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Panigrahi M.K
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 4, pp 1-10;

The aim of the work is to use industrial waste as resource materials for formulating useful product for society. Materials are prepared using Fly ash as main ingredient through sintered process via solid state route. Different materials are prepared using various sintering temperature. The crystal structural and phases are explored by XRD analysis. Mulite phase are investigated, which is indicated the insulating properties of the materials. Surface topography of the prepared materials is analyzed by FESEM characterization. EDS analysis is also done during the FESEM characterization and is assessed the various chemical compositions. Identification of different chemical groups in the processed Fly Ash is carried out by FTIR analysis. Highest electrical resistivity is estimated and is found to be 35.1 MΩ, which indicates the very good insulating property.
Salaudeen Abdulwasiu Olawale, National Mathematical Centre Chemistry Unit Of Applied Mathematics Programme, Aduloju Emmanuel Ibukun, Yakubu Hajara
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 4, pp 11-16;

Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption technique was employed in the measurement of the Specific Surface Area (SSA) of Termite Feathers (TF). The adsorption study was carried out at 25°C and 270 rpm after which the residual concentration of MB was determined spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 660 nm. The adsorption data was found to conform to the Langmuir model within the concentration range studied and Langmuir constants were determined for TF. The specific surface area was then calculated from the Langmuir isotherm constant ‘b’. Effect of pre-treatment temperature on SSA was also considered at 30, 40, 50 and 60OC. The specific surface area was found to be 58.85 m2/g for the raw TF with values of 60.34, 78.52, 99.64 and 118.26 m2/g for the samples pre-treated at 30, 40, 50 and 60OC respectively. Finally, the specific surface area value obtained by MB adsorption technique was then compared with those obtained by Orth phenanthroline (OP) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) adsorption
SwapnilA Roy, Uttariya Roy
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 14-19;

Carcinogenic as well as chemotherapeutic waste is potential hazard to the environment because it is a type of toxic waste according by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). The procedure of disposal of carcinogenic waste inside hospital, chemical industry and pharmaceutical industry is important concern for our society. The contribution from the Indian Judiciary in its own way to bring effective legal control of these hazardous substances and waste. Moreover, the problems related to judicial issues in tackling the technical issues and the executive inaction make it inevitable to have a separate system of administration of environmental justice and supervisory system so that our environment will be protected. The present paper investigates the treatability study of carcinogenic waste and its assessment of associated environmental risk according to the Indian hazardous substances and waste laws.
Anyanwu K.O, Anyakwo A.N, Ndukwe A.I, Chukwudike O, Chukwudi A.P
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 7-13;

In this paper, effort has been made to determine the durability of polyurethane coating on mild steel in acid, alkaline and neutral soil. A total of 42 mild steel coupons were used. Out of the 42 coupons, 21 were coated with polyurethane and the remaining 21 were left uncoated. Acid soil (pH = 4.5), Alkaline soil (pH =13.5) and neutral soil (pH = 6.8) were used as the test media. Seven each of the coated and uncoated coupons were buried in each soil media. On weekly basis, one coated and one uncoated coupon were withdrawn from each of the soil media and reweighed. The durability of the coating in each soil media was calculated using a proposed model. From the results obtained, the durability of polyurethane coating was found to be 7.0yrs, 4.5yrs and 2.9yrs in neutral, acid and alkaline soil respectively.
Pranav Badyal
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3;

This paper explores several political and historical events intersected with concepts from sociology to examine the growth and development of the English language in India during the pre-Independence and after independence eras. This development is viewed in parallel with the changing societal setup by utilising concepts like westernisation and modernisation that helped facilitate education and promote social equality among the people by shrinking the persisting barrier of caste system to a profound extent and diminishing the role of indigenous concepts of social upliftment like Sanskritisation. After foreseeing the number of speakers of English that gives rise to the standard variety of English in India, i.e., Indian English, its potential in a socio-cultural context, and the interest among subsequent learners of the language, the paper concludes that the growth prospects for English appear to be vital, and it will continue to emerge as an essential language in the coming generations in India.
Mahmut Esad Ergin
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 1-6;

