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Hikmah Hikmah, Priyo Hari Adi, , Theresia Woro Damayanti
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 938-949;

This study empirically investigates the effects of attitudes toward tax compliance, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, subjective norms, personal norms, tax compliance intention, financial performance, and mental accounting on tax compliance. The determinant are largely developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and social norms. Data collection is carried out through field surveys to obtain a final sample of 209 respondents who are SME owners in 11 regencies/cities in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that attitudes toward tax compliance, injunctive norms, subjective norms, personal norms, and financial performance positively affect SME owners’ tax compliance intentions. Furthermore, financial performance and tax compliance intentions have a positive effect on tax compliance behavior. However, we do not find empirical evidence that mental accounting has a role in strengthening the effect of tax compliance intentions on tax compliance behavior. This study contributes to the tax compliance literature through a more comprehensive measure of subjective norms and the use of financial performance as an alternative measure of perceived behavioral control.
Rafidah Husen, , Nur Diana Wakimin, Jimmy Mijim, Lovelyna Eva Sunta Ak Michael Luncha, Jacqueline Lindun Diman, Michelle Lawrence, Hazman Seli, Sunita Jobli, Vivien Jong Yi Mian
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Volume 11, pp 42-49;

Coagulation process using low dosage of plant-based coagulant to remove high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity is important for water treatment. This study presents the treatment of pond water using plant-based pineapple leaf coagulant to achieve high COD and turbidity removal. The coagulation was performed using a jar test experiment of pond water at different pH followed by different dosages of pineapple leaf coagulant. It was found that the highest COD and turbidity removal ranged between 94.1 – 94.6 % and 88.3 – 88.4 % at pH 8 respectively, using low dosage (50 mg L-1) of pineapple leaf coagulant. The final COD and turbidity values ranged between 7.3 – 8.0 mg L-1 and 17.7 – 17.8 formazin turbidity unit (FTU) respectively, which are lower compared with results from other studies that used high dosage coagulants. Moreover, the final pH, COD, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and total suspended solid (TSS) values of the treated pond water were below the standard limits set by the National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQSM) class IIB, which represents water bodies suitable for recreational use with body contact (DOE, 2016). Therefore, it is expected that the newly-formulated waste utilisation of pineapple leaf coagulant can reduce the usage of chemical coagulants and can further be used for different types of water.
Asian Journal of Empirical Research, Volume 11, pp 59-71;

The paper endeavours to explore the macroeconomic impact on the Yuan SDR exchange rate of China during 2017m1-2021m6 to justify the internationalization of RMB which had entered into the SDR basket of IMF in October 2016.To evaluate the impact ,the paper used the methodology of Johansen (1988) cointegration and vector error correction model considering monthly Yuan per SDR as dependent variable and monthly GDP, inflation rate, foreign exchange reserves, export and import as the independent macro-economic variables. The pattern of trendline of Yuan per SDR is found nonlinear having cyclical fluctuations and seasonal variations according to Hamilton (2018). The paper also found that Yuan per SDR has significant long run causalities with export, import, inflation rate, GDP and foreign exchange rate of China during the specified period. Even, Yuan per SDR has significant short run causality with export only. The cointegrating equation converged towards the equilibrium with the speed of adjustment 11.83% per month significantly. The impulse response function of import to Yuan per SDR showed significantly convergent. The VECM contains autocorrelation problem and unit root for which it is non-stationary.
Serdal Deniz, Serife Senay Ilik
Asian Journal of Contemporary Education, Volume 5, pp 57-74;

This research was carried out to identify teachers’ professional competence development about inclusive practice and their advice for prospective teachers about this practice. Parallel Mixed-Methods Design was used in this study. In the quantitative research part of this study, ‘The Development of the Professional Competencies Scale’ about Inclusion for teachers was used. Also, In the qualitative research part a Semi-Structured Interview Form was used to learn the recommendations of teachers who work in inclusive practices to prospective teachers about these practices. In this research, for data analysis in quantitative research part; percentage, frequency and arithmetic mean took part in descriptive statistics were used. Regarding the qualitative part, content analysis was implemented. As a result of this study, it was found out that teachers' professional development competencies related to inclusion were moderate, teachers' professional development competencies for inclusion didn’t differ according to gender, teachers' getting education for inclusion was an important factor which determines teachers' professional development competencies for inclusion, and it has been determined that teachers' age, branches, the type of disability of their students are not important factors on their professional development competencies for inclusion. Teachers, about inclusion practices, teacher candidates; They provided advice on professional development, special education content information, arrangements for students, cooperation with staff, parent training, IEP training and integration adaptations.
Le Roi Nso Fils
Asian Journal of Empirical Research, Volume 11, pp 50-58;

Despite the growing literature on water access, little is known about the effect of water access on education, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by assessing how water access affects education in 23 sub-Saharan African countries over the period 2000-2018. To carry out our investigation, we used the Generalized Moments Methods (GMM). The results show that there is a negative relationship between water access and education. Furthermore, parliament women and government effectiveness play an important role in mitigating the negative impact of water access on education. Finally, the positive association between water access and education in sub-Saharan Africa is conditioned by the achievement of a certain threshold of parliament women and government effectiveness.
Malissa Maria Mahmud, Yazilmiwati Yaacob, Rozaini Ahmad, Nur Izzati Mustamam, Sairolazmi Saparman, Noor Syazwani Ishak, Muhamad Safwan Mohd A'Seri, Mohamed Nadzri Mohamed Sharif
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 511-521;

COVID‐19 has immensely disrupted tertiary education ecosystem. The crisis has compelled numerous unprecedented and accelerated changes. The traditional and conventional way of teaching and learning has completely shifted to fully online. Nonetheless, the trend of integrating technology in the classrooms is not new. This has led to numerous questions and arguments of the existing concepts and theories of traditional education. This phenomenon also provides new opportunities for educational institutions to explore and leverage on the prospects of online modalities, fashioning unique inquiries. Thus, the key purpose of this research paper is to identify the challenges and opportunities encountered by lecturers during the Covid-19 pandemic. The results of the interviews showed that there are some challenges that the lecturers faced; for example, unpreparedness to tackle the new norm of online teaching and learning process, internet connection, and online engagement. The findings from the interview showed that there are opportunities which have emerged from the Covid-19 pandemic such as experimenting with numerous digital tools and platforms, employing different online teaching and learning modalities, and commissioning online assessments to support the students’ needs and engagement. It is postulated that the findings of the research although may be preliminary, are able to facilitate vital discussions on fashioning best practice guidelines for asynchronous or synchronous modalities post the COVID-19 pandemic.
Ahmad Faiz Ghazali, Ahmad Kamalrulzaman Othman, Yusnita Sokman, Noor Azrin Zainuddin, Aishah Suhaimi, Nurkhairany Amyra Mokhtar, Rahmawati Mohd Yusoff
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 522-538;

