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Language: classic - modern - postmodern pp 122-142; https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2021.7.122-142

Abstract:
The Guardian editorial headline is viewed as a two-component structure punctuated with colons in which the first part names the topic and the second one provides its comment. The article examines the frequency and diversity of eight noun phrase patterns and gives structural and functional analysis of their constituents. The author studies how categorial features of nouns, adjectives, and prepositions manifest themselves on a phrase level. Three types of semantic relations between noun-noun components are defined. Two more aspects under consideration are complexity and coordination in noun phrases.
Language: classic - modern - postmodern pp 143-162; https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2021.7.143-162

Abstract:
Problem statement. Despite the fact that microtoponyms belong to the most numerous class of onyms, so far such names of Donetsk region have been studied sporadically and superficially. It is important to identify and record such onyms, so as not to lose forever.The purpose of the article is to analyze the structural and word-forming or- ganization of microtoponyms of Donetsk region.Research methods. The method of research of structural and word-forming features of microtoponyms is based on the questionnaires and interviews (for collecting microtoponymic material) and methods: descriptive (for inventory, classification and interpretation of microtoponyms), structural (for describing structural features of simple, complex and compound onyms), quantitative anal- ysis (to establish the performance of structural types, word-forming methods and manners).The main results of the study. The simple, complex and compound names are revealed based on the analysis of the structural and word-forming organiza- tion of microtoponymy of Donetsk region. Simple names of small geographical objects are formed by lexical-semantic, morphological, basic, morphologi- cal-syntactic and lexical-syntactic methods. The most productive is the lexi- cal-semantic way of creating microtoponyms. Among the suffix derivatives, names with productive forms -ivk- (-ovk-, -evk-), -k- were found. In the micro- toponymy of Donetsk region a large number of compound names is recorded, among which we single out two-word, prepositional constructions, multicom- ponent microtoponyms and predicative constructions.Conclusions and prospects. The results of the study show that the microto- ponymy of Donetsk region is diverse in terms of structure and methods and means of forming. We see the prospect of exploration in: 1) collecting the names of micro-objects of other settlements in the Donetsk region; 2) to investigate the structural and word-forming features of microtoponyms of other cities / villages of Donetsk region; 2) to analyze the lexical and semantic features of such names of the named region.
Svіtlana Lytvynska, Anastasiia Sibruk, Chrystyna Stetsyk
Language: classic - modern - postmodern pp 92-106; https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2021.7.92-106

Abstract:
Background. The main aim of terminology standardization in different branches of knowledge is to standardize and approve unmistakable terms for any field of study, to improve the further development of the Ukrainian science. Achieving these tasks is impossible without exemplary in terms of the language design of regulations that regulate the use of industry terminology – national terminological standards. The high linguistic quality of these documents allows their effective use, so the linguistic examination of national terminological standards, their analysis in terms of compliance with the norms of language culture – is an urgent task of modern science.Purpose. To analyze cases of violation of lexical and grammatical norms of the modern Ukrainian language in the formulation of definitions. Suggest ways to replace identified non-normative words, expressions and sentences in the text of the standard.Methods. Linguistic description of linguistic facts, method of component analysis, comparative and statistical methods (to identify the number or nature of linguistic errors).Results. The standard contains errors related to the use of inappropriate or redundant words, tracing paper from the Russian language, violation of the laws of melodiousness of the modern Ukrainian literary language. In some cases, non-compliance with grammatical rules has been demonstrated.Discussion. Analysis of the text of SSTU 3294-95 “Marketing. Terms and definitions of basic concepts” in terms of compliance with language norms reveals violations related to the use of lexical units not peculiar to the Ukrainian language, the use of words in inappropriate meanings, without regard to their lexical compatibility or contrary to established tradition of word usage.
Olena Moiseyenko,
Language: classic - modern - postmodern pp 5-21; https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2021.7.5-21

Abstract:
The article focuses on identifying and structuring the linguistic frames which are activated in relation to the representation of Kyivan Rus’ in the U.S.English media discourse. The research aimed to examine the connections between the first historically recorded East Slavonic state and present-day Ukraine. The linguistic analysis is based on the rhetorical version of framing analysis, seeking to explore the ways how the rhetorical means used by the media contribute to shaping the audience’s perceptions in specific historical and political areas.
Language: classic - modern - postmodern pp 107-121; https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2021.7.107-121

Abstract:
Background. Being in a certain language environment, a person accumulates language resources, correlates them with the realities of objective reality on a subconscious level, as well as with the communicative intention and being used analogy, models the nominative unit. The appearance of the new name is based on the so-called “finished material”, that is the word-forming means and word-forming models which are available in the language.Purpose. To describe the role of analogy in the creation of derived nominative units in language and speech against the background of modern trends of verbalization of the realities of the surrounding actuality.Methods. The abstraction and descriptive-analytical methods were used to study the role of analogy in the verbalization of the realities of actuality.Results. The use of analogies is influenced by various factors: usually when the nominators use language actively to create according to a known wordforming model a name for a new concept or to offer an expressive name to an existent name of a known reality in a particular speech situation. Sometimes the analogy is used due to lack of speech experience to fill the nominative gap in a certain communicative situation.Depending on the nominative intention of the speaker and the corresponding models-samples it is possible to define kinds of applicable analogies: proper-nominative, associative, expressive, situational-compensatory, situational-correlative, nominative-adaptive.Discussion. The analogy often accompanies the process of verbalization of the realities of objective actuality, makes it simpler, systematizes, unifies the nominative resource of the modern Ukrainian language. The perspective of the research is to identify the most productive sample structures, according to which the nominative process takes place in different onomasiological categories.
Tetiana Vydaichuk
Language: classic - modern - postmodern pp 50-67; https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2021.7.50-67

Abstract:
Background. The article aims at establishing the ideological, political, national, educational, and scientific processes which contributed to establishing the Ukrainian language in all spheres of usage and fostered its functional-stylistic development. The paper centers around the language socioleme, that is the history of Ukrainian speakers, readers, and writers, language researchers and those who fought for the right of Ukrainian to be the language of education and the subject of scientific study.Purpose. The article aims at highlighting the struggle for the rights of the Ukrainian language in 1905–1917, as well as some aspects of the Russian Empire language policy as regards university education in Dnieper Ukraine. The research material comprises the ideas of the then scholars and public figures, which appeared in the media at the time (predominantly in the Rada newspaper), archival documents, and gendarme papers.Methods. The article relies primarily on the descriptive method, coupled with elements of the contrastive method and the biographical analysis.Results. The struggle for the Ukrainian language rights in the realm of education began with the demand to establish native language courses at private educational institutions and an extensive Kharkiv and Odesa student campaign for the right to take courses in Ukrainian Studies. Fresh impetus was provided by Kyiv St. Volodymyr University students’ address to the academic council, appealing for the establishment of Departments of Ukrainian Studies. The Imperial University administration did not support the student initiative, which triggered a widespread debate in public and academic circles in Ukraine at the time.Discussion. Generally, up to 1917–1920 (the age of the Ukrainian Revolution) universities and other educational institutions featured no systematic annual academic courses in the Ukrainian language, its dialectal variation, or its history. At the time, Ukrainian did not function as the language of education and science in Dnieper Ukraine, nor was it an object of rigorous academic study. The Russian Empire language and national policy remained anti-Ukrainian, in disregard of the liberties declared in 1905.
Language: classic - modern - postmodern pp 68-91; https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2021.7.68-91

Abstract:
Background. The authors of Ukrainian grammar books published before 1933 were consentient that appellation expressed by a noun requires the use of the vocative case only. In 1933, new People’s Commissar of Education of the USSR V. Zatonskyi formed the commission ‘for auditing the work on the language front’. On the 26th of April, the Commission adopted several resolutions, among which there was the provision to review scholar and didactic books to reveal ‘nationalistic deformation’. After they had been made public, in the Soviet handbooks for higher and secondary education, one can find a statement that the ‘vocative form’ is used to express appellation. However, the “nominative case” can also occasionally perform this function.Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to compare the morphological variability of appellation expressing codified in the Soviet handbooks and the accurate appellation expressing in dramas of the 1920s – 30s of the XX century. To find out the presence or absence of the pragmatic differences between vocative and nominative in this function is in the focus of our analysis as well.Methods. The methodological base of research is the discourse-analytical approach, within we compound discourse analysis method (to descry the designing new syntactic norm in the linguistic-didactic discourse of the end of the 1930s – the beginning of the 50s) and content-analysis method (to find out the real means of expressing appellation in social realists’ dramas of the 1920s – 30s of the XX century).Results. Theory about vocative as non-case and legitimization of the term ‘called form (vocative form)’ to denote it became dominant in all Soviet Ukrainian language handbooks for secondary and higher education. There are no remarks about another qualification in this grammatical category in the analyzed handbooks, and it evidences the monologue style of the Soviet linguistic-didactic discourse. The authors of these handbooks codify a double language norm to express an appellation – the vocative form and the nominative case. The thesis about nominative as a means to denote an appellation is usually formulated in the way of a superficial remark that may be apprehended by a recipient as upon the table fact. The study of the morphological manifestation of appellations in the drama of late 1920–30s created by the authors transmitting the official party ideology proves that vocative case predominates. Nominative to denote appellation has mainly a pragmatic effect or is one of the means of creating characters. Moreover, only in O. Korniychuk’s plays the use of morphological forms of appellations does not follow any regularities.Discussion. Spreading the nominative case to denote appellation in modern colloquial speech is conditioned by the complex of factors. On the one hand, it is a loosening of language norm in Soviet handbooks and on the other hand, it is the fact that morphological forms of vocative and nominative in plural nouns and singular nouns of neutral gender are homonymous. However, this thesis is needed verification on more comprehensive language material that represents different functional styles of the Ukrainian language.
Language: classic - modern - postmodern pp 35-49; https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2021.7.35-49