The quality of the public transport system is an important factor in determining passenger travel satisfaction and it leads to a better quality of life. Quality of life depends on the quality of services provided in the city. Satisfaction is strongly related to the perception of the users. Many people use public transport on their everyday trips and this paper investigates how road users perceive the public transportation system and the place of the stress factor in this perception. Furthermore, willingness to pay analysis was also carried out, and the amount of additional charge for a less stressful trip was included as a new variable in the model. The binomial logit model is used as a method in this study. As a result, the trip time and the home-based work trips increase the stress level in travel rises. Stress level affects the perception of public transport users, and therefore, users tend to stay away from the stress.
Ranjith Kumar E
Published: 26 March 2022
NanoNEXT, Volume 3, pp 1-4;

Cadmium oxide nanostructures were prepared utilising a noval microwave irradiated wet chemical technique with sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate as the surfactant and two distinct co-reagents (NH3 and NaOH). XRD, and FTIR were used to examine the microstructural properties of synthesised and heat-treated (300°C) CdO nanostructures. As prepared and annealed smaples, the fluctuation of crystallite size and morphology of CdO nanostructures with different co-reagents was investigated. The average crystallite size of the samples was 11.4 to 17.8 nm for the NH3 reagent and 9.7 to 16.8 nm for the NaOH reagent.
Darweesh H.H.M
Published: 30 March 2022
NanoNEXT, Volume 3, pp 5-22;

The activated pulverized rice husk ash (PRHA) as a pozzolanic material mixed with Portland cement (OPC) in various ratios was synthesized as geopolymer cement. The alkaline activator was prepared from a mixture of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Effect of OPC replacement on the various properties of the synthesized geopolymers was evaluated. The results showed that the water of consistency sharply decreased with the increase of the OPC addition, while the setting times (initial and final) slightly decreased. The water absorption and apparent porosity reduced with OPC replacement at the expense of PRHA merely up to 18 wt. % content, and then increased. The bulk density as well as flexural and compressive strengths improved and enhanced also up to 18 wt. % OPC content, but then declined with any further increase. The free lime content increased up to 3 days of curing and then decreased onward due to its consumption during the pozzolanic reactions. The 18 wt. % OPC geopolymer mix is the optimum mix, where it achieved the better water absorption (6.89 %), bulk density (1.9099 g/cm3), apparent porosity (15.62 %), flexural strength (5.54 MPa) and compressive strength (58.25 MPa) at 90 days curing times. The ultrasonic pulse velocity test largely confirmed the obtained physical and mechanical characteristics. The FTIR spectra showed that the spectra of G18 geopolymer was more pronounced due to the formation of NASH geopolymer-gel needed to ensure better conformity between different constituents in the whole system that responsible for the improvements in the mechanical properties. The microstructure of the optimum G18 geopolymer mix is well-defined with no or little pores that responsible for the improving of physical properties and the enhancement of mechanical strengths, whereas the microstructure of G24 is more porous and heterogeneous matrix which was contributed to the reduction of mechanical strengths.
Chandan Kumar
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 32-45;

The paper proposes that Magahi, a modern Indo-Aryan language, presents the phenomenon of multiple determiners in the syntax of modification and argues that the phenomenon is not a simple case of agreement in definiteness in the noun phrase whereby the additional determiner carries a similar semantic feature. I present examples that contest the possibility of it as a case of concord or agree. For the semantic motivation of the phenomenon, following Plank (2003) & Kumar (2020), the paper claims that the definite determiner /-wa/ in Magahi is not an exclusively dedicated definiteness morpheme, and therefore, the language needs an additional linguistic element. I claim that the additional determiner weakens the definiteness of the definite determiner /-wa/, creating a projection problem in the overall referentiality of the NP. By further describing the individual semantics of the determiner on the noun and the adjective, the paper claims that the determiner on the adjective exudes the semantics of specificity that can co-occur with the numeral. However, the determiner on the noun has the semantics of familiarity or identifiability. The paper further provides an exhaustive account of semantic and structural description and motivation of the phenomenon.
Nimali Wijegoonewardene, Janaki Vidanapathirana
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 5, pp 35-46;