Nowadays, students have learn to accept the reality of online learning. Therefore, this quantitative study aims to explore how behaviour and social factors can influence online learning. 203 participants responded to the instrument which is a survey. The findings show that the implication of online and distance learning (ODL) is to help students in getting to know each other as well as having the social, cognitive and situational presence. The instrument of teaching, social and cognitive presence based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is measured in order to improve the management of ODL in university during post-COVID-19 pandemic. The first research question looks at how behaviour factors (social presence) influence online presence. Next the study also investigates how cognitive factors influence online presence. The final research question looks at how situational factors (teaching presence) influence online presence. In overall, ODL management in post-COVID-19 pandemic is expected to be more challenging than during or before the pandemic. The shift that happen caused a lot of physical, mental, and emotional responses from the teaching and learning community in general. Instrument teaching, social and cognitive presence are investigated thoroughly and interesting results found in this study is beneficial for future decision support system (DSS) development in the case for community of inquiry.
Mohd Abdul Nasir Abd Abd Latif, Ahmad Zulfiqar Shah Abdul Hadi, Muhammad Hasbi Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Nadzir Ibrahim
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 539-552;

This study aimed at identifying family functionality in promoting mastery of al-Quran recitation among the island residents. This Study was conducted involved 70 respondents in Primary School in Perhentian Island (Pulau Perhentian) in Terengganu State of Malaysia. This quantitative study used a questionnaire as the research instrument which focusing on the aspects of functionality support, role, environment and communication. The findings suggest that four aspects in family functionality were at moderately high-level including support (mean = 3.55, SD = 0.85), role (mean = 3.72, SD = 0.92), environment (mean = 3.47, SD = 0.81) and communication (mean = 3.73, SD = 0.89). Analysis showed no positive relationship was observed between family functionality and mastery of Quranic recitation. This shows that systematic and wisdom planning by the authority are needed so that the existing family functionality can be sustained in a quality way and subsequently help inculcate mastery of al-Quran recitation among the new generation of Perhentian Island residents.
Chandrarini Pramardya Utami,
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 860-872;

This research investigates the effects of culture and belief on stock returns in Asia and Europe during religious holidays. Culture was proxied by power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation. Belief was proxied by government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation. Seventeen stock indices were selected, and the data employed in this research are stock returns during religious holidays commemorated by each country listed in the top world indices from 2016 to 2020. A quantitative method was employed and the data analysis was done using a multiple linear regression method with panel data. This research shows that individualism, government regulation, favoritism, and social regulation positively affect stock returns during religious holidays. This implies that investors recognize stock market characteristics to facilitate investment decision-making. It is recommended that investors maximize positive stock returns found in individualistic countries and countries with high government regulation, favoritism, and social regulation.
Duong Thuy Nguyen, Hang Thu Do, Trang Thi Thu Nguyen, Ngan Bich Nguyen
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 873-893;

The internal capital adequacy and assessment process (ICAAP) was first introduced in the second pillar of Basel II in 2004 to offset the deficiencies of Basel I and capital adequacy regulations in the first pillar of Basel II. This process is aimed at identifying and measuring risks generated in banks’ activities, and then provides the requirements for internal capital levels and methods to raise capital to deal with these risks. In fact, the implementation of Basel II and ICAAP in Vietnamese commercial banks has attained notable achievements, but it also revealed some major weaknesses. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the implementation of ICAAP in Vietnamese commercial banks in eight components of the ICAAP addressed by Basel II using the survey method and then to simulate the implementation of ICAAP in a Vietnamese commercial bank. From the facts and the simulation of the ICAAP framework in this study, the authors offer some suggestions for Vietnamese commercial banks to implement ICAAP effectively in their banking operations.
Ngatno, Apriatni Endang Prihatiningsih
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 923-937;

The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on Indonesia's export and import activity in the Asian region. Data on exports and imports from February 2019 to March 2020 (before the pandemic) and from April 2020 to May 2021 (during the pandemic) was collected from the Indonesian Central Statistics Agency portal. The results show that the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic does not always decrease Indonesia's exports and imports in countries in the Asian region. For exports, out of 51 countries, only 18 decreased significantly, 14 countries decreased insignificantly, and 19 countries increased. On the import side, out of the same 51 countries, only 11 experienced a significant decline, 24 countries experienced an insignificant decrease, and 19 countries experienced an increase. The Indonesian government must implement various policies that can protect and encourage exports by providing fiscal stimulus, diversifying trading partners, deregulation, and industrial downstream, among others. Further research needs to be carried out on how the effects of the pandemic changed import and exports according to product type and how the severity of the pandemic affects within a country affected export and import activities.
Liang Wang, Shuang Ge, Peipei Yang
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 908-922;

Based on the panel data of 577 spin-offs of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) from 2008 to 2017, this paper explores the moderating effect of the different types of holding shareholders on business performance and innovation performance in institute spin-offs from the perspective of institutional logics. The findings indicate that investment in research and development (R&D) has a significant positive impact on the business performance and innovation performance of the institute spin-offs. Corporate legal representative holding shareholders positively moderate the relationship between R&D investment and business performance. Due to the conflict of incentive mechanism, research institute legal representative holding shareholders negatively moderate the relationship between R&D investment and both areas of performance. Scientist natural person holding shareholders positively moderate the relationship between R&D investment and both areas of performance. The research conclusions of this paper enrich the research on institute spin-offs and expand the research on the role of holding shareholders in business operation.
Sara EL Aboudi, Imad Khanchaoui
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 894-907;

This article seeks to empirically assess the effect of inflation and external debt on economic growth in Morocco. The estimates cover the period from 1985 to 2019. The results from the ARDL model show that external debt negatively influences the country's growth in the short and long terms. Due to its direct effect, inflation slows down economic activity and leads to lower GDP growth. The econometric estimate indicates that the low level of inflation leads to difficulties in repaying debt and, consequently, reduced economic growth. Low inflation also hurts economic competitiveness among small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Although the inflation rate is lower than the interest rates, it reduces the profit margins of companies and leads to lower investment. The negative effect on economic competitiveness leads to decreased sectoral added value, reducing future economic growth rates. Based on the results, two main measures are proposed to mitigate the negative effect of inflation and debt on economic growth. First, we must develop better institutional and governance quality. The latter allows debt funds to be well spent on non-rent-producing sectors capable of reviving the Moroccan economy. Second, we have to look for good inflation, in other words, inflation that stimulates economic activity without creating economic distortions.
Sukit Kanjina
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, Volume 11, pp 302-310;