Abstract:
The research endeavors to study and determine the influence of cognitive maps on production of political manifestos discourse. The research has been conducted in the framework of Sociocognitive Discourse Studies. The results show that discourse cognitive structure of British Conservative Party and Australian Liberal Party manifestos is characterized by different sets of cognitive maps on the level of communicative strategies and somewhat similar sets of cognitive schemas on the level of communicative tactics. Applying the method of interpropositional semantic analysis, the communicative strategy and communicative tactic of comparison was identified in Australian Liberal Party manifesto. Despite the close affinity between political discourses of the UK and Australia, there are significant differences in patterns of information organization in online manifestos of the ruling parties to engage the community and enhance persuasion.
Anatolii Moisiienko
Language: classic - modern - postmodern pp 22-34; https://doi.org/10.18523/lcmp2522-9281.2021.7.22-34

Abstract:
Background. The title of the literary text arises in front of a researcher in two capacities. First – as one of the elements of metatext level, immediately aimed at the close interrelation with the main text, and second – as a separate text structure with its own grammar and semantic structure. The analysis of the title in the interrelation with the main text, taking into consideration genre specifics of the latest, is of immediate interest. Purpose. The target of this study is to describe the title text in the Ukrainian sonnet poem, in particular in the correlation with the integral text structure, which is caused by the absence of any specific research of this problem.Methods. Research approach of the title text as a separate unit and as a constructive element of the wider text structure relies on the basics of classification description, contextual and hermeneutic analysis in the system of literary text.Results. The title of the sonnet poem, generally not falling out of the paradigm of the paratextual formations, on the functional level is characterized by certain particularities compared to other lyric and epic genres – where it can serve, for instance, as a genre self-name of the poem. On the structure level the sonnet marker can start or finish the composite word, serve as an attribute noun in the attributive word combination, play a role of the key word with the dependent substantive etc. The title (together with subtitle or without it) is able to attribute thematic and semantic lines in the poem, some structure and genre changes.Conclusion. The title of the sonnet text, being a paratext element, accomplishes an important prospect and retrospect function for comprehension of the integral structure of the literary text; can serve as genre self-name of the poem, involving at the same time different thematic layers of narration; can also point at some structure and genre modifications of the classic sonnet, and some shifts to other traditional genres.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 8, pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.8.18-24

Abstract:
Modern philosophy tends to consider human reality in more and more interdisciplinary contexts. Thanks to that, at first traditional, and now new media as well as IT, attract philosophers’ attention and provide material for thinking over a lot of so-called “eternal philosophical questions”. Among them, there are some of the broadest questions: a) catching the margins of the real; b) understanding, which phenomena and objects to constitute human might be called real. The key goal of this article is to research one of the crucial concepts, which brings us to understanding reality, – the notion of virtuality. The author of this paper outlines background of this notion, describes its characteristics and usage in modern philosophical discourse. First of all, virtual is described in its connotations to all three dimensions of time being: past, present, and future. It is argued that the notion of virtuality at first used to be “rediscovered” by Gilles Deleuze, but then it has experienced crucial changes in philosophy of the XXth and XXIst centuries. By means of that, virtual is discussed as a counterpart of the concept of reality. In particular, this article touches upon a variety of connotations between the notions of virtuality, reality and actuality. It also shows the context of juxtaposition of the aforementioned notions. What is more, this paper reveals moral aspects of virtuality both in transcendental and as immanent senses. This article shows the background of indistinguishability for “real” and “virtual”. Finally, it is stated that in the situation of so-called “substituted reality” the multiplicity of connotations of the notion of virtuality ought to be used to rediscover the notion of reality itself.
Halyna Teslyuk
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 8, pp 80-87; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.8.80-87

Abstract:
This article offers an analysis of the biblical stories about two heroines: Jael and Judith who save their people by killing the foreign generals. Both stories narrate critical historical situations, namely Jael’s story in Judges 4–5 dates to the XII–X cc. B.C.E. and reflects the ongoing conflict between the twelve tribes of Israel with their neighbors in the land of Canaan, Judith’s story dates to the II c. B.C.E. and reflects the conflict between the Jews and the Seleucid rulers who oppressed the Jewish populace, forced them to practice Hellenistic rituals and abandon the Jewish law and religious practices. Jael invites Sisera, a commander of the Canaanite army of king Jabin, to her tent, gives him milk to drink, and when the man falls asleep, she kills him with a hammer and а tent peg. Judith, a widow from the town of Bethulia, uses her beauty and charm to kill Holofernes, an Assyrian general. First, she gains his trust. Then, when Holofernes drunken falls asleep, she decapitates him in his tent. These texts explicitly show the collapse of the male power and demonstrate the ability of women to step in to save the people. Both heroines are praised by the narrators for their heroism. It is also demonstrated that Jael’s and Judith’s stories have an aim to teach how one may think out of the box. Due to the lack of male capability to solve the problem or, in other words, to protect the people as it is expected according to the patriarchal norms, social roles are shifted, and perception of masculinity and femininity is reеvaluated. The heroic stories of Jael and Judith represent the idea that women can be subjects of history, violence as а means to protect people is not limited to the male domain, and women can save people in critical situations. The violence performed by the women is perceived as an extraordinary act yet necessary and not deviant in the situation.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 8, pp 88-93; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.8.88-93

Abstract:
The review presents the main translations of the classics of philosophical literature in previous years. The publication was made in cooperation with the Mizhvukhamy Foundation and the Tempora Publishing House. The main stress of the review is made on the works of Emanuele Severino, Ibn Sina, Henry David Thoreau and Edmund Husserl.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 8, pp 48-59; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.8.48-59

Abstract:
The article continues the series of investigations that demonstrate the experience of religious reading of the significant works of prominent Kyiv professors-academics of the last third of the 19th – early 20th century. These works have accumulated a powerful array of empirical material relevant to the history and theory of religious studies. Accordingly, the reconstruction of the field of theoretical positions important for the formation of the “science of religion” in the domestic intellectual tradition is currently being updated.The work of the Hebrew scholar and biblical scholar Yakym Olesnytsky is represented. This researcher was one of the first in the domestic humanities to analyze the “aggadic” layer of Talmudic writing through the prism of comparative-religious and religious-historical approaches. Metamorphoses of biblical images and plots, events of the ancient history of the Hebrew people, which arose under the influence of various mythological, philosophical, and folk traditions, were revealed. There was a real demythologization of “aggadah” from the standpoint of historical and literary criticism.On the basis of a religious reading of J. Olesnytsky’s text, this article traces some metamorphoses of theistic ideas in the process of the rise of Talmudic Judaism. They are analyzed from the point of view of the categories relevant to the philosophy and phenomenology of religion: Religious Experience, the Supernatural, the Another Reality as Sacred, the Absolute. A number of cognitive situations initiated by Olesnytsky, valuable from the point of view of a wider range of disciplines: philosophy and phenomenology of religion, history of religion, sociology and psychology of religion, religious comparative studies have been identified. This experience will be used in further research on the materials of the work of a well-known Kyiv academician.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 8, pp 3-9; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.8.3-9

Abstract:
Traditionally, explanation is considered to be the method of natural sciences and understanding to be the method of humanities. However, this paper considers both to be methods of history. Namely, the author focuses on how explanation and understanding function in history in general and in biography in particular. Referring to biographical realm helps explicate the specifics of explanation and understanding as well as broaden the view about their uses in humanities. In the first part, the author refers to explanation and understanding in history as such. In particular, causal explanation (explanatory sketch by Karl Hempel) and rational explanation (history of ideas by Mark Bevir) are considered in the paper along with the relationship of hermeneutic notion of understanding with the two. The second part of the paper deals with the functioning of explanation and understanding in biographical research. Namely, it considers biographical understanding by Tilmann Habermas and Neşe Hatiboğlu as well as cases of causal and rational explanations in biographical research. In particular, it is shown that while causal explanation occurs in biography as explanatory sketch, it is not a separate distinct notion. It is also shown that rational explanation is used in biographical reconstructions in order to clarify the influence of particular events on beliefs of people. Based on the materials involved, the author demonstrates the specifics of explanation and understanding in biography compared to their usage in historical cognition in general.
Viacheslav Lymar
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 8, pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.8.10-17

