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Guan Wang, Xiaohu Zhou
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10641

Abstract:
We developed and tested a model linking safety innovation resources with safety innovation behavior and safety performance. Participants were 381 employees of blasting, chemical, mining, and other high-risk industries in China. Results show that safety innovation resources were positively associated with safety innovation behavior and safety performance, and that safety innovation behavior played a partial mediating role in this relationship. In addition, leader–member exchange moderated the relationship between safety innovation resources and safety innovation behavior. Our results provide a new theoretical perspective and empirical evidence for safety innovation behavior, and they are a valuable guide for leaders on how to promote safety innovation behavior.
Minjung Roh, Sung-Byung Yang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10825

Abstract:
While some online reviews explicitly praise or criticize a product, others reveal a neutral evaluation. We predicted that extreme reviews would be considered more useful than moderate ones, and that negative reviews would be considered more useful than positive ones. To test these predictions, this study collected a dataset comprising 951,178 reviews of New York restaurants made by 142,286 reviewers on Yelp. com. By combining these two datasets, we incorporated each reviewer's unique reference point into a model and showed that extremely positive or negative reviews were considered more useful than moderate ones and that negative reviews were considered more useful than positive ones. This dominance of negative over positive reviews was also more pronounced in the conditions of larger variance and lower average ratings for restaurants. Overall, these results support the presence and influence of extremity and negativity biases, particularly in the context of high preference heterogeneity.
Qiangqiang Li, Gengdan Hu, Dandan Pan
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10841

Abstract:
Although time pressure is closely related to altruistic behavior, there is relatively little research on whether altruistic traits can predict altruistic behavior under time pressure. Using a modified dictator game paradigm, we investigated whether the altruistic traits of agreeableness and social value orientation could predict altruistic behavior under time pressure. We recruited 120 participants for the main study and used a one-factor within-subjects design in which respondents made decisions about allocation of 10 yuan and 100 yuan options under time pressure. Results show that although agreeableness negatively predicted altruistic behavior, and social value orientation positively predicted altruistic behavior under time pressure, these traits were not significantly related to real-life altruistic behavior. Thus, the two altruistic traits differed in their effects on altruistic behavior under intuitive processing, and there were different psychological mechanisms for the effects of the traits on altruistic behavior.
Tuwei Sun, Zhen Li
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10902

Abstract:
In the workplace, a lack of promotion opportunities causes a hierarchical plateau for some employees, which can lead to decreased work engagement. Using conservation of resources theory, we proposed that employees' repetitive and circular reflection on their work identity (forgone work identity) would mediate the relationship between hierarchical plateau and work engagement. We also argued that promotion regulatory focus could serve as a moderator in this relationship. We collected data from 423 Chinese employees via an online survey conducted in two waves. Results showed that hierarchical plateau was negatively related to work engagement, and forgone identity dwelling mediated this relationship. Additionally, promotion regulatory focus moderated the indirect relationship, such that the mediating effect was significant only for employees with high promotion regulatory focus. These findings highlight the need to consider forgone work identity when examining the negative effects of a hierarchical plateau on work attitudes and behaviors.
Youngsang Kim, Hoonsik Yoo
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10824

Abstract:
We analyzed international differences in preferences related to the two dimensional (2D) versus three dimensional (3D) and male versus female external appearance of artificial intelligence (AI) agents for use in self-driving automobiles. We recruited 823 participants in five countries (South Korea, United States, China, Russia, and Brazil), who completed a survey. South Korean, Chinese, and North American respondents preferred a 2D appearance of the AI agent, which appears to result from the religious or philosophical views held in countries with a large or growing number of Christians, whereas Brazilian and Russian respondents preferred a 3D appearance. Brazilian respondents' high rate of functional illiteracy may be the reason for this finding; however, there were difficulties in identifying the reason for the Russian preference. Furthermore, men in all five countries preferred female AI agents, whereas South Korean, Chinese, and Russian women preferred female agents, but in the United States and Brazil women preferred male agents. These findings may offer valuable guidelines for design of personalized AI agent appearance, taking into account differences in preferences between countries and by gender.
Rongbin Ruan, Wan Chen
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10316

Abstract:
The extant literature contains conflicting findings about the relationship between organizational identification and employee voice. To estimate a more realistic correlation between these two variables, we conducted a meta-analysis of 40 empirical studies associated with organizational identification and employee voice. We also analyzed cultural context, education level, common method variance, and the measurement scale used in each study as moderators of the relationship between organizational identification and employee voice. The results show that organizational identification had a positive association with employee voice, and that the moderating role of cultural context was not significant, whereas education level, measurement scales, and common method variance were significant moderators. On the basis of our meta-analysis results, we propose that human resource managers pay attention to the effect of organizational identification in eliciting employee voice, and implement policies that allow employees to express more ideas that promote organizational development in practice.
Yuan Fang, Bin Meng, Yitong Liu, Jinhua Liu
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10878

