was 50:30:20. It was found that more than 50% of panelists liked the liquid food formula based on color, texture, taste, and aroma. Independent t-test to determine the difference between the organoleptic quality of the two groups showed p = 0.710 for color, p = 0.335 for texture, p = 0.603 for taste, and p = 0.880 for aroma. In conclusion, most of the panelists liked the liquid food formula products made from snail, tempeh, and moringa leaves based on the organoleptic quality result. There was no difference between the organoleptic quality studies of the two groups in the aspect of color, texture, taste, and aroma.
Tatiana Prichko, Natalya Droficheva
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 891-900;

The influence of varietal characteristics of plum fruits on the physicochemical parameters of the drying process has been investigated. Revealed significant differences in the content of biologically active compounds on the example of varieties: Stanley, Big Stanley, Grossa di Felisio, President, Blue moon, August Delish, Kabardinskaya early. The consumption rates of raw materials for the production of candied fruits have been determined. The results of laboratory studies on the variation of the content of vitamins (C, P), anthocyanins in plum fruits, taking into account varietal characteristics, are presented. The drying process on a dryer with infrared rays led to a slight decrease in polyphenolic and mineral substances, and higher losses of vitamins in the finished candied fruit. The mathematical processing of the experimental data was carried out by the method of analysis of variance and descriptive statistics using the Microsoft Excel software package. In the production of candied plum fruits, optimal technological modes have been selected that contribute to a high yield of high-quality finished products, taking into account the varietal characteristics of the feedstock. According to biochemical and organoleptic indicators of the quality of candied fruits, Stanley and President varieties were distinguished, the energy value of which is 147.0 kcal with an organoleptic assessment of 4.9 points. The results of experimental biochemical and technological analyzes of fruits at individual technological stages of production made it possible to assess the intensity of complex processes that cause a qualitative transformation of raw materials.
Tatiana Kos, Inha Kuznietsova, Tamila Sheiko, Liubomyr Khomichak, Larysa Bal-Prylypko, Volodymyr Vasyliv, Maxim Gudzenko, Mykola Nikolaenko, Mykola Bondar, Irina Haidai
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 901-916;

The article considers an improved method for determining the content of magnesium carbonate in the carbonate rock. An adjusted method for determining the content of magnesium carbonate was included in the complete establishment of chemical analysis of limestone, which includes the determination of moisture, impurities insoluble in hydrochloric acid, the amount of one and a half oxides of aluminum and iron, calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate (advanced method), calcium sulfate, alkali metal oxides of potassium and sodium. The obtained experimental data were entered into a single table and summed up the material balance of all components of the carbonate rock. As a result, it was found that this technique includes the following criteria: it is the most accurate, most accessible, and cheap. The use of adjusted methods for determining the content of calcium and magnesium carbonate in limestone will make it possible to establish the objective chemical composition of the carbonate rock and avoid several technological problems. Namely, the excess of uncontrolled magnesium carbonate contributes to the formation of the liquid phase, which in turn reduces the concentration of chemically active lime and promotes the formation of melts in the lime kiln, deteriorating filtration rates, clogging the evaporating station, and so on. Therefore, having information about the real component composition of limestone, the technologist will be able to adjust the technological process in advance, which will lead to the preservation of natural resources while the quality of finished products will not decrease.
Aleksei Korolev, , Elena Nikitenko, Elena Denisova, Elena Fanda, Irina Barasheva, Roman Fetisov, Olga Popova, Lubov Kuznetsova, Ekaterina Petrova
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 917-925;

Carotenoids are natural antioxidants, affecting apoptosis, absorbing active forms of oxygen, and improving visual performance through their blue light filtering capabilities. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids of the macular pigment that play a significant role in protecting against age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataracts, and diabetic retinopathy. We analyzed the dietary sources of lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin of young adults living in a megapolis. We analyzed 431 food frequency questionnaires and used two different criteria for comparison: age (groups A1 and A2) and season (groups S1, spring, and S2, autumn). Raw red tomatoes and eggs are the main sources of carotenoids for the majority of respondents regardless of age and season. Significant differences between age groups were found for parsley, carrot, cheeseburger, and spring onion. Foods with high levels of carotenoids (tomato juice, pumpkin, spinach, and sprouts) were absent in the diets of most of the study participants. Watermelons and persimmons are seasonal sources of lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Dietary sources of carotenoids are present in insufficient quantities in the diets. Foods with high levels of lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin are absent or only occasionally included in the diet.
Budi Santoso, Doni Andrian Saragih, Gatot Priyanto, Hermanto Hermanto
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 869-876;