Abstract:
The study concerns the consideration of creativity in the light of the main philosophical studies of this concept. The activity of the creative process practically proves the presence of freedom in human existence. Views on creativity reflect the attitude of a particular thinker to the question of the opposition of freedom and predestination in general. The polemical moments concerning creativity are considered and the ways of their decision are offered. In particular, two opposing views on the work of Plato and Aristotle are studied, where human talent presupposes divine inspiration (Plato) or, accordingly, only personal efforts. Nikolai Berdyaev tries to resolve the controversy between Aristotle and Plato by combining their views. He endows man with divine properties and thus indicates the source of creativity in the middle of man himself. Philip Hefner gives the individual the status of “co-creator” and puts forward the theory that man is called to improve and complete God’s creation. The study also focuses on the content and purpose of creativity. Creativity for the sake of creativity itself, which Albert Camus wrote about, was criticized by M. Berdyaev, and he offered his vision of this issue: creativity for the sake of a universal goal. Camus’ views were generally shared by A. Bergson. In connection with this last controversy, the actualization of Hryhoriy Skovoroda’s doctrine of “related work” is proposed and the expediency of this actualization is argued. Our domestic philosopher originally balances the pessimism of Camus’s work and Berdyaev’s enterprising approach. Skovoroda supports his conclusions with accurate practical examples. Reasoned conclusions about the need to update the teachings of G. Skovoroda on creativity and «related work» are given.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 8, pp 60-79; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.8.60-79

Abstract:
The article presents the first attempt of a complete and systematic analysis of historic and theological publications of teachers and pupils of the Kyiv Theological Academy in the second half of the 19th – beginning of 20th century in the field of studying the history of relations of Catholicism and Protestantism with Orthodox on the Ukrainian lands. The specifics of Kyiv academic historians studies was determined by the social and-political circumstances in the middle of the 19th century and denoted by an attempt to comprehend this issue in the perspective of the history of interconfessional relations of two Western Christian traditions with the eastern tradition of Orthodoxy in the historical gap of the 16th – 17th centuries – the period of the largest confrontation in confessional relations in Ukraine. The author clarifies the characteristic features of researching the question of inter-confessional interaction in the 15th – 17th centuries, which are expressed in attempts to describe the coexistence of three denominations as multidimensional and provoking а variety of different interpretations. Historical studies present the attempt to show confessional interaction in the political and legal aspects and to provide historical interpretations to the ground of philosophy of history. The article proves the tendency of Kyiv academic researchers to move away from the established Russian historiography of the 19th century view at confessional relations in Ukraine through the prism of hard confrontation and outline in religious life Ukraine conditions and circumstances of inter-confessional dialogue. Also, historians in their studies repeatedly note the significant educational and outlook influence of Western Christian denominations on the formation of educational, cultural, theological, literary traditions in Ukraine.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 8, pp 38-47; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.8.38-47

Abstract:
The article identifies two approaches to determining the linguistic conditions of the emergence and functioning of the myth. The first approach assumes that the myth is a manifestation of unconscious (M. Müller) or conscious (E. Cassirer, R. Barthes) distortion of language. Within this approach it is impossible to escape from myth because the presentation of the facts of the world in language is inescapable, which is always imperfect. These distortions are meant for political influence, as according to the proponents of the conscious mythologizing of language. Philosophy is tasked with resisting such distortions and, consequently, myth creation in general. This approach seems simplified, because the myth is identified here with the linguistic form of its distribution, reduced to the analysis of distortions of language presentation. At the same time, the psychological and epistemological preconditions of the myth, its unique status in the life of communities are lost. Conditions for the development of the second approach arise through the critique of classical rationality by several influential thinkers who undermined the belief in the exclusive ability of discursive language to present the truth (F. Nietzsche, L. Wittgenstein, M. Heidegger). The second approach assumes that the myth emerges and continues to exist due to the inability of the logos to present some important aspects of reality, especially its existential dimension (P. Tillich, H. Blumenberg, L. Hatab, K. Morgan). In this case, myth and logos become alternative and at the same time closely connected linguistic ways of presenting the truth. Logos (the language of science) presents primarily abstract causal connections of essences. At the same time, mythical narratives are better than science at presenting the mysteries of origin and existence, creating a hierarchy of values for communities.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 8, pp 25-37; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.8.25-37

Abstract:
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis and Carl Gustav Jung’s analytical psychology are different in many ways and some of their differences are extremely crucial. It is widely believed that one of the most obvious examples of this intellectual confrontation is the difference between Freud’s and Jung’s views on mythology. Proponents of this view believe that Jung was much more interested in mythological issues and his theory of myth became much deeper and more developed than Freud’s one. In particular, it is believed that Freud focused exclusively on the individual’s psyche, while Jung allegedly reached the true origins of mythmaking in the collective unconscious, which is the sediment of the vast historical experience of mankind. The article shows that such statements do not reflect the real situation but just the point of view, which Jung began to spread after his break-up with Freud. In fact, the founder of psychoanalysis had a steady and deep interest in mythology. The manifestation of this interest was the formation of “psycho-analytics” of myth – a specific area of research, which in the early years of the psychoanalytic movement was joined by several first psychoanalysts, including Franz Riklin, Karl Abraham, Otto Rank, Ernest Jones, and Jung himself. It is essential that both Freud and Jung, before and after the break-up in 1913, have been and remain the supporters of the consideration of a man and culture through the prism of certain biological concepts of that time. Those are the principle of inheritance of acquired properties (Lamarckism) and the idea that ontogenesis recapitulates phylogeny (“biogenetic law”). Based on Lamarckian-biogenetic assumptions, both Freud and Jung saw the origins of mythology in the collective historical experience of mankind. The article demonstrates that the image of Oedipus and the associated motives of incest and parricide play almost the same role in Freud’s (and Freudian) model of mythmaking as the archetypes of the collective unconscious in Jung’s (and Jungian) concept of myth.
Myroslava Buchak
NaUKMA Research Papers. Sociology, Volume 4, pp 36-46; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-9067.2021.4.36-46

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to analyze the current situation of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine and to define challenges and obstacles it faces during development. A multidimensional study of the phenomenon, the relevance of which is due to a change in the whole paradigm thinking about what business is, what responsibility they bear to society, and what impact they can have on the society around them.This article contributes to the literature on combining qualitative and quantitative methods of research on social business in Ukraine. The empirical part of the study was conducted through document analysis (a catalog of social enterprises), semistructured interviews, and a quantitative survey. The perception and understanding of phenomena by social entrepreneurs were clarified. The barriers to social business development were identified and typified by resource, financial, communicational, system, and the quarantine as specific challenges during COVID-19 time.There is no universal definition of “social enterprise”, even among those involved in social business. However, there is a common idea of the image of a social entrepreneur, the emphasis being mainly on intrinsic motivation and outstanding personal characteristics. Resource barriers include rooms/building, land, and materials. Financial barriers are the startup capital, chances to get loans, taxes, and rent. Communication barriers are in interaction with government agencies, investors, and employees search and selection. System barriers are connected to lack of a specific status in legislation and the registration form for social business, also rejection and misunderstanding of the phenomenon by society. Quarantine was named as a specific challenge, because it threatened both social and traditional business during a coronavirus pandemic.The development of social business creates the demand for training programs and for the events where experiences and ideas can be shared. Considering the differences between social and traditional business models, there is a need to develop an appropriate system for monitoring and performance evaluation.
Varvara Rakhmanina
NaUKMA Research Papers. Sociology, Volume 4, pp 28-35; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-9067.2021.4.28-35

Abstract:
The topic of inequality in education has already been a major issue in many countries for a long time. However, in 2020 it has shown itself differently because of the COVID-19 pandemic, due to which the whole world was compelled to switch to distance learning. This form of education, previously unfamiliar to many educational institutions and even the whole countries, became a great challenge for both students and school teachers or university lecturers. It required an ability to study with limited assistance from the former ones, good skills of using digital platforms and resources from the latter ones, and availability of technical devices with the Internet connection from both parties. These complications have significantly enhanced the already existing inequality in access to educational resources.Even though no statistical conclusions regarding the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on academic performance have been made yet, it has already been confirmed that the percentage of senior year school students who postponed their graduation has increased in 2020 in comparison to 2019. And so has the percentage of school graduates who did not appear at entrance examinations despite registering, primarily from rural areas. The academic performance is expected to be worse too, and the difference in grades between students of different socioeconomic backgrounds is highly likely to increase.This paper is an attempt to generalize the challenges which the world education community had to face during the last year and to highlight the main factors of educational inequality in the circumstances of pandemics. It also considers the possible ways of eliminating unequal access to education on the example of particular countries.
Lorina Fedorova, Anastasiya Ryabchuk
NaUKMA Research Papers. Sociology, Volume 4, pp 60-72; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-9067.2021.4.60-72

