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Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 338-343; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9310127

Abstract:
The relationship of length-weight and width-weight of the carapace and the relative condition factor of mud crab Scylla serrata from Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Andhra Pradesh, India) was the subject of present study. Significant difference in both males and females was observed between carapace length-weight, carapace width-weight with a linear relationship. The regression values of both the sexes were found to be statistically significant. The regression equations calculated for length-weight were W= 0.00000178 L 3.1139 (r= 0.95) for males, W= 0.00000520 L 2.8056 (r=0.94) for females and for sexes combined it was W = 0.0000297 L 2.9891(r= 0.94). In case of carapace width-weight relationship of males, females and sexes combined the regression equations were W= 0.00000121 CW 3.0426 (r= 0.92), W= 0.00000178 CW 2.775 (r=0.93) and W = 0.00000204 CW 2.9210(r= 0.92) respectively. The male crabs showed positive allometric growth whereas female had negative allometric growth. Analysis of covariance confirmed remarkable difference between males and females in the growth pattern. The mean relative condition factor (Kn values) of both males and females and of the pooled sexes ranged from 0.680 (April) to 1.029 (November). A gradual raise in Kn values was observed from small- to big- sized crabs in both the sexes. Peak values were observed in 12.0-13.9 cm size group in November.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 307-314; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9310153

Abstract:
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR ) techniques development allows elaboration of many assays for identification of bacteria’s resistance mechanisms to antibiotics. Following this idea, the results of molecular level investigation of bacteria’s resistance mechanisms to antibiotics may give many opportunities to find more rapid methods for identifying the genes which are responsible for antibiotic resistance induction. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus bacteria on molecular level. As classes of antibiotics it was used macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLSB) and beta-lactams. In the proposed study the bacterial strains are represented by 50 isolates of Staphylococcus. The bacterial strains were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to identify the nuc, tuf, tst, sea, pathogenic activity genes. After this, the bacteria were tested for ermA, ermB, ermC genes and for mecA, femA which are involved in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramin B and to beta-lactams, respectively. The presence or the absence of these genes confirms that tested strains are resistant to specific antibiotic or not. Bacteria pathogenic activity was emphasized by genes as follows: sea (enterotoxin) which was found at all isolates, tst (toxic shock toxin) gene was not detected in any of isolates and tuf gene (elongation factor) was obtained with one pair of primers. Resistance to beta-lactams was evidenced by the presence of mecA in all isolates and femA in some strains. Each of ermC, ermA and ermB, macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B resistance genes, were detected.
Oludare Oladipo Agboola, Aderopo Akinsoji, Stephen Oyedeji
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 414-421; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9310123

Abstract:
In order to assess the changes in soil chemical properties’ resulting from conversion of forest to other agricultural land uses a study was conducted in Okomu Forest Reserve (Nigeria). Five soil samples collected from top and sub soils of marked points within the undisturbed forest, farmland, cocoa plantation, oil palm plantation and rubber plantation were analyzed for pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable acidity, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results showed variations in all chemical parameters across the land use types with soil depths (top and sub soils). Soil pH ranged from 4.88 (in the cocoa plantation subsoil) to 6.75 (in the forest top soil). Soils (top and sub soils) of the rubber plantation, forest and cocoa plantation had the highest stock of soil organic carbon (SOC), N and exchangeable Na respectively. Available P was highest in the top soil of the rubber plantation and sub soil of the farmland. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were highest in the top soil of the forest and sub soil of the rubber plantation. Exchangeable K and C:N was highest in the farmland top soil and cocoa plantation sub soil. Relationship among the chemical parameters varied with soil depth. Conversion of forest and cocoa plantation resulted in the highest decline (55.78% and 44.40%) in soil N. There is the need to regulate the conversion of natural forests to agricultural lands and plantations as conserve the nutrient cycling processes.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 443-448; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9310107

Abstract:
In the present study the synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extracts of Swertia chirayita is reported. Nanoparticles are particles having diameters below 100 nm. The nanoparticles formed were characterized using Uv-Vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, Ft-IR and light scattering & Zeta potential analysis. A Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) peak was observed at 450 nm in Uv-Vis analysis. SEM analysis showed that the particles were spherical and cuboidal in shape and had diameter from 85-120 nm. The FT-IR analysis spectra peak were observed at 3,610.74 cm-1, 3,089.96 cm-1, 2,125.56 cm-1, 166.50 cm-1 and 864.11 cm-1, which corresponds to the presence of capping agents such as primary and secondary amines, hydroxyl compounds, flavonoids, alcoholic and phenolic compounds. The results of light scattering analysis also confirmed the formation of nanoscale particles. The zeta potential analysis showed a peak of -25 mV which demarcates the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 361-370; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9310121

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the preservative potential of Megaphrynium macrostachyum on fungi responsible for the deterioration of orange juice and corn Jell-O. The phytochemicals from plants’ leaves were extracted with four solvents: acetone, aqueous, ethanol and hexane. The solvents were differently and tested against fungi isolated from orange juice and corn Jell-O using disc diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of the extracts from the leaves was carried out, and the most active extract was tested via GC-MS for the essential oils and HPLC fingerprinting. The toxicity test of the extracts against brine shrimp was carried out after exposure for 24 hours. The toxicity test showed that the extracts were non-toxic on the Brine Shrimps at LC50 (379.21μg/ml and 107.21μg/ml for aqueous and ethanol extracts). The qualitative phytochemical test reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids in different extracts of the plant’ leaves. The quantitative phytochemical determination of the most active extract revealed alkaloids with the highest contents of 107.48mg/100g. The GC-MS analyses of the fresh leaves of the plants revealed the presence of isodecane with the highest percentage at 15.56%. The GC-MS analyses of the dried leaves revealed isodecane with the highest percentage at 10.43%. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of various phytochemical constituents in the dried leaves. This study has been able to establish the potency of Megaphrynium macrostachyum leaves on fungi associated with the spoilage of Citrus sinensis (orange) juice and Corn Jell-O (‘Eko’) which contribute to tremendous research towards the use and acknowledgment of natural antimicrobials for the preservation of food.
, Julius Kola Oloke, Gandham Prasad, Moses Abalaka, Emenike Onyebum Irokanulo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 371-377; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9310082

Abstract:
Formulation of effective and environmental friendly bioherbicides depends on the type of fermentation medium used for the production of phytotoxic metabolites. The effect of biomass, colony forming unit and the phytotoxic metabolite produced from the biphasic fermentation was carried out, while the phytotoxic metabolite was tested in vivo and in-vitro on Echinochola crus-galli and dicotyledonous Chromolaena odorata. The mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 (Lp90) produced the highest amount of conidia and the largest necrotic area on the two tested weeds when compared to its wild strain in the different biphasic media combinations. The study revealed that the biphasic system containing PDB + rice produced the highest bioherbicidal activities. Therefore, the phytotoxic metabolites fromstrain C1136 are suggested for large scale production of bioherbicides for the management of weeds in conventional farming to improve yield and enhance food security.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 321-331; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9310061