Abstract:
Although previous researchers have explored positive outcomes of workplace fun, the workplace fun–employee creativity relationship has received little attention. We investigated the link between workplace fun and employee creativity, and the mediating effect of leader–member exchange (LMX) on this relationship. Participants comprised 226 subordinates and 45 supervisors from Chinese stateowned companies. We employed structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypotheses. Results show that workplace fun did not have a significant direct relationship with employee creativity. However, LMX fully mediated the workplace fun–employee creativity link. These results suggest that, to promote employee creativity, organizations should create a fun work environment in which employees can develop high-quality LMX.
Guo Cheng, Weiping Yu
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10804

Abstract:
Comprehension of the driving factors and dimensional structure of oppositional loyalty (OL), which comprises willingness to pay a price premium, oppositional referrals, schadenfreude, and antibrand actions, is limited. To analyze OL behavior, we collected 453 surveys from Xiaomi mobile online communities. The results show that brand attachment had a positive effect on each dimension of OL. In addition, moral identity positively moderated the brand attachment–oppositional referrals relationship, and negatively moderated the impact of brand attachment on schadenfreude and antibrand actions. Our results can help corporate managers understand OL behavior, and contribute to new understanding of brand loyalty, customer relationships, and business ethics.
Xiaojuan Shi
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10547

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the positive relationship between employee perceived leader humor and employee negative workplace gossip about a leader (NWGL). Using a multiple time point investigation of leaders and followers (N = 168), I found that perceived leader humor was positively related to NWGL and that employee perceived team inclusion mediated this relationship. Further, employee job security moderated the relationship between perceived leader humor and employee perceived team inclusion, and also moderated the mediating effect of employee perceived team inclusion in the link between perceived leader humor and employee NWGL. These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of leader humor are not universal, and that the fostering of leader humor might have unintended negative consequences, that is, increased NWGL through employee perception of team inclusion. Implications for theory and research are discussed.
Chang Wang, Yuzhu Zhang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10769

Abstract:
Cultural factors play an important role in new employees' help-seeking behavior (HSB). The relationship between social face consciousness (SFC), as an aspect of traditional Chinese cultures, and HSB has seldom been explored in empirical studies. To examine the potential mediating effects of perceived social support (PSS) and social anxiety (SA) in the relationship between SFC and HSB, we recruited 682 employees with 1 year or less of experience in the job market to complete the survey. As predicted, SFC had a significantly negative predictive effect on HSB, and the chain mediating effects of PSS and SA in the relationship between SFC and HSB were significant. The results of the study could be used as a reference for training new employees in learning how to seek help when needed.
Xin Su, Jiatao Huang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10797

Abstract:
We investigated the relationships between students' social media use, engagement, and academic performance, proposing that student engagement would mediate the social media use–academic performance relationship. Using survey data from 307 Chinese college students, we found that student engagement played a mediating role in the link between social media use and academic performance. In addition, the results show that the direct effect of social media use by college students on their academic performance was nonsignificant. Our results contribute to knowledge of the relationships between social media use, student engagement, and academic performance in a Chinese higher educational context. They also provide educators with meaningful implications for improving students' academic performance. Future directions for research are discussed.
Weiling Wang, Yuyan Qian, Yuping Wang, Yuhong Zhang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.9363

Abstract:
We explored the mediating role of social adaptation in the relationship between mindfulness and cell phone dependence among college students. Data were obtained from 937 college students, who completed the Smartphone Addiction Inventory, the Adolescent Mindfulness Measure, and the Social Adaptation Questionnaire. The results suggest that mindfulness and social adaptation were significantly and negatively correlated with cell phone dependence, and that the mindfulness level of college students had a significant direct predictive effect on their cell phone dependence. We also found a significant mediating effect of social adaptation in the relationship between mindfulness and cell phone dependence. These findings are of significance to the prevention of and intervention in young people's cell phone dependence.
Yoo-Seon Bang, Hye-Jin Jang, Ji-Hyun Jung
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10764