Abstract:
Preservation of historic heritage is a prevalent question in urban social movements in Ukraine. This article focuses on heritage preservation activists’ experiences, including both movements to preserve specific historic sites and monuments, and movements against destruction of the historic environment more generally. We begin by conceptualizing key concepts of heritage preservation movement and offering a background of heritage preservation in a post-soviet setting. This overview is followed by a summary of research findings based on eleven semi-structured interviews with heritage protection activists in major Ukrainian cities. Their activity can be classified firstly based on the strategy of impact (top-down or bottomup); secondly, on the type of historic monuments that they want to preserve (classical architecture, modern (Soviet) architecture and small architectural forms); thirdly, on the territorial scale of their activity (local, municipal or regional); and finally, on their activities (cultural and artistic, political, media and awarenessraising, community-building, etc.).Challenges, identified by activists in their work, were classified as external (related to structural and contextual difficulties), and internal (individual challenges and group dynamics, related to lack of time, resources and institutional knowledge). More generally, the heritage preservation movement in Ukraine is identified by activists as fragmented, reactive, and marked by high institutionalization of grassroots activities and their cooptation. Activists are reflexive of their role in historic preservation and present themselves as the voice of the general public. They identify their impact as creating public resonance, a wide network of passive allies, institutional (as well as internal management) experience for activist initiatives. At the same time, however, they have little faith in the possibility of achieving broader strategic goals. Thus, despite their impact and efficiency in defending specific historic sites, activists are unable to preserve historic heritage in Ukrainian cities on their own. Potential future research includes conducting interviews not only with activists of large cities, but also of smaller towns, as well as using a multi-method approach and supplementing interviews with content-analysis of activists’ public statements, as well as taking into consideration the voices of other interested agents in the heritage preservation movement.
Maryna Ohanesian, Tamara Martsenyuk
NaUKMA Research Papers. Sociology, Volume 4, pp 47-59; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-9067.2021.4.47-59

Abstract:
In recent years, Ukraine has received more attention to the issues of masculinity, the position of men and their participation in activism in support of gender equality. In Ukraine, there are several men’s organizations and initiatives that support the ideas of gender equality: dad schools, men against violence, HeforShe Ukraine and HeforShe Congresses, profeminist schools for men, national networks of male leaders against violence, an international union of courageous dads, etc. Feminist public activists appear to talk about the benefits of gender equality. The men’s movement for gender equality in the world and in Ukraine is seen as focusing on either women’s rights or men’s rights. According to men’s movement researcher Michael Messner, institutional privileges and costs of masculinity are the aspects of the classification of male movements. As a result of the analysis of six in-depth interviews with Ukrainian activists of men’s movements, Michael Messner’s ideas were illustrated with examples from Ukrainian society. Factors involving men in men’s movements for gender equality differ depending on the type of the men’s movement. Women’s rights movements were characterized by awareness of cases of discrimination against women and a corresponding sense of solidarity and compassion. Movements for men’s rights – by awareness of cases of discrimination against men in their own experience, a sense of the need to respond to the movement for women’s rights, and the situation of men’s movements in Ukraine, i.e. factors that directly affect men. In addition, it has been found that there are common factors in involving men in women’s and men’s rights movements, such as the existence of a feminist movement, a sense of the need for change, and a desire to be involved in local or global change. Expert interviews have found that the use of personal experience is the most effective way to influence the level of men’s involvement in men’s movements for gender equality, including in Ukraine. Attention to real cases of gender discrimination against women will be perceived more sincerely and openly than statistics. Attention to real cases of gender discrimination against women will be perceived more sincerely and openly than statistics. In addition, it is important to demonstrate the experience of men who understand the benefits of gender equality for men as well. They, according to experts, will be able to serve as examples for other men to follow. Separately, experts noted the role of education in the desire to join the struggle of men for the idea of gender equality. Both non-formal education programs and formal education on equal rights and opportunities can be tools for introducing changes in men’s attitudes to discrimination.
Yuliya Solodko, Svitlana Oksamytna
NaUKMA Research Papers. Sociology, Volume 4, pp 3-17; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-9067.2021.4.3-17

Abstract:
The subjective aspects of class, such as class identity, class awareness, or Bourdieu’s “sense of one’s place”, compound the whole cluster of modern class studies. A sufficient amount of empirical data on subjective class issues has allowed Ukrainian scholars to define major class categories that are subjectively salient for Ukrainians, as well as to follow its dynamics throughout the period of Independence. This paper continues the tradition of such studies while using the data from the latest International Social Survey Programme 2019 and previous research. It depicts the current state of subjective stratification as it is viewed and constructed by Ukrainians.We use two methodological approaches here to define and measure classes with which Ukrainians identify themselves: one implies a single-answer multiple-choice survey question and the other is based on an open-ended question. That allows us to compare and verify the results received from the two approaches. Then, we analyze and describe the connection between the dynamics of class self-identification and bigscale changes of the Ukrainian transformation period. The working class and the middle class continue to dominate the landscape of the subjective class structure in Ukraine. These two class identities are the most popular ones whether being chosen by respondents in a multiple-choice question or being mentioned in an open-ended question. However, the dynamics of the two classes differ. While the public request for the middle class increases steadily, the popularity of the working class declines.We suggest addressing these trends, taking into account the conditions of time and place, both from local and global perspectives, and factoring in economic, social, and discursive changes of the period researched.
Serhii Artykutsa, Anna Prokhorova
NaUKMA Research Papers. Sociology, Volume 4, pp 73-80; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-9067.2021.4.73-80

Abstract:
This article is dedicated to some features of using qualitative interviews when interviewing injection drug users. The main purpose of this article is to give young researchers and all social scientists some important hints and guidelines that would help them when using qualitative interviews for studying injection drug users. In the first part of the article authors make a literature review concerning specifics and advantages of using qualitative methods for studying specific groups or categories in sociology. However, there are many qualitative methods besides interview, that can be used for studying these groups (focus-groups, observation, content analysis, etc.), authors focus their attention on qualitative interviews as one of the most universal ones, considering its wide-spread use and advantages. In the second part of the article authors reveal and stress some major points on every stage of qualitative interview: preparation, literature review, methodology development, respondent recruiting, interviewing and analysis. Some of the major points are the understanding of the social and cultural context in which the studied group lives, always paying attention to the senses and meanings that respondent give to concepts that are important to the research, the importance of trust for the injection drug users due to the illegality of their actions that is crucial on both recruitment and interviewing stage, ethical issues concerning confidentiality and anonymity, etc. Also researches in this area include such components as practical recommendations and the ways or steps that could be taken to solve problems related to research problematic. Despite concentrating on the use of one particular method for studying people who use injection drugs, hints and guidelines given in this article can be applied to a wider list of specific respondent’s categories and can even be useful when choosing similar methods.
Olena Pugachova
NaUKMA Research Papers. Sociology, Volume 4, pp 18-27; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-9067.2021.4.18-27

Abstract:
The paper studies different approaches to modelling COVID-19 transmission. It is emphasized that the variety of models proposed for forecasting the dynamics of epidemic and its long-term socio-economic consequences deals with the complexity of the object under investigation. So the multiplicity of models makes it possible to describe different aspects of complex reality. It is also highlighted that agent-based simulation is more suitable for modelling social aspects of the processes (human behaviour, social interactions, collective behaviour, and opinion diffusion) in the situation of deep uncertainty.The computer experiments with the parameters of the model are analysed on the basis of a number of agent-based models in NetLogo, namely epiDEM and ASSOCC. It is demonstrated that the dynamics of COVID-19 has different scenarios, and agent-based modelling is a powerful tool in political decisionmaking, taking into account social complexity that often exhibits unpredictable output of intervention policy. The role of agent-based modelling in social learning is also discussed. It is pointed out that social learning can reduce the impact of unsubstantiated statements and rumors that are not always adequate to the situation. It is also stressed that social learning could influence social behaviour that, in turn, facilitates the development of social patterns that reduces the likelihood of disease spreading. Attention is paid to the idea that involving people into the modelling process is a part of effective anti-epidemic policy because of the sensitivity of the output of political intervention to the behavioural reaction. It has been shown that today the ideas of agent-based modelling are widely used by social scientists worldwide. The aim of this endeavour is not only to overcome the current pandemic and its long-term socioeconomic consequences but also to prepare for new challenges in the future. The paper is also aimed at paying attention to the lack of agent-based models in Ukraine that could help policy-makers in developing practical recommendations and avoiding undesirable scenarios.
Kateryna Rassudina
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 7, pp 71-77; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.7.71-77