This study aims to analyze the role of gambier filtrate and red palm oil in the formation of functional edible film and to determine whether the gambier filtrate and red palm oil are synergistic or antagonistic in the formation of functional edible films. The study design used a factorial randomized block design with two treatment factors and each treatment consisted of three levels, namely: gambier filtrate concentration (A): 20, 30, and 40% (v/v) as well as red palm oil concentration (B): 1.2 and 3% (v/v). The observed parameters were thickness, elongation percentage, water vapor transmission rate, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity. Gambier filtrate and red palm oil were capable to improve the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of canna starch-based edible film. Gambier filtrate plays a role in increasing the elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate of edible film.
Irina Vlasenko, Valentyna Bandura, Tetyana Semko, Larisa Fialkovska, Olga Ivanishcheva, Vladyslav Palamarchuk
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 970-981;

The topic provides an analysis of the current approach to healthy nutrition and represents a new functional fermented milk drink based on buttermilk containing natural prebiotics - a biologically valuable complex Spirulina platensis. The main tasks of the industry as a holistic system for the management and production of food ingredients and products are outlined. The work highlights the requirements for the quality and context of the functional product manufacture, the main criteria for the consumer choice, and positioning of products in the healthy lifestyle system. The topic covers the most common pro- and prebiotics, including strains. The unique food green microalgae Spirulina platensis as a source of biologically valuable components is proposed for industrial application. A technique for the production of the fermented milk drink based on buttermilk and spirulina as prebiotic was developed and scientifically substantiated. The protein contained in buttermilk is characterized by high nutritional value, exhibits functional properties and can significantly affect the quality of the drink. To confirm this, the possibility of using buttermilk with different protein content from 2.9 to 3.2 to improve the structure of the clot in the composition of the drink and the content of spirulina from 10 to 20% was studied. As single criteria for optimizing the prescription composition of the drink at the different protein content of buttermilk used indicators of product quality - acidity, degree of syneresis, organoleptic parameters. The optimal values of the individual criteria are obtained in different ranges of protein content 3 times 1-2-2; sample 2-3.0; sample 3-3.2%, which allows you to get recommendations for the formulation of a new type of drink.
, Stanislava Zubrická, Jozef Čapla, Jozef Čurlej, Maroš Drončovský
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 858-868;

This article provides brief information on the system of monitoring raw cows’ milk for the presence of inhibitory veterinary drug residues in the Slovak Republic. We are describing in detail how the monitoring is carried out and what laboratory methods are used for this monitoring. We also deal with the issue of the disposal of contaminated milk. The presence of inhibitory veterinary drugs like antibiotics or residues of these drugs in milk in an amount exceeding maximal residual limits defined in legislation is illegal. Milk supplies containing detectable concentrations are not acceptable. The reputation of milk as a healthy and safe food should be protected. Dairy companies and consequently consumers want to be confident that milk and milk products are free of inhibitory veterinary drugs contamination. Small amounts of certain antimicrobial agents may affect antibiotic resistance in the human population, some percentage of the population is hypersensitive to antibiotics and other drugs. The presence of drug residues in milk affects the technological process of the production of fermented dairy products. Each country should implement a system of monitoring these drugs' residues in food. The system, which is applied in Slovakia, is effective, it can detect and the presence of these substances before milk processing in dairies. The total incidence of these substances in 2020 was 0.025% of all 12,181 samples tested in central testing laboratories. During the last 20 years.
Hartati Kartikaningsih, Yahya Yahya, Trihartita Yuniar, Abdul Aziz Jaziri, , ,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 846-857;