Abstract:
A cross-sectional survey utilizing structured questionnaires was used to study the veterinarians’ perception, knowledge and practices of antibiotic stewardship (ABS) in Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria. Data obtained were analyzed using chi-square on SPSS (Version 15.0) at a significance level of P < 0.05 to determine possible associations between variables and perceptions/knowledge about ABS. Out of 280 respondents, 41 (17.1%) had heard about ABS. Minority of the respondents perceived/knew that using antibiotics only when necessary (6.4%, 18), administering antibiotics at the appropriate dose (6.4%, 18) and administering antibiotics for appropriate duration in every case (4.3%, 12) were among the principles of ABS. The study also showed that age, gender, qualification, years of practice and locations did not exert any influence (P > 0.05) on the awareness of respondents about ABS. More than one-third of the respondents wrongly perceived that increasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (35.4%, 99) is one of the goals of ABS, whereas the minority of the respondents rightly perceived/knew that minimizing toxicity and other adverse effects (16.8%, 47) and reducing antibiotic resistance (ABR) (43.2%, 121) are also goals of ABS. Only 21.4% (60) had overall knowledge of ABS. Prescribing antibiotics without seeing/examining the patient, prescribing antibiotics for any case suspected to be infectious, prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics despite availability of narrow-spectrum antibiotics, prescribing different classes/types of antibiotics concurrently to ensure therapeutic efficacy, prescribing overdose of antibiotics to ensure efficacy and non-consultation of the veterinary formulary/other resources when in doubt during prescription, are some of inappropriate/untoward ABS practices/behaviors/attitudes amongst the respondents. No significant association (P > 0.05) was found between practices of ABS and age, gender, qualification, years of practice and location. In conclusion, the veterinarians’ awareness/perception and practices of ABS is abysmally poor in the study area, thus education of Nigerian veterinarians about ABS and the teaching of the principles and practices of ABS during veterinary schools are recommended.
Kaushalendra Kumar Jha
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 422-432; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9310155

Abstract:
In poplar, one of the most used species of forestry and agroforestry, below ground biomass allocation plays an important role in providing anchorage as well as efficient nutrient and water distribution channel. Available literature on this aspect is not enough in hybrid Poplar, Populuseuramaricana I-214. Therefore, the study was aimed at finding how this species developed its root system and how much belowground biomass was allocated in Forest System (FRS) and Agroforest System (AFS). This was done using soil excavation and root coring methods. Coarse roots were distributed in all directions but their number and proximal cross section area (CSA) were not uniform. In the case of AFS tree maximum CSA was distributed in the south and south-west direction while in FRS it was in the north-east and south-east direction. Fine roots were observed throughout the rooting zone along with coarse and medium roots up to a maximum depth of 2.4 m in FRS and 2.8 m in AFS. Total belowground biomass was higher in AFS tree (130 kg tree-1) than FRS tree (120 kg tree-1). But on hectare basis FRS accumulated (24.5 Mg ha-1) more biomass than AFS (18.1 Mg ha-1). However, if practiced in surplus agriculture area and considered the system as a whole, AFS allows grain production in lieu of some biomass deficit.
, Olarewaju Gideon Okunlola, Alimat Ololade Ayodele
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 214-218; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb929991

Abstract:
The hereby study investigated the effect of Magnesium application at different levels on the morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment accumulation of Corchorus olitorius. Seeds of C. olitorius were utilized in the experiment. These seeds were sown in 2 big bowls and were supplied with 200 ml of water every day until they were fully established. After three weeks of sowing, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic pots. The treatments were: distilled water (control); nutrient solution in which the concentration of Magnesium was increased by the factor of 5 (N5), nutrient solution in which the concentration of Magnesium was increased by the factor of 10 (N10) and nutrient solution lacking Magnesium source (NMg). The seedlings were then divided into 4 regimes, with each regime containing each treatment. From the results obtained, it was observed that there was a significant effect at (P≥0.05) on the Corchorus olitorius growth parameters and photosynthetic pigment accumulation among the treatments. There was an increase in the shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, leaf area and the photosynthetic pigment accumulation in the seedlings treated with magnesium increased by the factor of 5 (N5) than by other treatments. The control recorded the lowest values for these parameters. It can be concluded that for an optimum growth of Corchorus olitorius, it can be inferred that the plant can do well in nutrient solution having Magnesium source (at moderate level).
Iyabo C. Oladipo, , Musibau A. Azeez, Tesleem B. Asafa, Taofeek A. Yekeen, Akeem Akinboro, Abiola S. Akinwale, Evariste B. Gueguim-Kana, Lorika S. Beukes
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 196-203; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb929938

Abstract:
Cell-free extracts of six strains of Enterococcus species obtained from fermented foods were used for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The biosynthesized AgNPs were dark brown in colour having surface plasmon resonance in the range of 420-442 nm. The spherical shaped AgNPs had sizes of 4-55 nm, whose formations were facilitated by proteins as indicated by the presence of peaks 1,635-1,637 and 3,275-3,313 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) showed prominent presence of silver in the AgNPs colloidal solution, while the selected area electron diffraction was typified by the face-centred crystalline nature of silver. The particles inhibited the growth of multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris, and also potentiated the activities of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and cefuroxime in the AgNPs-antibiotic synergy studies. In addition, the prospective relevance of the particles as nanopreservative in paints was demonstrated with the inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus in AgNPs-paint admixture. This report further demonstrates the green synthesis of AgNPs by strains of Enterococcus species.
, Jafar Ullah, Fazlul Karim, Nazrul Islam, Jahedur Rahman,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 280-286; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9210088

Abstract:
Light and boron play a significant role in the physiological growth and yield of crops such as groundnut. Even so, there has been little information on the application of boron in groundnut, while no information is available in Bangladesh regarding the imposition of light in groundnut. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the physiological growth and seed yield of groundnut. Treatments included two levels of light, viz., L0 = normal day length (≈12-h light) and L = normal day length + 6-h extended light at night (≈18-h light); three levels of boron, viz., 0-kg B ha-1 (B0), 1-kg B ha-1 (B1) and 2-kg B ha-1 (B2), and two groundnut varieties, viz., V1 = ‘Dhaka-1’ and V2 = ‘BARI Chinabadam-8’. The results obtained from the experiment revealed that the highest LAI, LAR, LMR and RWR were recorded in L, B2 and V2 variants, while NAR was the highest in L0 and B0. Moreover, it was noted an inconsistent result for RGR found for boron application. Based on the results, it could be concluded that boron is one of the factors responsible for higher yield of groundnut; nevertheless, under the extended light, it is not possible to get the highest yield.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 263-273; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9210079

Abstract:
Does the adaptive plant morphology actually hint at its potential bioactive profile? To understand and decipher this, a micro-morphological investigation was conducted on an arid zone plant. Andrographis serpyllifolia (Rohl.ex.vahl.) Wight is a slightly bitter, acrid endemic herb with fair history of ethno-botanical use among different tribes of peninsular India. A. serpyllifolia was a highly evolved geophyte well-suited for high survivability in extremely harsh terrain. This plant was found to grow and perpetuate successfully under high-stress conditions of water deficit, high soil and atmospheric temperatures, poor nutrition and constant threat from herbivores. Under such circumstances, this plant possessed the potential to develop morphological adaptations that produce and accumulate a wide range of phytochemicals that could preserve, protect and defend its plant body. The twin objectives of this study were to investigate the micro-morphological features and their functional advantage that enabled the plant to flourish in adverse conditions and interpret by deductive reasoning, the potential phytochemical array of this plant given the observed features. Scanning electron microscope was used to explore surface morphologies of various vegetative and floral parts. Key findings of this micro-morphological study were presence of numerous diacytic stomata on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, abundant glandular sessile trichomes on abaxial leaf surfaces, reticulate pollen ornamentation with echinate sulcus outlined with smooth morus and deeply reticulate, highly pitted spermoderm or seed testa reminiscent of human brain. These three features may serve as pharmacognostic markers aiding in accurate identification and quality control of this herb.
Ajai Kumar Singh, Ayush Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Srivastava
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 301-306; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9210084