Coping strategies are specific methods used in managing the internal and external demands faced by individuals, which are found to be going beyond their resources. This qualitative study aimed to describe the coping strategies adopted by Correctional and Rehabilitation Officers working in Sri Lankan prisons to reduce their stress and subsequent burnout. The study was carried out in 2017 in the Welikada Closed Prison and Badulla Remand Prison. Twenty prison correctional and rehabilitation officers participated in in-depth interviews. Officers with experience of more than two years in the prison setting were included. Both officers with and without burnout were selected based on the findings of a previous component of the study, with one rehabilitation officer and nine correctional officers from each category. A semi-structured in-depth interview guide was used. Thematic analysis was carried out. Both male and female officers between 23 and 55 years participated in the interviews. Some of the common problems leading to stressful situations were increased workload with additional and irrelevant duties expected from them, poor relationships with superiors, colleagues and inmates and poor support and pressure from the superiors. Six themes were extracted from the content discussed during the interviews. These were discussing with others as a means of seeking support, positive thinking, avoidance of the situation, distraction by involving in other activities, deviating the stress to others and trying to remove or reduce the stressor. Some of the participants thought they needed to learn better ways of coping with the occupational stress and burnout. Many of them believed that workshops on stress management need to be included in their continuous training. The high rank prison officials responsible for the welfare of prison officers were informed of the findings following the study, in order for them to make necessary improvements at the institution and policy level.
Nawaratne S.D, Vidanapathirana H.M.J.P
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 5, pp 1-9;

Psychoactive drug users are considered a hidden population and sampling community-based drug users are not feasible with probability sampling methods. The aim of the study was to conduct a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the Respondent Driven Sampling method to sample psychoactive drug users in the community. A community-based pilot study was conducted in Kandy District among 180 psychoactive drug users recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Formative assessment was conducted before data collection. Six purposely selected seeds were used. An incentive was provided for every respondent. RDS Analyst free software version 0.64 was used to visualize recruitment trees, recruitment waves, conduct recruitment homophily, convergence analysis, frequency distributions of sociodemographic characteristics and drug use patterns. Seven waves were reached to recruit the 180 drug users in five weeks duration. Two of the six seeds were unproductive. The coupon redeem rate was 34%. Hoping to quit drug use was the main reason for participating in the study. Eighty-one per cent found the data collection site easy or somewhat easy to access. The required sample size was able to achieve with respondent-driven sampling within a short duration of time while fulfilling basic assumptions of respondent-driven sampling. Moreover, the data demonstrate recruiting participants across genders, ethnicities, income levels, occupations, as well as drug use patterns. Therefore, it is a feasible and successful method to recruit psychoactive drug users in the community.
Sonia B SyGaco
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 5, pp 26-34;

Nine teenage Filipino-Germans were challenged to learn two languages when they moved to Dumaguete City, Philippines. These German native speakers were born in Germany and migrated to the Philippines with their German fathers and Filipino mothers. In this new environment, they have been exposed to communicating in Cebuano, the dominant language, and develop their listening, speaking, reading, and writing English skills in school. The Can-do Scale test of Keijzer (2007) demonstrates their ability to learn a second language, with all responders willing to read, speak, and write in Cebuano and English. Short-term Filipino-Germans (who stayed in the Philippines for less than five years) prefer to listen to German on the radio or television, while long-term respondents (those who lived in the Philippines for more than five years) with dwindling German vocabulary favor listening to Cebuano and English. The study concludes that German respondents have gradually acquired Cebuano and English through time. The long-term migrants have forgotten their first language, as seen in their reading, speaking and writing skills. In contrast, the short-term migrants are still proficient in their first language despite the competition of the other two languages.
Jelin Suji J, Mahila Jeni D
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 31-35;

Literature is a mirror of time. Sangam period literature to contemporary literature depicts the love and heroism that occupy an important place in the lives of Tamils. In addition, the traditions of parable, metaphor, imagination, implication, and flesh are dealt with. Thus, innovations that are considered contemporary literature also come out with image, content, and technique. This article is based on Meera's 'Oosigal' poetry, which traces the social ills, the tendency of politicians, and the rich to discriminate between rich and poor. The mockery of society is being created in the world of novel poetry with the expectation that reform will take place. This article makes it clear that the poet Meera's ‘Oosigal’ explores the social problems of poetry with humor. ‘Oosigal’ poetry may be situated to skin political, social, religious, and personal insults.
Chandrabose R
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 8-30;