The study aimed to evaluate the addition of banana blossom (12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50% w/w) on nutritional quality, histamine content, bacterial count, and sensory characteristic in the fish floss prepared from little tuna (Euthynnus affinis). The crude protein content, essential amino acids, lipid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) steadily decreased (p <0.05), while the crude fibre, carbohydrate, and ash components of the tuna floss, increased significantly (p 0.05) the acceptability score for all attributes assessed. Taken together, the tuna floss added with 37.5% of banana blossom may be potentially developed as a low-histamine tuna-based product with high ffibre andEPA+DHA, as well as highly acceptable for consumers.
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 835-845;

The production of tea dregs is continually increasing along with the growth of people's interest in ready-to-drink beverages. However, the recent development of research on the use of tea dregs is still very limited. The present study was aimed to identify the remnant photosynthetic pigments in tea dregs, determine their composition, and evaluate their potential use as natural antibacterial agents based on light-induced reaction (photosensitization). The tea dregs from six commercial teas, consisting of green and black teas, were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector, and the spectroscopic data were analyzed from 350 to 700 nm. Pigment identification was performed based on spectral characteristics, and pigment composition in the extracts from the dregs was determined by a three-dimensional multi-chromatogram analysis method. The dominant pigment fractions in both tea types were pheophytin a and its isomers, as well as pheophytin b. Although the dregs of black teas generally contain fewer remnant pigments, they possess residual chlorophyll b, which is not found in the dregs of green teas. In thirty-minutes illumination under 50 W red light-emitting diode, the presence of pigments from tea dregs caused up to 0.87 and 0.35 log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The disparity of pigments composition among tea types does not strongly influence their photosensitization activity against both bacteria. Hence, upon further application, the amount of total remnant pigments in the dregs could be taken as substantial consideration instead of tea types.
Vladimir Pashtetsky, Pavel Ostapchuk, Elena Usmanova, Eugenia Zyablitskaya, Tatiana Makalish, Irina Danilova, Tatiana Kuevda, Denis Zubochenko, Veronica Uppe, Aleksandra Pashtetskaia, et al.
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 799-809;

An application of natural antioxidants remains the focus of research groups. The effect of Satureja montana L. essential oil in various doses on the main biological characteristics of Wistar rats was the main aim of the study. The intensification of protein metabolism in the blood plasma of rats on the background of the use of Satureja montana L. essential oil was noted. Total protein increases by 17.9 – 19.7%, and albumin by 27.6% in rats of the experimental group received the essential oil at a dose of 0.6 ml per kg of feed. A significant increase in the AST level in control group rats to 207.3 U.L-1 was revealed. Its one to a certain extent indicates the hepatoprotective effect of mountain savory oil and a decrease in inflammatory processes in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract in the conditions of cell maintenance of rats of the experimental groups. Gastric epithelium thickness of rats of both experimental groups was lower than the control animals. But it did not bear any signs of atrophy. The difference of this indicator in comparison with control was 12.75 μm (p ≤0.05) in the second group and it was reliable. The number of chief stomach cells increases in animals of the experimental groups, which may indicate a greater enzymatic activity. An increased dose of mountain savory oil contributes to the formation of more damage to hepatocytes on the periphery of the liver lobule. Thus, the relationship between liver enzymes and the state of peripheral hepatocytes was noted.
, Volodymyr Piddubnyi, Liudmila Beyko, Igor Dobrotvor, Ganna Sabadosh, Tetiana Hushtan
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 810-823;

The method of preparation of wheat paste based on discrete and impulse influence on components is revealed. The basis of the research of the vapors preparation method is the formation of a liquid mixture of interacting dosing components in a suspended state. The interaction occurs due to the humidification of the pulverulent suspended state of the layer of flour particles by a scattered jet of liquid under pressure. The development of this technological process and equipment is considered. A thorough analysis of the mixing of components in a suspended state. The influence of a set of experimental and theoretical researches is noted, where the results of the theoretical direction are aimed at the creation of mathematical models, simulation of the process with the use of the possibility of computer engineering. The characteristics of thermal processes for the transition region from the surface of the flour to the massive formed medium are given, taking into account the effective thermophysical characteristics of the medium in the form of dependences obtained theoretically and experimentally. Dependencies are taken into account as well as heat and mass transfer processes when the liquid phase interacts with flour: external heat and mass transfer processes when interacting in a suspended state on the flour surface and change of working environment with the formation of bonds, and internal mass transfer processes when moving moisture and heat inside the flour particle.
Chunli Deng, Oksana Melnyk, Yanghe Luo
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 824-834;