Social media are viewed as having potential for agricultural extension. This study therefore surveyed social media use by farmers in a developing country, and their role as a source of agricultural information. To this end, 365 farmers in Chiang Mai, Thailand, were sampled and interviewed using a questionnaire. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents (81.92%) did not adopt social media and, these remained marginal as a source of agricultural information for farmers. Those using social media (18.08%) employed certain applications, i.e., LINE, Facebook and YouTube, mainly for communication, new updates and entertainment. Younger farmers and farmers with a higher formal education related to social media use significantly. To fully harness the potentials of social media for agricultural extension, more farmers need to be encouraged to use them, while relevant agencies also are required to provide support for this effort, such as staff training in social media use, and enabling a social media policy.
Sujan Chandra Paul, Nusrat Jahan, Ashim Kumar Nandi, Asiqur Rahman
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, Volume 11, pp 311-319;

The aim of this study is explore the effect of foreign direct investment on agriculture and rural development. For this, panel data of 46 countries from Asia were accumulated for the time frame 1991–2018. The models OLS, POLS, 2SLS, and GMM are employed in this study. The study reveals that there is a favorable association between foreign direct investment and agricultural land as percentage of total land using the models OLS, POLS, 2SLS. In stark contrast, value added for agriculture, forestry, and fishing has an unfavorable association with foreign direct investment in all models employed in the study. Furthermore, female employment in agriculture has a negative association with foreign direct investment in OLS, 2SLS and GMM models, whereas male employment in agriculture has a negative association with foreign direct investment in the POLS model only. Land under cereal production has a favorable association with foreign direct investment in all models except POLS, and permanent cropland has a favorable association with foreign direct investment in all models except GMM. In addition, rural population has a positive relationship with foreign direct investment in OLS, POLS and 2SLS and a negative relationship with foreign direct investment in GMM.
, Ho Van Bac
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, Volume 11, pp 291-301;

Agricultural production is increasingly vulnerable to risks and uncertainties associated with climate changes. Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) has been proposed to address challenges in agricultural production such as food security, water shortage, drought, and soil erosion, etc. The benefits of CSA adoption for farmers have been debated. Many previous studies have indicated that impacts seem to be affected by selection bias. However, controlling such selection bias has not been considered in studies on the CSA adoption. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the impacts of CSA adoption on major economic indicators for rice farmers. The Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method was employed to address such selection bias for a case study on rice farmers in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. Comparing main economic indicators, we found significant differences in rice yields and used seed inputs between CSA and non-CSA adopters. Ignoring selection bias control resulted in overestimation of economic returns. The results also indicate limited contribution of CSA adoption to a reduction in pesticide and herbicide usage, and an increase in use of organic fertilizers. Some implications for further research are also discussed.
Afnan Almegren
International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10, pp 260-274;

This study compared and explored the differences and similarities in the production of conventional expressions between native English speakers and non-native English speakers represented by the Saudi EFL learners. It also examined the pragma-linguistic differences in the production of conventional expressions. Forty-seven native English speakers and forty-seven non-native English speakers participated in this study. The questionnaire consisted of nineteen scenarios representing different speech acts. Students were requested to reply to these scenarios as if they were real-life situations. The findings established that almost half of the comparisons between Saudi EFL learners and native English speakers presented similarities in the production of conventional expressions. However, there were some pragma-linguistic differences between the native English speakers and some of the Saudi EFL learners, such as misunderstandings due to the misuse of expected expressions, verbosity, the use of expressions that formal speakers considered rude, and transferred from their first language. These findings provide an empirical vision to the status of Saudi EFL learners conventional expressions. Future research could investigate conventional EFL expressions locally and globally.
Rajni Kapoor,
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, Volume 11, pp 279-290;

The study aims to explore labor freedom in the agricultural sector for enhancing the efficiency of farming through policy change towards assigning property rights, rental contracts, and better wage-employment options to rural workers. Labor freedom emphasizes land reform and development policy for improving the economic status and capabilities of rural workers. The paper assessed the labor freedom index, weighted through agricultural property rights, labor wage contracts, and rural development policy. Data envelopment analysis is used to assess farm-level efficiency under the framework of Tobit regression for different size-based farm categories. Farm-level information was collected through a primary survey of 336 rural households of an advanced agricultural state in India. The study found a positive association between farm size and intensity of labor freedom, although the extent of freedom differs among farms. Size-specific variation was also observed for allocative efficiency such that marginal and medium-sized farms are more efficient than smaller ones. Tobit regression indicated labor freedom to be positively and significantly related to the efficiency of marginal, small and overall farms with enhancing efficiency of 25, 17 and nearly 20%, respectively; however, estimates of labor freedom insignificantly increased the efficiency of mediums farms, by 4.8%. This result suggests that labor freedom positive and significantly affects the efficiency of farms in general, and marginal and small farms in particular. Of course, the elasticity estimate of enhancing efficiency through labor freedom for medium farmers is found at a lower level.
Syafrial, , , Dwi Retnoningsih
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, Volume 11, pp 269-278;

The adoption of technological innovations, such as an improved variety, has been widely promoted worldwide to improve agricultural productivity. This study aimed to examine factors affecting farmers’ decision to adopt a new improved cassava varieties (NICV), and to estimate the effects of NICV adoption on farmers’ technical efficiency. This research used cross-sectional data from 300 cassava farmers in East Java, Indonesia. Furthermore, the data were analyzed by probit regression to examine factors affecting farmers’ decision to adopt NICV. Propensity score matching (PSM) procedures and stochastic frontier analysis were applied to evaluate the impact of NICV adoption on farmers’ technical efficiency. The results indicated that adoption was highly influenced by cooperative membership, access to credit, internet access, certified land, and off-farm work. The stochastic frontier analysis, by controlling the matched sample using PSM procedures, demonstrated that NICV adoption positively and significantly impacted farmers’ technical efficiency. Those who adopted NICV showed a higher technical efficiency level than those who did not. This finding implies that improved varieties could be further promoted to increase productivity. The research suggests that there is a need to improve NICV adoption to increase the levels of technical efficiency and productivity.
Wan Rabia’Tul A’Dawiyah Wan Abdullah,
Asian Journal of Empirical Research, Volume 11, pp 41-49;

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of IFRS full convergence in 2012 on conservatism of banks in Malaysia. Based on 66 firm-year observations of Malaysian banks listed in the main market of Bursa Malaysia, the results of this study reveal an overall increase in conservatism during the study period and a higher increase of conservatism following IFRS adoption. The results also provide evidence of significant differences in the level of conservatism in pre- and post-adoption of IFRS. The findings of this study highlight the benefit of IFRS full convergence among the banks in Malaysia in enhancing financial reporting quality proxied by conservatism. Thus, this study provide implication to the regulators and banks to continually support IFRS adoption as the standard continually change over the time. Our result also provides new evidence on the effect of IFRS on conservatism for financial sector which have different regulatory framework from other sectors.
Mohammed Shamsul Hoque, J Karthikeyan, Monjurul Islam,
International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10, pp 275-291;

