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, Ola Abu-Hasan Nabwani, Tal Shahor, Javier Simonovich
Published: 4 September 2021
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.953

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in work centrality of individuals who experienced meaningful adverse occupational events (dismissal from the workplace, prolonged unemployment, and retirement), as compared to employees who did not experience such events over 12 years. Methodology: By implementing a fixed-sample panel /longitudinal research,12 years after conducting the Meaning of Work questioner, 411 individuals were located and re-conducted. The respondents were asked about life and work events they had experienced between the first and second time. The data was analysed by regular and multivariate analysis of variance. Main Findings: The work centrality of individuals who experienced prolonged unemployment did not change, while it increased among those who did not experience these events. Experiencing dismissal from work increased work centrality. Unexpectedly, work centrality continues to increase among individuals after retirement. Applications: There are several suggestions for the social and welfare and policymakers regarding adverse occupational events and the impact these policies may have on the magnitude of these events on work centrality. Novelty/Originality: This is a unique longitudinal study over twelve years, that compared the change in work centrality among individuals who did and did not experience adverse occupational events.
Salam Fadhil Hassoon,
Published: 4 September 2021
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 23-27; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.954

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study aims to discuss the American role in the anti-Soviet Afghan war and disclose the reasons for the Soviet worry about the growth of the fundamentalist terrorist groups inside Afghanistan. Methodology: This is library-based research work. Results: The article has come up with some main points on that severe war. One of these was that the American President Jimmy Carter's Doctrine in 1980. Carter's Doctrine could be considered a sort of policy that allows the use of military force in case American interests are exposed to Soviet threats. As a result, the American administration promised to militarily support the Afghan fighters against the Soviet control in Afghanistan. But, at the same time, the Americans failed to realize the ethnic, ideological, social, lingual, and theological structure of the Afghan society. Application: This study could have many applications in the faculties of politics and the contemporary altogether to teach the ways of public and secret or hidden political relationships between the secular states or so-called superpowers that employed the extremist groups to overwhelm the stable states that do not subdue to the western domination. Novelty: This study explores the incorrect claim of the superpowers in general and of the United States of America in particular of the theory of separation religion and the state, which is often used in the double standard.
Published: 4 September 2021
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 08-14; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.952

Abstract:
The labeling of the medicinal product packaging plays an important role in communication between entities placing the product on the market and its potential buyers. Moreover, the correct labeling of the packaging can protect the life and health of patient consumers. Due to the above, the labeling of the packaging of a medicinal product is subject to numerous legal regulations and has become the subject of consideration of many scientists. The aim of the article is to present the results of research on the readability of the packaging of over-the-counter medicinal products as assessed by older consumers. The research was carried out using a questionnaire throughout Poland. 400 respondents took part in the survey aged 60 and over.
Published: 4 September 2021
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.951

Abstract:
Personality is a cognitive-affective processing system, which, according to the socio-cognitive theory, creates four dimensions. They are reflected in the skills, beliefs, standards and goals of the individual, which are consistent and consistent patterns of behaviour. Self-efficacy judgments and self-patterns determine the choice of goals and persistence in achieving them. On the other hand, the emotions preceding and accompanying the achievement of goals affect coping with stress and problems. The review of the clinical and therapeutic applications of this theory included stress inoculation training, REBT rational emotive therapy, Beck's cognitive depression therapy, schema therapy and modelling methods. The great advantage of this theory is the possibility of verifying its theoretical assumptions and confirming their huge amount of research. Besides, it has a practical application as many types of cognitive-behavioural therapies have been developed on its basis.
Brygida Wądołowska, Wojciech Zaborowski
Published: 4 September 2021
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.955

Abstract:
This article aims to provide a detailed discussion of the restructuring process and to indicate whether the said institution is achieving its statutory objectives. Four restructuring proceedings have been presented in the study that the entity undergoing restructuring may benefit from. It is worth noting that the study included restructuring goals, differences between individual restructuring processes and the most important statutory definitions such as insolvency and restructuring capacity were described. Considering the above, the article indicates the most important legal aspects of the discussed institution and problems related to the discussed issue.
, Mark Egbe Ikelegu
Published: 4 September 2021
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 35-46; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.956

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This paper examined the housing quality, its affordability as well as the housing choices which residents of Calabar can make. Housing needs in the city continue to rise in response to rapid urbanization rates and thus lead to high housing demands. Methodology: About 384 questionnaires were distributed randomly within six purposively delineated housing districts in Calabar with a 78 percent success rate. The stratification covered all the housing types, from the low to medium and the high classes. The coordinates of respondents were also collected for spatial analyses in which the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method was used to create housing choice maps in the identified districts of the city. The Chi-square statistics were used to test the statistical significance of the created contingency tables. Main Findings: Significant relationship exist between housing affordability and housing quality ((f) = 11.463, p-value = 0.022 (p < 0.05)), and between average monthly income and expenditure on rented residential housing in Calabar ((f) = 539.473, p-value = 0.000 (p < 0.05)). Housing in the metropolis is not affordable to about 80% of residents who expend more than 30% of their income on housing. Applications of this study: This study helps shape the policy direction of government in housing provision and such, encourage private developers in the sector. Novelty/Originality of this study: Previous studies only addressed housing cost and provision, not a choice, quality, and affordability. This is the first study to address residential housing choices, quality, and affordability in the Calabar metropolis, involving a cross-sectional survey questionnaire. The results will be helpful to developers, homebuyers, and policymakers alike towards affordable housing delivery in Calabar and others. African cities.
, Ewa Zieliński, Tomasz Wojsz
Published: 4 September 2021
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 47-50; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.957

Abstract:
Purpose: This is a review to assess the health hazards resulted from the poor technical condition of vehicles in Ghana. In developing countries, the number of vehicles involved in road traffic is systematically increasing. The health consequences of road accidents are a crucial public concern. Methodology: The PubMed and Google scholar search were used to find literature for this analysis. The following keywords were taken into consideration in this paper: health hazards, technical conditions, vehicles, accidents, developing countries, Ghana. The analysis has been done by the systematic review analysis method. The articles were selected in terms of the health hazards resulting from the poor technical condition of vehicles in Ghana and its effects on road safety. Twenty papers were being reviewed. Main findings: The quality of vehicles on Ghanaian roads is low. Most of the cars are old. For economic reasons, users often use substandard products to repair cars. Poor-quality, non-original, mismatched parts can lead to an accident. The technical condition of vehicles affects the safety of road users. The security of citizens should be an essential goal of the state. Inspections of the technical condition of cars, especially in public transport, should be strengthened and the frequency increased. Implications: Based on the analysis of the publications, it was assessed that there is no current literature on technical problems of vehicles in Ghana, with particular emphasis on public transport. This is an essential topic for the security of citizens and should be investigated, analyzed, and lessons learned without delay. Novelty in this study: There is a lack of systematic reviews of the impact of health hazards resulted from the poor condition of vehicles in Ghana. The paper is an attempt to assess the impact of the problem.
International Journal of Students' Research in Technology & Management, Volume 9, pp 15-23; https://doi.org/10.18510/ijsrtm.2021.932

Abstract:
Purpose: This study gives a critical assessment of the rainfall erosivity factor (R) for selected sites in the Majha region, representing different locations use of mean monthly rainfall data. Methodology: By applying empirical methods, the rainfall intensity for all the locations were obtained and was further determined at three different intervals of 30-minutes, 45-minutes and 60-minutes, respectively. The rainfall erosivity factor (R) was calculated by the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). Main Findings: Using RUSLE, the rainfall erosivity factor (R) for each of the locations was measured as follows; EI = 3878.49 (MJmmha-1hr-1), EI = 4013.71 (MJmmha-1hr-1), EI = 4302.24 (MJmmha-1hr-1) for Majha region of Amritsar, Tarntaran and Pathankot respectively. A close observation of the data obtained revealed that as rainfall intensity increased with the duration, the rainfall erosivity index reduced or decreased. Implications of study: Nevertheless, it is expected that if proper cover crop and management practices are applied despite the region, the study area falls within, rainfall erosivity can be cushioned, thus reducing further erosion tendencies and enhancing food production chances from productive lands within the area. The novelty of study: The rainfall erosivity factor (R) was calculated by the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE).
, Manoj Mathur, Anil Dewan
International Journal of Students' Research in Technology & Management, Volume 9, pp 24-33; https://doi.org/10.18510/ijsrtm.2021.933