Abstract:
We conducted individual and group interviews with six early childhood teachers to better understand their difficulties in establishing parent–teacher partnerships, and to explore the underlying causes of such difficulties. The results show that all the teachers experienced various challenges in their relationships with parents because of fear of conflict, unexpected struggles, parents' distrust, and unreasonable demands. However, these difficulties interconnect with broader sociocultural and structural factors that teachers cannot overcome simply through their individual efforts. Despite this, under the current system, teachers reported that they had to solve problems by themselves, no matter how unreasonable. In conflict with their intention to collaborate better with parents, the teachers became discouraged, passive, and defensive in their relationships, making it increasingly difficult for parent–teacher partnerships to form. The underlying causes that hinder parent–teacher partnerships and the implications of our findings are discussed.
Chang Wang, Yuzhu Zhang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10741

Abstract:
Little is known about the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and help-seeking behavior (HSB), especially in the workplace context. We explored the mediating effects of both the fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and social anxiety (SA) in the association between new employees' interpersonal sensitivity (i.e., an excessive focus on the feelings and behaviors of others) and their HSB. Participants were 636 Chinese employees with 1 year or less of service in the job market. The results show that interpersonal sensitivity was negatively correlated with the HSB of new employees and that this relationship was mediated by FNE and then SA. Thus, for new employees, interpersonal sensitivity exerts a clearly negative predictive effect on HSB, and we have demonstrated the significant chain mediating effect of FNE and SA.
Sanghee Lee, Song Yi Lee, Jaeeun Jung
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10772

Abstract:
Happiness is an important factor influencing academic performance, and many college freshmen have experienced adjustment difficulties during the COVID-19 pandemic. We applied Q methodology to explore South Korean freshmen students' perceptions of happiness in 2020. Participants were divided into three groups according to perceptions of happiness: (a) those who considered relationships as vital for happiness, (b) those who considered freedom to have new experiences as vital for happiness, and (c) those who considered setting and achieving goals as vital for happiness. These findings can serve as basic data for the development of curricula and programs to help college freshmen adapt to college life.
Yuanyuan Lan, Yuhuan Xia, Lin Yang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10782

Abstract:
Servant leadership has become an increasingly popular construct in organizational behavior research because of its effectiveness in organizations. Using self-determination theory and broaden-and-build theory, we proposed a moderated mediation framework in which the leader's sense of accomplishment would mediate the relationship between servant leadership behaviors and the leader's innovative behavior. The leader's extraversion was used as the boundary condition of the relationship. Participants comprised 232 leaders and their immediate supervisors, working in firms based in northern China. Results show that servant leadership behaviors indirectly influenced leaders' innovative behavior via their sense of accomplishment. In addition, leaders' extraversion strengthened the impact of sense of accomplishment on their innovative behavior, as well as the indirect effect of servant leadership behaviors on their innovative behavior. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Lei An, Esha Vaid, Maurice J. Elias, Qianfeng Li, Minghui Wang, Guoxiang Zhao
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10625

Abstract:
Although there is substantial evidence for the merits of integrating social and emotional learning (SEL) into educational settings, little empirical research on this learning approach has been conducted in Mainland China. We synthesized the frameworks of Western SEL and the guidelines of Chinese mental health education, and conducted a preliminary assessment of a short-term SEL curriculum that we designed and piloted in an elementary school. We randomly assigned two classes comprising 111 fifth-grade students to take the SEL curriculum (intervention group), and compared them with a third class comprising 53 fifth-grade students assigned the usual curriculum (control group). The results show that the intervention group had a significant increase in emotional intelligence scores after completing the activities in the curriculum, and the control group experienced an increase in feelings of competitiveness. Students in the intervention group generally perceived the SEL curriculum as striking the right balance between enjoyable activities and valuable learning. Our findings imply that it would be a positive educational development to design SEL curricula for systematic use across multiple grades, thus weaving these into the formal Chinese elementary school system.
Congyong Shang, Dongxu Li, Yajie Diao
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10736

Abstract:
Past research has suggested that career growth is positively related to organizational citizenship behavior. Drawing on social exchange theory, this study investigated the possible boundary conditions of this relationship. Data were collected from 209 medical staff of a large hospital in China, following convenience sampling. Results of hierarchical regression analysis indicate that there was a significant positive relationship between career growth and both organizational citizenship behavior directed at individuals (OCBI) and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization (OCBO). Compared to OCBI, the positive relationship between career growth and OCBO was stronger. Further, leader–member exchange moderated the relationship between career growth and OCBI. Thus, we recommend that managers of organizations attach importance to employee career growth and the establishment of high-quality exchange relationships when motivating organizational citizenship behavior, especially OCBI.
Shuyi Zhou, Shiyong Wu, Xiaoyan Yu, Wei Chen, Wen Zheng
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10735