The success of the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach at primary schools of Bangladesh has recently been questioned seriously. No measures have yet been taken to remedy the apprehended failure of CLT programs in the country. This inquiry focuses on the perils of pupils in the forms of shaming, failure, and fear for the tyranny of the current CLT curriculum. A mixed research method was used to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the learners’ situation through a questionnaire survey with participation of 211 CLT practitioners, an FGD with 12 participants and semi-structured interviews with 15 English learners. Along with lack of teacher empowerment mechanisms, other challenges for young learners (YLs) included problem of enduring class rules, their inability to cope with difficult texts, fear of failure in lessons, tests, and physical and psychological sufferings inflicted on them during, before and after the delivery of the lessons. The findings reveal the need of a modified CLT curriculum with provisions for innovative pedagogy, learner care and learner empowerment. Provisions for use of L1 Bangla in lesson delivery, inclusion of learner culture and local context in the teaching-learning of English are recommended to ensure expected outcomes.
, Edouard Musabanganji, Philippe Lebailly
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, Volume 11, pp 262-268;

This study attempted to examine the role of institutions in boosting rural and agricultural development in the region of the Volcanic Highlands of Rwanda. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from a random sample of 401 small-scale farmers through a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a weighted least-squares method to account for heteroscedasticity, a common issue in cross-sectional studies. Results from crop output function reveal a positive and significant effect of cooperative membership, a negative but significant effect of extension services, and a negative non-significant effect of land tenure, credit access, and market access on farm production, respectively. In terms of net farm income function, the results demonstrate that farmer cooperation, land tenure, extension services, and access to output markets have a positive, non-significant influence, but that access to finance has a negative non-significant effect. Results also point to a positive and significant effect of some household characteristics, namely family size, farming experience, land size, and farm yield, on farm production. As for net farm income, education of the head, family size, farm experience, land size, farm yield, selling price, and cattle proved to be among primary determinants. It was therefore suggested that agricultural sector programs and activities should be readapted and strengthened in order to leverage rural and agricultural development in Rwanda.
Wan Cheong Kin, Choo Wei Chong, Annuar Md Nassir, , Zulkornain Yusop
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 829-859;

This paper aims to empirically compare the performance of the smooth transition exponential smoothing (STES) method against the well-known generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model in one-step-ahead volatility forecasting. While the GARCH model captured most of the stylized facts of the financial time series, threats of outliers in the leptokurtic distributed series remain unresolved. The study compared volatility forecasting performance of a total of 22 models and methods comprising STES, GARCH, and some ad-hoc forecasting. The daily returns of seven mutual fund indices (derived from 57 individual equity mutual funds) under two different economic conditions (sub-periods) were applied across all competing models. Findings revealed that the STES method with error and absolute error as transition variables emerged as the best post-sample volatility forecasting model in both sub-periods with and without financial crisis impact, as verified by model confidence set (MCS) procedure. The implications based on the results are: (1) both the sign and size of yesterday’s news shock have an impact on today’s volatility; (2) the STES method is resilient to outliers, and hence superior to GARCH and other volatility forecasting approaches examined. This study contributes an empirical approach in forecasting the risk of mutual funds investment for investors and fund managers, as well as extending the scope of volatility forecasting literature into the less explored mutual funds.
Bhumiswor Sharma, Srikanth P
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 816-828;

This article aims to investigate the research and development (R&D) premium and explore the three most prominent asset pricing models: capital asset pricing and the three-and five-factor models (Fama & French, 1993; 2015). The results show that India's annualized average R&D premium is significantly higher than the existing value, market, profitability, size and investment premiums, implying that the R&D premium is a more significant concern for Indian investors, particularly for high R&D firms. It was also observed that by applying the GRS test and the Fama and MacBeth (1973) two-pass procedure, the R&D risk factor augmented the CAPM, FF3F and FF5F models outperforming the existing CAPM, FF3F and FF5F models, respectively. We can also report that R&D is, unquestionably, a priced ingredient and a critical factor in developing pricing models for developing markets such as India. The paper's conclusions add to the current literature in R&D and asset pricing and assist investment professionals in developing better investment and trading strategies.
Agatha Nkem Amadi, , Alexander Ehimare Omankhanlen, Idimmachi Pius Amadi, Pascal Nwodimmah
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 805-815;

This study examined the stabilization effect of fiscal policy on banking system stability in Nigeria using data from 1985 to 2019. The study adopted the ordinary least squares, cointegration and error correction techniques to analyze and determine the existence of a long-run relationship among the variables. The ordinary least squares technique was used to evaluate the impact of the interaction between fiscal policy and banking system stability variables. The findings indicate that fiscal policy has a strong influence on banking system stability in Nigeria. It was further discovered that, among the fiscal policy variables, taxation and government debt have a more positive effect on banking systems than other variables used in the study, while government funding and debt growth have a negative effect on banking system stability. This indicates that the more debt the government accumulates, the greater the instability of the banking system. The study recommends that the government put appropriate controls in place to avoid borrowing that will creep into deficit, which will, in turn, affect the banking system stability. The government should also ensure that its borrowings are channeled into productive segments of the economy to enhance the sustainable repayment of debt and ensure that the mechanisms for debt repayment are strictly adhered to.
Joseph Ugochukwu Madugba, Tony Uche Agburuga, , Samuel Oludaro Fadoju, Joseph Falaye
Asian Economic and Financial Review, Volume 11, pp 794-804;

The management of public expenditure is crucial due to its effect on people’s standard of living. In line with this, this study investigated public expenditure growth and national consumption costs using a vector error correction approach. The objective is to determine the effect of capital and recurrent expenditure on the consumer price index. The dependent variable in this study is national consumption measured by the consumer price index, while the independent variable is public expenditure measured by capital and recurrent expenditures. An ex post facto research design was adopted, and data for the study spanning from 1981 to 2019 was sourced from the World Bank. Descriptive statistics, unit root tests, cointegration tests and vector error correction estimates were all conducted with the aid of EViews 9. Based on the results, we concluded that there is a positive but insignificant relationship between the consumer price index and capital and recurrent expenditures of the government in Nigeria. We recommend that Nigeria’s government should increase expenditure on projects that will improve the economy and the living standards of the people. Additionally, there is an urgent need for proper monitoring of allocations contained in the budget to ensure efficient and effective utilization of funds, as this will help to improve the standard of living of the people and improve the economy.
Mahamuda Firoj, Sharmina Khanom, M Mamunur Rashid, Abeda Sultana, Humayun Kallol, Mohammed Nazrul Islam, Nair Sultana
Asian Development Policy Review, Volume 9, pp 194-208;