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: Uninterrupted hospital services and medical functions are the keys to functional resilience to cope with mass casualties. This paper presents the important level of resilience indicators for hospital functions to withstand natural disasters. Methodology: For the survey, 21 indicators are grouped into three domains focusing on i) general concerns of healthcare infrastructure planning ii) design and planning of hospital buildings iii) emergency service and management. The corresponding indicators were ranked on a Likert scale of 1 to 5. The authors collected 389 responses through an online survey of the healthcare professionals including disaster management professionals, medical officers, hospital architects, planners, project managers, and engineers. Main Findings: The data were analysed for determining the Relative Importance Index (RII) of each indicator. The top 7 indicators as an outcome of this research are: ‘access to the emergency services (0.861), ‘planning of refugee settlements’ (0.814), ‘uninterrupted supply of MEP services to critical units’ (0.871), ‘signages for internal circulation’ (0.845), ‘adaptive control, command, and communication system’ (0.848), ‘flexible spatial planning in case of a surge of patients’(0.813), ‘ensuring availability of healthcare workers with the provision of support infrastructure’ (0.758). Applications of this study: Assessment of the top indicators highlight the importance of ‘flexible design’ and ‘access to medical functions of a hospital building’. Based on these outcomes, it is proposed to develop a numerical framework for a comprehensive design appraisal of resilient hospital buildings.
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.941

Abstract:
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the closure of the borders have slowed down progressive internationalization. Travel not only consists of tourist trips but also business trips. This comment emphasizes the necessity to implement The Digital Green Certificate (Covid passport) and presents the process of its implementation as a complex project on an international scale. The considerations summarize that the implementation of the Covid passport will be successful when the negative impact the pandemic has on travel is eliminated and the number of travelers returns to the level before the restrictions were introduced.
, Mati Ullah, Irfan Ullah Khan, Muhammad Altaf, Muzammil Shah
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 15-23; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.944

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The key purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of Internal and External Monitoring systems regarding students’ attendance at primary school level Bannu. Methodology: Descriptive survey design was used for this study. The data was taken from head Teachers through a self-developed questionnaire of the 6-Likert scale. According to John Curry (1984) Sample size rule of Thumb, out of N= 650, n= 65 respondents was taken from district Bannu. A simple random technique was used, and also validity and reliability of the instrument were making sure in this study. Data were analyzed through SPSS by using Mean, Std. Deviation and t-test. Main Findings: The main findings of the existing study shown that the officials of external monitoring are better in monitor the students’ attendance, improving students’ attendance during routine monitoring, priority-based check-up of primary school students attendance during official visits, and pointing out of students absentees while the internal monitoring officials perform better only regarding “encouraging school staff to motivate the regular students with the proper award”. Applications of this study: The existing study greatly significant for Educational administrators and monitoring departments, policymakers, Head Teachers, and the government which can find the real fact and issues about student attendance. Novelty/Originality of this study: The current study is fairly new and unique in the field of education department of the monitoring system. The current study is the original research work of a researcher in the field of the education monitoring system of IMS and EMS/IMU.
, Irfan Ullah Khan, Hamid Khan, Mati Ullah, Zeenat Bibi
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 08-14; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.943

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The main focus of the researcher in the study was to investigate the opinions, views, beliefs, the respondents’ attitudes towards Google Classroom during Covid-19. Methodology: The study was descriptive. All on Campus enrolled students along with students of affiliated colleges with the University of Lakki Marwat where the population of the study in which all BS level on Campus students were taken as the target population of the study in which the total numbers of (n = 500) respondents comprised of samples as per L.R.Gay formula regarding determining the size of the sample. . A simple random sampling technique was used. Data was collected through a self-developed questionnaire of the 5-Points Likert scale. The validity and reliability of the research instrument were ensured. Data were statistically analyzed through SPSS by using Frequency, Percentage, and Regression. Main Findings: The key findings of the study reveal that the majority of the respondents were in favor of Google Classroom during Covid-19 at BS level. Those who disagree with the online classes or Google Classroom showed negative concerns regarding it due to lack of facilities required for online classes or lack of resources essential for Google Classroom at the university level but overall, the views of the respondents were in favor of Google Classroom at University level in the University of Lakki Marwat, KP, Pakistan. Applications of this study: The current study is highly significant for the government of the day in this modern world especially during Covid-19; the study could be quite effective and meaningful for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), Policymakers, and HEC to ensure the quality of education at University level. Novelty/Originality of this study: The existing study is new or unique in the field of education to promote the quality of education during calamities also as Covid-19 etc.
Aida Ruslanovna Gasharova
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 04-07; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.942

Abstract:
Purpose: The article focuses on the genetic relationship of Dagestan people majority, which was reflected in the archaic layer of culture, on the processes of interethnic historical and cultural interrelations, which are generally characterized with a sufficient intensity in Dagestan. Methodology: The article is a generalizing analysis of multinational Dagestan oral-poetic creativity, the statement of the positions and conclusions on the genesis and the centuries-old functioning of a unique folkloric unity in diversity. Main Findings: Dagestan folklore material, in particular such genres as myths, legends, legends, heroic epic, heroic historical and historical songs and ballads, ritual poetry genres, unconscious lyrics, the fairy epics of its variety, parables, oral stories and anecdotes, proverbs, sayings and riddles are characterized by their commonality and mutual influences, conditioned by the historical and cultural interrelationships of Dagestan peoples. Implications: Dagestan folklore material allows us to draw important conclusions concerning not only the peculiarities of the functioning of folklore in a particular region, but also the general theory of folklore. Novelty: The very syncretic nature of folklore dictates the need for a complex attraction to the object of analysis of the verbal, musical, ethno-graphic and other components of this field of art, which makes it possible to more deeply and broader comprehend the above unity in diversity.
, Aroona Hashmi, , Fasiha Altaf
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 121-132; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9417

Abstract:
Purpose of the Study: Focusing on the importance of the research interview, the researchers planned current qualitative research to explore students’ perceptions about the role of an interview conducted during the selection of M.Phil and Ph.D. admission in one of the public sector University of Lahore, Punjab-Pakistan. Methodology: The researchers adopted qualitative research leading to interpretivism paradigm. This study adopted a phenomenology research design. The researchers selected five M.Phil and five Ph.D. scholars were selected by using purposive technique. The researchers administered a self-constructed interview protocol to collect the data from the respondents. After signing a formal consent letter from participants, the researchers recorded interviews from the respondents in voice recorders and transcribed the interviews word by word. The researchers used thematic analysis approach to analyze the data. Main Findings: The results declared that the majority of the students agreed that personality has a better effect during the interview; slight sensation of nervousness before the interview; disturbed bodily condition before interview panel; friendly, cooperative, and supportive behaviour of interview panel; comfortable environment; enriched institute with qualified foreign faculty; fully confident after the interview for admission; asking of relevant questions and they get admission in to enhance their qualification for getting good-paying job and knowledge. Applications of this study: The results of the current research are applicable in public and private sector universities of Punjab, including district Lahore in which experiential and dynamic teachers are the members of the selection panel. They were aware of students perceptions while conducting interviews and familiar with their exact situations that happened in the committee rooms, as the students/applicant are the real observe of their teachers. Novelty/Originality of this study: This is the innovative and foremost research structured in Pakistani public sector educational institutions in which the authors highlighted the actual situations that happened between the interviewer and the interviewee during M.Phil and Ph.D admission. The authors have also contributed to the existing body of knowledge. The findings of the research have opened the horizon for future researchers to explore the dimension of the interviews focusing on the quantitative and mix-method design on a large sample of the participants.
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 133-145; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9420