Abstract:
We investigated the moderating role of employment stress in the relationship between proactive personality and career decision-making self-efficacy among recent Chinese graduates during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main results are as follows: (a) proactive personality positively predicted career decision-making self-efficacy, (b) employment stress was negatively related to proactive personality and career decision-making self-efficacy, and (c) employment stress significantly and negatively moderated the effect of proactive personality on career decision-making self-efficacy, meaning that the moderating effect was stronger at a lower level of employment stress. The results indicate that students graduating during the COVID-19 pandemic are more prone to suffering from complex career decisionmaking processes exacerbated by a challenging and changing labor market. Our findings suggest that graduates should secure flexible employment options and that officials, staff, and managers in governments, universities, and industries should work together to enhance graduates' career decision-making self-efficacy and assist them in achieving their early career aspirations by alleviating internal and external employment pressure.
Xing Tong, Xiaomeng Han
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10246

Abstract:
In this study we examined the influence of knowledge network capability on organizational innovation. Drawing on organizational network theory and taking a knowledge-based view, we proposed ambidextrous innovation behavior and network position transition as mediators to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the effect of knowledge network capability on organizational innovation. Furthermore, we proposed knowledge base as a boundary variable to understand its interplay with knowledge network capability in regard to organizational innovation. Participants were 265 senior managers of recently established high-tech enterprises in China. Consistent with our predictions, the results show there was a positive relationship between knowledge network capability and ambidextrous innovation behavior, and network position transition mediated this relationship. In addition, the results suggest that knowledge base can strengthen the direct effect of knowledge network capability on organizational innovation. Our findings enrich the literature on knowledge networks and innovation, and provide important implications for enterprises to innovate by employing knowledge network capability.
Fenfen Zhao, Xiaohui Shi, Xiumei Li
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.9958

Abstract:
Social interaction is an important factor for many mobile applications, including mobile public welfare applications (MPWAs), to successfully attract users to keep using them. We explored the influence mechanism of social interaction on users' continuance of usage behavior in relation to MPWAs by constructing an interaction–experience–intention influence path. A survey was designed and distributed on QQ, WeChat moments, and via WeChat groups. Using this snowball sampling method, we collected 362 completed surveys. To test the research hypotheses we used structural equation modeling and hierarchial regression analysis. The results show that social interaction affected social presence positively, and social presence had a significant influence on emotional pleasure and continued usage intention. Emotional pleasure positively affected continued usage intention. Shared vision played a moderating role in the relationship between social presence and continued usage intention. These conclusions enrich the literature on social presence and personal participation in public welfare in the context of mobile applications, and also provide some useful suggestions for MPWA managers on how to ensure continued usage.
David Pearson, Fiona Clare Kennedy, Suchetha Bhat, Vishal Talreja, Katherine Newman-Taylor
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10494

Abstract:
Adolescence may be a window of opportunity to attenuate the effects of early social adversity, which impedes cognitive, emotional, and social development, and increases risk of psychopathology into adulthood. We ran a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of a brief intervention designed to facilitate life skills for psychosocial competence. Socially disadvantaged young people living in South India who had experienced early adversity (N = 645; age range = 17–22 years) participated in the intervention or were assigned to a wait-list control group. The intervention led to large differences in life skills between the two groups. This brief, scalable intervention can be made available to address the impact of early social adversity on young people's development.
David Pearson, Fiona Clare Kennedy, Vishal Talreja, Suchetha Bhat, Katherine Newman-Taylor
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10493

Abstract:
The severe adversity experienced by millions of children in the developing world leads to failure to thrive associated with cognitive deficits, emotional management problems, and social impairment. In this pragmatic randomized controlled trial, 909 children (aged 8–15 years) in India with disadvantaged backgrounds took part in a semistructured program involving sports or creative arts activities. The Life Skills Assessment Scale was used to assess the children's life skills before and after taking part in the program. Children who took part in the program showed significant increases in life skills following participation, compared to a control group. This study demonstrates the impact of simple, low-budget programs on cognitive, emotional, and social life skills that are typically delayed by severe adversity. The findings have clear implications for children in other adverse environments, such as conflict zones and settlements for displaced children resulting from war, natural disasters, and emergency events.
Lina Ma, Fusheng Zhou
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10298

Abstract:
We conducted a survey with 554 kindergarten teachers in China to explore the relationship between psychological empowerment and retention intention, along with the mediating role of psychological capital and the moderating role of professional emotion. The results show that psychological empowerment had a positive effect on retention intention through the mediating effect of psychological capital. Additionally, professional emotion significantly moderated the effects of psychological capital on retention intention. Thus, we confirmed that psychological capital mediated the effects of psychological empowerment on retention intention and that professional emotion moderated the second half of this mediation process. The results of our study have theoretical and practical significance for proposing intervention measures to improve the retention intention of kindergarten teachers.
Wei Wang, Ping Yuan, Yuru Yang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10552