The rapid spread of COVID-19 and subsequent restriction measures become a growing concern for its economic impacts as well. To address it, a study was undertaken to investigate the impacts upon the low-income people employed in the informal sectors in Bangladesh. The data of 372 respondents was collected through a structured questionnaire from the informal sectors in the cities of Dhaka and Chattogram, the most predominant hubs of the country’s informal workers. This study covered the period of the first wave of the pandemic in Bangladesh from its first detection (8 March 2020) to the onset of the second wave (February 2021). It was a little over the one year period that had been divided into four-time segments considering as before pandemic (January – March 2020), and during pandemic (1st quartile: April – July 2020; 2nd quartile: August – November 2020 and 3rd quartile: December 2020 - February 2021). In the 1st quartile during the pandemic, 65% of respondents' income revealed a sharp decline. This scenario continued in the 2nd and 3rd quartiles with the figure of 35% and 24% respectively. Thus, in each of the three quartiles during pandemic time slots, the majority of respondents' consumption, living standard, schooling, and access to health care facilities were found negatively impacted. By the continuity of time some of the respondents were able to settle them in the new socio-economic condition. Overall, these results indicated several recommendations, including extending basic assistance to these vulnerable groups.
Innocent U Duru
Asian Development Policy Review, Volume 9, pp 180-193;

This study examined the leading causes and consequences of international migration in Nigeria. A survey research design was utilized for the study. The data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The opinions of 100 respondents selected through the purposive sampling technique were obtained on the principal causes and consequences of international migration in Nigeria. The findings revealed that the principal causes of international migration in Nigeria were job opportunities, unemployment, wealth prospects, safety and security, better conditions of service, low salaries and higher standards of living. These foremost causes of international migration in Nigeria were mostly economic factors. Furthermore, the findings showed that the foremost positive and negative effects of international migration in Nigeria were integrated development, increase in remittances, cheap and surplus labour, urban services and social infrastructure under stress, stricter immigration norms, multi-ethnic society and increased tolerance, Xenophobia, close gaps in skills and cultural dilution. These effects were economic, social and political. Among others, the study, thus, recommends that: the strategies of the government for stemming international migration should address push factors of unemployment, safety and security and low salaries and pull factors such as job opportunities, wealth prospects, better conditions of service and higher standards of living since they are the root causes of international migration. Furthermore, migration, a long-standing poverty reduction and strategy for human development need to be mainstreamed into policies of development in Nigeria at the Federal, State and Local Governments.
Asian Development Policy Review, Volume 9, pp 209-219;

In this study, we analyse the impact of service exports on GDP and productivity growth in a sample of thirty-eight European countries for the period 2000-2019. Descriptive statistics analysis of the panel data shows that growth in exports of goods is more positively related to GDP growth, total fixed assets growth and productivity growth, while growth in export of services is more positively related to employment growth. In addition, the analysis shows that the volume of exports (in terms of its share in relation to GDP) of knowledge-intensive services (information and communication, other business services, intellectual property) is higher in more developed countries (measured as GDP per person). The pooled panel OLS model (fixed effects) with GDP growth rate and labour productivity growth as the dependent variables shows a positive impact on GDP growth of exports of services, although the positive impact of growth in exports of goods is higher. It applies to labour productivity growth, with a larger positive impact from exports of goods than services.
Yazilmiwati Yaacob, Malissa Maria Mahmud, Nur Izzati Mustamam, Rozaini Ahmad, Noor Syazwani Ishak, Sairolazmi Saparman, Muhamad Safwan Mohd A'Seri, Mohamed Nadzri Mohamed Sharif
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 461-473;

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected various sectors particularly the education sector. The decision by the Malaysian government to close down higher learning institutes and schools has forced educators and teachers to switch their teaching and learning techniques from face-to-face to completely online. This situation has pushed the lecturers from the General Studies Department, Sunway University, Malaysia to master not only the technological tools, but also the pedagogic aspect that drive the entire process, to ensure the teaching and learning process can be carried out properly. Within a short period of time, different methods and modalities were designed and experimented, yet little is known on how such abrupt and rapid modifications affect the overall quality. Considering the value of experiences and reflections, this study probes on the mediated experiences of GSD academics on online teaching and learning, whereby a qualitative-research design was leveraged in a plethora of collective reflections in using E-Learn. The findings revealed that E-Learn has a huge potential to be effectively employed for synchronous and asynchronous modalities due to its user-friendly features and tools within the capacity to disseminate information, structure virtual lessons, record students’ involvement, monitor reports and deploy both formative and summative assessments. This study concluded that the various features of E-Learn had tremendously assisted the GSD lecturers during the online teaching and learning process, and is deemed suitable be used as a platform or Learning Management System (LMS) for online teaching and learning activities.
Rowena Nery Monte, Aivi Reyes Buan
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 474-489;

The remote learning setup engendered numerous disadvantages to both learner and educator. Mental health, accessibility affected by one’s socioeconomic classification, availability of technological apparatuses, and lack of social integration are some of the reported disadvantages caused by remote learning. The effects are far more notable in subjects that demand physical activities given that several prerequisites must be accessible to the learner for him/her to successfully participate. To specifically assess the impact of this new normal in physical education, a specific course offering in University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB), Human Kinetics 12: Walking for Fitness, is examined through a quantitative study involving students who were enrolled. Surveys and other statistical tools are utilized to yield accurate data about the impact of mobility-restrictive measures to the perception and performance of the students. The findings of this study revealed what they feel about the quarantines and lockdowns have a negative effect to their perception and performance in HK12: Walking for Fitness. Besides the fact that the policies are meant to restrict mobility and that HK12: Walking for Fitness requires mobility, it must also be considered that the First Semester, A.Y. 2020-2021 is the first semester of the university to observe remote learning. Even though the study did not capture such behavior, it must be noted that the drastic shift to online classes made it difficult to students to cope with the new normal in education.
Siti Hamin Stapa, Kesumawati A Bakar, Fuzirah Hashim
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 490-499;

There is no denying that palm oil industry has long been the backbone of Malaysia's economy. It is an industry that continues to be relevant in order to meet both local and global demand for edible oil and biofuel markets. The idea that the industry holds no appeal for youth is a common belief frequently shared by the youth themselves, as well as other stakeholders in agriculture. The key to engaging Malaysian youth and to increase their participation is to first understand their attitude and motivation towards the oil palm sector. This is the first step in understanding the factors underlying their motivation and gauging their level of engagement towards the sector. A set of questionnaires was distributed to 50 FELDA respondents followed by a focus group interview of 5 FELDA youth. Our qualitative data gauged the level of FELDA youth engagement through attitudinal resources while the survey measured the categorical and ordinal level of 8 industry constructs with variables such as gender, age, and education level. In general, the findings revealed insights into palm oil industry’s strengths and weaknesses in relation to positive and negative attitude, motivation, and engagement of FELDA youth towards the sector.
Mahendran Maniam, Mardhiyah Ridzuan, Santhia A/p Subramaniam, Vigneshwary A/p Sagathivan, Yom Saridatul Najwa Bt Abd Lahsan, Zhong Jingjing
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 500-510;