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: A satisfaction audit for use of cycling mode is aimed at the promotion of non-motorized transport which is safe, comfortable, economical and energy-efficient as critical for urban sustainability. The study examined the level of satisfaction that cyclists derive from the cicloruta based on the intersections in the network. Methodology: The methodology involved the use of primary data such as 680 perceptions of satisfaction ratings; physical and operational characteristics of road infrastructure (measurement and observational) data; and shapefile of the cicloruta. The relationship between variables was examined using correlation statistics, while the ordered probit model was used to estimate the parameter, predicted logit and predicted probabilities. Main Findings: An estimated model for intersection bicycle level of service (IntBLOS) revealed that the volume of vehicular and total intersection legs are factors with a high influence on cyclist’s level of satisfaction. The model was used in ArcGIS to compute IntBLOS scores at both segment and facility levels. Since segments are not independent of intersections or vice versa, the study used these two independent models to estimate the level of bicyclist’s satisfaction. Applications of this study: This study undoubtedly takes a step towards demonstrating a non-motorised transport infrastructure audit which can help address specific concerns of cyclists and thus enhance ridership in the study area. Elsewhere, especially in the developing countries applicability of this methodology shall be with modifications on measurement and observation data that reflects peculiar local traffic situations. Novelty/Originality of this study: The findings of this paper has stimulated further conversation on the factors of cycling in the city with its ambitious cycling infrastructure. It has also provided planners with an infrastructure audit methodology to enhance cycling safely and sustainably. The study recommended proper enlightenment of motorists and cyclists alike on their right of way and most importantly, the redesign of most intersections in the study area to reflect the present cycling realities of Bogota.
Fakhar Hussain, Mian Saeed Ahmad, Shumaila Rafiq, Umm- E- Rubab, Sarfraz Hussain
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 33-40; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.946

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The purpose of the study is to examine China’s hunt for the acquisition of energy supplies through the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI) in the Middle East due to the unprecedented economic expansion on accounts of which it needs reliable resources of natural gas and oil to cope with the requisite needs of energy. Methodology: The data for this study is collected from various secondary sources like Research Journals, Academic Research Papers, and Electronic Sources. Data were interpreted using the deductive method of investigation through an analytical and descriptive approach. Principal Findings: The main findings indicate that China has long followed its “win-win” strategy, which means that all trading partners of the region profit fairly, and for that reason, Beijing is aiming to boost its commercial presence in the region of the Middle East for mutual gains and that economic interdependence, according to Beijing encourages collaboration between the states on accounts of which it is considered that energy deals of China are centered on mutual economic interests. Applications of this study: Findings of the study will be helpful for scholars and academics of International Relations, Security Studies, Policymakers of China and the Middle East countries, diplomats of China, USA, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and Iran as well as it also contributes for understanding energy and economic ambitions of China in the region of Middle East, which to be accomplished through BRI. Novelty/Originality of this study: The originality/novelty of the study lies in the attempt to explore that BRI is considered as the 21st century’s Marshall Plan by China and that it will associate China’s hunt for global energy resources by diversification of the economic markets of the Middle East.
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 202-208; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9428

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study aims to present the specifics of the global financial crisis, the threats it brings for Poland in the legal sphere, and possible actions to be taken in this area, particularly at the European Union and Poland level. Methodology: The article uses the historical method and the analysis of documents both at the Polish and European Union levels, including laws, regulations, and decisions. Main Findings: The scope of the financial crisis in question and its relatively easy transfer between markets entails the necessity to apply extraordinary remedial actions. Poland, through its participation in the European Union, seems to be relatively well protected against the effects of the financial crisis. However, it needs to undertake further structural reforms, in particular reforms of public finances. Applications of this study: The current study is highly significant for the government of the day in this modern world; the study could be quite effective and meaningful for Higher Education Institutions, government, banks, financial institutions. Novelty/Originality of this study: Description of the essence of the financial crisis, possibilities of its prevention - earlier possibilities of remedial actions at the institutional and legal level, possibilities of obtaining financial support, global analysis of the problem, including its causes.
, L. Nyahunda, J.C. Makhubele
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 160-166; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9423

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This paper was aimed at determining the population’s vulnerability to natural disasters in Runnymede Village at Tzaneen Local Municipality, South Africa. Methodology: The researchers used the qualitative research approach and the exploratory research design. A total number of 16 participants took part in the study. The participants consisted of small-scale farmers, social workers, and disaster management members. Data was collected through individual semi-structured and focus group interviews and was analysed thematically. Main Findings: The study found that impoverished people in the rural areas, people living with disabilities, children, and women are mainly vulnerable to natural disasters. The study thus concludes that people in rural areas are more prone to the impact of natural disasters due to geopolitical, structural, and cultural systems. Applications of this study: People’s relatives, friends, and others close to them can disappear alongside their livelihoods, homes, hospitals, roads, transport, telecommunications networks, and schools. These effects trigger various emotions such as fear, anger, and grief to community members. To this end, community members will receive holistic intervention from relevant social workers, who will be providing psychosocial support. Novelty/Originality of this study: This study contributes positively to the field of social service, and provides guidelines to social workers to address natural disasters. Due to their educational background, social workers should fight the injustices that people in rural areas are predisposed to. They could challenge these injustices (inequalities) as these infringe on individuals’ rights to dignity and other associated rights.
, Muhammad Abdur Rahman Malik
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 93-104; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9414

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The research aimed to compile extensive literature on workplace deviance typology. Methodology: The research comprises a systematic literature review. The review helps to understand the extensive work on workplace deviance (1983-2019). The articles were shortlisted based on PRISMA, preferred reporting items for systematic reviews, to provide a clear picture. Based on 75 shortlisted articles from financial times (FT) – 50. The shortlisted articles comprise four clusters, i.e., antecedents, consequences, mediators, and moderators. Main Findings: The research found the need to explore future research based on a social constructivist lens. Applications of this study: The research provides a way forward to extend research in workplace deviance. Research developed a framework to guide future research on the new relationships of workplace deviance. Hence, empirical work on these relationships can offer new insights into construct dimensionality, methodology, and philosophy. Novelty/Originality of this study: After highlighting the key contributions of the previous researchers, the research attempted to articulate the ontology of workplace deviance by suggesting the need to investigate it through a different philosophical lens. Researchers then identified various gaps to be addressed in the future.
, Asif Jamil, Abdul Hafeez, Bushra Salah-Ud-Din, Sadia Bibi
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 78-83; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9412

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The main purpose of the study is to find out the “use of student-centred approach of teaching science on the performance of students performance at elementary level”. Methodology: Quasi-experimental research was used in this study. Pre-test and post-test were used to collect the data and analyses were done through SPSS. Three classes; grades 6th, 7th, and 8th were chosen as a sample of the study. Main Findings: Findings of the research study revealed that the students belonging to lower grade levels responded more positively to the student-centred methods as compared to the students belonging to higher grade levels. Applications of this study: This study is applicable in the elementary level of education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Policymakers and government officials can take guidance to improve the situations of elementary schools. Novelty/Originality of this study: This study was originated to determine the effectiveness of a Student-centered learning slant, especially for teaching science at the elementary level. It was also attempted to know whether or not the effectiveness of the Student-centered approach alters at different grade levels of students.
, Ahmad Jusoh, Ayman Ahmed Alhaseri, Amani Almeharish
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 152-159; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9422