Abstract:
Bioethics is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the moral aspects of medicine, biotechnology and the value of life in general. Quality of life concept is the basis for one of the models of bioethics. Its supporters understand the value of human life by relying on the categories of its qualitative characteristics. They argue that the value of life is relative and depends on certain criteria, and prove the permissibility to terminate it in some cases. Quality of life conception is criticized, above all, by those scholars who rely on religious ideas of the equal value and inviolability of all people’s lives. This article reveals several examples of such criticism in the works of Polish and American authors: T. Biesaga, H. Ciach, G. Hołub, P. Kieniewicz, R. P. George and P. Lee. Citing the arguments of that Christian thinkers, the author forms her own attitude to the problem. The ethical and ontological sources of quality of life concept, namely utilitarianism and naturalism, become the main object of criticism. It is significant that in the utilitarian appeal to maximize happiness as pleasure and calculate the gain or loss they see an attempt to establish the primacy of the overall well-being over an individual’s life as well as a reason for killing those individuals whose lives do not meet quality criteria and impair overall well-being. They also criticize such a consequence of the naturalistic view as reduction of the personality to its manifestations. The absence of such manifestations becomes for the supporters of the quality of life concept the basis for conclusion about a low quality of life of some individuals. One more critical remark towards the quality of life concept concern erasing of differences between humans and animals and their interests. The technocratic attitude that permits any manipulations of a human life if only they can be performed is criticized too. The author demonstrates that the fundamental fault of the quality of life concept which is criticized by all its opponents is a limited understanding of human nature and human life.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 7, pp 78-89; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.7.78-89

Abstract:
The article is an attempt at a philosophical interpretation of the literary text. Its task is to identify the principles of the human self, which are presented in classical literature, in Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey” and Dante’s “Divine Comedy”. The study provides an analysis of the archetypal narrative structure to which the model of human development with three components (individual, person, personality) is applied. The correspondence of the heroes to this typology, which is not the final measure of the human, but resembles the “ideal types” according to Max Weber, has been traced in the research. The dynamics of the development of the inner world of a human being, which corresponds to the plot of the journey, is analyzed. That is not a journey only in physical space, but an inner path too that a person overcomes in a gradual process of self-awareness. It has been found that the works of Homer and Dante can be interpreted as not implying a developed and independent personality. On the other hand, the characters demonstrate the key factors of change that occur within the one who forms the traits of self-sufficiency. The study succeeds in constructing a psychological map that allows outlining not a stable type, but rather different personality horizons. There are certain human aspirations of the man to be the creator of the self. However, such motivations involve not only a number of arbitrary manifestations of human beings but also the establishment of a measure for themselves. Initially, these intentions are carried out without self-absorption, reflection, and self-assessment. After all, unrestrained and unbalanced human temperament for a long time remains subject to higher (divine) forces and is significantly limited by this supreme power. Nevertheless, a human eventually comes to the need for self-knowledge and establishes a balance between rational and unconscious manifestations. People succeed in getting out of the circle of self-forgetfulness by overcoming various forms of alienation, loneliness, narcissism, self-contradiction, negligence, arrogance. Self-control is achieved by truth about oneself, overcoming fear, recognizing the effects of temptation and passion. The human attitude to the Other becomes possible due to freedom and love as cardinal manifestations of the active component of the self
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 7, pp 46-70; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.7.46-70

Abstract:
The present paper is a practical supplement to an earlier theoretical work by the author, published in a preceding issue, on methodological foundations of the European philosophizing in the aspect of sophical synthesis. Building upon understanding of general philosophical methodologies (methodological attitudes) and their ‘epochal’ implementations as presented there, the author makes use of a cross-cutting example, to show ‘zones of responsibility’ and onto-gnoseo-epistemological limits for every mentioned ‘way towards the thing.’ Six marker packages (by the number of methodologies and variants of sophical viz. life-knowledge synthesis) should be of special professional interest as proposed by the author to identify methodological attitudes and ‘edge’ cases ranging from Antiquity to nowadays. Validity of each and all of these packages has been illustrated with proper textual material, i. e. fragments from essays by renowned European philosophers.In § 1, the naturalistic methodological attitude is considered, as focused on the proper vital aspect of sophical synthesis; its characteristic reliance on experience, fact, belief, opinion, and authority, and thereby on the rhetorical aspect of philosophizing, is explained.In § 2, the phenomenological methodological attitude is considered, as focused on the proper knowledge aspect of sophical synthesis; its characteristic reliance on knowledge and sense beyond any non-essential per se factual ways things are given, is explained.In § 3, the transcendental methodological attitude is considered, as focused on the synthesis of knowledge and life by means of knowledge in the aspect of logos of the logos per se; its characteristic reliance on sense being a sense in the making, and on fact as the bearer of a sense, with their integration in a common logical-conceptual thing structure, is explained.In § 4, the dialectic methodological attitude is considered, as focused on the synthesis of knowledge and life by means of knowledge in the aspect of logos of the eidos; its characteristic reliance on intelligent thing as a unit of sense and a product of senseful self-development wherein not only the thing is posited, but the entire otherness as defined by it as well, is explained.In § 5, the mythological methodological attitude is considered, as focused on the synthesis of knowledge and life in the aspect of their integral arrangement as vivid mind; its characteristic reliance on intelligent thing as a real and self-evident in its unicity live being, is explained.In § 6, the hermeneutical (= onomatological and overall symbolic) methodological attitude, as focused on the synthesis of knowledge and life in the aspect of its naming as an intelligent expression of thing for the other; its characteristic reliance on the name and text as a full expression of sense and a full knowledge of fact being revealed in the truth of thing, is explained.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 7, pp 17-29; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.7.17-29

Abstract:
At the beginning of the twentieth century, when psychoanalysis was just emerging and the tradition of writing psychoanalytic biographies (psychobiographies) did not yet exist, the genre of pathography was widespread among psychiatrists, who considered the life of a prominent figure through the prism of his or her disease. One of the heroes of the number of pathological investigations was Friedrich Nietzsche, whose figure and philosophical views instigated wide interest. This tendency was manifested among the psychiatrists working in the Russian Empire, including the territory of contemporary Ukraine. The analysis of Nietzsche’s illness and creativity, proposed by a psychiatrist from Odessa Ivan Khmelevskyi, helps to clarify the historical boundaries between the pathography and psychobiography. The current article for the first time attempts to reproduce the basic data on the life and research activities of this now almost forgotten psychiatrist. The specificity of I. Khmelevskyi’s views on F. Nietzsche becomes more obvious due to the consideration of the position of Vladimir Chyzh, another Russian psychiatrist who was also interested in the figure and ideas of the German philosopher. It is shown that the pathographies of F. Nietzsche, proposed by I. Khmelevskyi and V. Chyzh, reflected both some features of the development of the genre and general trends in understanding of Nietzsche’s figure and teachings within the Russian context. It is shown that V. Chyzh and I. Khmelevskyi, like many scientists of their time, shared some ideas about evolution and degeneration, which are now considered outdated. At the same time, it has been shown that both psychiatrists confronted with the philosophy and figure of F. Nietzsche were forced to limit the explanatory ambitions of psychiatry and avoid the usual for pathographers of that time tendency to consider genius as a pathology. It is also noted that the fact of Nietzsche’s illness, if not overemphasized, can be accepted to the philosophical discourse of the present time.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 7, pp 3-16; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.7.3-16

Abstract:
The article dedicated to the 200th anniversary of Dmytro Vasyliovych Pospiekhov (1821–1899), a philosopher, psychologist, theologian and translator, for the first time in the scientific literature, highlights the milestones of his academic biography and more than 50 years (1845–1899) of professor’s tenure at the Department of Philosophy of Kyiv Theological Academy. Based on the analysis of a significant array of printed sources and archival documents, memories of colleagues and students of Dmytro Pospiekhov, the content and specifics of his educational, administrative, editorial and publishing, translation activities at the Academy were revealed for the first time; his important role in the training of professional philosophers, the development of philosophical education and the spread of philosophical knowledge in the East Slavic territories was proven. Paying special attention to Dmytro Pospiekhov’s methods of teaching of philosophical disciplines, the author emphasizes his lecturing methodology, innovative for the theological academies of the time, as well as the heuristic, religious, educational, and moral impact on the students. A special emphasis is placed on Dmytro Pospiekhov’s scientific and editorial activities, his biographical and bibliographic studies, his role in the preservation and studying of the heritage of prominent philosophers and theologians of Kyiv Theological Academy of the 1820s‒1840s: Archpriest Ivan Skvortsov (1795‒1863), Archimandrite Theophanes (Petro Avseniev, 1810‒1852), Sylvestr Hohotskyi (1813‒1889). Analyzing Dmytro Pospiekhov’s printed works for the first time, the author reveals the content and significance of his theological and philosophical study of the Book of Wisdom, which emphasizes the direct connection of this Judaic source to the philosophical teachings of Philo of Alexandria, Plato, and the Stoics. The author also draws attention to the significant research potential of Dmytro Pospiekhov’s manuscript heritage, linking it with the study of the prospects of determining his role in the development of psychological science in theological academies and the expansion of modern scientific ideas about the content and specifics of teaching of philosophical disciplines in Kyiv of the second half of the 19th Century.
NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Volume 7, pp 30-45; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-1678.2021.7.30-45