Abstract:
Dactylocteniumaegyptium (L.) Willd. and D. aristatum Link. are common grass weeds of cultivated fields in many crops. The two grass weed species growing under same habitat showed characteristic morphological differences of caryopses and seedlings. The identification of weeds at seedling stage may be useful in weed and environment management. Under the light microscopy, features like colour, base, surface, scutellum and hilum of caryopses showed differences between the studied species. D. aegyptium had dark brown caryopses colour, while D. aristatum had grey colour. The base of D. aegyptium was truncate, while D. aristatumhad obtuse base. Both species had rugose surface but in D. aegyptium surface undulations were closely spaced whereas in D. Aristatum it was widely spaced. Similarly seedlings were found distinct with respect to coleoptile shape and size, first leaf sheath surface and first leaf blade shape and surface. D. aegyptium had oblong coleoptile whereas it was obovate in D. aristatum. The leaf sheath and leaf blade were recorded glabrous and hairy in D. aegyptium and in D. aristatum respectively. Both species studied hereby, showed remarkable differentiations in their characters, thus indicating that the morphological attributes of caryopses and seedling can be exploited taxonomically and for crop and weed management.
, Adedotun A. Adekunle,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 256-262; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9210067

Abstract:
Reduction in the quality of fruits during storage has been a concern to the consumers and the effect can be felt on the economy of developing countries. Leaves of plants such as Canna indica, Megaphrynium macrostachyum and Thaumatococcus daniellii have been documented as food packaging materials in West Africa. Based on this, the quality of stored sweet orange juice was investigated using ethanolic extracts of leaves of C. indica, M. macrostachyum and T. daniellii to enhance the shelf life of the juice. The extracts were used to assess the quality of juice for 30 days using quantitative parameters such as total soluble solid, browning potential, pH, microbial analysis and turbidity at 4 oC and at room temperature (27-31 oC). The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents of the extracts were determined. The extracts’ toxicity was determined using Brine shrimp. The quality assessment evidently revealed that the freshly squeezed orange juice with the extracts possess tolerable activity to enhance the shelf life of orange juice. The leaf extract of M. macrostachyum had the highest preservation rate on the juice after 30 days. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids in the three plants tested. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts in the three plants revealed that M. macrostachum had the highest contents of alkaloids (107.48 mg/g) and flavonoids (56.92 mg/g).The study showed that the extracts were non-lethal on Brine shrimp. This study ascertained the potential preservative qualities of the test plants for enhancing the shelf-life of orange juice.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 161-168; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9210051

Abstract:
The food and feeding habits of the shrimp Solenocera melanthooff Visakhapatnam coast were studied qualitatively and quantitatively. Feeding intensity differs in relation to gender, size, season and stage of maturity. Detritus was the major component of the food consumed, followed by crustaceans, molluscs, foraminiferans, fish remains, eggs; sand was also found as one of the gut contents. Diet preference in males and females was similar, but varied with size and season. The index of preponderance of detritus was 50.88% in males and 47.16% in females. Variation in feeding intensity was noticed in relation to size, months and season. The overall feeding intensity in males and females was categorized as actively fed (21.52% and 40.78% respectively), moderately fed (22.07%, 19.72%) and poorly fed (14.07%, 27.03%) respectively. S. melantho may designate as an omnivorous detritivore with scavenging activity.
, Olalekan Sakariyawo, Muftau Atayese
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 233-241; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9210002

Abstract:
Variations in yield components and grain yield of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculated soybean varieties (Glycine max L. Merrill) grown in CO2 enriched environment in the humid rainforest were tested. A screen house trial was established with soybean varieties (‘TGx 1448-2E’, ‘TGx 1440-1E’ and ‘TGx 1740-2F’), AMF inoculation (with and without) and CO2 enrichment (350±50 ppm and 550±50 ppm) in open top chamber, arranged in completely randomised design, replicated three times. A field trial was also conducted; the treatments were arranged in a split-split plot configuration fitted into randomised complete block design. In the main plot the variant was CO2 enrichment, the sub-plot consisted of AMF inoculation (with and without), while the sub-sub plot consisted of soybean varieties, replicated three times. Both trials had significantly higher grain yield at elevated CO2 than ambient. This could be attributed to improved yield attributes, more spore count and root colonisation. In both trials, inoculated soybean had significantly higher dry pod weight than un-inoculated, which could suggest the increased grain yield observed on the field. AMF inoculated soybean varieties outperformed un-inoculated in both CO2 enriched and ambient concentrations. AMF inoculated soybean variety ‘TGx 1740-2F’ is most preferable in CO2 enriched environment, while variety ‘TGx 1448-2E’ had the most stable grain yield in all growth environments.
, Mayura Dudhane, Mahesh Borde
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 124-130; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb919992

Abstract:
Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is the causal agent of stem-rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)crop. With the increase in demand for the groundnut, control of stem-rot efficiently by microbial strains is fast becoming inevitable as the conventional system of chemicals is degrading our ecosystem. This investigation here emphasizes on inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Trichoderma species for growth achievement and disease control. The present investigation showed that these microbial strains were found to be worth applying as they stimulated growth and decreased harmful effects of S. rolfsii (cv. ‘Western-51’). The increased biochemical parameters and antioxidant activities also indicated their defence related activities in groundnut plants. In spite of positive attributes meted out by these microbial strains towards groundnut crop, the interaction among AM fungi and Trichoderma species seemed to be less co-operative between each other which were noted when mycorrhizal dependency and percent root colonization were observed. However, in summary more practical application of low-input AM fungi along with Trichoderma species may be needed for the advancement of modern agricultural systems.
Tulay Aytas Akcin,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 104-109; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb919950

Abstract:
Inula helenium L. subsp. orgyalis (Boiss.) Grierson and Inula ensifolia L. were investigated anatomically and micromorphologically. The secretory cavities in the leaves and stem of both investigated taxa were located in the neighbourhood of the vascular bundles and in the rhizomes in the secondary cortex. The leaf mesophylls of investigated Inula taxa were homogeneous. Stomata were anomocytic in two species. The distribution and density of the eglandular and glandular trichomes provide information of taxonomical significance. Moreover, the cypselas of I. helenium L. subsp. orgyalis were homomorphic, whereas in I. ensifolia cypselas were heteromorphic. Additionally, the number of ribs, the shape of carpopodium and stylopodium were diagnostic taxonomic characters between the two taxa.
Onyinyechukwu A. Agina
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb919939