Poykayil Yohannan, better known as Poykayil Appachan and Sreekumar Gurudevan (1879-1939) was one of the unparalleled renaissance heroes in the history of Kerala. He made various and intellectual contributions for the liberation of the Dalit people of Kerala through songs, Bible commentaries and social activities. This paper explores his physical and spiritual work for the upliftment of Dalit people and his role in the construction of Kerala Renaissance. Without the backing of formal education or scholarship, he gained knowledge from life experiences, learn to read and write on his own, overcame adversity and became a social reformer. Liberating Dalit people with his eloquence and rational analysis skill.
Arvind M. Nawale, Apurva Nawale
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 1-12;

One of the fundamental purposes and goals of learning and teaching around the world has been the active participation of students in higher education institutions. The teacher's knowledge alone is insufficient to ensure that the students understand the subject during the curricular transaction. The manner in which the lecture is delivered is equally important. As a result, in addition to the conventional method, PowerPoint presentations are being used on a larger scale. Furthermore, it enhances students' sense of pleasure and commitment and assists the teacher in attaining its objectives. It can also play an important part in creating a dynamic environment for teaching and learning when deployed as an efficient cutting-edge tool. In this paper, the focus is given on understanding using PPT as an effective cutting edge tool for innovative teaching-learning and impressive presentation through a questionnaire-based online survey of 915 students and teachers from 20 different states and 2 Union Tertiaries of India and 6 overseas countries too. The analysis of the collected data confirms that using multiple modalities in PPT might bring together all types of learners, kinesthetic, auditory, and visual and provide them the opportunity to be active learners and increase their interactivity.
Albina Narzary
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 13-31;

This paper is an attempt to document and investigate the reduplication in Hajong. Hajong is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Bangladesh and Indian northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, and Arunachal Pradesh. The present study is based on the data collected from 12 Hajong speakers of the Goalpara district of Assam. Reduplication is a widespread phenomenon that is common in the languages of Southeast Asia. However, grammarians have ignored this phenomenon primarily because they follow the Western grammar description model, where reduplicated structures do not exist or are rare (Abbi, 1992). The aim is to study the reduplicated structures, expressive and echo-formation and its semantic aspects in Hajong. There are mainly two types of reduplicated structures in Hajong: Morphological reduplication and Lexical reduplication. The morphological reduplication is expressed through expressive. “Expressive behave and function like regular words and thus form a part of the lexicons of Indian languages” (Abbi, 2018). The semantics of expressive morphology in Hajong represent five senses of perception, states of mind and manner of an action, and kinship terminology. However, lexical reduplication is constructed through the process of echo-formation (partial reduplication), compound, and complete word reduplication. Echo-word Formation acquires the status of a meaningful element only after it is attached to a word (Abbi, 1992). Echo formation is formed by replacing the initial consonant sound in the reduplicant. The common replacer sounds in Hajong are /ʧ͡/, /t/, /tʰ/ /m/, and /s/. The semantics of Hajong's echo formation represent generality, plurality, intensity, and sets or types.
Nabil Mezhoud, Bilel Ayachi, Ahmed Bahri
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 21-41;

This paper proposes one of the optimization methods based on atmospheric motion. It is a global optimization nature-inspired method such as Wind Driven Optimization (WDO) approach to solve the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) and Emission Index (EI) in electric power systems. Our main aim is to minimize an objective function necessary for a best balance between the energy production and its consumption, which is presented as a nonlinear function, taking into account of the equality and inequality constraints. The WDO approach is nature-inspired, population based iterative heuristic optimization algorithm for multi-dimensional and multi-modal problems. WDO method have been examined and tested on the standard IEEE 30-bus system and IEEE 57-bus system with different objectives that reflect total active power generation cost, the active power losses and the emission index. The results of used method have been compared and validated with known references published recently. The results are promising and show the effectiveness and robustness of proposed approach.
Best Ochigbo, Ime Ukim
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 5, pp 19-25;

The recent global pandemic, Covid-19, has crippled the activities of virtually all sectors of the world’s economy, including art. This has resulted in low patronage and, in some cases, a total shutdown of art galleries in the world. Managing an art gallery has, therefore, become a herculean task. This discourse, therefore, takes a look at achieving excellence in art gallery management in a global pandemic. Its objectives are to find ways of achieving excellence in art gallery management in a global pandemic; advance possible ways or means of creating innovative management strategies, and ascertain the role of art management in the visual art sector for effective service delivery. The paper relied on library and internet sources and participant observation research methods. The paper concludes that transparency, resilience, and speed are required to achieve excellence in art gallery management in a global pandemic. It is recommended that Art galleries should evolve by employing online access to doing business alongside traditional methods.
Adília Mendonça da Costa e Silva Gaspar
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 5, pp 10-18;