For Malaysian students, speaking in English is one of the most challenging skills to master, especially if they do not have a strong command of the language. Meanwhile in China, the English language is primarily employed as a means of academic communication and teaching. This paper aims to identify which linguistic items have been transferred positively and negatively from L1 (Bahasa Melayu and Mandarin) in speaking English (L2) among primary school students. A qualitative study among primary school students from China and Malaysia was carried out using purposive sampling. Based on the findings, four types of syntactic errors from the Malaysian students' speech were identified. It was evident that the students had difficulties to speak correctly in terms of sentence structure. The four syntactic errors found are simple past, simple present, verb ‘to be’ and subject-verb-agreement. Meanwhile, it has been found that Chinese students frequently produce linguistic mistakes during their utterances of L2 speech as a result of L1 interference. This research also exposed that the students are still unconsciously relying on their mother tongue to translate their sentence into L2. The study is expected to help ESL teachers to draw the analogies between corresponding L1 and L2 syntax constructions. The findings will contribute and direct the learners’ attention to cross-language syntactic similarities and differences and thus guide them to a deeper understanding of underlying linguistic structure.
, Akiko Nasuda
Asian Journal of Empirical Research, Volume 11, pp 23-32;

This study investigates single individuals’ different choices over time in terms of use (labor supply, home production time input, leisure) and consumption (market consumption goods, home production goods) and provides evidence to explain the differences. To this effect, we use the structural model of the Almost Ideal Demand System with a Cobb-Douglas home production function. The results are summarized as follows. Regarding labor supply, both women and men have the same working willingness in the labor market when women are paid as much as men. Overall, although the regional gender income gap appears different between major metropolitan areas and non-major metropolitan areas, our results indicate that the income gap would disappear by diminishing the wage gap. However, for home production, the gender gap persists when women apply the same conditions as men, although the gap is small. Policy implied that reducing the gender wage gap is an important tool to encourage single women to work as men in the workplace regardless of the area.
Nurul Syfa’ Mohd Tokiran, Norhayati Hussin, Mohd Sazili Shahibi
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Volume 11, pp 25-33;

The purpose of the article is to assess the current challenges in the implementation of the Digital Culture Environment among the rural community in Malaysia. The Covid-19 pandemic has changed the online environment where a drastic usage of digital tools has been observed among Malaysian. The digital culture is defined as the culture shaped by the emergence of digital technologies and their usage in the community. The literature survey approach has been applied as the methodology of study to explore the current challenges in the implementation of the Digital Culture Environment among the rural community in Malaysia. Several challenges have been identified, including the rural sustainable issues, digital divides, demographic factors, Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) factor, individual, as well as behavior factor. According to the literature review conducted, these challenges have been revealed to significantly hurdle the government’s movement in implementing the digital culture within the rural community. To overcome these challenges, a strong and effective supporting model should be formulated to assist the government in building and establish a digital culture environment in Malaysia, particularly among the rural community. Hence, a further in-depth study is required to acquire comprehensive literature information to address this issue.
Nuur Iszuana Binti Abdul Rahman, Vivien Jong Yi Mian
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Volume 11, pp 34-41;

Morinda citrifolia or Noni is known as an important dietary supplement, food functional ingredient, or as natural health enhancer that is used throughout the world. Different parts of the plant have been proven to carry compounds that have high medicinal values such as terpenoids, alkaloids and anthraquinones. The stem bark of Morinda citrifolia collected from different types of soil were studied. It aimed to investigate the influence of different geographical factor on its metabolite profile by multivariate statistical analyses of spectral data deduced by NMR methods. A metabolomic approach employing concatenated GCMS and NMR data was utilized to study the relationships between environment and plant metabolism. Morinda citrifolia stem barks were pulverized into fine powder. They were extracted using chloroform and were taken to dryness in a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The Morinda citrifolia crudes were proceeded for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. Visual inspection on the 1H-NMR Morinda citrifolia spectra showed that the different geographical areas have similar profile, but they have different concentration of various constituents. Major constituents identified were aromatics (δH 7.25-7.50), sugars and glycosides (δH 2.25-5.0), fatty acids/aliphatics (δH 0.5-2.0) and aldehydic compound (δH 9.75). However, since the difference among the geographical areas were not clear from visual analysis, the analysis was proceeded using multivariate analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model. Thus, further analysis was done to examine the consistency of geographical area for each batch of Morinda citrifolia. This is to identify which type of soil is suitable as class model.
Nur Diana Wakimin, , Lydia Dundun Francis, Maureen Neging, Siti Rafiqah Muskil, Harzuinda Marusin, Nik Nur Dania Farahin Nik Mohamed Suhaimi, Rafidah Husen, Azrine Ajien
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Volume 11, pp 15-24;

Pollutants from sewage wastewater are major concerns due to their environmental effects. Thus, an effective sewage wastewater treatment plant is important to ensure discharged effluent is well treated before it can be released to rivers or water streams. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the Activated Sludge Hi-Kleen Treatment Plant (ASHTP) located at H Block (ASHTP at H Block) and L Block (ASHTP at L Block) in UiTM Sarawak Branch, Samarahan Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia. The evaluation was based on physicochemical and removal efficiency namely pH, temperature, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solids (TSS) from raw influent and treated effluent. The findings indicated that the overall performance of both ASHTP at H Block and L Block were satisfactory where treated effluent meets the standard discharge limits of Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulations 2009 (Standard B). For ASHTP at H Block, the removal efficiencies of turbidity, COD, and TSS were found to be 86.00, 13.76, and 88.02% respectively, in which the pH, temperature, turbidity, COD, and TSS of the treated effluent were 7.30, 28.10°C, 10.40 NTU, 14.10 mg/L and 8.90 mg/L respectively. Meanwhile, for ASHTP at L Block, the removal efficiencies of turbidity, COD, and TSS were found to be 43.20, 41.90, and 51.61% respectively, in which the pH, temperature, turbidity, COD, and TSS in the treated effluent were 7.30, 27.90°C, 21.10 NTU, 58.10 mg/L and 18.00 mg/L respectively. Proper maintenance of sewage treatment plant is important to ensure its effectiveness as well as to prolong its lifespan.
Hajime Kamiyama, Mohamed Kefi, Kenichi Kashiwagi
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, Volume 11, pp 255-261;