Abstract:
The course and outcome of a disease process is dependent upon factors such as the disease-causing agent and its cell tropism, defense mechanisms of the host, genetic resistance of the species or breed affected, as well as the age, nutritional status and hormonal levels of the affected animal. When haematology, clinical biochemistry and cytology test results are combined with other laboratory procedures, complete physical examination and also with the history of the patient, a veterinarian is well armed to arrive at a definitive diagnosis, make a certain prognosis (good, poor or guarded) and can also make a concluding statement on the efficacy of the instituted therapy. In clinical biochemistry, demonstration of specific enzyme activity and concentration of analytes in serum/plasma facilitates the disease diagnosis. Also, evaluation of haematology, clinical biochemistry and diagnostic cytology tests can help establish the presence or absence of diseases of internal organs, and by serial performance of these tests, may help to determine whether a disease process remains static, progressive or regressive. This review therefore provides the haematological, serum biochemical and cytological characteristics of diseases caused by the main bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, helminths, arthropods, nutritional deficiencies, endocrine disturbances, neoplasm, allergy, toxins (phytoxins and zootoxins) and inorganic poisons in horses.
Onyinyechukwu A. Agina, , Ezinwa M. Iwuoha
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 67-72; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb919928

Abstract:
The present study established the reference values and sex differences in the erythrocytic and serum biochemistry parameters of domestic adult quails (Coturnix coturnix). Ninety five adult birds, comprising of 42 males and 53 female Japanese quails were sampled using a simple random sampling technique. Standard procedures were carried out in all haematology and serum biochemistry determinations. The overall mean for the erythrocytic and serum biochemistry parameters were as follows: packed cell volume (PCV) 43.11%, red blood cell count (RBC) 4.31 × 106/µl, haemoglobin concentration (Hbc) 16.21 g/dl, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 100.69 fl, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) 39.17 pg, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 39.35 g/dl, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 59.99 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 20.85 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 107.54 IU/L, total proteins (TP) 5.19 g/dl, albumin (ALB) 3.25 g/dl, globulin (GLB) 1.94 g/dl, albumin: globulin 1.73, total cholesterol (TCHOL) 146.69 mg/dl, total bilirubin (TBIL) 2.37 mg/dl, uric acid (UA) 16.02 mg/dl and creatinine (CREAT) 0.44 mg/dl. The PCV of the males were significantly higher than that of the females, while the MCH and MCHC of the females were significantly higher than those of the males. The serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, uric acid, creatinine, and total cholesterol values of the female quails were higher than those of the male quails. The present data might be useful to avian specialists and veterinary clinicians, but more research works should be carried out on quails to increase the information data base, especially in the tropics.
, Emam A. Abdel-Rahim
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 40-47; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb919880

Abstract:
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of ingested synthetic food colourants or flavourants on total lipids content feces. The feces of rats ingested synthetic food colourants or flavourants has more lipids than that of control feces. In treated rat feces some fatty acids were disappeared (C19) or appeared (C14) while the other were increased (C15, C20, C18:2) or decreased (C6) when compared with the control feces. Most of unsaturated fatty acids (un SFA) might bind with the synthetic food colourants or flavourants and secreted in feces, but less consumed than saturated fatty acids (SFA) which, observed on hydrocarbon components, but sterols including cholesterol were more secreted by synthetic food additives treatments. Generally, the increase of total lipids and lipid fractions in feces such as unsaturated fatty acids (un SFA), total sterols (TS) especially cholesterol maybe due to their abilities to bind with food additives and form complex which secreted in feces.
, Adel Ahmed Abul-Soad,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 84-88; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb919894

Abstract:
Orchids are the most adorable in flowering plants, cultivated as the cut flower and potted plants throughout the world at different occasions. For their commercial exploitation and conservation of endangered species, micropropagation has been extensively practiced, which may be affected by several factors at each step. In vitro rooting is the most important stage that may ultimately be responsible for successful transplantation of the plantlets. Auxins play a vital role for in vitro rooting. In present study NAA and IBA treatments to in vitro developed microshoots produced multiple responses. Findings show that NAA concentrations alone were better and vigorous than IBA alone in terms of number, length and root thickness. Increasing the NAA concentration from 0.1 to 3.0 mg l-1 proved progressive. The highest significant value in root development was obtained with NAA at 3.0 mg l-1. In case of IBA alone, the root number was increased by increasing its concentration up to 1.0 mg l-1 but, root number decreased when the concentration of IBA was increased to 3. 0 mg l-1. However, the combined effect of both the PGRs over root formation indicated a considerable decline in root formation as well as callus formation at microshoot bases.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 131-137; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9110018

Abstract:
The use of phytopathogenic fungi in biological control of weeds may represent a promising alternative to the use of chemicals and may lead to the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. In the current study, strain C1136 was developed into various formulations and their activities were compared with a chemical herbicides using glyphosate in a screen house, applying standard procedure. All the bioherbicide treatments gave significantly higher yield component on the following parameters: tasselling, number of cobs, day of silking, number of ears, number of grain/cob, weight of 100 grains, number of cob, weight of cob, and length of cob from maize when compared to the chemical-treated herbicides and weedy cheek. Moreover, the bioherbicidal formulation coded BH4 (32 g of semolina + 6 g kaolin + 20 mL of glycerol + mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae + glucose+ sucrose + fructose + dextrose + lactose sugar + peptone) showed the highest activities when compared to other formulations. Conclusively, this study revealed that Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 strainhas bioherbicidal activity and could therefore be exploited for large scale production of bioherbicides for weed control in conventional farming, to improve yield and enhance food security.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9110063

Abstract:
Dear Authors, Readers, Contributors, Editors - we would like to inform you that Notulae Scientia Biologicae (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro) has published its latest issue (Vol 9, No 1, 2017) at http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro/index.php/nsb/issue/current. Notulae Scientia Biologicae journal has moved to online-only publication at the start of 2017. Consequently, from now we do not send the printed journal to hundreds academic units - research institutes, universities, libraries etc. At the same time, we maintain our standard publication, as printed form, with 'classic' style - volume, issue, pagination. Thank you for your continued interest and support in our work.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9110031

Abstract:
The histometric and histologic standard techniques were used to provide comprehensive information on the morphological changes in the thyroid gland of West African Dwarf goat during the foetal and postnatal development stages. The foetal age was determined using crown rump length and the pre-pubertal and pubertal age of animals was determined by dentition. The early foetal thyroid, surrounded by a thin capsule of dense irregular connective tissue, was continuous with well vascularised loose connective tissue septa. The parenchyma was composed of solid cell clusters of follicular epithelial cells surrounding small lumina. Follicular arrangement was indistinct in foetal thyroid by 50-70 days of gestational age and many follicles of different sizes were present by 95-125 days onwards. Significant variations in the mean follicular diameter, mean capsule thickness and mean epithelial cell height of the thyroids were observed in all stages of development. The mean large follicular diameter in the foetal, pre-pubertal and pubertal ages were 17.70 ± 0.09 µm, 54.41 ± 0.28 µm,142.77 ± 0.51 µm respectively. The follicular cells were of low cuboidal shape in foetuses, assumed high cuboidal or columnar form in pre-pubertal group and squamous in older pubertal age. Ultimobranchial follicles were encountered in early foetal goat thyroids, while focal areas of follicular cell hyperplasia were frequently seen in the older pubertal thyroids. The strong PAS-positive reaction increased strikingly from the 95-125 days foetal age, and by pubertal age all follicles were fully distended with colloid. Colloid vacuolation (colloid droplets) were encountered frequently by the age of 95-125 days, indicating the ability to synthesize hormones towards the last trimester of gestation. Parafollicular cells were distinguished by its pale cytoplasm and large nucleus at 75-90 days onwards. They were located basally and as clusters in the interfollicular tissue. This finding suggested possible high prenatal function for the thyroids of goats in the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
Oluwabunmi O. Arogundade,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 94-103; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9110022