Abstract:
The article deals with three patterns for interpretation of language in its relation to the cultural hegemony, i.e. Gramscian, Voloshinian, and Pasolinian. As was shown, the analysis of the language problem is the necessary precondition for justifying the unity of theoretical and practical elements within Marxist philosophy. A common feature for the aforementioned patterns was an attempt to answer a fundamental question: how it is possible to make explicit the relationship between ideology and relations of production by means of the materialist dialectics. A refusal to fetishize language as a particular essence, a revealing that any sign systems are mediated by ideologies, and elaboration of a nonSaussurian structure of language are the core results of the proposed analysis. The starting point for the reflections of the mentioned thinkers was a tenet that communication in the state is determined by how much the institutions of power are able to bring the interests of society under control without disturbing the balance between the political body and the existing social forces. Thus, an ideology plays in two guises: as a symbolic order of legitimation on the society’s part and as a framing the growth of cultural forms. A distinction between the written and the spoken language becomes a politically significant tool to undermine the hegemony, for a balance between the political and the social, between the coercion and the approval, is widely open to fluctuations. Hence is the problem Marxist theorists have tried to solve: how can it be found out, with an examination of statements in non-political contexts, what someone talks of is a part of her political interest. The Marxist thinkers solved it in various ways. For instance, Gramsci focused himself on the reasons of making of the Italian literary canon; Voloshinov considered the proposition that in linguistics a formalism, as well as psychologism, following from a claim that semantics and means of expression are politically independent; and Pasolini sketched the difference between the spoken language, the spoken-written language, and the purely oral language, with unequal subjects of them.
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 59-65; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.59-65

Abstract:
The problem of forming an integrated approach to the methodology of economic control (including audit and internal control) is considered in the article. Auditing in the IT environment and with the use of ІТ combines the features of social, natural, and exact sciences, and deals with research objects, which are conceptual systems, natural systems, and abstract systems.The structure of the method of economic control and audit is proposed. The audit method has a twodimensional (static and dynamic) and two-tier structure. At the general theoretical level, it includes 1) basic, general scientific theoretical techniques and approaches; 2) general research procedures inherent in auditing as an interdisciplinary field that combines research methodologies from natural, social, and exact sciences. At the applied (technological) level, the elements of the auditing method are control procedures and control technologies based on general scientific methods, approaches, and research procedures.The scientific procedure of audit and internal control is investigated and the methods based on the toolkit of exact sciences in conditions of ІТ application were proposed. The research method is arranged according to the selected objects. The techniques are grouped into three categories: a) techniques for collecting facts about physical characteristics; b) methods of thinking to gain understanding; c) modelling and programming. The identified facts are assessed and compared with the norm and an auditing result is formed, as well as in the direct implementation of corrective action. JEL classification: M420
, Ihor Lukyanchuk
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 34-39; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.34-39

Abstract:
The article considers the positive opportunities that are revealed by involving students in research processes during their studies. The analysis showed that the integrated combination of students’ acquisition of competencies such elements as individual and group approach to decision making, multicriteria assessment, creative research methods, behavioral economics, etc. allows students to better master the relevant areas of knowledge. The motivation is an important issue of students studying. Behavioral aspects are an effective tool for the formation and development of students’ interest in in-depth learning of economic disciplines.The purpose of the article is to determine the factors due to which the practical application of decisionmaking techniques affects learning outcomes. If the case studies address economic issues that students often meet in their daily lives, it gives the opportunity to maximize their creative participation in the learning process, because they are more interested in finding a “better” solution. Acquisition of knowledge is more effective not on abstract or detached examples, but on cases of solving students’ economic problems. Particular attention is paid to the development of appropriate case studies, as well as the procedure for further analysis of the results of solving such cases. The implementation of these studies in classes on economic disciplines contributes to the formation of a more active students’ attitude to learning. The article reveals the role of the application of behavioral economics models in the educational process. Involving students in research processes in the study should become one of the mandatory learning elements for more effective acquisition of the necessary competencies. The illustrative example testifies to the expediency and usefulness of wide implementation of the proposed approaches in the practice of teaching economic disciplines. JEL classification: А13, А22, D03, D81
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 84-89; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.84-89

Abstract:
The land market in Ukraine is currently being formed. Therefore, it is now especially important to master the experience of using the mechanisms of regulation of this important market, which have undergone a long and successful testing in foreign countries. The article reveals the main directions of international experience in regulating the market of agricultural land.To ensure the optimal distribution of land among users and for the efficient functioning of the land market in most countries of the world, land policy is structured in such a way that agricultural land is cultivated by those who are able to ensure its most productive use. The article analyzes the possibility of applying this experience in Ukraine on the basis of generalization of modern foreign practice. The agricultural land, in contrast to the land for industry, transport and other industries, is the main means of production. The article notes that the current model of state regulation of the land market can lead to the monopolization of such markets and the acquisition of agricultural land by large corporations. There are considered the opinions of various authors on this issue, and has defined the need to form the main aspects necessary for the efficient use of land resources.The example of individual countries shows that the lack of active state intervention in market turnover has led to the monopolization of agricultural land by large corporations. It is concluded that at the present stage of implementation of the policy that ensures the efficiency of land use in agriculture, the state should strengthen the functions of regulating land use processes. There were some specific proposals for improving the system of regulation of land relations in agriculture, which should play a progressive role in the further development of the state. JEL classіfіcatіon: H3, H2
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 99-104; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.99-104

Abstract:
The article examines the level of water supply of the population of Ukraine in terms of administrative regions, considers the existing problems, and identifies ways to solve them. Regional differences in the annual water supply of the population of Ukraine per capita in terms of local and transit runoff, forecast resources and operational groundwater reserves, the size of their intake, including daily, and indicators of total water supply in the average water and low water (95 %) years. A comparison with the water supply indicators of other European countries is made. According to the indicated sources of water supply, groups of regions in which the state of water supply is critical have been identified. It is recognized as necessary when developing programs to improve water use, first of all to pay attention to areas that have not only lower indicators of total water supply, but also lower levels of operational reserves and projected groundwater resources, which should be used to meet drinking and sanitation. hygienic needs. The structure of fresh water use and pollution of water discharged together with wastewater are characterized. Particular attention is paid to the disclosure of the level of development, the dynamics of groundwater production, the structure of their use, the nature and causes of pollution. The ecological consequences and main problems caused by the natural shortage of water resources and significant regional differences in their provision, pollution of surface and groundwater and violations of the norms of their use are outlined. It is proposed, taking into account the unfavorable state of water supply in Ukraine as a whole and critical in some regions, to pay attention to the need for gradual introduction of economic methods of influence, through differentiation of prices for water supply of different quality, to water consumers and other economic entities. exploitation of water bodies, collection, preparation, transportation of water resources, which would stimulate the preservation and restoration of this valuable and unalternative natural product. JEL classіfіcatіon: Q25
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 111-116; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.111-116

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to highlight modern approaches to enhancing investment in the development of renewable energy sources.On the basis of monographic and qualimetric methods, system analysis and a dialectical approach, modern trends in investment in renewable energy in Ukraine and the world have been investigated, the most promising and optimal methods and forms of investment financing have been identified and systematized.It is emphasized that Ukraine entered the TOP-20 of the world rating of states in terms of the volume of investments in renewable energy sources, and the growth of investment flows into the Ukrainian energy sector remains relatively dynamic. However, it turned out that the issue of reviving investment activity remains relevant.The article shows that an increase in the inflow of investments is possible due to the activation of all available forms and methods of financing them. To do this, it is advisable to join international programs of grant, technical and other special assistance, use mechanisms of budgetary state and municipal assistance, develop energy service companies, create special loan products in the energy sector, issue green bonds and activate self-financing.The results of the study on enhancing investments in the development of renewable energy sources can be used to improve investment policy in the energy sector at the level of state and municipal authorities, business entities, individual and institutional investors.According to the results of the study, the article concludes that in order to ensure the development of renewable energy sources, it is necessary to mobilize investment resources from all available sources, develop various forms and methods of financing investments, and also contribute in every possible way to stabilize the working conditions of investors in the energy sector, to strengthen their motivation to invest in development. renewable energy sources. JEL classіfіcatіon: Q42, O16
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 122-129; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.122-129