Abstract:
Purpose: This paper attempts to interpret and discuss leadership and the three contradicted terms to reveal the misuse of those three terms with leadership. Methodology: The study uses a systematic method to review the previous literature related to the leadership domain and the three contradicted terms related to leadership. These are leadership style, leadership behaviour, and leadership traits. In addition, this study provides the definitions of the three contradicted terms from a linguistic and management literature perspective. Main Findings: The study proposed a definition of each of the three contradicted terms. Additionally, the study suggested a conceptual framework that combined how the three contradicted terms can be related. The findings will contribute to the expansion of theoretical knowledge in the field of leadership. Applications of this study: This paper indicates that the review of the literature regarding what differentiates the three contradicted terms is an important aspect to deeply understand leadership concepts. The definition of each of the three contradicted terms will expand the understanding of junior leadership researchers and university students. The study's originality: This study will reveal the ambiguity and misinterpretation in the literature regarding the three contradicted terms of leadership. Moreover, it will present the definition of each of the three terms; leadership style, leadership behaviour, and leadership traits. Furthermore, the proposed conceptual framework will contribute to the expansion of theoretical knowledge in the leadership domain.
Zamil L. Timman
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 146-151; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9421

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The research aims to examine the impact of factors related to the spatial distribution of industries and determine their importance in controlling the economic activity of Mahmoudiyah City to determine the direction of the industry compass on the level of this district. There are different industry types in this city, including hand or small industry, such as spinning, knitting, and fancywork industry. As well as light industry, for example, woven, cane, building materials, wooden and metallic industry. Methodology: This research is of theoretical type, and the research method is descriptive-analytical, and the method of data collection is a library and has been done by referring to documents, books, and articles. Results: The results showed that more of these industries mentioned above are found in Al-mahmodiya center and Al-latefiya because found labor market and its nearly of consumed as well as increase of population with different skills hands lead to the stable economic and social case. There is a challenge in the provided modern machine and discontinue of electric current, leading to decreased production. Application: This study can be useful in the Studies of Industrial Geography. Novelty: This field study indicates that the industrial craft is affected by choosing the suitable place for industrial plants to reduce the pollution and noise ratio in the known industrial regions and describes one of the major problems that still exists is the return of land ownership.
, Adriana Wielgus, Halina Zielińska-Więczkowska
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 188-193; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9426

Abstract:
Purpose: This is a review to assess the working conditions that affect the stress level of paramedics and their ability to cope with stress. The profession of a paramedic is characterized by constant contact with other people and exposure to many factors, including biological (HIV, flu virus), chemical (causing allergic reactions, burns) physical (noise, low or excessive temperature), psychosocial (aggression, violence, traumatic experiences). Methodology: This is a Systematic review paper. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google scholar search were used to analyze the problem. The following keywords were used to search for information sources: paramedic, working conditions, medical rescue, ambulance, stress, coping with stress. Articles were selected according to the impact of working conditions on stress and its consequences among the group of paramedics. Main Findings: The work of a rescuer is a constant action under the influence of a high level of stress and emotions, caused by an unforeseen sequence of events and time pressure. The long-term presence of negative factors is the cause of the appearance of burnout syndrome, rumination, PTSD, and somatic symptoms related to stress in the workplace. It can result in a deterioration of the quality of patient care. Implications of this study: The above results should be taken into account by units of the emergency medical care system. The paper indicates the occurrence of negative psychological effects of work-related stress and as a consequence the need to train the personnel in the field of stress-coping techniques and to provide emergency medical service workers with mental health monitoring and psychological care in the workplace. Novelty in this study: There is a lack of systematic reviews of the impact of working conditions on the mental health of workers in emergency medical care services. The paper is an attempt to assess the impact of working conditions on stress and its effects on the group of paramedics and other emergencies medical care system employees.
, Jabulani Calvin Makhubele
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 194-201; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9427

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This paper aims to ascertain the nexus between the digital divide and social exclusion (inequalities) - directly and indirectly, as digital technology enables people to socialise, communicate, work, study, and conduct business. Methodology: To do this, the literature review is employed as a methodology. Specifically, the narrative or semi-systematic literature review was conducted on all sources germane to the topic under investigation. Main findings: The paper has found that the digital divide has adverse effects on the employment, education, health, social services, and socio-economic development of digitally excluded people. In addition, it has emerged that the digital divide exacerbates social exclusion. Applications of this study: To this end, Social Workers and associated professionals are empowered with knowledge about the role of the digital divide in social exclusion, thus they are expected to play active assume advocacy roles as far as Information Communication Policies are concerned. Novelty/Originality of this study: Digitalisation has embedded factors inducing poverty, inequity, and discrimination unintentionally; thereby this paper replenishes literature in Social Science to enable Social Scientists to utilise relevant information –in their research, intervention, and commentary.
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 209-213; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9429

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The paper aims to create a proposal to extend the functionality of the currently operating COVID‑19 case reporting system in Poland. Methodology: Empirical analysis of the current COVID-19 reporting system in Poland with three axes: (1) description of the system functionalities according to official (governmental) sources; (2) listing and characterization of the current system defects causing ineffectiveness of reporting; (3) proposition of systemic alterations to reduce the level of reporting inefficiency preparation and for possible future phenomena related to the pandemic evolution. Main Findings: The reporting system is ineffective as the systems of local medical laboratories performing coronavirus tests are not fully integrated with the central system. Data transfer to the central repository is not executed automatically but relies on manual input by a laboratory technician. Thus, the data in the system are published with a certain delay. Applications of this study: Improving the infection reporting system may prove useful for both legislators and local health regulatory authorities. This may translate into an improved case prediction model and thus greater objectivity in the case of the introduction of new restrictions. Novelty/Originality of this study: The dynamic course of the coronavirus pandemic made it necessary to monitor the number of cases, deaths and, above all, to find outbreaks. The IT systems reporting SARS-CoV-2 cases were developed in a quick manner and solutions were advanced on an ongoing basis. Due to numerous modifications, these systems lack operational efficiency. This study discusses how the current Polish COVID-19 case reporting system works and presents proposals for its refinements which may contribute to ameliorations in many other national systems.
, Aziz Javed, Pir Muhammad Abdul Aziz Shah, Sher Zaman, Muhammad Aslam Khan
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 115-120; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9416

Abstract:
Purpose: Primary aim of the research study was to develop awareness among the participants about the benefits of exercise and its financial benefits. Methodology: Adults had to perform exercises on Unstable Surfaces (US), Stable Surface (SS) and Machine Based (MB). The protocol of exercises was divided into three categories with 30 participants in each group i.e., Machine Based Surface Resistance Training (M-SRT), Machine Based Unstable Surface Resistance Training (M-URT), and Free Weight Unstable Surfaces Resistance Training (F-URT). Equipment used for tests was imported. Cost of financial expenditure and effects of resistance training exercise protocol on the male adults’ lower limbs muscular power, body fats, and strength were compared. Leg extension strength, leg press, muscle fuel, and body fats were checked on the baseline and after a seven-week resistance training program in the adults and budget, effects took away from the parents. Main Findings: The subjects’ results in maximal resistance training of squad movement were significantly higher in M-SRT and M-URT as compared to F-URT. The average seven-week regular resistance training exercise protocol program in adults with proper supervision will minimize the risk of injury and develop the strength and endurance in the lower limbs of adults up to maximal and that the composition of the body fats was observed lesser. There are training and exercise centres in Dera Ismail Khan city and adults can easily manage to become members of those clubs with nominal registration fees. Fitness and wellbeing are directly associated with the financial benefits of exercise and training. It was observed that the student adults can easily manage the resistance training program for their fitness by curtailing their pocket money. The implication of the Study: The findings of the research study have vital impacts on the daily life routine life of adults. Adults can easily manage to spare some time from leisure and money to keep themselves fit and healthy. The nation needs healthy adults to serve the best and build a nation. The results of analyzed data will help the parents and teachers to motivate their children to participate in the activities of fitness centres and acquaint the adults with financial behaviour change theory. Proper counselling of the experts will be fruitful in light of the recommendations of the study. Novelty: For the first time such a study is going to be conducted in the field of sports and finance. This is primary research in the homeland to highlight the behavioural economics capitalization in sports and training. The financial impacts of training and exercise on the fitness of youth have been studied in length. Future researchers would be benefited from the results of the study and they will be able to include the purchase of basic equipment for exercise and training in the institute budget.
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 24-32; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.945