Pandemic caused by Covid-19 revealed the weaknesses of many governments management. The classes shutdown showed the Angolan government the importance of distance learning for a society development. This work aimed to check challenges the Angolan State faced, in order to carry on the curriculum plans during this pandemic period, as well as some obstacles faced by students and teachers, as main protagonists in the teaching-learning process, as the lessons they took from it. Thus, a conversation with some students from the province of Huíla in Angola, was organized. It was oriented by a teacher locally and monitored by the author. The author spoke with some teachers too. We could conclude that the pandemic really showed the lack of investment the Angolan State in education. In case they want to have a quality education, it is essential more investment in education, and especially in teachers education and their motivation. Not forgetting the need to invest more in technology, which is relevant nowadays for the non-stoppage of education and, consequently, the country's development.
Mahmoud A Rabah, Omaima A El Qady, Shaimaa A Abou El Kassem
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 11-20;

The ‎‎input waste was KanthalA4 grade alloy spired in 8-25 mm outer diameter. A sample weighing ≈250 g was leached in HCl or aqua regia at ‎‎room temperature. The acidic leachate was filtered and the pH value was increased ‎to ‎‎4.0 -9.2 with the addition of 3 M ammonia solution. The leachate was freed from iron by H2O2 addition. Chromium ions were separated from nickel ions by pH adjustment and solvent extraction using Lewatite MP 600 ionic exchanger. Ammonium hydroxide gave insoluble hydroxide ppt that was ‎‎filtered and washed. Different organic salts of acetate Ni(OCOCH3)2, oxalate C2O4, citrate C6H6O5 with ∆E of 74.16 KJ/ mol with Ni and 139.33 KJ/ mol with Cr. Inorganic ‎salts were also prepared like Ni(NO3)2.6H2O, dichloride NiCl2, basic carbonate NiCO3.2Ni(OH)2 as well as free ‎metals ‎of nickel and chromium. The effect of the process parameters was ‎studied. The time of synthesis decreased by stirring at 300 rpm by about 11 %. Ascorbic acid solution reduces the Ni and Cr hydroxide to their respective free metal to give spherical nanoparticles ‎having the molecular size of 15-35 nanometer. SEM showed that Ni particles are ‎spherical in morphology. XRD and XDS showed Ni and Cr are pure.
Sandip Mondal, Goutam Nandi, Pradip Kumar Pal
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 1-10;

Quality strongly depends on good mechanical properties of any manufacturing material. Similarly, quality of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) depends on good mechanical properties like percentage of elongation, ultimate tensile strength etc. Better Percentage of Elongation (PE) is produced using proper welding parameters and their values at the time of TIG welding. In this study, TIG welding has been done on ASTM/UNS 2205 duplex stainless steel materials. A new mathematical model is developed using non-linear regression analysis for the prediction of percentage of elongation. The variables used in the prediction models are selected welding parameters like welding current, gas flow rate and speed of welding. A residual plot for PE has been developed to validate the mathematical model. Calculation of percentage deviation for PE has been made. Comparison of measured and predicted PE value has been done by graphical representation. The relationship between percentage of elongation and the welding parameters has been illustrated graphically by surface plots and contour plots as well. Combined effects of any pair of input parameters on PE are represented graphically with the help of three-dimensional surface plots. According to this analysis, the models provide good PE with the data used in this study.
Srin Dutt
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 15-22;

The Fresnel central spot in a shadow, theorized to be generated from wave interference, has given strong support for wave models of light. Using extended exposure macro imaging in various media, the shadow is shown to be more complex with multiple lines of light intersecting in the center. Using the particle concept of discrete light strands perpendicularly reflecting from a diffraction source, these observations can be more accurately explained. Another quantized aspect of light is shown where linear light strands become rings when an energy threshold is reached.
Jayavanisri J
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 1-7;