Abstract:
The importance of research into voice behavior for organizational effectiveness has recently become even more evident. We explored the impact of the mismatch between power and status on employees' voice behavior through the mediating mechanism of power struggle and the moderating mechanism of power distance. Hypotheses were derived from legitimacy theory. Participants were 647 Chinese employee–supervisor dyads. We found that the mismatch between employees' sense of power and status positively predicted their voice behavior via power struggle, and the positive indirect relationship was amplified when power distance was at a higher level. Theoretical contributions and future research directions are discussed.
Ping Yuan, Fanghui Ju, Yuan Cheng, Yanbin Liu
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10555

Abstract:
Incidences of noncompliance with COVID-19 prevention and control policies have occurred worldwide, increasing the risk to public safety and making epidemic control more difficult. We applied the approach–inhibition theory of power perception to investigate the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions of the relationship between individuals' power perception and their prevention and control policy compliance. This study collected data from 303 participants in 45 counties (districts) spanning one province in China. Results show that individuals' sense of power was negatively related to their prevention and control policy compliance, with risk perception mediating and group policy control moderating this relationship. The findings provide a reference for assessing the effectiveness and relevance of government epidemic prevention and control. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Yue Jiang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10329

Abstract:
I investigated neural processing during the recognition of pride and joy in early childhood using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. Electroencephalography recording was taken of 21 children aged between 4 and 6 years. They were shown photographs of familiar peers and strangers whose facial expressions displayed the emotion of either pride or joy. ERPs were recorded for the children's judgment of the expression of these two emotions when an image was presented. The results demonstrate that the neural dynamics during children's recognition of pride and joy involve three stages: The early negative component is spontaneously responsive to familiar faces, the midlatency negative central component is responsive to expression of familiar faces, and the late positive component marks greater extended processing of an expression of pride. These findings provide new insight into the neural mechanism of pride and joy recognition in children aged 4 to 6 years.
Huwa Tan, Zhou Wang, Jiaxin Huang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10659

Abstract:
The main objective of this study was to clarify the mechanisms through which leader mindfulness enhances employee creativity, and we proposed that leader–member exchange (LMX) would act as a mediator of this relationship. To test our hypotheses we conducted a survey with 329 subordinates and 51 supervisors employed at three large manufacturing companies in China. The results of structural equation modeling show that the association of leader mindfulness with employee creativity was positive, and that LMX partially mediated this link. This study provides useful insights in explaining the impact that leader mindfulness has on employee creativity by focusing on LMX as a mediator. Our findings indicate that organizations should take leader mindfulness into account, and that managerial interventions should be implemented to establish high-quality LMX relationship.
Mei Sun, Zhixia Chen, Qing Yang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10678

Abstract:
We explored the effect of servant leadership on service attitude to understand its mediation mechanism, on the basis of selfdetermination theory. We used valid, reliable scales to measure servant leadership and basic needs satisfaction, and a self-designed scale to measure service attitude among 160 public servant–citizen paired dyads from the Chinese Government Affairs Center. Results show that servant leadership had a positive influence on service attitude, and that the basic needs of autonomy and competence played mediating roles, but the basic need of relatedness did not. Our results affirm selfdetermination theory and empirically show the different roles of psychological needs satisfaction. Future research prospects and implications for civil service reforms are discussed.
Si-Rui Sun
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10337

Abstract:
I applied person–organization fit theory to examine the conditional effect of public service motivation on turnover intention and responsible behavior, as two types of change-related proactive behavioral responses. Respondents were 462 public sector employees. The results show there was an association between public service motivation, and turnover intention and responsible behavior, but affective commitment to change did not moderate these relationships. However, employment relationship and affective commitment to change had a joint negative moderating effect in the public service motivation–turnover intention relationship, such that temporary (vs. permanent) public sector employees with low affective commitment to change and low public service motivation were more likely to have high turnover intention during public sector reform. My results provide a theoretical and practical reference for the selection of public sector employees with characteristics that will ensure public sector change success.
Yan Chen
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10668