Potato starch was modified via heat-moisture treatment (HMT) under various reaction conditions. The effect of HMT on structural, physicochemical, and in vitro digestibility were investigated. HMT led to the rupture, adhesion and partial gelatinization, and agglomeration of the granules which surface became rougher, thereby increasing the particle size and resulting in the hollow structure located at the hilum of potato starch granules. XRD results showed an increased relative crystallinity and transformed crystalline structure from B-type to C-type with the extension of heat moisture treatment. FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that HMT might cause additional interactions between amylose-amylose, and/or amylose-amylopectin and/or amylopectin-amylopectin chains, which eventually leads to the increase of the mass of the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group. HMT significantly decreased the peak viscosity, hold viscosity, and breakdown viscosity of starch, while the gelatinization temperature increased. The tHMT1, THMT100, and CHMT15 had the lowest content of RDS and there was no significant difference between the three samples, that is these three samples had the highest total content of SDS and RS.
Rakinahewage Kalpani Lakma Weerasinghe, Indira Wickramasinghe, Madame Arachchige Dulani Somendrika
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 792-798;

Cassava starch extracted from cassava roots (Manihot esculanta) is a highly used ingredient for most commercial food products and has a high viscosity, water holding capacity, and binding abilities. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing composite flour mixture with cassava starch on the nutritional and physical properties of chicken sausages. A scientific experiment was designed for the sausage formulation to incorporate 50% to 100% with cassava modified and native starch compared to the control sample. These samples were evaluated for sensory and textural properties. Nonparametric data obtained through sensory evaluation were analyzed using the Friedman ranking test. According to the test results, the best sample was analyzed for the nutritional toxicological composition and storage stability. According to the statistical analysis, the sample which was 50% replaced with native cassava starch showed the best sensory profile. The best sample showed average moisture, crude fat, crude protein, total solids, ash, and acid-insoluble ash content of 65.98, 7.19, 8.79, 34.02, 2.36, and 0.32 percent respectively. The starch content of the best-ranked sample was 3.12 and the cyanide content of that sample was 1.54 ppm on a dry basis. According to the microbial analysis results, the sausage sample was coliform negative and zero initial plate count was obtained. Besides, the best-ranked fresh chicken sausage was nutritionally acceptable and could keep for 14 days without adding preservatives.
Yulia Vinogradova, Olga Shelepova, , Olga Grygorieva, Jan Brindza
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 784-791;

Echinocystis lobata (Mich.) Torr. et Gray extracts were investigated for their bioactive compounds and their potential for natural antioxidant properties. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanol, ethanol, and water extracts were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of fruits and seeds were determined. TPC is a fairly constant value and varies weakly both among the different organs of Echinocystis lobata and among the geographical locations of the populations studied. Like other invasive species, Echinocystis lobata is superior to many other plants in terms of the total amount of flavonoids contained in its fruits and seeds. The dried fruits contain more flavonoids than the seeds. Seeds from Slovak populations have higher flavonoid content than those from Russian populations. The results demonstrated that Echinocystis lobata can be a good source of natural antioxidants and have a great potential for commercialization, especially in the pharmaceutical industry.
Rosmawati, Abu Bakar Tawali, Muhammmad Irfan Said, Wahidu Zzaman, Rovina Kobun,
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 648-661;

