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Myles J. Stone, Ryan M. Close, Christopher K. Jentoft, Katherine Pocock, Gwendena Lee-Gatewood, Brooke I. Grow, Kristen H. Parker, April Twarkins, J. T. Nashio, James B. McAuley
American Journal of Public Health; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306472

Abstract:
Indigenous populations have been disproportionally affected by COVID-19, particularly those in rural and remote locations. Their unique environments and risk factors demand an equally unique public health response. Our rural Native American community experienced one of the highest prevalence outbreaks in the world, and we developed an aggressive management strategy that appears to have had a considerable effect on mortality reduction. The results have implications far beyond pandemic response, and have reframed how our community addresses several complicated health challenges. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 14, 2021:e1–e3. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306472 )
Lu Wang, Mengxi Du, Frederick Cudhea, Christina Griecci, Dominique S. Michaud, Dariush Mozaffarian, Fang Fang Zhang
American Journal of Public Health; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306475

Abstract:
Objectives. To quantify disparities in health and economic burdens of cancer attributable to suboptimal diet among US adults. Methods. Using a probabilistic cohort state-transition model, we estimated the number of new cancer cases and cancer deaths, and economic costs of 15 diet-related cancers attributable to suboptimal intake of 7 dietary factors (a low intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy, and whole grains and a high intake of red and processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages) among a closed cohort of US adults starting in 2017. Results. Suboptimal diet was estimated to contribute to 3.04 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 2.88, 3.20) million new cancer cases, 1.74 (95% UI = 1.65, 1.84) million cancer deaths, and $254 (95% UI = $242, $267) billion economic costs among US adults aged 20 years or older over a lifetime. Diet-attributable cancer burdens were higher among younger adults, men, non-Hispanic Blacks, and individuals with lower education and income attainments than other population subgroups. The largest disparities were for cancers attributable to high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and low consumption of whole grains. Conclusions. Suboptimal diet contributes to substantial disparities in health and economic burdens of cancer among young adults, men, racial/ethnic minorities, and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 14, 2021:e1–e11. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306475 )
Annie Ro, Helen W. Yang, Senxi Du, Courtney L. Hanlon, Andrew Shane Young
American Journal of Public Health; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306485

Abstract:
Objectives. To compare the severity of inpatient hospitalizations between undocumented immigrants and Medi-Cal patients in a large safety-net hospital in Los Angeles, California. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all 2019 inpatient stays at a Los Angeles hospital (n = 22 480), including patients of all races/ethnicities. We examined 3 measures by using insurance status to approximate immigration status: illness severity, length of hospital stay, and repeat hospitalizations. We calculated group differences between undocumented and Medi-Cal patients by using inverse probability weighted regression adjustment separately for patients aged 18 to 64 years and those aged 65 years and older. Results. Younger undocumented patients had less severe illness and shorter lengths of stay than their Medi-Cal counterparts. Older undocumented immigrants also had less severe illness, but had similar lengths of stay and were more likely to have repeated hospitalizations. Conclusions. While existing work suggests that undocumented immigrants could have more severe health care needs on account of their poorer access to medical care, we did not see clear health disadvantages among hospitalized undocumented immigrants, especially younger patients. There were fewer differences between undocumented and Medi-Cal patients who were older. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 14, 2021:e1–e8. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306485 )
Angela K. Shen, Cristi A. Bramer, Lynsey M. Kimmins, Robert Swanson, Patricia Vranesich, Walter Orenstein
American Journal of Public Health; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306474

Abstract:
Objectives. To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on immunization services across the life course. Methods. In this retrospective study, we used Michigan immunization registry data from 2018 through September 2020 to assess the number of vaccine doses administered, number of sites providing immunization services to the Vaccines for Children population, provider location types that administer adult vaccines, and vaccination coverage for children. Results. Of 12 004 384 individual vaccine doses assessed, 48.6%, 15.6%, and 35.8% were administered to children (aged 0–8 years), adolescents (aged 9–18 years), and adults (aged 19–105 years), respectively. Doses administered overall decreased beginning in February 2020, with peak declines observed in April 2020 (63.3%). Overall decreases in adult doses were observed in all settings except obstetrics and gynecology provider offices and pharmacies. Local health departments reported a 66.4% decrease in doses reported. For children, the total number of sites administering pediatric vaccines decreased while childhood vaccination coverage decreased 4.4% overall and 5.8% in Medicaid-enrolled children. Conclusions. The critical challenge is to return to prepandemic levels of vaccine doses administered as well as to catch up individuals for vaccinations missed. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 7, 2021: e1–e9. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306474 )
Joseph J. Palamar, Caroline Rutherford, Katherine M. Keyes
American Journal of Public Health; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306486