Abstract:
Purpose of the Study: The subject of consideration is crowdfunding as an innovative method of acquiring sponsors for the implementation of projects. The considerations were devoted to the initiatives of the Sparkassen-Finanzgruppe and the Volks-Raiffeisen banks in the implementation of regional crowdfunding systems in these banks. The aim of the research was to answer the following question: what are the sizes (in terms of value and quantity) of the analyzed market sub-segment and its specificity. Methodology: Crowdfunding platforms were identified at individual savings banks and VR banks. The data was searched on internet resources, supported by, inter alia, lists of such financial institutions. The final data was obtained directly from the websites of financial institutions, or they were aggregated. The research was carried out at the turn of May and June 2021, with data verification as of June 7, 2021.Main Findings: The article explores a specific market segment in Germany - savings banks and Volks-Raiffeisen banks that implement donation crowdfunding platforms. The scope of implementation of such systems was determined by identifying individual analyzed financial institutions. Methods of project co-financing by banks were highlighted. The value of accumulated financial resources (capital) and the scope of project implementation were measured, separating the size of the market sub-segment under study. The examined systems collectively obtained a relatively large amount, over EUR 86.3 million. Applications of the Study: The presented article relates to the use of crowdfunding methods in selected financial institutions: German savings banks and VR banks. This implies considerations in several scientific fields, incl. economics and finance (the possibility of measuring the market segment; the specificity of banks' operation), IT (in economic applications), or sociology (relations between donors / sponsors and financial institutions). Novelty / Originality of this Study: Scientific literature on the use of crowdfunding in financial institutions, in particular the measurement of the size of this market segment, is practically non-existent. Thus, getting to know the specifics and distinguishing in this article the size (in terms of value and quantity) of the crowdfunding sub-segment in German savings banks and VR banks, although partial, seems promising. This opens a pool of further studies in this area with the possibility of comparing them.
May Tahseen Hameed, Hind Tahseen Hameed
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 167-174; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9424

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The study aims to explore zeugma and syllepsis in adages and famous quotes as discourse forms. This study also aims to determine if they are different figures of speech, if they are widely used in adages, famous quotes in literature, why they are employed in the text's message, and which type among their subtypes is most important prominent. Methodology: The study follows the major categories of zeugma and Seagal’s model of syllepsis. This research is of theoretical type, and the research method is descriptive-analytical. The data collection method is a library and refers to documents, books, and articles. Results: The findings of this study indicated that they are widely used in this type of discourse, prozeugma is most prominent, and that they are different figures, while syllepsis is rare. Application: These results will enhance the writer\speaker's appreciation ability and language performance by using the figure of speech as a tool in their message. Novelty: The results of this study should be reliable in the field of discourse analysis when speakers \ writers want to deliver an effective and strong language.
Rahul Sawhney, Pranvat Singh, Govind Agarwal, Shashank Sharma, Dhanush B,
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 175-187; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9425

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The paper discusses the impact of digital education on the health and well-being of students who have been taking online classes since the onset of COVID-19. The paper also investigates the authenticity of the media reports that have been reporting about the decline in students' health due to the extensive presence of screen time. Methodology: The study is primarily descriptive research with a qualitative and quantitative investigation of the narratives related to health issues such as impaired cognitive functions, eye problems, orthopaedic disorders, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Google form as an online survey tool is used to collect data later compared with the media reports to conclude. Main Findings: The findings conclude that students' responses corroborate with the narratives of emergent pathological culture reported by news agencies like The Times of India and The Hindu. Application of the study: The present study will help sensitise the stakeholders of the society about the detrimental impact of online classes that might create ground for adopting immediate corrective measures for protecting the future of our nation. Novelty/ Originality of the study: The study's novelty lies in its approach to offer a comparative study of the media reports and the students' responses to cognize the severity of the evolving health issues amidst the pandemic.
International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Reviews, Volume 8, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.18510/ijthr.2021.821

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: COVID-19 pandemic has severely hit the global economy. It has also had a huge impact on the tourism industry. The purpose of the study is to identify the possible initiatives to be taken to revive the tourism industry during or after the COVID-19 era. Methodology: A qualitative analysis of secondary data has been applied. NVivo 12 has been used for organizing, analyzing, and visualizing the data. Main Findings: It is found that government will have to play the most prominent role in the revival of the tourism sector through financial stimulus packages and subsidies. The use of marketing activities, promotional tools, and social media platforms will also aid in the recovery process. Initially, tourism activities can be restarted at domestic levels and in travel bubbles, motivating international tourists. Most importantly, maintaining hygiene and maintaining social distance will be the main tool to revive the tourism industry. Applications of this study: The findings of this study will enable the decision-makers of the hospitality and tourism industry to make a strategic recovery plan Covid-19 stricken tourism economy. The originality of this study: Although most of the industries are slowly turning around during the pandemic, the tourism industry is still struggling to survive. This study proposes several possible recovery plans in light of past epidemic experiences.
Indra Kesuma, Rusdan, M. Machrus,
International Journal of Management, Innovation & Entrepreneurial Research, Volume 7, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.18510/ijmier.2021.721

Abstract:
Purpose of Study: This study aims to analyze the level of visibility of low-scale ground coffee agro-industry and determine the role of the government in the development of low-scale ground coffee agro-industry. Methodology: This research was conducted using a low-scale survey agro-industry method which was applied to a ground coffee centre in one of the provinces in Indonesia. The number of samples is seven low-scale coffee business units. Data analysis used is financial analysis (NPV, IRR, Net B/C ratio, and Payback Period), Break-Even Point analysis, and sensitivity analysis. Results: The results showed that the low-scale ground coffee agro-industry was profitable and looked to be continued (IRR 99%, NPV 27,883,981.46 to 16,076,282,505.24 and Net B/C of 1.02 to 1.32), the sensitivity analysis showed that the cost of production to the scale of costs decreased, namely the decline in production below 20%. Application: The creativity of producers in the marketing of processed coffee products and innovation of flavour variants is important for consumer attractiveness in maintaining the stability of agro-industry income. Novelty: As for the role of the government, the seven production units have received guidance, counselling, and training.
Princess Lady-Lin C. Erana, Jonathan N. Tariga, Leah Grace R. Baguilat
International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Reviews, Volume 8, pp 08-18; https://doi.org/10.18510/ijthr.2021.822

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study aims to determine the different tour guide practices and challenges in the Province of Quirino. Methodology: This study uses the quantitative approach. Data collection techniques were interviews and questionnaires that were measured using a Likert scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 22 respondents who were tour guides of the different tourist destinations in the province. The data were analysed using SPSS with the Frequency Counts/ Percentage, Mean and F-test (ANOVA) as statistical tools. Main Findings: The results of this study indicated most of the respondents are male. The tour guiding practices and the challenges in the province of Quirino is “Strongly Agree” when grouped by sex, age and ethnic affiliation. There is no significant difference on the tour guiding practices among the tour guides in the province of Quirino when grouped by sex and ethnic affiliation. Implications: The ability of tour guides to provide exceptional service to tourists is crucial not just to the business's profitability, but also to the destination's reputation. As per recommended there should be an established system of on-gong training and assessment to maintain high standards in performance of tour guides. The provincial tourism should continue to improve their services especially more trainings and seminars will be given to the accredited tour guides in the province of Quirino. For a profession that was shifting to maintain its relevance in a world of apps and self-guided tours, this is another change that requires adaptation. Originality: The study is original and novel, it explored the practices and challenges encountered by tour guides in our province.
, Kumaresan Chandrasekaran, Joshy Mathew
International Journal of Management, Innovation & Entrepreneurial Research, Volume 7, pp 07-17; https://doi.org/10.18510/ijmier.2021.722