Abstract:
This study provides detailed information of the anatomical attributes of the epidermis and the three regions of the petiole of four members of the genus Dieffenbachia Schott. Fresh samples of the leaves of Dieffenbachia picta Schott, Dieffenbachia oerstedii Schott, Dieffenbachia senguine (Jacq) Schott and Dieffenbachia senguine cultivar ‘Candida’ Schott were used. Epidermal peels and transverse sections were made following standard procedures. Generic characters revealed uniform epidermal cell shape on the abaxial surface, wavy to undulating and straight to wavy anticlinal wall patterns on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces respectively, brachyparacytic stomata types, round abaxial petiole outline, the presence of raphides and druses in the petioles of all the taxa. Delimiting features include irregular epidermal cell shape on the adaxial surfaces of D. senguine and D. senguine cv. ‘Candida’, additional anomocytic stomata types on the abaxial surfaces of D. picta, D. oerstedii and adaxial surface of D. senguine, cuticular striations on the abaxial surfaces of D. oerstedii and D. senguine cv. ‘Candida’, druses and raphide bundle on the epidermal surface of D. senguine only, flat adaxial petiole outline and slightly concave adaxial petiole outline in the proximal and median regions of D. senguine cv. ‘Candida’ and the presence of lamellar collenchyma cells in the petiole of D. picta. Data for both quantitative and qualitative characters were subjected to Principal Components Analysis and Single Linkage Cluster Analysis. Interestingly, anomocytic stomata complex, cuticular striations, raphide bundles and druses andthe adaxial petiole outline separated D. senguine and D. senguine cv. ‘Candida’.
Syed M. Haque, Syeda J. Nahar, Shimasaki Kazuhiko
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 89-93; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9110015

Abstract:
The present study investigated the effect of sucrose, trehalose and combination of sucrose and trehalose with modified MS medium on in vitro regulation of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Cymbidium devonianum under different quality of lights (white fluorescent tube, green, red and blue LED). As a result of this study, new PLB and shoots were successfully regenerated on modified MS medium under different quality of lights. The highest PLB formation rate (100%) and the highest shoot formation rate (85%) were observed amongst explants cultured on medium supplemented with 10 g/l sucrose + 10 g/l trehalose under green LED. The maximum fresh weight of PLBs, the highest average number of PLBs and shoots were recorded on medium containing 10 g/l sucrose + 10 g/l trehalose under green LED. For plant tissue culture, sucrose is considered an indisputably important carbon and energy source and biosynthesis of trehalose is similar to that of sucrose. The hereby study concluded that the contribution of LED lights, sucrose and trehalose (combined) can induce PLB and shoot formation of Cymbidium devonianum tissue culture without the use of any other plant growth regulator, whereas the green light showed the best formation rate compare with the other studied qualities of lights.
Seyfollah Fallah, Solmaz Neisani
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 116-123; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb9110010

Abstract:
Nitrogen is considered one of the most important nutrients affecting yield and quality of maize forage (Zea mays L.). A two-year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of broiler litter and mineral fertilizer on dry matter production and silage quality of corn. The applied treatments were: unfertilized (control), 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 in the form of urea fertilizer (217, 434, and 651 kg urea ha-1, respectively) and 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 in the form of broiler litter (7142, 14284, and 21426 kg broiler litter ha-1, respectively). The present findings showed that Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations in forage corn were not affected by urea application; however, broiler litter application significantly increased Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations of corn stover in a linear trend. The broiler litter and urea fertilizer significantly increased both dry matter and protein content of forage corn but no significant differences on those components were obtained between broiler litter and urea fertilizer at each N application rate. The results suggested that N applied to forage corn by broiler litter, at the recommended rate for inorganic N fertilization, is almost more effective in terms of forage nutritive value response than urea fertilizer. The profitability of forage corn production could be enhanced by replacing chemical fertilizers with broiler litter.
Fisayo S. Aroyehun, , Musibau O. Isa
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 347-353; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839877

Abstract:
The present study compared the extraction of chlorophylls from selected forest mosses (Hyophila involuta and Thuidium gratum) and derived savanna moss (Archidiumohioense) using dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and 80% acetone. The mosses were collected from natural populations found in the Central Campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The chlorophyll extractions process followed standard methods and the absorbance of the extracts were read on spectrophotometer at wavelengths of 645 nm and 663 nm respectively. The data obtained were later subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. The results showed that DMSO was a better chlorophyll extractant for mosses than 80% acetone. Although there were significant differences in the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a/b ratio and total chlorophyll accumulation within all three species using DMSO and 80% acetone as extractant (P < 0.05), there was no significant difference in the chlorophyll b accumulation of all the three species (P > 0.05).
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 286-291; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839887

Abstract:
The hereby study investigatedgibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in a mesotrophic lake (Lake Beyşehir, Turkey) from April 2013 to March 2014, in order to outline population structure and some growth properties of the species. Two water quality variables (Chlorophyll-a, Trophic State Index (TSI)) were detected seasonally to define trophic status of the lake. Length and weight distributions, length - weight relationship, sex ratio, gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (CF) and von Bertalanffy equation were calculated for C. gibelio sampled monthly. Trophic status of the lake was defined as mesotrophic. Total length and weight of C. gibelio samples was determined in the range of 8.5 and 28.4 cm and 15 and 408 g, respectively. Mean total length and weight of individuals were calculated as 17.5 ± 2.37 cm and 88.6 ± 39.02 g, respectively. There was a negative allometry between length and weight for C. gibelio. The fish samples were composed of 52% females and 48% males, between II and VII years old. Spawning period of the species occurred between April and June after GSI values reached their maximum in March. The CF values were validated between 1.5-1.7 besides the mean rate of females and males were 1.6 and 1.5, respectively. The parameters of von Bertalanffy equation were calculated as L: 19.8 cm, W: 652.9 gr, k: 0.934. In conclusion, C. gibelio has almost lost the economic value since the individuals are smaller than market size (≥ 250 g), probably due to lack of nutrients/mesotrophic situation of Lake Beyşehir.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 354-359; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839886

Abstract:
In this study, it was investigated the growth of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) under various wavelengths of LED lamp (Light Emitting Diodes), which can emit daylight (cool white; 400–700 nm), red (620–630 nm) and blue (465–485 nm) wavelengths of the light in the electromagnetic spectrum. In all applications, quantity of PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) was adjusted as 150 µmol.m-2 s-1. Study had maintained in plant breeding cabin 16 hours light and 8 hours dark environment. Results demonstrated that while the highest plant height was determined in the “30% blue light+ 70% red light” application, the highest stem length was found in the “50% blue light + 50% red light” application. In addition, the number of the stems reached the highest value in the “70% blue light + 30% red light” application. Consequently, a correlation was observed between negative “a” value and the amount of chlorophyll. Because of the hereby obtained results, comparing to other applications, the “50% blue light + 50% red light” was found as the best light application to obtain optimum yield values of stevia.
Sanjita Chanu Konsam, Kangjam Tilotama Devi, , Potshangbam Kumar Singh
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 370-372; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839871