Abstract:
Objectives. To determine whether there have been shifts in nonmedical ketamine use, poisonings (“exposures”), and seizures. Methods. We used generalized additive models to detect trends in past-year use (2006–2019), exposures (1991–2019), and seizures (2000–2019) involving ketamine in the United States. Results. There was a quarterly increase in self-reported past-year nonmedical ketamine use in 2006 to 2014 (Β = 0.21; P = .030) and an increase in 2015 to 2019 (Β = 0.29; P = .036), reaching a peak of 0.9% in late 2019. The rate of exposures increased from 1991 through 2019 (Β = 0.87; P = .006), and there was an increase to 1.1 exposures per 1 000 000 population in 2014, with rates remaining stable through 2019. The rate of ketamine seizures increased from 2000 through 2019 (Β = 2.27; P < .001), with seizures reaching a peak in 2019 at 3.2 per 1000 seizures. Conclusions. Indicators suggest that ketamine use and availability has increased, including before increased medical indications, but nonmedical use is still currently uncommon despite increased acceptance and media coverage. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 7, 2021:e1–e4. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306486 )
Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Adam Benzekri, Marco Thimm-Kaiser, Amy Geller, Aimee Mead, Charlotte Gaydos, Edward Hook, Cornelis Rietmeijer
American Journal of Public Health; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306492

Robert M. Bossarte, Hannah N. Ziobrowski, David M. Benedek, Catherine L. Dempsey, Andrew J. King, Matthew K. Nock, Nancy A. Sampson, Murray B. Stein, Robert J. Ursano, Ronald C. Kessler
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1855-1864; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306420

Abstract:
Objectives. To examine associations of current mental and substance use disorders with self-reported gun ownership and carrying among recently separated US Army soldiers. Veterans have high rates of both gun ownership and mental disorders, the conjunction of which might contribute to the high suicide rate in this group. Methods. Cross-sectional survey data were collected in 2018–2019 from 5682 recently separated personnel who took part in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers. Validated measures assessed recent mood, anxiety, substance use, and externalizing disorders. Logistic regression models examined associations of sociodemographic characteristics, service characteristics, and mental disorders with gun ownership and carrying. Results. Of the participants, 50% reported gun ownership. About half of owners reported carrying some or most of the time. Mental disorders were not associated significantly with gun ownership. However, among gun owners, major depressive disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and intermittent explosive disorder were associated with significantly elevated odds of carrying at least some of the time. Conclusions. Mental disorders are not associated with gun ownership among recently separated Army personnel, but some mental disorders are associated with carrying among gun owners. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1855–1864. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306420 )
Marc R. Larochelle, Svetla Slavova, Elisabeth D. Root, Daniel J. Feaster, Patrick J. Ward, Sabrina C. Selk, Charles Knott, Jennifer Villani, Jeffrey H. Samet
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1851-1854; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306431

Abstract:
Objectives. To examine trends in opioid overdose deaths by race/ethnicity from 2018 to 2019 across 67 HEALing Communities Study (HCS) communities in Kentucky, New York, Massachusetts, and Ohio. Methods. We used state death certificate records to calculate opioid overdose death rates per 100 000 adult residents of the 67 HCS communities for 2018 and 2019. We used Poisson regression to calculate the ratio of 2019 to 2018 rates. We compared changes by race/ethnicity by calculating a ratio of rate ratios (RRR) for each racial/ethnic group compared with non-Hispanic White individuals. Results. Opioid overdose death rates were 38.3 and 39.5 per 100 000 for 2018 and 2019, respectively, without a significant change from 2018 to 2019 (rate ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98, 1.08). We estimated a 40% increase in opioid overdose death rate for non-Hispanic Black individuals (RRR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.62) relative to non-Hispanic White individuals but no change among other race/ethnicities. Conclusions. Overall opioid overdose death rates have leveled off but have increased among non-Hispanic Black individuals. Public Health Implications. An antiracist public health approach is needed to address the crisis of opioid-related harms. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1851–1854. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306431 )
Dylan B. Jackson, Alexander Testa, Rebecca L. Fix, Tamar Mendelson
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1885-1893; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306434