Abstract:
I explored the relationships among shyness, loneliness, and cell phone dependence (CPD) in college students, with a special focus on the mediating effect of loneliness in the relationship between shyness and CPD. Participants were 593 students recruited from a college in Henan, China, and they completed the Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale, the UCLA Loneliness Scale–Short Form, and the Mobile Phone Addiction Index. The results show that shyness was significantly correlated with both loneliness and CPD, and that loneliness partially mediated the effect of shyness on CPD. These findings shed light on how shyness predicts CPD and have implications for preventing CPD in college students.
Robert A. C. Stewart, Sarah L. Krivan
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.11082

Abstract:
We note, with sadness, the passing of Dr Albert Bandura, pioneer of the theories of social learning and of self-efficacy, and of the concept of moral disengagement, whose research contributions informed current understanding of human behavior. Since 1992, Dr Bandura was a member of the Board of Consulting Editors of Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal.
Weiguo Qu, Kexin Li, Yulong Wang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10697

Abstract:
This study explored the two-way relationship between parent–child communication and the friendship quality of early adolescents, as well as the stability of these constructs and of gender differences, using a cross-lagged analysis. We conducted a 10-month follow-up study with 842 adolescents using the Parent–Adolescent Communication Scale and the Friendship Quality Questionnaire. Results show that both father–child and mother–child communication at Time 1 significantly and positively predicted friendship quality in early adolescence as measured at Time 2; that is, the better was parent–child communication at Time 1, the higher was the friendship quality in early adolescence at Time 2. However, friendship quality at Time 1 did not significantly predict parent–child at Time 2. Additionally, parent–child communication and friendship quality were better among children in seventh compared to eighth grade. Girls' friendship quality was higher than that of boys, whereas boys' parent–child communication was better than that of girls.
Jiyou Gu, Huiqin Dong
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10753

Abstract:
Using a spatial-cueing paradigm in which trait words were set as visual cues and gender words were set as auditory targets, we examined whether cross-modal spatial attention was influenced by gender stereotypes. Results of an experiment conducted with 24 participants indicate that they tended to focus on targets in the valid-cue condition (i.e., the cues located at the same position as targets), regardless of the modality of cues and targets, which is consistent with the cross-modal attention effect found in previous studies. Participants tended to focus on targets that were stereotype-consistent with cues only when the cues were valid, which shows that stereotype-consistent information facilitated visual–auditory cross-modal spatial attention. These results suggest that cognitive schema, such as gender stereotypes, have an effect on cross-modal spatial attention.
Jian Chen, Lihua Zhou, Liqiong Liu
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10577

Abstract:
We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese Precursors to Boredom Scales (C-PBS) with a sample of Chinese college students. The results show that the C-PBS had acceptable internal consistency reliability and criterion validity, and that the eight-factor model fit the data well. We also investigated the characteristics of precursors to boredom in Chinese college students. Apart from one factor (being underchallenged), all precursors were significantly and negatively correlated with students' self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, and with academic achievement. It is notable that low-income (vs. high-income) students who were bored during mathematics classes felt less monotomy, lack of meaning, and oppurtunity costs. The C-PBS is, thus, a relevant instrument for the investigation of precursors to boredom in Chinese college students.
Yiwen Xu, Zhichao Cheng, Yixin Zhang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.9572

Abstract:
Youth are future company leaders, without whom the economic development of a country cannot continue, yet the well-being of millennial employees in China is low, and this group has a high turnover rate. We used an inductive route model to understand how millennial employees' well-being can be facilitated in China. We conducted a survey with 268 millennial employees and used structural equation modeling to test our model. The results show that organizational career management and self-identity contributed to promoting participants' well-being. Our findings show that a pathway should be established to boost millennial employees' well-being and enable them to accomplish their career planning.
Zhou Wang, Lei Shi, Liyin Wang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10716

Abstract:
In this study we identified leader mindfulness as a characteristic relevant to facilitating employee voice behavior, and examined leader–member exchange (LMX) as a mediator of this relationship. Via a field study of supervisor–subordinate dyads (197 subordinates and 62 supervisors) in a large retailing company in East China, we revealed a partial mediation model in which leader mindfulness was positively related to employee voice behavior both directly and indirectly through LMX. Our findings suggest that attention should be paid to mindfulness in organizations, and leaders should aim to develop highquality LMX relationships with their subordinates.
Chao Peng, Weiyi Song, Fen Ren, Yuehua Tong
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.9616