Abstract:
Ten lesser known wild edible plants (WEPs) from Senapati District, Manipur, were analyzed for their proximate composition and mineral content. The study revealed that different WEPs have crude fat content that ranged between 0.41 - 21.5%, total sugar was found to be between 2.00 - 59.00%, total soluble protein between 1.40 - 8.0% and total amino acids between 1.50 - 5.25 mg/100 g respectively, whereas the highest and the lowest crude protein contents were recorded in H. macrocarpa (27.56%) and S. suaveolens (4.37%) respectively. Among the micronutrients, the highest amounts of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Co were recorded in C. hirsuta (155.50 mg/100 g), E. acuminata (105.50 mg/100 g), S. suaveolens (76.50 mg/100 g in Zn and 24.0 mg/100 g in Cu) and R. ellipticum (3.0 mg/100 g), while the lowest amounts were recorded in E.phaseoloides (61.50 mg/100 g), O.indicum (1 mg/100 g), E. acuminate (17.50 mg/100 g) and C. montana (0.5 mg/100 g)respectively. Higher amounts of Ca and Mg were observed in all the plants studied, ranging from 458 to 765 mg/100 g in Ca and 148.50 to 995.0 mg/100 g in Mg. E.lineolatum indicated the highest amount of Ca by containing 765.0 mg/100 g, while A. ciliata recorded the highest value of Mg by containing 995.0 mg/100 g. The nutritive values of the ten WEPs were found to be comparable or even higher than the conventional vegetables, with respect to proteins and minerals, especially for Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn respectively.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 272-276; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839867

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook f.) methanol leaf extract on some hematological indices and histomorphology of the uterus and liver of female albino rats. Acute toxicity study of the extract was performed with female rats, following standard procedure. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The first group (A) served as the untreated control and received distilled water, while the second group (B) and third (C) received 200 and 800 mg/kg mg/kg body weight of the methanol leaf extract of T. occidentalis respectively.Administration of the extract was done daily via the oral route for 21 days. Blood was collected for hematological evaluation at weekly intervals. Hematological parameters assessed were the packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin concentration (HB) and total white blood cell (TWBC) count. At the end of the study period uterine and liver tissues were excised and prepared for histological examination. Results showed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the mean PCV, RBC and HB values of the treatment groups, but only at the end of the second week of administration of the extract. There was no significant difference (P >0.05) in the mean total WBC throughout the duration of the study. Histological examination of uterine and liver tissues of the different groups did not show any lesions. It was concluded that the T. occidentalis leaf methanolic extract does not adversely affect the reproductive functions of the uterus.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 292-300; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839856

Abstract:
The antimalarial efficacy and safety of mechanically induced solventlessly synthesized lumefantrine-copper complex were investigated in experimental mice. Parasite level in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice treated with lumefantrine - copper complex (LCC) significantly declined (p < 0.05) at day 3 and was comparable with that of chloroquine-treated mice. LCC attained a percentage chemo-suppression which was significantly higher than those of pure lumefantrine and comparable with chloroquine. Pure lumefantrine attained a clearance of 88.52%, chloroquine was 91.95%, while LCC was 95.10%. Administration of lumefantrine, LCC and chloroquine to mice for 7 days caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in the liver when compared with the control, and a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the liver and kidney activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases when compared with the control. Also, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the levels of PCV, Hb, RBC and lymphocytes and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the white blood cells count and neutrophil counts in all the treatment groups when compared with control. Alterations in the biochemical parameters and chromosomal aberration in the organs investigated suggested selective, chromosomal and functional toxicity of the tested drugs.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 380-385; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839864

Abstract:
Estimation of genetic parameters at SSR loci can be applied for assessing the differences between cultivars or populations, either for variety distinction or the management of genetic resources. In this study, 13 Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were analyzed using 10 SSR markers selected for studying the genetic diversity among these chosen cultivars. Over the 10 SSR markers, a total of 45 reproducible bands were scored with an average of 4.5 alleles/locus, while the observed heterozygosity (Ho) values of amplified loci ranged from 0.15 (SSR1) to 0.92 (SSR2 and SSR 11). Genetic distance analysis of the 13 cultivars showed a large genetic differentiation (GST = 0.47) and high number of different groups. Most of the accessions were not found to be clustered according to their eco-geographical origin. In addition, each cultivar was characterized by its own multiallelic combination between loci. The results revealed the usefulness of SSR in understanding of genetic diversity in Moroccans Barbary fig cultivars, thus being helpful to set up rational decisions concerning the establishment of a national reference collection.
Joshua D. Buah, , Yila G. Lakwannum, Elizabeth K. Ale
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 342-346; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839848

Abstract:
This study was aimed at unraveling the morphological effect of salinity on germination, growth and yield of S. lycopersicum, through inducement of salinity (0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g NaCl). All the parameters considered: germination percentage, leaves number, stem girth, plant height and fruit quality, were significantly affected by NaCl treatments (salinity) compared with the control (no salinity). 100% germination was recorded only in control and 4 g NaCl concentration, though the percentage of germination was faster in control than within the 4 g NaCl. ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ plants’ growth till maturity, shed leaves, chlorosis and leaf burns around edges occurred due to osmotic imbalance and water deficit caused by salinity, which invariably had effect on leaf area, although the reduction in leaf area varied among tested NaCl concentrations. Fruits yield and quality of ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ treated with NaCl was poor and relative to the degree of saline inducements, with 10 g NaCl treatment producing the least fruits. Chlorophyll contents were also significantly reduced by increasing saline concentrations. Ca and K were the predominant elements found in the digested fruit samples observed under Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) at different NaCl concentrations, while Mg, Na and P were significantly less. Salinity is a major abiotic factor that hampered the overall performance of tomato crop in salient ways and must therefore be curbed in order to meet its increasing global demand.
Alireza Koocheki,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 334-341; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839855

Abstract:
Saffron’s color, taste and odor result from the chemicals crocin, picrocrocin and safranal, respectively. Hence, in addition to quantitative yield, secondary metabolites content are known as crucial factors for a successful saffron production. Moreover, enhancing resources efficiency, especially water and nitrogen, is becoming increasingly important for agricultural improvement in arid and semi-arid regions. Thus, the effects of irrigation levels and corm planting on crocin, picrocrocin and safranal content, water use efficiency (WUE) as well as nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of saffron were investigated as a two-year field experiment based on a randomized complete block design arranged in split-plot with three replicates. The irrigation levels (100, 75 and 50% of saffron water requirement) and corm planting pattern (50, 100, 200 and 300 corms m-2) were allocated to main and sub-plots, respectively. Based on the results, crocin and picrocrocin content increased with decreasing irrigation levels. The highest WUES (WUE based on dry stigma yield) was obtained when 50% of saffron water requirement was supplied. However, the lowest WUEC (WUE based on daughter corms yield) and NUEC (NUE based on daughter corms yield) were obtained when 50% of saffron water requirement was applied. Irrespective of irrigation levels, WUES, WUEC and NUEC increased with increasing the planting density. The results demonstrated that although relatively severe water stress increases WUES and secondary metabolites in saffron stigmas, it could decrease WUEC and NUEC through affecting daughter corm growth.
, Kristina Dwi Atmini, Dedeh Siti Badriah, Mega Wegadara
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 317-325; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839830