Abstract:
Objectives. To explore associations between police stops, self-harm, and attempted suicide among a large, representative sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Methods. Data were drawn from the 3 most recent sweeps of the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), from 2012 to 2019. The MCS is an ongoing nationally representative contemporary birth cohort of children born in the United Kingdom between September 2000 and January 2002 (n = 10 345). Weights were used to account for sample design and multiple imputation for missing data. Results. Youths experiencing police stops by the age of 14 years (14.77%) reported significantly higher rates of self-harm (incidence rate ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35, 1.69) at age 17 years and significantly higher odds of attempted suicide (odds ratio = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.84, 2.76) by age 17 years. These patterns were largely consistent across examined features of police stops and generally did not vary by sociodemographic factors. In addition, 17.73% to 40.18% of associations between police stops and outcomes were explained by mental distress. Conclusions. Police-initiated encounters are associated with youth self-harm and attempted suicide. Youths may benefit when school counselors or social workers provide mental health screenings and offer counseling care following these events. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1885–1893. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306434 )
David H. Chae, Shedra A. Snipes, Kara W. Chung, Connor D. Martz, Thomas A. LaVeist
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1736-1740; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306413

Meredith E. Hayden, Diane Rozycki, Kawai O. Tanabe, Marsh Pattie, Laurie Casteen, Susan Davis, Christopher P. Holstege
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1772-1775; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306424

Abstract:
Rapid identification and management of students with COVID-19 symptoms, exposure, or disease are critical to halting disease spread and protecting public health. We describe the interdisciplinary isolation and quarantine program of a large, public university, the University of Virginia, Charlottesville. The program provided students with wraparound services, including medical, mental health, academic, and other support services during their isolation or quarantine stay. The program successfully accommodated 844 cases during the fall 2020 semester, thereby decreasing exposure to the rest of the university and the local community. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1772–1775. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306424 )
Thomas E. Smith, Ian T. Rodgers, Daniel J. Silverman, Sally R. Dreslin, Mark Olfson, Lisa B. Dixon, Melanie M. Wall
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1780-1783; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306444

Abstract:
Individuals with serious mental illness are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19. The New York State (NYS) Office of Mental Health implemented patient and staff rapid testing, quarantining, and vaccination to limit COVID-19 spread in 23 state-operated psychiatric hospitals between November 2020 and February 2021. COVID-19 infection rates in inpatients and staff decreased by 96% and 71%, respectively, and the NYS population case rate decreased by 6%. Repeated COVID-19 testing and vaccination should be priority interventions for state-operated psychiatric hospitals. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1780–1783. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306444 )
Sally Moyce, Julie Ruff, Ann Galloway, Sarah Shannon
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1776-1779; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306435

Abstract:
We describe a large-scale collaborative intervention of practice measures and COVID-19 vaccine administration to college students in the priority 1b group, which included Black or Indigenous persons and other persons of color. In February 2021, at this decentralized vaccine distribution site at Montana State University in Bozeman, we administered 806 first doses and 776 second doses by implementing an interprofessional effort with personnel from relevant university units, including facilities management, student health, communications, administration, and academic units (e.g., nursing, medicine, medical assistant program, and engineering). (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 9, 2021:1776–1779. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306435 )
Nicholas Freudenberg
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1757-1760; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306481

Elizabeth A. Erdman, Leonard D. Young, Dana L. Bernson, Cici Bauer, Kenneth Chui, Thomas J. Stopka
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1830-1838; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306432