This study evaluated the technical efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency of olive farms in Tunisia, using Data Envelopment Analysis. In order to calibrate and validate the findings, data related to area, water use, water quality, cultivar, input, and yield were collected based on interviews from 45 irrigated olive farms in Kairouan Governorate. The results show that average input-oriented water use efficiency under the CRS and VRS specifications is 17.2% and 36.3%, respectively, indicating that the sampled olive farms could reduce the use of water by an average of 82.8% and 63.7% by improving the performance of irrigation systems. Also, it was found that there are large differences in irrigation water use efficiency between the CRS and VRS specifications. Consequently, this indicates that a number of olive farms can enhance overall efficiency by improving the scale of operation. In practical terms, this study provides significant insights for the olive growers in this study regarding the importance of removing scale inefficiency. Specifically, they need to consider the effects of water and soil quality on irrigated fields to improve the efficiency of irrigation water use.
Kodrad Winarno, Amie Sulastiyah, Muhamad Rusliyadi
International Journal of Publication and Social Studies, Volume 6, pp 72-81;

Agricultural machinery plays a strategic role in achieving Indonesia’s agricultural development goals. It is considered capable of increasing agricultural production and productivity through managing cultivation, harvest and post-harvest activities. The government has facilitated farmers with agricultural machinery through farmer groups and joint-farmer groups by encouraging them to form Agricultural Machinery Services Provider (AMSP). The purpose of this research is to describe the agribusiness management of AMSP, in terms of organizational, technical and economic aspects. This research was conducted from June 2017 to October 2017 in four districts, namely Bantul, Sleman, Gunung Kidul and Kulon Progo. Purposive sampling was used as a sampling method in this research. There were 32 respondents; 12 from AMSP, 16 from farmers groups, 4 private agricultural machinery service providers. The data analysis used was descriptive and qualitative data analysis. This research concluded that management of AMSP from an organizational perspective in the 4 districts is compatible with the Permentan Nomor 25 2018 guidelines regarding growth and development of AMSP. From the technical aspect, most of the operational agricultural machinery is 2-wheeled and 4-wheeled tractors. From the economic aspect, Earnings are distributed based on 40:60 ratio where AMSP earns 40% and the operator earns 60%. In relation to the cost of land cultivation, AMSP can earn between RP. 600.000,- – Rp. 800.000,- and the operator can earn Rp. 900.000,- – Rp. 1.200.000,-.
Irma Wahyuny Ibrahim, Noor Hanim Rahmat, Nor Syahiza Shahabani, Sharifah Nadia Syed Nasharudin, Izlin Mohamad Ghazali, Zulaikha Khairuddin
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 434-451;

Since critical reading has been assumed as critical, there are actually certain ideas and concepts that reflect how critical is this critical reading. Critical does not mean critical as in difficulty or failure in reading but more of looking into the skills, processes and the activities when reading. Group engagement has been said to improve team members’ critical thinking skills. This study is done to explore how group interactions facilitate critical reading activities. Specifically, this study explores how group work encourages critical reading through the processes of orientation, conflict, consensus, and closure. 72 participants responded to the instrument (a questionnaire). The questionnaire has 5 sections, demographic profile, orientation, conflict, consensus and also closure. Data is analyzed using SPSS version 26 to reveal percentage for the demographic profile and mean score for the variables. Findings indicate that group engagement facilitates critical reading in several ways. The study suggests that communication during group interaction improves learners’ critical reading.
Saidah Ismail, Omrah Hassan, Nor Azhar Mohd Taib, Noor Hanim Rahmat
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 421-433;

Similar to the learning of most languages, French language is initially learnt through a formal one-to-one classroom. However, the pandemic has given both teachers and students teaching/learning French as a foreign language to accept online learning as the new norm. The success of learning French language online depends on several factors. Both teachers and learners play different roles to make the lessons successful and meaningful. This study is done to investigate how online learning presence is influenced by learners’ motives to study a foreign language. This quantitative study is done to investigate how learners cope learning French online. 170 respondents were purposely chosen from learners who took French as a foreign language. The survey used has 49 items using 5-Likert scales. Findings revealed interesting information about online teaching and learning of foreign languages. The teacher anchors the online lesson with activities well planned and executed. The teacher takes the bulk of the responsibility to make online learning a success. Once the teacher’s and cognitive presence becomes positive, learners can begin to depend on their peers through social presence to maximise the learning experience.
Salina Sabri, Zulaikha Khairuddin, Syafiqah Johan Amir Johan, Khairunnisa Mohd Daud, Fatin Fatinah Shamshul Bahrn
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 452-460;

In a typical English language classroom, learners are expected to produce written sentences that are grammatically correct, and they are expected to sound native-like in their pronunciation. However, such expectations may cause anxiety and could potentially hinder the success of creating functional and successful language learners. This study aimed to understand undergraduate students’ language learning anxiety and their perceived success in an ESL classroom in the hopes of creating a mentally healthier language learning environment. Through a quantitative approach, the results of the questionnaire showed that reasons that led to undergraduate students’ anxiety in an ESL classroom were fear of tests, fear of comprehension, and fear of negative evaluation by peers. The results also showed that undergraduate students felt less anxious when lecturers provided non-threatening or mentally healthier environment for students to learn in their classroom. It can be concluded that a lecturer’s teaching styles and strategies affected students’ level of anxiety and can help ensure a mentally healthier language learning environment. From the findings, it is recommended that lecturers create a less formal and friendlier classroom atmosphere by providing psychological support and making students aware of the possible channels to seek help when needed.
Nur Sherina Zainal Abidin, Shahira Adam, Nurain Jantan Anua Jah, Noor Hanim Rahmat, Afiqah Abd Aziz, Hana Nadia Nadri
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 409-420;

In order to be happy at the workplace, employees need to feel engaged with the work environment. Work engagement refers to a work-related mental state that is positive and fulfilling, characterized by vigor (high levels of energy while working), dedication (sense of meaning, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride and challenge) and absorption (the individual’s complete concentration at work, which makes time fly quickly without his noticing). Besides that, the personal energy that individuals bring to their work is associated with work engagement. This study is done to investigate the factors that allow work engagement at the workplace emphasizing in assisting and addressing experience gaps in the strictest sense of the word by assigning values for the lasting connections actions to the relevant individuals, causing the person or the team to simply focus on producing outcomes in a healthy workplace and collaborative nature.115 participants responded to a survey given online. Findings reveal several factors that can lead to a positive culture at the workplace.
Nur Izzati Ab Ghani, Muhamad Nasyat Muhamad Nasir, , Raja Noor Syuhaida Raja Yahya, Rafazila Ramli, Norhilmi Muhammad, Fazida Karim
International Journal of Asian Social Science, Volume 11, pp 399-408;