This study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties of the skin and bone of snakehead fish as a potential source of gelatin through extraction at different temperatures and times compared to commercial gelatin. Extraction of skin and bones of wild snakehead fish (Channa striata) at different temperatures (50, 60, 70 ºC) and time (12,18, 24 hours). The pre-treatment process used a 0.1 M Ca (OH) 2 (1:6 w/v) immersion solution for 1 h and continued with 0.05 M citric acid (1:6 b/v) for 5 h. Before pre-treatment, the minerals of bones were degreased with 3% HCL solution for 24 hours. The results of the analysis showed that the differences in raw materials, temperature, and extraction time had a significant effect (p <0.05), as well as interactions among treatments (p <0.05) on the yield and gel strength. The yield of skin and bone tended to increase with extending extraction temperature and time, while the highest gelatin strength was found at 60 °C for 12 hours on the skin and 24 hours for the bone. The best gelatin was accomplished based on the highest performance of gel strength on skin and bones and compared to bovine commercial gelatin. The amino acids of the three types of gelatin showed higher levels of glycine and proline than other types of amino acids. Based on the total residues of each amino acid, skin gelatin and bone gelatin showed more dominant hydrophobic properties than hydrophilic properties, in contrast to bovine commercial gelatin. The three types of gelatin showed diverse chemical compositions, emulsion activity index, emulsion stability, water resistance, and fat binding capacity, which was reflected to be closely related to the source of the raw material and its amino acid content. The FTIR results showed that the extracted snakehead fish skin and bones have the potentiality to be used as gelatin equivalent to a commercial one
Olena Vasylenko, Tetiana Kondratenko, Oleksandr Havryliuk, Yurii Andrusyk, Vira Kutovenko, Yuliia Dmytrenko, Natalia Grevtseva, Yevheniia Marchyshyna
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 639-647;

Photosynthetic activity in the leaf of ten grape varieties was studied in the conditions of the northern part of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. From 2019 to 2020 meteorological data were recorded by the ‟Meteotrekˮ meteorological station. The influence of weather conditions of the spring-summer period at the beginning of the vegetation phases, which in 2019 took place on average 12 days earlier than in 2020, was noted. Analysis of changes in the induction of chlorophyll fluorescence (ICF) in leaves revealed the more efficient use of quantum energy of absorbed light by F0 in the leaves of most varieties was noted in the phase “the beginning of berry ripening”. During the three periods of the study, the varieties Aromatnyj, Zagadka, Ilichevskij rannij, and Kardishah showed a lower content of chlorophyll molecules, which do not have a functional connection with the reaction centers (RC). According to the Fp index the highest intensity of photosynthesis on average for all varieties was observed in the phase “the beginning of ovary growth”, the lowest – “the inflorescence is visible”. The potential productivity of grape plants determined by the ICF coefficient for all varieties was at a very high level and had a weak or moderate correlation with weather conditions during the growing season. The hydrothermal coefficient and Σ act t ≥10 °С had a weak effect on the efficiency of the light phase of photosynthesis (Ki) and a noticeable one (correlation coefficient r = 0.50 – 0.69) on the efficiency of dark photochemical processes (Rfd) in the leaves of most grape varieties.
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 616-626;

The results of microbiological studies of air samples of refrigerating chambers of meat processing enterprises are presented. The quantitative composition of the air microbiota of the chambers of the refrigerating shop was studied. It has been established that the technological regimes for cooling meat in cooled chambers (t = +4 °C) and deep freezing chambers (t = -18 °C and -22 °C) have no bacteriostatic effect on the life activity of mold fungi. The developed disinfecting preparation (hydrogen peroxide (8.0 - 10%), acetic acid (10%), peracetic acid (5.0 - 7.0%), stabilizing additives, water) ensures the destruction of sanitary-indicative microorganisms in cold rooms meat processing plants when applied at a concentration of 0.05% - 60 minutes, 0.1% - 30 minutes, 0.15% - 10 minutes and does not have a toxic effect on meat raw materials that are stored in chambers of the refrigeration shop after disinfection.
Yerkebulan Jakipov, Muafik Mustafin, Anda Valdovska, Sayat Baiseitov, Ayauly Aitkulova
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 627-631;

The development of animal husbandry suffers various kinds of losses due to the spread of infectious diseases among animals, in particular Brucellosis. A challenge faced by Brucella researchers has been the accurate identification of new isolates within the genus while preserving sufficient, and not excessive, biosafety and biosecurity requirements. The availability of discriminatory molecular typing tools to inform and assist conventional epidemiological approaches would be invaluable in controlling these infections, but efforts have been hampered by the genetic homogeneity of the genus. In this work, for better identification of infection, for control and monitor the source of outbreaks in prosperous areas was carried out identification of Brucella spp. strains which circulating in the Kostanay region. For this was used using multilocus analysis of a variable number of tandem repeats sequenced by 16 s – PNK on a genetic analyzer (sequencer). According to the results of a study of cattle, cultures of microorganisms were infected: No. 4, 5, 7, 8. Comparison of the obtained results with similar results of domestic and foreign works by A. Shevtsov, G. Borrello, P. Le Fleche, G. Garofolo suggest that the genotyping of local strains has an importance in the molecular epizootology of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Zhanar Akhmet, Gulshat Zhaxylykova, Rashidah Sukor, Assiya Serikbayeva, Karima Myrzabek
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 608-615;