Abstract:
We investigated the mediating effect of trait self-control in the relationship between Internet altruistic behavior (IAB) and subjective well-being (SWB) in Chinese adolescents. Participants were 179 boys and 236 girls (N = 415), who completed the Internet Altruistic Behavior Scale, the Chinese Self-Control Scale, and the Index of Well-Being in one sitting. The correlation analysis results reveal that IAB had a positive correlation with trait self-control and SWB, trait self-control was positively correlated with SWB, and the combined effect of IAB and trait self-control positively affected SWB. Additionally, IAB had an indirect positive effect on SWB via trait self-control, which indicates that trait self-control partially mediated the relationship between IAB and SWB. These results offer insight into the underlying mechanisms of how IAB may promote SWB in adolescents.
Lingyu Zhang, Jiaying Wu, Chuying Deng, Meimei Zhang, Changjin Li, Qi Wang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10544

Abstract:
Few studies have explored the correlations between personality traits and mental health during the outbreak period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the personality traits and mental health of 142 students at Wenzhou Medical University, using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Sleep Status Self-Rating Scale, and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The results indicate that 30.28% of the sample had symptoms of anxiety, 40.85% had symptoms of depression, and 13.38% had disordered sleep. Neuroticism was positively correlated with anxiety, depression, and disordered sleep; extraversion was negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, and disordered sleep; openness was negatively correlated with disordered sleep; and conscientiousness was negatively correlated with both depression and disordered sleep. The results demonstrate that personality traits were risk factors for psychological disorders among students during the COVID-19 outbreak. Our findings may help provide a guide for screening for those susceptible to psychological disorders.
Qinglei Li, Qian Sun, Yongfang Liu
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10111

Abstract:
This study investigated the potential of a serial mediation model to examine the roles of self-esteem and perceived social support in the relationship between trait interpersonal sensitivity and loneliness. We used a two-wave survey to collect data from 761 Chinese students. The structural equation model analysis results show that the Chinese version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure had good psychometric properties, and that trait interpersonal sensitivity indirectly predicted loneliness through the mediators of self-esteem and perceived social support. Our findings provide valuable guidance for ways to reduce the loneliness of individuals with interpersonal sensitivity.
Yi Tian, Lianghu Mao, Min Zhou, Qilong Cao
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10530

Abstract:
Individuals' knowledge activity is essential for knowledge circulation in organizations. To examine the relationship between knowledge-based psychological ownership and knowledge hiding, we conducted a threewave online survey with 310 knowledge workers in China. We used the bootstrapping method for mediation effects analysis and found that loss of knowledge power mediated the effect of knowledge-based psychological ownership on knowledge hiding. The results of a conditional process analysis further indicate that emotional intelligence attenuated the indirect impact of knowledge-based psychological ownership on knowledge hiding through the mediator of loss of knowledge power. Our findings enhance understanding of why workers refuse to share their knowledge, and how to decrease knowledge-hiding behaviors in organizations by developing employees' emotional competency.
Qing Li, Siyun Chen
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10418

Abstract:
Scholars have not yet established how power distance belief (PDB) influences consumers' new product acceptance. We examined the relationship between PDB and new product acceptance (i.e., consumers' preference and attitude), along with the moderating roles of life satisfaction and social demonstrance, and the mediating role of need to belong. Through three studies, our findings show that when life satisfaction was low, consumers with low (vs. high) PDB had a more favorable attitude toward the new products and showed a stronger preference for them. Further, need to belong was a principal mechanism inducing the influence of PDB and life satisfaction on new product acceptance, with the interaction effect being stronger among consumers with high (vs. low) social demonstrance. Our investigation makes important theoretical contributions by expanding the PDB literature, and also has practical implications for marketers in their promotion of new product acceptance. For example, marketers could sell new products in cultures with low PDB or use advertisements to remind consumers of the importance of equality. This will help to prime consumers with low PDB when their life satisfaction is low, thereby enhancing their attitude toward new products.
Huali Shen, Xiaokang Zhao, Xiujuan Jiang, Anqi Wang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10162

Abstract:
The focus in most research on leader integrity has been on its positive consequences; however, studies on the antecedents of leader integrity are still lacking. Drawing on moral disengagement theory, in this empirical study we examined the relationship between power distance and leader integrity, and the roles of moral disengagement and narcissism in this relationship. We analyzed paired leader–subordinate data obtained from a survey conducted with 253 leaders and their direct subordinates in China. The results show that leaders' power distance was negatively related to their integrity, leader moral disengagement mediated the relationship between power distance and integrity, and narcissism positively moderated the relationship between power distance and moral disengagement. Moreover, narcissism strengthened the mediating effect of moral disengagement: The higher the level of narcissism, the stronger the indirect effect of power distance on leader integrity via moral disengagement. Our findings enrich the theory of leader integrity and provide guidance for preventing damage to leader integrity.
Jianfeng Zhuang, Yali Jiang, Haiping Chen
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10551