Abstract:
Purpose: Location-based marketing has become an essential component in today’s businesses. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the growing significance of using location-based marketing services to small and medium-scale marketers and customers. Methodology: This is an exploratory study, which aims to explore the impact of location-based marketing on the retail sector of the Al Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman. Main Findings: Social media platforms play an important role in the Location-Based marketing of various retail sectors such as SME’s and these platforms play a major role in helping retailers to make decisions whether they wish to market their products by using this platform or not. Implications: All organizations’ top-level management must focus on data mining to identify the right customers and at the same time they should focus on innovative marketing strategies on LBS. Novelty: This study provides motivations and insights that drives businesses and customers to use these LBM services.
Bambang Subiyanto, Dipa Teruna Awaludin, Ramang H. Demolingo, Risca Ifani,
International Journal of Management, Innovation & Entrepreneurial Research, Volume 7, pp 01-11; https://doi.org/10.18510/ijmier.2021.711

Abstract:
Purpose of the Study: This study aims to analyze the effect of independent variables such as corporate social responsibility, leverage, and intellectual capital on dependent variables such as financial performance in banking sector companies indexed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2015-2019. Methodology: This review is adopted the descriptive statistics approach. While the hypothesis test using multiple linear regression analysis and simultaneous significance analysis. Secondary data collected through the purposive sampling method consisted of 85 samples from 17 companies. Main Findings: The results indicate that CSR has a positive effect on FP. While LEV and IC have no effect on FP. Debt withdrawal will not have an impact on the company's sustainability in increasing profits. In addition, the company also has a concern for the disclosure of CSR activities through the GRI, which can increase the company's profit. Implication/Applications: The results of this study can be used for financial practitioners, especially in the banking industry, to determine the effect of corporate social responsibility, leverage, and intellectual capital on financial performance. Therefore, banking companies can make decisions based on the priority scale on the most influential variables. In addition, this research can also be a reference for academics and researchers who are interested in the issue of financial performance. The originality of the study: The results of this study are the latest studies that systematically and comprehensively discuss the financial performance of the banking sector based on several important factors.
Muhammad Naeem, , Sarfraz Hussain, Bilal Nafees, Aatir Hamid
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 951-961; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9393

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: Lean manufacturing is perceived to be a significant competitive advantage of firms as it removes waste from manufacturing operations with innovations in products and processes. This research aims to know the impact of lean manufacturing practices of textile firms on their operational efficiency. Methodology: For this study, questionnaires were electronically sent to operation/ production managers of 122 textile firms using lean manufacturing technologies in Pakistan. Based on the literature review, nine lean manufacturing practices and five operational performance measures were included in the questionnaire survey. Just 91 operation managers replied, a response rate of 74%. Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypotheses of the study. Main findings: The results of regression analysis show that lean manufacturing practices significantly impact the operational performance of textile firms. The study's findings suggest that the involvement of customers, suppliers, and employees causes an increase in the operating performance of firms. Moreover, it is established that some lean manufacturing practices such as 5S, automation (Jidoka), Justin time (JIT), equipment layout, and continuous improvement (Kaizen) have a significant and positive effect on the operational performance of firms. Application of the study: The lean manufacturing practices save money for businesses and increases overall productivity by reducing waste. These are also helpful in increasing consumer loyalty and employee productivity. The study's results show that lean production methods can be adopted to improve operating performance and competitiveness. Originality/ Novelty: This study adds a piece of first-hand evidence by establishing a significant effect of lean manufacturing practices of firms on their operational performance in Pakistan, where most of the firms so far are using traditional techniques due to lack of financial resources.
, Mujeeb Abro, Hatesh Kumar, Awais H. Gillani, Afsheen Ekhteyar
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 911-918; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9389

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The 18th Amendment in the constitution of Pakistan, which declared in Article 19-A that the right to information was inserted into the constitution, established the right to information "Everyone has the right to information in all issues of public concern, subject to regulation and reasonable limits imposed by law." This study aims to investigate the media status and Act related to the RTI "Right to Information Act" in the country of Pakistan. Methodology: A survey was used in this analysis to compare the degree to which students at the high school and university levels are subjected to certain critical elements of media literacy education. The data were collected utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methods. Main Findings: According to the findings, students in high school are showing concerns that they are interested in taking more courses of production as well as media usage. Similarly, students in college are also showing more concern that they are interested in taking more media study courses. Applications of this study: Many data points might provide a distinct view on the economy, as may vast public databases from cities, nations, and government agencies. It is highly possible that using the idea of Access to Open Data might help the Pakistani Government enhance the country's social sector. Novelty/Originality of this study: The essence of media literacy is supposed to be more dynamic with the rise of social media. It appears to be a new challenge in the eco-system of digital media, which has: the capacity to acquire, analyze, evaluate, and generate information for particular purposes. Finally, this research has described how the Government of Pakistan might outsource some of the previously described activities, adding a new participant into the ecosystem.
Tariq Mehmood Bhuttah, Naeem Ullah, Naseer Ahmad Shahid, Samina Sarwat
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 893-901; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9387

Abstract:
The Purpose of the study: This study investigated the relationship between students' anxiety and students’ engagement towards science in the presence of technology as a mediator. Methodology: For this research, data were collected personally through three different questionnaires for Students’ Academic Engagement, Anxiety towards Science, and Technology Attitude for Learning from the science students of 9th and 10th class at the secondary level. A total of 420 boys and girls participated in the study. The mediating analysis was performed in the Spss21 extension of Preacher and Hayes is used to analyse the data. Main Findings: Findings showed that technology attitude for learning significantly mediates the relationship between anxiety towards science and students’ academic engagement. The levels of students’ academic engagement and technology attitude for learning are higher in male students as compared to female students, whereas anxiety towards science is higher in female students. Similarly, the level of anxiety towards science is significantly higher in 10th class students as compared to students of class 9th. There is no significant difference in academic engagement and technology attitude for learning between 9th and 10th class students. Application of the study: The previous literature has shown the significant negative effect of anxiety on student engagement. While the present research exposed that technology significantly mediates the relationship between anxiety and engagement. It is concluded that technical assistance for science subjects can reduce anxiety and enhance student engagement towards science. Novelty/originality of the study: The integration of technology in the educational settings at the school level is not only crucial for students’ better academic performance, but also it can assist the teacher by introducing new innovative ways of teaching.
, Muhammad Idris, Sumaira Noreen
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 451-458; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9346

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study aims to examine the effect of emotional intelligence on emotional dissonance and innovative work behavior by collecting data from the employees working in higher education institutions of KP, Pakistan. Methodology: The study is cross-sectional which ensured a methodological approached to analyze the data to chase the answers to research questions by applying statistical procedures to conclude the study systematically. Main findings: The results are significant which offer sufficient information in concluding the study by offering recommendations to policymakers and management of higher education institutions along with some suggestions to future researchers. Application of the study: The results of this study might be helpful for the management of higher education institutions in revisiting their policies regarding the effective implementation of different measured concerning the research issues under consideration to provide a better solution in a tailor-made format. Novelty/ Originality of the study: The study is significant in providing new findings, new knowledge, and new techniques about existing realities to the existing database of knowledge about the application of emotional intelligence, emotional dissonance, and innovative work behavior in higher educational institutions.
, Azhar Majeed Qureshi
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1038-1047; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93102