Abstract:
Objectives. To develop an imputation method to produce estimates for suppressed values within a shared government administrative data set to facilitate accurate data sharing and statistical and spatial analyses. Methods. We developed an imputation approach that incorporated known features of suppressed Massachusetts surveillance data from 2011 to 2017 to predict missing values more precisely. Our methods for 35 de-identified opioid prescription data sets combined modified previous or next substitution followed by mean imputation and a count adjustment to estimate suppressed values before sharing. We modeled 4 methods and compared the results to baseline mean imputation. Results. We assessed performance by comparing root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and proportional variance between imputed and suppressed values. Our method outperformed mean imputation; we retained 46% of the suppressed value’s proportional variance with better precision (22% lower RMSE and 26% lower MAE) than simple mean imputation. Conclusions. Our easy-to-implement imputation technique largely overcomes the adverse effects of low count value suppression with superior results to simple mean imputation. This novel method is generalizable to researchers sharing protected public health surveillance data. (Am J Public Health. 2021; 111(10):1830–1838. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306432 )
Meg Lovejoy, Erin L. Kelly, Laura D. Kubzansky, Lisa F. Berkman
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1787-1795; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306283

Abstract:
Work is a key social determinant of population health and well-being. Yet, efforts to improve worker well-being in the United States are often focused on changing individual health behaviors via employer wellness programs. The COVID-19 health crisis has brought into sharp relief some of the limitations of current approaches, revealing structural conditions that heighten the vulnerability of workers and their families to physical and psychosocial stressors. To address these gaps, we build on existing frameworks and work redesign research to propose a model of work redesign updated for the 21st century that identifies strategies to reshape work conditions that are a root cause of stress-related health problems. These strategies include increasing worker schedule control and voice, moderating job demands, and providing training and employer support aimed at enhancing social relations at work. We conclude that work redesign offers new and viable directions for improving worker well-being and that guidance from federal and state governments could encourage the adoption and effective implementation of such initiatives. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1787–1795. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306283 )
Daniel Eisenkraft Klein, Joana Madureira Lima
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1750-1752; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306467

Elizabeth C. Long, Jessica Pugel, J. Taylor Scott, Nicolyn Charlot, Cagla Giray, Mary A. Fernandes, D. Max Crowley
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1768-1771; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306404

Abstract:
Racial disparities and racism are pervasive public health threats that have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it is critical and timely for researchers to communicate with policymakers about strategies for reducing disparities. From April through July 2020, across four rapid-cycle trials disseminating scientific products with evidence-based policy recommendations for addressing disparities, we tested strategies for optimizing the reach of scientific messages to policymakers. By getting such research into the hands of policymakers who can act on it, this work can help combat racial health disparities.(Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1768–1771. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306404 )
Kevin Martinez-Folgar, Diego Alburez-Gutierrez, Alejandra Paniagua-Avila, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Usama Bilal
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1839-1846; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306452

Abstract:
Objectives. To describe excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Guatemala during 2020 by week, age, sex, and place of death. Methods. We used mortality data from 2015 to 2020, gathered through the vital registration system of Guatemala. We calculated weekly mortality rates, overall and stratified by age, sex, and place of death. We fitted a generalized additive model to calculate excess deaths, adjusting for seasonality and secular trends and compared excess deaths to the official COVID-19 mortality count. Results. We found an initial decline of 26% in mortality rates during the first weeks of the pandemic in 2020, compared with 2015 to 2019. These declines were sustained through October 2020 for the population younger than 20 years and for deaths in public spaces and returned to normal from July onward in the population aged 20 to 39 years. We found a peak of 73% excess mortality in mid-July, especially in the population aged 40 years or older. We estimated a total of 8036 excess deaths (95% confidence interval = 7935, 8137) in 2020, 46% higher than the official COVID-19 mortality count. Conclusions. The extent of this health crisis is underestimated when COVID-19 confirmed death counts are used. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10): 1839–1846. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306452 )
Alisha H. Redelfs, Paola G. Donoso Naranjo, María del Pilar L. Guillén Núñez
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1825-1829; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.111.10.1825

Kristen Schorpp Rapp, Vanessa V. Volpe, Hannah Neukrug
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1796-1805; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306455

Abstract:
Objectives. To quantify racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between state-level sexism and barriers to health care access among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women in the United States. Methods. We merged a multidimensional state-level sexism index compiled from administrative data with the national Consumer Survey of Health Care Access (2014–2019; n = 10 898) to test associations between exposure to state-level sexism and barriers to access, availability, and affordability of health care. Results. Greater exposure to state-level sexism was associated with more barriers to health care access among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women, but not non-Hispanic White women. Affordability barriers (cost of medical bills, health insurance, prescriptions, and tests) appeared to drive these associations. More frequent need for care exacerbated the relationship between state-level sexism and barriers to care for Hispanic women. Conclusions. The relationship between state-level sexism and women’s barriers to health care access differs by race/ethnicity and frequency of needing care. Public Health Implications. State-level policies may be used strategically to promote health care equity at the intersection of gender and race/ethnicity. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1796–1805. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306455 )
Georges C. Benjamin, Alfredo Morabia, Farzana Kapadia
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1710-1710; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306497