Abstract:
To understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected students about to enter the job market, we surveyed 754 university seniors to investigate the perceived stress–career adaptability relationship. We also assessed if positive psychological capital (PsyCap) and work volition mediated this relationship. The results show that the seniors' perceived stress during the COVID-19 pandemic negatively predicted career adaptability. Moreover, the sequential mediation effect (perceived stress reduces positive PsyCap and work volition, which predicts career adaptability) was supported. Thus, lower positive PsyCap can reduce work volition and adaptability. We are among the first researchers to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic has disadvantaged recent university graduates in the labor market, and we have provided new perspectives on how to improve their career adaptability.
Ke Zhang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10417

Abstract:
Across four studies I tested why people are averse to relying on algorithmic judgments in person judgment tasks (e. g., student admissions), and examined how such aversions can be attenuated. I proposed that people tend to focus more on case-specific information (vs. general propositions) in person-judgment tasks, and that algorithms (vs. human experts) are believed to be skilled at addressing general propositions (vs. case-specific information). Thus, I posited that in person-judgment tasks, people would be less averse to relying on algorithmic judgments when they focus more on general propositions (vs. case-specific information). By varying the perceived importance of case-specific information and general propositions, the research provides support for these hypotheses. In addition, the results reveal the mechanism underlying algorithm aversion in person judgments and provide a cost-effective way to increase consumers' algorithm adoption.
Yanzhao Bi, Jie Zhang, Qi Nie, Miaomiao Wang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10464

Abstract:
We examined a dual-path model to explain the opposite roles of career adaptability and organizational performance. We used a time-lagged survey of 53 supervisors and 327 employees in China to collect data. Results show that career-oriented proactive behavior mediated the negative effect of career adaptability on performance, and work unitoriented proactive behavior mediated the positive effect of career adaptability on performance. Moreover, the effects of career adaptability and career-oriented proactive behavior on performance were significant only for employees with high independent selfconstrual, and the effects of career adaptability and work unit-oriented proactive behavior on performance were significant only for employees with high interdependent self-construal. This study extends career construction theory in the organizational behavior field and has practical significance for the effective guiding of adaptable employees' contribution to organizational performance.
Muhammad Kasheer, Myungwoo Nam
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.8133

Abstract:
We conducted two studies to investigate the effects of the threat of a contagious disease on people's tendency to engage in risk-taking behaviors that are not directly related to the disease, such as investment decisions. In Study 1 we demonstrated that individual differences in germ aversion influenced risk-taking tendency. Participants with relatively high germ aversion were less likely than were those with relatively low germ aversion to engage in risk-taking behaviors encompassing the ethical, investment, gambling, recreational, health, and social domains. In Study 2 we replicated the results of Study 1 in a different setting and examined the underlying process by which perceived disease threat inhibits risk taking. The findings suggest that the threat of disease-induced negative affect decreased risk-taking tendencies. This implies that precautionary behavior activated by disease-threat salience can extend beyond the health domain to a broader range of situations.
Nam-Hyun Um, Ahnlee Jang
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10397

Abstract:
We delved into the antecedents and consequences of college students' satisfaction with online learning. We proposed the antecedents would be interactions, teaching presence, self-management of learning, and academic self-efficacy, and that the consequence would be intention to continue to use online learning. Participants were 236 college students in South Korea who completed an online survey. Our findings suggest that students' satisfaction with online learning was positively related to the interactions between students and instructor, teaching presence, self-management of learning, and academic self-efficacy. We also found that student satisfaction with online learning positively predicted their intention to continue to use online learning. Thus, our findings in this study provide educators with ways to increase student satisfaction, and add to knowledge about the relationship between students' satisfaction and their intention to take online courses.
Zhao Bao, Mengliang Shi, Yunpeng He, Ping Luo
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10179

Abstract:
We used self-determination theory to investigate the effects of proactive personality on employees' work engagement and helping behavior, as well as the moderating role of team autonomy in this relationship. Twowave data were collected from 75 sales teams (75 team leaders and 464 team members) from a large private company in South China. Multilevel path model analysis was used to test our hypotheses. The impact of proactive personality was amplified in teams with a higher level of team autonomy. Our findings not only provide empirical support for self-determination theory, but also contribute to the proactive personality literature by revealing the critical boundary condition of the effectiveness of proactive personality. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Robert A. C. Stewart, Sarah L. Krivan
Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 49, pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.10946

Abstract:
We note, with sadness, the passing of Dr Edward de Bono, pioneering researcher in the field of creative thinking and longtime member of the Board of Consulting Editors of Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal.
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