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: Reflective practices are considered very important and influential for teacher training and professional development. This study was conducted by using a narrative perspective. The main aim of this study was to explore the role of reflective practices in building teacher educators’ professional lives. Their stories were explored to understand what is needed to become an effective teacher educator. Methodology: The current research involved six teacher educators from GCETs selected purposively as research participants. Semi-structured interviews were used as data collection instruments. Teacher educators who have a minimum of ten years of experience were interviewed. After gathering stories, the researchers build categories and themes from interview data. The narratives of teacher educators were reconstructed through analysis and discussion. Main Findings: The findings of the current research reveal that reflective practices can play a very effective role in the professional grooming of teacher educators. The effective use of reflective practice tools is significant in building these practices. It is implicated by the study findings that novice teacher educators and future teacher educators can learn from the experiences of experienced teacher educators. Novelty: This research will help the administration to know about problems that teacher educators face while using reflective practices. Future researchers can be helped to explore the ways that how the reflective practices-related challenges and problems can tackle. Moreover, how the reflective practices of school teachers and college teachers can be made more effective.
, Abdul Ghaffar Ikram, Naima Batool, Sadia Saeed
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1078-1088; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93107

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The purpose of the current study is to investigate the acquisition of Wh-questions of English by Urdu L1 speakers in Pakistan. Acquisition of different syntactic structures has been an attractive area of interest for the scholars working in the area of second language acquisition. The study draws on approaches of Universal Grammar (UG) and Second Language Acquisition (SLA). The researchers aim at finding out whether the second language is acquired in the same way as the first language or not. Both Urdu and English allow Wh-questions formation but the placement of the Wh-word is completely at a different position. Urdu is an in-situ language that does not allow Movement of the Wh-word, and English allows the Movement of the Wh-word. So, this study highlights whether speakers of Urdu can acquire the structures of Wh-questions or not. Methodology: The study uses a mixed-method research design, and the data was collected from the speakers of Urdu who speak it as their native language in order to draw the findings. The current research employs a questionnaire that is divided into two parts: elicitation task and grammatical judgement task. For the elicitation task, the students were provided with the statements with the underlined words of which they had to form Wh-questions and for the second, a task was designed on the basis of the lickert scale and it was designed to judge the grammar of the students. The population of this study is limited to speakers of Urdu who speak English as their second language and the sample was selected from the vicinity of Sargodha city of Pakistan. Main Findings: The results of this mixed-method study reveal that students face problems while forming and identifying Wh-questions, despite compulsory education in English. The findings of the current study supported the partial access hypothesis. Applications of this study: The study is very important in the area of second language acquisition and informs how the speakers of the English language as a second language acquire the Wh-question structure. The study can be applied in designing teaching materials for the learners of English as a second language besides informing the language software modulation in order to ease the language learning process.
, Akifa Imtiaz, Tahira Asgher
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1048-1055; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93103

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The present research aims to study the effectiveness of using learner autonomy in English language classrooms at the university level from teachers' perspectives. The study seeks to determine what roles can be performed by the language teachers while fostering learner autonomy at the university level. Methodology: The study is descriptive and qualitative. The data has been collected with the help of a structured interview. The researchers prepared a list of questions to collect data from the interviews with 19 ESL teachers. The respondents are from the five universities of South Punjab. The interviews are recorded and transcribed and further analysed in terms of thematic categories discussed with the teachers. Main findings: The research explores a great deal of awareness of the concept of learner autonomy among university teachers, which they use indirectly or directly in their classroom teaching. The teachers discuss many roles they can perform to develop and use autonomy in the English language classroom. They express that practising autonomous learning in an ESL context could result in learning the English language more naturally and effectively. Application of this study: The present study contributes to using and developing learner autonomy in an ESL context. It would be an inspiration to research and explore more avenues of systematic inquiry in the field it deals with. The pedagogical implication of the study is that it would help ESL teachers practice the concept in their classroom teaching effectively. Novelty/Originality of this study: Most of the studies found in the field of learner autonomy are learner-centered. our research explores the phenomenon from the viewpoint of language teachers. The study focuses on the effectiveness of learner autonomy perceived by the teachers. It further records the teachers' opinions about what role(s) they can perform to practice it in the classroom.
Mehrdad Soleiman Fallah,
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1099-1112; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93109

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aims to analyze political crime in the Iranian penal system and the place of civil, constitutional freedoms in the criminalization of political crime. Methodology: In this study, we have tried to study articles and related research in this field and analyze the results of each to make a proper conclusion about the relationship between the Iranian systems in dealing with political crimes. Therefore, the only tools used in this study are documents related to political crimes at the international level. Main findings: Political Crime Law enacted in 2016, despite the basic forms of extensive discretion and lack of specific criteria for the judicial authority in determining whether a crime is political or non-political, practically made this law ineffective, regardless of the problems mentioned. Application of the study: Since the commencement of the country, political wrongdoing has been viewed as wrongdoing against the public authority. Therefore, the results of this study can be very effective in improving the performance of governments in preventing possible crimes against governments. Novelty/Originality: Given the multiplicity of political crimes in our country, as well as the complexities involved in the case of political crimes, it seems that in the history of our criminal law, there has been a will to legislate and determine the exact causes of political crime, and governments in most historical periods, they have made great efforts to identify political criminals. The novelty of this research lies in investigating the effect of political crimes on legal confusion in legislating political offenses.
Taymoor Ali, , Adnan Ali Chaudhary
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1156-1165; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93114

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship of the dividend payout on a firm's performance under low growth opportunities from the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. Methodology: A sample of 251 firms out of 378 manufacturing firms listed at the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX), have been carefully chosen for the era of ten years from 2006 to 2015. The secondary data was obtained from the firm’s web financials and analysis of financial statements, published by the statistics department of the State Bank of Pakistan. For the persistence of investigation panel data (fixed effect) analyses were employed in this study. Main Findings: The fallouts of the analysis revealed that the dividend payout ratio has an insignificant relationship with the firm's performance in the low growth perspectives of the study. Applications of this study: The findings of the study are helpful for the financial managers of the firms facing low growth opportunities. Furthermore, the investors in capital markets can use the findings of this while investing. The originality of this study: The study focussed on the role of low growth opportunities while studying the nexus of dividend pay-out and the firm’s financial performance which inherits the novelty and originality of the study.
, Zikra Faiz, Muhammad Siddique, Muhammad Shabbir Ali, Waqar Younas Warraich
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1142-1155; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93113

Abstract:
Purpose of the Study: This research aimed to ascertain school psychologists' thoughts on the efficacy of behavioral treatment for kids with ADHD. Methodology: This research used a qualitative method. Semi-structured interviews with chosen school psychologists were performed using a standard qualitative research approach. A purposive selection strategy was used to select a sample of fifteen school psychologists from Lahore for this Study. An interview guide comprised of 10 open-ended questions was designed based on the topics found in the literature research. Principal Findings: The majority of participants believed in the efficacy of counseling via behavior therapy for kids with ADHD, particularly in terms of screening, diagnosis, and intervention techniques. Additionally, they thought that without this, parents would be unable to modify the child's behavior. Additionally, they felt that using various treatments might minimize the child's hyperactivity and foster socializing and intellectual and social abilities. Applications of this Study: This research advises that school psychologists conduct seminars to raise knowledge about ADHD counseling efficacy. School psychologists must be employed in public and private special schools to collaborate with all stakeholders to guarantee adequate assistance for children with ADHD. Novelty/Originality of this study: This is the first Study examining the school psychologists' thoughts on the efficacy of behavioral treatment for kids with ADHD in developing economies like Pakistan for the first time.
, Syed Akmal Hussain, Akhlaq Ahmad
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1124-1134; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93111

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The purpose of the study is to define and analyse the lawyers' movement in Pakistan remains an active social movement from 2007 to 2009. Methodology: Qualitative research approach is the utmost appropriate approach to explore the resources mobilization process, in the lawyers’ movement in Pakistan. To achieve deeper insights into the actions, perceptions, and experiences of the respondents in the lawyers' movement of Pakistan, almost 20 open-ended interviews were taken in-depth and mostly face-to-face interviews. Give one more line of info about methodology. Main Findings: The lawyers' movement emerged in March 2007 in reaction to the unconstitutional dismissal of Chief Justice (CJ) of Supreme Court Pakistan by former General Pervez Musharraf. The lawyers' movement was the ultimate result of judicial-executive contention in Pakistan. Applications of the Study: This paper will offer analyses of the lawyers' movement in the context of a social movement from a non-western country like Pakistan. This paper seeks to examine the lawyers’ movement (2007–2009) to explore the resource mobilization in the lawyers' movement in Pakistan. Novelty/Originality of this study: The resource mobilization theory (RMT) has been utilized as the theoretical framework with the acumen of qualitative approach for this investigation in the non-western setting.
, Asad Ullah, Fazal Hanan, Younas Khan, Habib Ur Rahman
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 962-972; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.9394