The purpose of this study is to determine the level of antibiotic residues in poultry meat sold in the city of Almaty, which is a megacity of Kazakhstan, and compare it with the Minimum Residue Level set by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization. Determination of hormonal growth stimulators (progesterone, testosterone, estradiol-17β) and antibiotics (tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin) in poultry was carried out using immunoassay according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The results of monitoring showed that in the Almaty region annually wholesale deliveries of meat products from the USA, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia are carried out regularly. On average in the region from 2016 to 2019, the specific weight meat imports averaged 47.9% of total consumption. A total of 105 samples were examined by us between 2019 and 2020, including 63-import meat and 42 samples of the meat of local production. Due to the particular importance of this problem, the main focus of the article`s goal is to conduct monitoring studies on imported and domestic meat for the residual content of hormones and antibiotics in poultry meat. As a result of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of poultry meat, an excess level of maximum residue was detected in eight brands of imported meat.
Akmaral Mukhamejanova, Zerekbay Alikulov, Nelya Shapekova, Karlygash Aubakirova, Abilkhas Mukhtarov
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 599-607;

In the present, the consequences of nitrate pollution of the environment are very pronounced. In humans and animals, microorganisms can reduce nitrates to nitrites, which cause cancer. Purified and homogeneous xanthine oxidase (XO) of cow's milk can restore these compounds, which makes the article extremely relevant. The purpose of the article is to determine the effect of antioxidants on the activity of xanthine oxidase in fresh ovine milk. Various natural and artificial antioxidants were examined for the detection of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in ovine milk. Among the natural antioxidants, L-cysteine was more effective in the stabilization of XO in heated milk. XO of sheep milk activated by heat treatment in the presence of cysteine and molybdenum became able to convert nitrate and nitrite to nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, L-cysteine was used for double purposes: as the protector of enzyme active center against the oxidation during heat treatment of milk and as a reagent for S-nitrosothiol formation. Hypoxanthine, as a natural substrate of XO, is an effective electron donor for nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) activities. Heat treatment of the milk in the presence of exogenous lecithin increased the activity of NR and NiR of XO and CysNO formation. Thus, during the heat treatment: a) excess of exogenous phospholipids disintegrates the structure of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and b) enzyme molecules denatured partially and their active center became available for exogenous cysteine, molybdenum, hypoxanthine, and nitrate or nitrite.
Akmaral Mukhamejanova, Zerekbay Alikulov, Bakyt Tuganova, Zhanna Adamzhanova
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 632-638;

Xanthine oxidase is molybdenum and iron-containing flavoprotein, catalyzing the final oxidation stage of purines and oxidative transformation of pterins and some aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Despite the importance of this enzyme, the distribution of xanthine oxidase in traditional household animal’s milk and tissues is unknown. Formerly, we have found most of the xanthine oxidase molecules in animal milk are inactive because of a lack of molybdenum. Ovine milk was processed by inserting in vivo molybdenum (tungsten) into drinking water. We gave opposite dates in the presence of tungsten too. Heating the milk of animals at 80 °C for 5 minutes in the presence of molybdenum and cysteine led to a sharp increase of xanthine oxidase and its associated – nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities. The change of xanthine oxidase and its associated activities were examined by spectrophotometry after treatment. It was established that metal ions added in drinking water for animals have an impact on enzyme activities. The activity is formed in the ovine liver even in the absence of exogenous molybdenum in drinking water. The associated activities of liver enzymes in the presence of molybdenum in drinking water had slightly increased. Tungsten-containing water led to the loss of all activities of liver xanthine oxidase. It is proposed that the liver contains a special protein involving in the incorporation of molybdenum (or tungsten) into xanthine oxidase molecule, however, the milk or mammary gland compounds lack this protein.
Zuzana Kapsdorferová, Silvia Jacková, Petronela Švikruhová
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 585-591;