The mission of Terengganu Tourism Department is to attract and increase tourists so that they will spend on the increased attractiveness and delivery of high-quality services, create an unforgettable experience, and make Terengganu a great destination. However, the last statistics proved that Terengganu is among the states that received a small number of domestic tourists, including tourism receipts, as compared to other states. Terengganu was ranked in the ninth place of visited domestic tourists and receipts in 2018. Therefore, this study aims to identify the underlying factors of destination attractiveness of Kuala Terengganu: assuring that the advertising strategies will use the best strategy which has been formulated to attract the groups of domestics’ tourists to visit Kuala Terengganu. Data collection has been carried out using a Google Forms online questionnaire. A total of 90 respondents who had experience visiting Kuala Terengganu were involved in this study. The method of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) divided destination attractiveness construct into three factors namely 1) recreation, leisure and amenities; 2) accessible and; 3) attractions. The findings of this study are very useful to marketing practitioners in designing promotional campaigns of destination attractiveness towards Kuala Terengganu.
Afra Hameli, Ilias Kampouris, Amal Kamal Machaal, Charilaos Mertzanis
Asian Journal of Empirical Research, Volume 11, pp 11-22;

The paper explores the role of financial development on entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates by using data on new business registration and new business density over the period 2006-2018. The country is undergoing a rapid transformation phase characterizzed by substantial efforts to boost private sector entepreneurship. The data is drawn from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators. We use the International Monetary Fund’s composite financial development index to capture financial development in the country. The index comprises information on financial depth, access and efficiency by both financial institutions and markets. The paper controls for the impact on the macroeconomic conditions, institutional factors, such as gender equality and the fear of failure, the innovation environment and the business startup environment. The results show that financial development is a robust predictor of entepreneurial activity in the UAE. Macroeconomic, institutional and innovation conditions further mediate the link in more or less significant ways.
Asian Development Policy Review, Volume 9, pp 95-107;

The long-run equilibrating relationship between the value-added growth of services and manufacturing is investigated in this research. The study is based on the well-established empirical link between manufacturing and service activities, and in particular, manufacturing's servicification. The selected variables' annualized time series were obtained from the World Development Indicators. The paper used the autoregressive distributed lag framework to regress manufacturing value-added growth against service value-added growth while accounting for economic growth, factor input growth, and trade effects. The findings revealed that in Nigeria, a strong performing services sector has a large negative impact on manufacturing performance, whereas capital accumulation and income growth have positive effects. The supply constraint of business services that the manufacturing sector requires is at the root of this finding. The paper advocates for policy frameworks that support the efficient supply of business services as both a manufacturing input and a productivity enhancer for the entire economy.
Nzeh Innocent Chile, Benedict I Uzoechina, Millicent Adanne Eze, Chika P Imoagwu, Uzoma M. Anyachebelu
Asian Development Policy Review, Volume 9, pp 108-126;

Our objective in this study is to investigate if natural resource abundance can crowed-out the manufacturing sector in Nigeria. Under the framework of an ARDL and over a period of 1990-2019, findings of the results showed that in the short-run, natural resources positively impact on the manufacturing value added in the current period; however, after a one period lag, the contribution of natural resources to the manufacturing value added becomes negative. We also found that in the short-run, real interest rate, inflation rate and trade openness are negatively linked to the manufacturing value added, while employment in industry and gross fixed capital formation are positively related to the manufacturing value added. In the long-run, natural resources contributed positively to the manufacturing value added. The long-run results also show that the gross fixed capital formation and inflation rate negatively impact on the manufacturing valued added. The implication of our finding is that natural resources rent is closely linked to the success of the manufacturing sector and as such can also crowd-out the manufacturing sector. On grounds of these findings, we recommend, among others; that the proceeds from natural resources should be used to build critical infrastructure necessary to improve the performance of the manufacturing sector. This way, the economy can be diversified to create the needed employment.
, Ozegbe Roseline Oroboghae
Asian Development Policy Review, Volume 9, pp 127-143;

The aim of the study was to abstract from the vulnerability theory to predict the likelihood of more people in Nigeria falling into the poverty trap as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study used a parametric technique to obtain estimates of the mean and variance of one-period ahead log-consumption. In doing this, the study hypothesized that estimating household consumption function is important in making inferences about the future and in assessing the vulnerability of household to shocks. The simulation analysis shows that of the 82 percent of the households that are vulnerable to poverty, only about 13 percent are in transitory poverty while the rest are in structural poverty. The implication of this finding is that poverty situation in Nigeria is widespread, entrenched and inter-generational. The current coronavirus pandemic has merely worsened the poverty situation and is not the fundamental cause of poverty in Nigeria. The study recommended among others, that anti-poverty intervention measures of the government, going forward, must be forward-looking and aim largely to increase the productive capacity of the populace instead of merely aiming to alleviate their current state of poverty.
Shah Nawaz Ashraf, Ajay K Singh
Asian Development Policy Review, Volume 9, pp 144-160;

This study assessed the growth rate of commercial and food-grain crops due to technological change in Gujarat. Growth rate model was employed to examine the growth rate of area sown, production and yield of crops. Subsequently, impact of technological change, and other inputs on yield of individual crop was estimated using a Cobb-Douglas production function model. Time trend factor was used as a proxy variable to capture the impact of technological change, and other inputs (i.e., area sown, irrigated area, application of fertilizer, agricultural labors, rural literate population and annual actual rainfall) on yield of crops. Growth rate of cropped area, production and yield of cotton, sugarcane, castor, potato, rice, arhar, maize, gram and wheat crops were seemed positive in Gujarat. Yield of cotton, sugarcane, castor, rice, arhar, maize, bajra, gram, wheat, jowar ragi, potato, groundnut, sesamum, rapeseed&mustard and soyabeans crops was positively associated with time trend factors. Furthermore, the regression coefficient of time trend factor with yield of cotton, tobacco, potato, groundnut, sesamum, rapeseed & mustard, rice, arhar, maize, bajra, gram, wheat, jowar and ragi was reported positive and statistically significant. Hence, the estimates shows that yield of aforesaid crops were improved due to application of technological change in agricultural sector in Gujarat. Several practical policy suggestions are given to increase the use of technology in agricultural sector to improve the growth of major food-grain and commercial crops.
Linh Thuy Nguyen, ,
Asian Development Policy Review, Volume 9, pp 161-179;

In Vietnam, poverty is prevalent and extremely severe among rural ethnic minorities (REM). Despite a number of studies on characteristics of poverty, very few studies comprehensively examine the determinants of poverty intensity. This study employs binary and fractional logit models to investigate the determinants of poverty and the poverty intensity of the REM. Data are obtained by combining the 2012, 2014, and 2016 Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys. The results show that education, wage-paying employment, housing conditions, and domestic remittances reduce poverty and its intensity. Poverty incidence reduction also hinges on development programmes on credit and scholarships. The likelihood and shortfall of poverty declined for households residing in the Red River and Mekong Deltas, and in southeast Vietnam. However, language barriers, farm size and overseas remittances influenced the poverty intensity but not the likelihood of poverty. Our results suggest that previous studies using only logit models have neglected several influences of poverty intensity, which the current research overcomes.
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