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This research study was designed to analyze various social factors like population dynamics, institutional, land tenure, and gender other than the technological one that affects the production of sugarcane in farming communities. Methodology: The method of the study was qualitative, where the data was collected through FGDs. Two FGDs were conducted in two districts of the central valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Each FGD consisted of 10 participants. The data was analyzed through thematic analysis. Main Findings: The findings of the study revealed that sugarcane productivity is affected by sociological factors like technological ones. The poor socioeconomic status of the farmers, wasting resources in land disputes, frequent land division among heirs, a rapid increase of population growth, unplanned urbanization conversion of fertile agricultural land into the built environment, weakening the role of informal institutions like Jirga and farmers organizations, lack of access to agricultural institutions, the restricted role of women in farming and unfavourable attitude of farmers towards new agrarian technologies, all were the significant contributing factors that negatively influenced sugarcane productivity. Applications of this study: The findings of the study be used by the agricultural department, NGOs, and the government while taking into consideration the factors responsible for sugarcane productivity. Novelty/Originality of this study: This study is novel that no study has yet conducted while considering sociological factors in sugarcane production in Pakistan. This research a unique in that provides a base for agricultural scientists to keep in mind social factors as well in agrarian production besides technological factors.
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Jamal Khan, , Uzma Rao, Jahan Ara Shams
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1166-1174; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93115

Abstract:
Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this research study was to study the relationship between critical thinking (CT) and academic achievement among secondary school students in a district of Gilgit-Baltistan. Methodology: Correlation design was applied to study the relationship between critical thinking and academic achievement. A sample of 400 students was selected through a convenient sampling technique to collect the data. Critical thinking was measured by applying an adapted tool (Sarigoz, 2012) and students’ scores in annual examinations were taken as academic achievement (York, Gibson & Rankin, 2015). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Main Findings: Findings of the study revealed that female students, rural school students, and science group students showed slightly higher critical thinking than male, urban, and arts group students. A markedly low positive relationship was found between critical thinking and academic achievement. The results were consistent with earlier studies having a positive relationship between these variables. There were also low and markedly low relationships found between constructs of critical thinking and academic achievement. Some results of this study were inconsistent with the earlier research based on the context of the students. The study revealed that there is a discrepancy in aligning critical thinking with academic achievement. Application of this study: The findings of the study help understand the relationship between critical thinking and academic achievement at the secondary level. It will surely assist the teachers in designing their classroom activities and modifications in teaching methodologies. It will boost the teachers to enhance the critical thinking of secondary school students. Novelty/Originality of this study: The study is original as not a single research study determined the relationship between critical thinking and academic achievement of secondary school students in the region of district Ghizar in Gilgit-Baltistan.
, Asif Ali Abro, Ahmed Raza Ul Mustafa, Najeeb Ullah, Sanam Wagma Khattak
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1175-1190; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93116

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study investigates Short-run, Long-run, and Casual relationships in the Asian Developed and Emerging stock market indices for the period of 19 years weekly data of stock market indices of Asian Developed and Emerging Markets which are Japan (Nikkei 225), South Korea (KOSPI), Pakistan (KSE 100), China (SSE Composite), Sri Lanka (ASPI), India (BSE 200) and Malaysia (KLSE composite) from January 2001 to December 2019. Methodology: To analyze long-run and short-run relationships among the Asian developed and emerging stock markets, this study practices Descriptive Statistics, Correlation Matrix, Unit Root Test, Johansen Co-Integration Test, Vector Error Correction Model, Granger Causality test, Variance Decomposition and Impulse Response Function (IRF). Main findings: By employing the ADF and P.P. tests, the results specify that the entire variables' data are non-stationary and stationary in exact order, which is 1st difference. The Johnson Co-integration test found one cointegration relationship, where the results are consistent with Granger causality, Variance Decomposition, and Impulse Response Function (IRF). Application of the study: As the current research has focused on finding out the comovements in the Asian developed and emerging markets. So, the applications are that the survey found short-run and long-run relationships in these countries' stock markets. The study's originality: The current study has selected seven Asian developed and emerging stock markets and weekly updated time series data to investigate short-term and long-term linkages. So, this study found long-run comovements in these stock indices, which contributes to the literature. In addition, these stock markets have limited diversification benefits for international investors, while short-term diversification benefits may exist.
Muhammad Faizan, , Shahzadi Seema, Sadaf Naz
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1258-1265; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93124

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study was designed to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practices of teachers toward ADHD students. The objectives of the study were to document the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the teachers regarding ADHD, to find out the difference between knowledge attitude and practices among different strata of teachers, and to find out the effect of age, experience, and qualification on knowledge, attitude, and practices of teachers towards ADHD. Methodology: Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 600 primary school teachers from 2469 primary school teachers of district Haripur. This instrument contained 29 statements. This scale has three dimensions. Knowledge (statements 1-17), Attitude (statements18-35), and Practices (statements 36-52). The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.76 which was got through the pilot study conducted on sixty teachers. Main findings: The results indicate that overall practices of teachers are the highest in comparison to Knowledge and Attitude. There was no significant difference between knowledge, practices, and attitudes about ADHD between different strata i-e Urban and Rural area primary teachers, Male and Female primary teachers, and public and Private primary teachers. Furthermore, experience, Age, and Qualification have a profound influence on primary teachers’ knowledge regarding ADHD. Teachers’ Qualification has a profound influence over primary teacher’s Attitude towards students with ADHD. Thus, qualification has a profound influence over primary teacher’s practices towards students with ADHD. Applications of the study: This study is applicable in the field of primary education where the teachers are assessed to find out their knowledge, attitude, and practices towards ADHD students. Novelty originality of this study: Much of the research is conducted in mainstream education but this research specifically explores the knowledge, attitude of teachers towards ADHD students. Therefore, this research is a torchbearer in this particular area of education.
Abdullah, Niaz Muhammad, Arshad Khan Bangash, Nizar Ahmad, Ihsan Ullah Khan
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, Volume 9, pp 1632-1641; https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93165

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study was designed to assess the role of interpersonal and Informational Justice in the purview of teaching faculty’s job satisfaction. Methodology: A cross-sectional and quantitative research method was carried out in three randomly selected universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan i.e. Bacha Khan University, University of Malakand, and the University of Swat. A well-structured questionnaire was used for data collection from 217 sampled respondents (employees) for primary data collection. Further, the researchers analyzed the data through descriptive and inferential statistics, i.e. frequency, percentage, correlation, and indexation of the study variables, namely dependent (job satisfaction) and independent (Interpersonal and Informational Justice), respectively. Principal Findings: Regarding the demographic sketch of the sampled respondents, the study found that the majority of the respondents were male, having the age group from 31-40 years with the collaboration of 5-10 year experiences of teaching at the university level. Further, as per the correlation test statistics at bivariate analysis between the Interpersonal and Informational Justice with job satisfaction was found significant with strong correlation (P≤0.05; 0.860) respectively. Applications of this study: The government and administration should take positive steps to provide a good working environment to establish their trust by expanding cooperation towards employees, exploration of benefits, strengthening relationships with each other, and encouragement of open communication that can stimulate and encourage an exchange of view between faculty and administration was put forward some of the recommendations in light of the study findings. Novelty/Originality of this study: This research comes under the domain of Sociology of organization and sociology of work through the perceptional-based endeavor.
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