Abstract:
Phalaenopsis is of high economic value and market demand in Indonesia; however, orchid products are mostly imported from other countries. ‘Kristina Dwi’ (KD) 69.274 and ‘Dedeh’ (D) 802.28 are two selected clones with high potential utilized and developed commercially. To support their commercialization, a reliable in vitro propagation protocol is essential. In the current study, an in vitro mass propagation protocol for KD 69.274 and D 802.28 clones was successfully established using shoot tips as explant sources. A high number of embryos, up to 8.2 embryos per explant, with 58.5% explant regeneration, and 3.5 regenerated-explants in average were regenerated from shoot tips of KD 69.274 clone cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, with full strength micro, Fe-chellate and vitamin containing 0.5 mg/L thidiazuruon (TDZ) and 0.25 mg/L N6-benzyladenine (BA). The initial embryos were proliferated by culturing embryos individually on half-strength MS medium with 0.13 mg/L TDZ and 0.25 mg/L BA and resulted in high embryo regeneration up to 91.4%, with 10.2 embryos per explant and no embryo browning. The embryos were multiplied under periodical subcultures of 3 months each, resulting in gradual increasing number of embryos from the first subculture till the fifth subculture, with 23.6 embryos produced, then declined afterward. The embryos were easily germinated on half-strength MS medium with full strength of vitamin and hormone free, with 73.9% embryo germination and 14.9 germinated embryos. Healthy plantlets were stimulated on the same medium with 2 g/L activated charcoal (AC) and successfully acclimatized on Cycas rumphii bulk, with 88.3% survival plantlets. Finally, it can be summarized that a new in vitro mass propagation protocol, as new alternative choice for Phalaenopsis propagation, was successfully established.
Peter A. Adeonipekun, , David Eden
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 326-333; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb839844

Abstract:
Honey samples from three different ecozones - coastal freshwater (Ogba), lowland rainforest (Oka-Akoko) and montane Sudan savanna (Mambilla plateau) – were subjected to melissopalynological, proximate and elemental analyses, as well as antimicrobial studies. The aim of the research was to determine the contribution of pollen, if any, in the antimicrobial activities of the studied honey samples. Standard preparation methods were adopted for these studies. The Mambilla honey recorded the highest pollen diversity, while that of Oka-Akoko and Ogba regions had similar diversity, both having lower values. The Ogba honey however contained the highest abundance of pollen. Proximate analysis showed that the Mambilla honey also recorded the highest values of moisture, ash, protein, fats and oil, as well as potassium and reducing sugars. Antimicrobial investigation revealed the highest antimicrobial activities for the Mambilla honey, followed by Oka-Akoko and Ogba against Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative). Moisture content, proteins and carbohydrates were significantly different, with positive and negative trends respectively, when related with the antimicrobial activities of the honey samples. The pollen contents were also qualitatively different. This is the first time the antimicrobial activity of honey is ever traced to pollen contents. More conclusions can be accurately made only after further research upon pollen grains directly.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 489-497; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849921

Abstract:
The composition and diversity of climbers among grassland, wasteland and forest vegetations was examined with respect to their woodiness, climbing mode and circumnutation pattern across the vegetational landscape of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh during 2011-2015. A total of 111 climbers, constituting 63 lianas and 48 vine species, under 35 families, were recorded. The forest and wasteland vegetation were quite similar in regard with climber diversity. Family Convolvulaceae included a maximum of 19 climbers. Majority of twining climbers showed right-handed twining. The wasteland vegetation was most suitable and quite similar to forest habitat for vines as well as for lianas. The right handed circumnutation was the dominant pattern among the twiners of the region.Local climbing flora provides considerable natural resource to the region. They often create special micro-habitats and increase the complexity of the ecosystem.
Ion C. Puia, Aida Puia, Sebastian Gheorghiu, Paul G. Cristea
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 387-392; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849930

Abstract:
Redo antireflux surgery is an advanced surgical procedure which encompasses the following usual steps: takedown of the previous fundoplication, repair of the hiatal defect followed by the actual antireflux procedure. The aim of our extensive review of current relevant literature is to discuss the indications, techniques, complications and limitations of this surgery. In reoperations, a great percentage of surgeons favor the short floppy Nissen, although partial plications or gastrojejunostomies are also practiced. A shortened esophagus is usually one of several causes for reflux reoccurrence, and requires either an extended periesophageal dissection or a Collis gastroplasty. The surface of the hiatal defect, rather than its diameter, is the most important indication for repair. Many repair variants have been introduced and tested, showing that antireflux surgery is still awaiting ideal prosthetic material, whereas details regarding tailoring, placement and suturing of current meshes are subjects of debate. The most frequent complication is gastric perforation; others include pulmonary or cardiac failure, infections, and acute pancreatitis. Mortality approaches 1% with a procedure success rate of 80%. Thus, due to its complexity and challenges, redo antireflux surgery should be performed by an experienced team in a tertiary center to increase its success rate.
Aida Puia, Ion C. Puia,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 393-395; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849932

Abstract:
Benign pancreatic tumor enucleations have been performed since 1996. Endocrine tumors (ET) are rare yet they represent about 2/3 of the laparoscopic enucleations, a topic still in debate. Preoperative imaging routinely comprises a CT scan but endoscopic ultrasound is mandatory for localizing the tumor and guided biopsy-aspiration. Trocars have to be positioned to avoid “fencing” with the instruments. A Kocher maneuver may be necessary for accessing deep or posterior tumors. Bipolar electrocautery and harmonic scalpel ensure better hemostasis than the monopolar cautery hook. The raw surface can be covered with hemostatics or fibrin glue. The mean operating time is 2 hours. Forced conversions, due mainly to hemorrhage or insufficient exposure, are rare (9%). Pancreatic fistula, the main postoperative complication, affects up to one third of the patients and does not depend on the choice of dissection instruments, management of the remaining cavity or somatostatin use. A risk factor is the location of the tumor at less than 2mm from the main pancreatic duct. Necrotic pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst and duodenal fistula contribute to a surgical morbidity of 60%. Although safe and technically feasible enucleation still has to be considered a low mortality but high morbidity procedure.
, , , Lateef Akinkunle Hammed, David Kolawole Ojo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 482-488; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849895

Abstract:
Knowledge of floral biology is essential to crop improvement. Ten genotypes of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) were observed for floral morphology, phenology and insect visitation for two consecutive years. Functional dioecy of fluted pumpkin was confirmed, whereas none of the studied genotypes was monoecious. Floral structures differed significantly among the genotypes. Both male and female flowers were symmetrical, pentasepalous, fimbriate and non-bright pentapetalous, but male flowers were more numerous. Male inflorescences emerged from 11 to 14 weeks after planting and the female flower buds appeared about 4 weeks later. The flowering period of the male flowers was longer than that of female flowers and both gender flowering periods coincided for a specific interval. It took between 11 to 14 days from bud initiation to anthesis and flowering ceased when there were occurrences of successful fruits set. In both gender flowers petals started unfurling at around 6.00 pm and full bloom was achieved by dawn, while petal shrivelled at sun set (between 6.30 pm to 7.30 pm). The anthers dehisced at anthesis of the male flowers; the pollen grains were whitish and sticky. Only the male flowers have nectar and pollen and this may explain infrequent female flowers visitation. Hover flies (Cheilosia species) were the major floral visitors observed.
Alireza Koocheki,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 461-467; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849891