Robert L. Phillips, Norma F. Kanarek, Vickie L. Boothe
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1865-1873; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306437

Abstract:
For nearly 2 decades, the Community Health Status Indicators tool reliably supplied communities with standardized, local health data and the capacity for peer-community comparisons. At the same time, it created a large community of users who shared learning in addressing local health needs. The tool survived a transition from the Health Resources and Services Administration to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention before being shuttered in 2017. While new community data tools have come online, nothing has replaced Community Health Status Indicators, and many stakeholders continue to clamor for something new that will enable local health needs assessments, peer comparisons, and creation of a community of solutions. The National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics heard from many stakeholders that they still need a replacement data source. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1865–1873. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306437 )
Lauren Tingey, Rachel Chambers, Hima Patel, Shea Littlepage, Shauntel Lee, Angelita Lee, Davette Susan, Laura Melgar, Anna Slimp, Summer Rosenstock
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1874-1884; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306447

Abstract:
Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of the Respecting the Circle of Life program (RCL) among Native American youths 11 to 19 years of age residing in a rural reservation community in the southwestern United States. Methods. Between 2016 and 2018, we conducted a randomized controlled trial of the RCL program with 534 Native youths. Participants completed assessments at baseline and 9 and 12 months after the intervention. We conducted intention-to-treat analyses based on study group randomization. Results. At 9 months, intervention participants had significantly better condom use self-efficacy (P < .001), higher intentions to use condoms (P = .024) and abstain from sex (P = .008), and better contraceptive use self-efficacy (P < .001) than control participants, as well as better condom use (P = .032) and contraceptive use (P = .002) negotiation skills. At 12 months, intervention participants had significantly better sexual and reproductive health knowledge (P = .021), condom use self-efficacy (P < .001), contraceptive use self-efficacy (P < .001), and contraceptive use negotiation skills (P = .004) than control participants. Intervention participants reported significantly more communication with their parents about sexual and reproductive health than control participants at both 9 and 12 months (P = .042 and P = .001, respectively). Conclusions. The RCL program has a significant impact on key factors associated with pregnancy prevention among Native youths and should be used as an adolescent pregnancy prevention strategy. Trial Registration. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT02904629. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10): 1874–1884. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306447 )
Demetrius A. Abshire, Guillermo M. Wippold, Dawn K. Wilson, Bernardine M. Pinto, Janice C. Probst, James W. Hardin
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1761-1763; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306482

Ezra S. Lichtman
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1806-1814; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306417

Abstract:
Radical health reform movements of the 1960s inspired two widely adopted alternative health care models in the United States: free clinics and community health centers. These groundbreaking institutions attempted to realize bold ideals but faced financial, bureaucratic, and political obstacles. This article examines the history of Fair Haven Community Health Care (FHCHC) in New Haven, Connecticut, an organization that spanned both models and typified innovative aspects of each while resisting the forces that tempered many of its contemporaries’ progressive practices. Motivated by a tradition of independence and struggling to address medical neglect in their neighborhood, FHCHC leaders chose not to affiliate with the local academic hospital, a decision that led many disaffected community members to embrace the clinic. The FHCHC also prioritized grant funding over fee-for-service revenue, thus retaining freedom to implement creative programs. Furthermore, the center functioned in an egalitarian manner, enthusiastically employing nurse practitioners and whole-staff meetings, and was largely able to avoid the conflicts that strained other community-controlled organizations. The FHCHC proved unusual among free clinics and health centers and demonstrated strategies similar institutions might employ to overcome common challenges. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10): 1806–1814. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306417 )
Jill Barr-Walker, Teresa DePiñeres, Peace Ossom-Williamson, Biftu Mengesha, Nancy F. Berglas
American Journal of Public Health, Volume 111, pp 1753-1756; https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2021.306471

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