Abstract:
This paper reports the results of neuromarketing research for artworks. It was conducted among young people, students of non-art specialties, for nine different widely known art pieces with the help of eyetracking and emotional scanning equipment.The aim of the experiment is to determine (1) whether viewers concentrate more on the representational art compared to abstracts art, (2) whether any correlation between the viewing time and the evoked emotions exists, and (3) whether there is any difference between the monitored emotions and those people articulate (in other words, to what extend artwork viewers tell the truth).The result demonstrates a slightly higher preference in looking at the representational paintings. But we do not notice any correlation between the subjective liking of the painting and the time spent looking at it. An essential difference is recorded for the emotions fixed technically and those reported by the viewers.The paper also suggests several implications for gallery marketing. JEL сlassification: M31, Z11
Hennadiy Hryhoriev
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 52-58; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.52-58

Abstract:
The article offers a system dynamic modelling of sovereign debt using the path dependence concept. Using simulation modelling we are trying to find a fixed point in a motion of national sovereign debt towards its equilibrium and to change the existing mental model perception towards sovereign debt by changing the structure of the system.The research reveals the idea of the “debt snowball concept” using recursive dynamic approach. The dynamic linear and nonlinear recursive models of Ukrainian sovereign debt with the appropriate multi – order recursive equations are constructed.The fixed point as an equilibrium value for a country’s sovereign debt stock to GDP ratio with a linear dependence has been built. Finding the initial point for resolving sovereign debt issue is especially actual for national economy under strong fiscal pressure caused by COVID-19 and wartime on the East of the country. For this purpose, the sovereign debt cyclical behaviour was also reproduced using phase plot graphic.The fixed point as an equilibrium value for a country’s sovereign debt stock to GDP ratio with a nonlinear dependence was determined. The main purpose of this part of the analysis was to show the more complicated oscillated behaviour of the system and the multiplicity of possible equilibrium points.The stock and flows SD modelling and simulation analysis of sovereign debt in Ukrainian economy allows to make the conclusion of the inevitability of the sovereign debt existence even on the stable level and with the balanced national budget. JEL classіfіcatіon: E60, H63, H68
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 105-110; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.105-110

Abstract:
The article considers the scientific method of implementation and management of digital transformation of higher education, including technological, methodological and economic aspects. The problem field of introduction of new digital models and introduction of managerial experience is considered.Recent research proves the separation of digital transformation as a new area of scientific interest for management development researchers, as well as a new research paradigm. This transformation is undoubtedly interesting and promising, as it contains many aspects and components. The main reasons for slow implementation are the complexity of the problem, the lack of data for decision-making and the uncertainty of economic impact in the future. In the educational environment, this process is slower, perhaps due to fears that such transformation processes will disrupt the traditional academic model that has developed over many years and has been relevant and effective in an era of industrial growth for many years.The relevance of further research is confirmed by the fact that the process of forming a digital market for educational services is not complete. On the one hand, transformation significantly depends on the systematic process of education reform, the availability of clear institutional and public policies. On the other hand, the success of the continued existence and development of educational institutions in the post-pandemic environment will depend on changes in the standard academic paradigm and the introduction of new digital services in combination with quality academic education. Building and implementing new forms and models of education will require managers to take a comprehensive approach and rethink existing norms and standards of governance. JEL classification: O32, O33
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 8-13; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.8-13

Abstract:
The aim of the article is to reveal the place and role of smart specialization strategy as one of the relevant and central areas of modern economic policy. It is shown that in Ukraine the issue of economic essence and main goal of smart specialization policy as a form of state innovation policy remains theoretically and practically unexplored, as well as the importance of involving universities in smart specialization strategy in the context of creating basic innovations that can become the basis of the regional smart specializations.The article substantiates that the Ukrainian expert community is dominated by the perception the smart specialization strategy is the traditional sectoral economic policy, which considers innovation as a factor of increasing the competitiveness of existing industries, i.e. without much change in the technological structure of the economy or region. The article argues that the main content of the smart specialization policy should be the priority development of new high-tech sectors of the economy, industries belonging to the current and future technological paradigms.The results of studying the main development directions of the Top European innovation Universities are presented. These results testify to the close connection between the innovation Universities and the creation of basic innovations for the development of new high-tech business. The analysis showed that Ukraine not only cannot enter the European ranking of innovation Universities, but also lags far behind the total number of European patents per country. This shows that the country has in fact abandoned basic innovation competitions with Europe. The policy of smart specialization should help to correct this situation. The positive effect of such policy largely depends on the active formation of modern innovation Universities, which can create and commercialize basic innovations of the Schumpeter’s type, leading to the emergence of new high technologies. JEL classіfіcatіon: O25, O38, R11
Svitlana Hlushchenko,
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.45-51

Abstract:
The article describes the fiscal stimulus, which used in the world to overcome the negative effects of the recession in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors used historical and static methods, a combination of methods of analysis and synthesis, etc. Based on the statist analysis of the dynamics of macroeconomic indicators, the authors confirmed that the main development trend of most countries and Ukraine in 2020 is a significant economic decline (falling production, rising public debt, growing fiscal deficit, etc.) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The article summarizes that in the recession in 2020, countries use measures to fiscally stimulate households and business units through additional government expenditures and lost budget revenues. The size and structure of fiscal stimulus measures vary among different groups of countries. The main fiscal stimulus during this period are: deferrals and reductions in taxes, a moratorium on the payment of certain types of obligations, various forms of cash surcharges and subsidies, partial unemployment, capital injections into enterprises, loans and guarantees. The debt burden is a significant threat to low-income countries, as debt restructuring and public spending cuts will be relevant in the long run to stabilize debt in such countries. This means limited use of fiscal stimulus to exit the recession and stimulate economic development in the country. The results can have practical application within the framework of the formation of the state fiscal policy to overcome the recession and stimulate economic development in the country. In Ukrainian practice, during the pandemic, the main measures of fiscal stimulus were the use of reduced working day schemes and the expansion of unemployment benefits; changes in taxation; financial support for retirees; subsidies; social and economic support of households and enterprises. JEL classіfіcatіon: H2, H5, H6
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 118-121; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.118-121

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to reveal the main reasons for the irrational behaviour of economic agents during the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic in terms of behavioural economics and opportunities for change such a behaviour.The article reveals the approaches that were used in 2020 and continue to be used today as the main ones to prevent the spread of coronavirus infection. Despite the existence of such prescriptions, the infection continues to spread and causes negative socio-economic consequences.Thus, the main reasons, the resistance of citizens to the measures recommended by governments around the world and the manifestation of deviant behaviour among the seemingly “rational” economic agents were analyzed.The main reasons and possible factors for changing such a behaviour are the postulates of behavioural economics, such as the effect of reinforcement effect, conservative bias, confirmation bias, conditional cooperation, the preference of beliefs consonance.In addition, this paper provides a brief overview of some post-material values of Ukrainian society based on global research and offers an assessment of the dependence of these values on the incidence of COVID-19 and an explanation in terms of behavioural economics.The article notes that the presence of certain established views on the “normality” of preventive antivirus measures may affect the propensity or the lack of propensity to adhere to the necessary protective behaviour by economic agents.The research methods are descriptive, analytical, methods of synthesis and comparison. As a result of the analysis, the article proposes a comprehensive approach to men’s behaviour during the pandemic according to behavioural economics.The study concludes that the main task to improve the effectiveness of preventive measures for the spread of COVID-19 today is to understand the causes of irrational behaviour in new circumstances in terms of behavioural economics and apply the theory of “pushing” or “nudging” to form positive social economic change. It is suggested to use this paper for further and deeper practical research of certain aspects of changing people`s behaviour for better work effectiveness and wellbeing. JEL classіfіcatіon: D03, A13
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 28-33; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.28-33