Abstract:
A greenhouse research experiment was conducted. The experiment was arranged in factorial layout based on a completely randomized design. The mother corm size (0.1-4 g, 4.1-8 g and 8-12 g), organic fertilizers (cattle manure 15 t ha-1, vermicompost 10 t ha-1,chamomilecompost 10 t ha-1 and control) and micronutrients (Fe-EDTA and Zn-EDTA) in two levels (foliar application and no application) were assigned as the first, second and third experimental factors, respectively. Based on the results, with increasing mother corm size, formation of small corms (0.1-4 g) decreased, whereas the percentage of medium (4.1-8 g) or large size (more than 8 g) corms increased. The highest corm yield was observed when cattle manure was applied.Moreover, foliar application increased daughter corm yield in medium and larger size corms. Phosphorus and nitrogen concentration in daughter corms increased with increasing the size of mother corms. Organic fertilizers significantly increased phosphorus and nitrogen concentration in all size of corms: phosphorus content in large daughter corms increased five times on account of cattle manure application. Proper nutrient management during the first year of saffron propagation could improve corm number than rather corm weight.
Emre Sevindik, , , , Veysel Uzun
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 451-455; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849881

Abstract:
Simple, fast, low-cost and high throughput protocols are required for DNA isolation of plant species. In this study, phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol and commercial (Sigma) DNA isolation kit methods were applied on some Inula species that belong to Asteraceae family. Genomic DNA amounts, A260, A280, A260/A230 and purity degrees (A260/A280) that were obtained through both methods were measured through electrophoresis and spectrophotometer. Additionally, PCR amplification was realized by primer pairs specific to nrDNA ITS, cpDNA ndhF (972F-1603R) and trnL-F regions. Results showed that maximum genomic DNA in nanograms obtained by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. The study also revealed that I. macrocephala had the maximum DNA and I. heterolepis had the minimum DNA amount. A260/A280 purity degrees showed that the highest and lowest purity in gDNAs obtained through phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method were in I.aucheriana and I. salicina, respectively. The highest and lowest purity degrees of gDNAs obtained through commercial kit was observed in I. fragilis and I. macrocephala samples, respectively. PCR amplification results showed that while band profiles of each three regions (ITS, trnL-F and ndhF) did not yield positive results in PCR amplifications using phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method; PCR band profiles obtained through commercial kit yielded positive results. As a result, it is fair to say that the relation of genomic DNA with PCR was found to be more efficient although the maximum amount of genomic DNA was obtained through phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method.
Bolaji Fatai Oyeyemi, John Oluwafemi Adebayo, Abass Toba Anifowoshe, Oluyinka Ajibola Iyiola
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 396-400; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849888

Abstract:
Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. There are contradicting reports on its relationship with ethnicity/race, whereas convincing studies show it is related to obesity. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to demystify ethnic difference in 2D:4D ratio and to analyze its relationship with obesity among adults in Ilorin Nigeria. The cross-sectional study included 701 individuals. Finger lengths were measured with electronic calipers and other anthropometric traits were measured with standard procedure. Student test and one-way ANOVA were used to detect differences among groups and relationship was computed with Pearson correlation. The receiver operator characteristic curves were used to detect the diagnostic effect of 2D:4D for obesity. The obtained results showed sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D ratio and other anthropometrics at p < 0.01. Obesity was associated with significantly higher mean of 2D:4D in both genders (female 0.9814 ± 0.012:0.9700 ± 0.012; male 0.9700 ± 0.010:0.9592 ± 0.010 at p < 0.001). The area under the curve was 0.753 (95% CI 0.677-0.829, p < 0.01) and 0.798 (95% CI 0.756-0.804, p < 0.01) in female and male R2D:4D respectively for obesity, implying that 2D:4D might be a surrogate marker for obesity in future. No significant difference was found in 2D:4D among different ethnic groups studied (p >0.05); this result proved that there was no ethnic specificity in 2D:4D ratio among study’ participants. Thus, it can be reported that the digit ratio was related to high 2D:4D, but this cannot be said for different ethnic groups. The results imply that 2D:4D might be a good surrogate indicator for obesity, but not ethnicity.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 422-427; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849874

Abstract:
Apparently healthy, non-lactating, non-gravid adult large white pigs (15), adult cattle (10) and adult West African Dwarf (WAD) goats of either genders were used to investigate the morphology of haemal nodes using gross anatomical and histological techniques. The results demonstrated that the haemal nodes of pigs occurred in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions along the course of blood vessels. The ranges of the longest diameters of the dark brown organs were 6.1 – 30.3 cm in pigs, 4.1 – 18.7 cm in cattle and 2.7 – 8.2 cm in WAD goats. Bovine haemal nodes showed cortical and medullary parenchymal areas, with the cortex demonstrating primary and secondary lymphoid follicles in a circumferential fashion. The medulla showed blood filled medullary sinusoids and medullary cords. In WAD goat, the reticular cells and smooth muscle cells of the capsule were oriented in different directions and the subcapsular, cortical and medullary sinusoids exhibited erythrocytes in pockets. In conclusion, the present study has provided information on the distribution of haemal nodes in pigs as well as other unique morphological features of cattle and WAD goat haemal nodes that could aid their identification and suggest their roles in the body.
, Michael O. Awodiran, Omotayo Fagbuaro, Adetola O. Akomolafe
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 428-436; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849852

Abstract:
The study was designed to describe the phenotypic variations in morphometric and meristic characters of Clarias gariepinus between two populations in different towns in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Fish samples were collected from Ero dam (wild population at Ikun Ekiti) and Christeve Aquaculture (cultured population at Iyin Ekiti) using cast net and dragging net. The samples were brought to Zoology Laboratory in Ekiti State University and measurements for morphometrics (24) and meristics (11) of each of the investigated catfish specimen were taken using standard procedures. To test the significance of morphological differences between the wild and cultured populations, all the data on morphometrics and meristics were subjected to student's t-test at 5% level of significance. Principal Component Analyses and cluster analyses were then employed to analyse the data obtained from the morphological traits using Paleontological Statistics (PAST) software. Significant differences were observed in the means of the morphometric and meristic traits. The multivariate analysis also showed differences between the studied populations. These differences revealed the occurrence of heterogeneity between the two populations. Higher variations and sex related variations were also observed in the wild than in cultured population. The result show the potential for commercial purposes of the population. However, genetic markers can be used in further studies to confirm the phenotypic diversity observed and assess the amount of variation in these populations.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 408-413; https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb849857

Abstract:
The current study investigated the ameliorative effects of combined therapy of glibenclamide and G. latifolium (GL) on several biochemical parameters of alloxaized Wistar rats. Thirty adult male Wistar rats assigned into 5 groups of 6 rats each were used for the study. Groups 2-5 were intraperitoneally injected with 160 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and upon establishment of diabetes (Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dl) were treated with 10 ml/kg distilled water (DW), 2 mg/kg glibenclamide, 200 mg/kg GL and 2 mg/kg glibenclamide and 200 mg/kg GL respectively. Rats in group 1 were not made diabetic and served as normal control. All the treatments were realized through daily oral route using gastric tube, for 21 days. Results indicated that the treatment of diabetic rats with a combination of glibenclamide and GL significantly reduced the elevated glucose levels, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein and malondialdehyde levels, along with increases in the high density lipoprotein, glutathione values and catalase activities, when compared to diabetic untreated group. It was concluded that the combined therapy of glibenclamide and GL showed superior antihyperglycemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects compared to either of them used alone.
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