The economic empowerment of rural women in the recent development of agriculture through entrepreneurship is considered an important challenge. Rural women often manage complex households and pursue multiple livelihood strategies. Their activities typically include cultivation of crops, farming animals, processing and preparing food, working for wages in agricultural or other rural enterprises, collecting fuel and water, engaging in trade and marketing, caring for family members, and maintaining their homes. The research aimed to collect up-to-date data on Slovak rural women dealing with business in the field of agriculture, women's role and status in society in rural areas, on the farm, women's participation in education, training, and agricultural services. The main focus is dedicated to their share on the management of agricultural entities, land cultivation, employment of rural women and men, and their deal on the selected entrepreneurial activities of Slovak agriculture. Women doing business in agriculture dispose of with considerable knowledge and experience in the agricultural and food sectors. The realized research showed that the scale of farms managed by women is 325 hectares. Rural women in the surveyed group are taking care of about 2.5% of the total area of agricultural land in Slovakia and they are employing 2.40% of the working forces in the agricultural sector in Slovakia. According to our survey, rural women are under-represented in managerial and ownership positions of agricultural entities.
Anastasiia Ivaniuta, Alina Menchynska, Natalia Nesterenko, Nataliia Holembovska, Viktor Yemtcev, Yevheniia Marchyshyna, Yuliya Kryzhova, Elena Ochkolyas, Оksana Pylypchuk, Valentyna Israelian
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 546-554;

The expediency and prospects of using secondary fish raw materials from silver carp in the structuring agents technology have been substantiated. The combination of secondary fish raw materials and seaweed with different mechanisms of gelation has a targeted effect on the organoleptic, structural-mechanical, and physicochemical properties of food products. Accordingly, the expediency of adding the Black Sea alga cystoseira (2%) to optimize the mineral composition of the structuring agents and increase their jelly-making properties was established. Using experimental studies and multicriteria optimization, the optimal ratio of secondary fish raw materials – 40%; water – 60% and rational heat treatment – 150 min, at a temperature of 85 – 100 °C has been determined. An analysis and comparison of various preservation methods have confirmed the expediency of using the freeze-drying method of drying fish broths for the production of structuring agents, which allows to preserve of the original properties of the product, biologically active substances, reduce the mass of the dried product and increase the shelf life of the structuring agents. The optimal storage conditions have been determined – the ready-made structuring agents were packed in three-layer paper kraft bags and stored in a cool dry place at a temperature of 22 ±2 °C and relative humidity of no more than 70% for 12 months. It was found that the physical and chemical indicators of the structuring agents depend on the features of the structure, amino acid composition of fish collagen. The presence of the overwhelming number of high-molecular-weight molecules in the composition of the structuring agents and the preservation of the native structure determine high indicators of dynamic viscosity, dissolution time, and strength. As a result of the research, it was revealed that the high protein content largely depends on the amount of collagen in the secondary fish raw material, which has a positive effect on the gelling properties of the product being created.
Andrea Mendelova, Ľubomír Mendel, Miriam Solgajová, Ján Mareček
Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, Volume 15, pp 592-598;

Saccharides are the basic dry matter components of all fruits and vegetables. The dominant tomatoes saccharides are fructose and glucose, minor ones are sucrose but also arabinose, xylose, and galactose. The objective of this paper is to analyze carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose and sucrose in the selected tomatoes varieties intended for the direct consumption and industrial processing. We used 14 varieties and 3 newly selected tomatoes varieties. The glucose content in the studied varieties was in the range of 4.87 – 15.9, the fructose content was 11.1 – 22.27 and sucrose content was 0.07 – 1.73 The highest fructose and sucrose content was detected in the Tomanova variety, the highest sucrose content was found out in the Bovita variety. When comparing the glucose content it was found out that the higher content on average was achieved in the varieties intended for the industrial processing (10.10 than in the varieties for the direct consumption (7.96 The varieties intended for industrial processing were generally characterized by higher glucose and fructose content than the varieties intended for the direct consumption. When comparing the fructose content, we found a higher average content in the varieties intended for industrial processing (15.70 than in the varieties for the direct consumption (14.40 In most of the studied varieties sucrose was present in low content (<1.0, only in the Tomanova variety sucrose content represented more than 1
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