Abstract:
The development of a market economy involves the socialization of its economic entities, i.e. the direction of their activities to solve social problems. The purpose of this article is to consider the theoretical and practical aspects of social entrepreneurship as a modern trend of economic development. The authors note that the main features of social entrepreneurship are: innovative activities; its dual focus, which combines non-profit goals with the ability, necessity and ability to make a profit; public nature of social enterprises and complexity in the organization and development, the presence of significant risks. Studies of the functioning of social entrepreneurship in the world have identified the following trends in its development: due to the different participation of the state in its support; lack of a single “acceptable” or effective form of social entrepreneurship and a certain generally defined area of activity; the success of social entrepreneurship in the world and its significant contribution to the economy.In Ukraine, social entrepreneurship is a new form of business. The main trends in the functioning of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine are: a fairly wide geography of distribution of their activities, although the vast majority of them operate in large cities; the most common organizational form is individual small business; the main activities are: employment of vulnerable groups and generating income for social activities, etc. However, despite the rather rapid development of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine, the problems of its functioning are: lack of financial and institutional state support; lack of motivation to create social enterprises and low level of public awareness of their significant positive potential; its significant dependence on foreign support and investment. According to the authors, these problems do not allow social entrepreneurship in Ukraine to realize its potential and become a trend of economic development. JEL classіfіcatіon: D64, L26, L31
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 3-7; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.3-7

Abstract:
The purpose of the paper is to emphasize the contribution of Mykhaylo Ivanovych Tugan-Baranovsky to Business Cycle theory and its legacy among French economists.Tugan-Baranovsky (1864–1919), a prominent Ukrainian economist was a cycle theorist who was inspired by some French or francophone economists whose language he mastered. His theory of industrial crises proved influential upon some major economists during the first quarter of the twentieth century until the Great Depression, from Spiethoff to Hayek and Keynes.We present both the history and analytical content of industrial crises in the French version of Tugan-Baranovsky’s masterpiece. We provide an overview of Tugan-Baranovsky’s intellectual legacy as for his French-speaking followers, namely, Lescure, Aftalion, Robertson and Bouniatian. The ebb and tide of Tugan-Baranovsky’s i fluence can be understood throughout two episodes: the shift from real to monetary cycles in the interwar period and the revival of real business cycles alongside New Classical Economics in the 1980s, which proves relevant again in the context of the current Great Lockdown Recession. JEL classіfіcatіon: B14, E32, N13
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 40-44; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.40-44

Abstract:
The article is devoted to solving the problems of ensuring sustainable development based on cultural and creative industries. The methodological basis of the research is a set of methods of scientific knowledge, general scientific and special research methods. The theoretical basis of the author’s statements regarding the concepts of “cultural” and “creative” industries is the fundamental research of Ukrainian and foreign scientists in the field of economic theory, regional economics and sustainable development of territories, sociology, strategic management of socio-economic development of regions. The author’s key conclusions regarding the category of “sustainable development” are based on studies of Ukrainian and European legal norms.Because of a historical digression, the article substantiates the expediency of separating the concepts of “cultural” and “creative” industries, since some represent a set of cultural practices that are carried out according to standards, and the second – involve the implementation of individual creative abilities. It is proposed to consider “cultural industries” in two fundamentally different aspects, which can be covered through cultural and economic approaches. It is proven that these industries are aimed not only at the production of products, they are also a tool for stimulating individuals to choose social forms of life, social behavior, and mutual understanding, rational consumption, etc. It is established that in modern science, the issue of distinguishing the types of cultural and creative industries is debatable, based on which the author’s structure of cultural and creative industries is developed, the core of which is the creative economy, and the external space is represented by the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. The author’s approach allows us to expand the scientific vision of the essence and content of cultural and creative industries, as well as to determine their role in ensuring sustainable development. The proposed interpretation of the structure will later be used in the development of a marketing strategy for cultural and creative industries, which contributes to the solution of the applied task of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. JEL classification: O10, Q01
, Yevhen Riabtsun
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 90-98; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.90-98

Abstract:
The article’s objectives are to reveal the general tendency in the global investment climate within the fintech industry and introduce the grouping approach for countries based on distinctive characteristics of local fintech and economic environments. Moreover, the paper results can be used as recommendations for local regulators in terms of the fintech industry development, which is a vital force for enhancing the competitiveness level of the countries in the context of world economic uncertainty.Statistics method is used to perform the investment activities and investment structure overview with a close look at three regions: Americas, EMEA (Europe, the Middle East, and Africa), and the Asia Pacific. The results indicate the largest role of the America region, the smallest – of the Asia-Pacific region, and two main trends in the investment structure by the nature of deals, the first with a predominance of M&A deals and the second with a high venture investments part.Another applied approach is clustering analysis. It is used to group the countries by the set of characteristics, which reflect the general economic conditions and innovation capacity in the financial sector of different countries from the general population. The clustering results give a snapshot of six groups of countries. The group with the highest results is called FinTech Olympus and consists of countries such as the USA, UK, and Singapore. The worst results were shown by the Fintech Jungle group represented by Kenya, Lebanon, Egypt, Uganda, Pakistan, Ghana, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and Ukraine. The other countries are grouped in four more clusters with research names – FinTech periphery, Asian-European, FinTech middle class, and Major players. Local regulators, for example, the National Bank of Ukraine, can further consider the results of clustering for maintaining fintech development policy to benefit the economy in general.In such conditions, the main tasks for the Ukrainian government are the improvement of business climate and fintech ecosystem development with the further discovery of their impact on the country’s competitiveness in an unstable economic environment in the short and long term. JEL classіfіcatіon: C40, G19, G20
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 66-72; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.66-72

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to reveal the directions of regional strategic development methodical bases’ formation on the basis of benchmarking.The article reveals the peculiarities of benchmarking methodology application in modern regional strategy. The study of regional development was conducted on the basis of a systematic approach and using situational analysis. The application of a systematic approach allows us to consider the region as a system with established goals and organized as a whole set of interacting elements. The situational approach most fully reflects the problems that arise in management activities and allows you to identify situational factors that affect the development of regions. It is proven that it is expedient to use the method of spatial benchmarking as a tool of situational analysis. The study of the methodological principles of benchmarking made it possible to formalize the stages of the benchmarking study of regional development.Studies of the strategies of different regions of Ukraine revealed the need and importance of applying a situational approach to management. This made it possible to formulate criteria for selecting a standardregion and to identify three groups of indicators of the study of specific regions, which allowed to form possible clusters using the method of hierarchical cluster analysis.As a result of research there are carried out calculations of the competitive analysis of regions of Ukraine and revealed strategic prospects concerning development of certain regions.According to the results of the study, it is concluded that the formation of regional development strategy requires detailed research, which is methodologically based on the principles of benchmarking analysis, there are opportunities to vary the list of indicators and criteria that determine the standard-region. The application of benchmarking in the management system allows you to systematically find and evaluate all the benefits of the best experience of the standard-region and create opportunities for their use in your own region. JEL classіfіcatіon: O12, R11, R12, R19
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 73-83; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.73-83

Abstract:
The Central Bank Credit Registry was established in Ukraine in 2018. The two key functions which are fulfilled by Credit Register are monitoring and credit information sharing. This paper is devoted to applying a scoring approach for monitoring function realization in segments of individuals. The logic of using scoring tools to monitoring is based on an objective to create an effective form which reflects the dynamic of the above-mentioned segment. Data mining procedures for Credit Registry were realized and most significant characteristics were chosen. Correlation analysis for characteristics was applied. Different approaches to construct scoring for monitoring functions were analyzed. Namely, logistic regression, Machine Learning, method grounded on tree created by the XGBoost algorithm. Last method demonstrated the best efficiency for scoring construction and can be developed for implementation. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Bank of Ukraine. JEL classіfіcatіon: G21
Olena Bazilinska, Olena Panchenko
Scientific Papers NaUKMA. Economics, Volume 6, pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.18523/2519-4739.2021.6.1.14-20

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to reveal conceptual frameworks for further development of the banking and insurance interaction in order to ensure the growth of the value of banking and insurance business on account of the more effective use of their potentials and opportunities.It is noted in the article that banking and insurance interaction is manifested as the provision of insurance services through banking institutions – Banсassurance, the provision of banking services through insurance companies – Assurbanking, the provision of integrated services within financial conglomerates – Allfinanz.In the course of the research, it was determined that the banking channel for the sale of insurance services is the most efficient, and Bancassurance is a system of insurance services sale through the extensive banking network. The necessity and importance of the Bancassurance development, which is actively used in all developed countries, but differs in scale, methods, organizational forms and final financial results, is revealed. This is especially relevant in the context of reforming the regulatory bodies of the state financial market.Within the study, the advantages and disadvantages of Bancassurance and the prerequisites for its development are revealed. Particular attention is paid to the requirements to insurance companies in the process of the Bancassurance implementation. It is noted within the article that the interaction of banks and insurance companies can be carried out at different levels, from the level of the cooperation agreement, agency agreement, banking and insurance cooperation, to the level of the corporate control through the mechanism of mergers and acquisitions and financial supermarket.Within the study the conclusions are made that further development of banking and insurance interaction is conceptually aimed at increasing the role of commercial banks and the formation of “financial supermarkets”, in which each customer can meet the needs of bank services, financial consulting, and insurance. JEL classіfіcatіon: G21, G22
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