The mind of the leader is multifaceted. Her mindset is to lose all of her thoughts, flow, thought, action so that she regrets it and then regains what she lost and then rejoices. Without the leader the leader has no responsibilities. Leader Semmandu is aiming to join hands with the leader's love. The mood of the leader is calmed by the word of the friend. Without the support of a friend, the life of the leader will be in question. The reason why the leader excels in the inner mantra is the fear, madness, shame and cultivation she finds. The nurse regrets not thinking of her son's life and thinking of Nartra's daughter. The nurse also appears to be the real mother to the leader. The nurse understands the mother's instincts and actions and is a mother in the internal literature who participates in the suffering of the leader who appears to be the mother.
Suhanya Aravinthon
Indian Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 21-26;

The early Siva community identify the Singing is the easiest way to pray to God and reaching his salvation. From the earliest times in the Saiva tradition, the Nayanmars and Alvars who descended from Karaikkalammaiyar, followed this way and dissolved with the power of God not only this, with the help of history of Saiva we can understand, these Nayanmars and Alvars were not only practice this style of praying in their own life, as well as they insist the community to follow this method of their religious life also. In the Saiva tradition, those who greet the Lord with music are known by the special name of 'Oduvars'. This Oduvar tradition, which originated from Karaikkalammaiyar in the history of Sivasim, has continued in Hindu temples in Sri Lanka up to now. As far as Sri Lanka is concerned, history has maintained a close relationship with Tamil Nadu for a long time in culture, religion, customs and many other social contexts. It would not be an exaggeration to say that even though Sri Lanka has been under foreign rule for a long time, it is the work of these readers to preserve Sivasim and Tamilism and pass it on to the next generation. This article describes the work done by the Oduvars in Jaffna, the place where Saivism flourished in Sri Lanka.
MunaS Mha
Indian Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 13-20;

Philosophy regulates the functioning of human life. Good philosophies are the cross-cutting faces of human life. This theoretical thinking in Arabic literature dates back to the Jahiliyya period. Arab literary figures that, have appeared throughout history, have made significant contributions to the regulation of human life by conveying philosophical ideas in their literary works. These philosophical dialogues have the potential to elicit a positive response in solving the various social, economic and political issues of human life. In this manner, the Lebanese Arab diaspora poet Khalil Gibran is one of the foremost contributors to the Arabic literary world. The research tries to introduce Arabic diaspora literatue and poet Khalil Zibran and to express the theoretical and social ideas expressed in his poems. For this purpose, descriptive and analytical methods were used and studied. The poet Khalil Gibran writes in these poems all his philosophical thoughts and social views, and speaks in it with the senses of nature and its details, arguing that nature is the cause of complete happiness and that the world is free from hypocrisy. This is what he describes as the characteristic of souls who strive to achieve their distant goal behind perfect human life away from the false world of materialism.
Latha K, Shanthi G
Indian Journal of Tamil, Volume 3, pp 8-12;

Pattinapalai is one of the literatures that testifies to the life lived by the ancient Tamil people. This book is composed by the poet Uruthirakannanar. The specialty of the ancient Chola country, its wealth, the heroic deeds of Charikalan and the way of life of the people are highlighted. The song is set at 301 feet. Pattinapalai is the epitome of the charcoal Chola specialty of Kavirippoompattinam. Sangam literature holds a unique place in the creative context of Tamil literary history. The Sangakkala people can be discriminated against as natural morality because they lived with natural morality and as heroic age because of the emphasis on heroic sentiments. Songs are a mixture of literature and life. Sangakkala songs are also known as people's life songs. Most of them are spontaneous poems that express their innermost feelings. The study is set to explore the emotions of the poets, the lifestyles of the people, and the thoughts of life.
Bharath Kumar Sugumar, Sujatha Balaraman
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 150-157;

Faults in power systems are classified as internal and external faults. Faults within the zone are termed as internal faults whereas; the faults outside the Zone are called as external faults. Ideally, a relay outward after the protection of a zone should operate only for internal faults. It should restrain from operating for external faults or through faults. In this project, the busbar protection using differential protection scheme has been investigated for internal and external faults. The current magnitude from the Current Transformer is compared with a preset value and when the current exceeds the preset value, and then a trip command is given to associated circuit breaker. In this work, an algorithm has been developed to improve the selectivity of the relay and the same is tested on three-phase bus bar having two incoming lines and three outgoing lines at different fault levels and the results are verified for internal and external faults. The entire algorithm is programmed and graphical views of relay performance are verified using the MP LAB platform.
Yantsubeni Ngullie
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 1, pp 57-66;

The paper gives an account of pronouns in Lotha, a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Nagaland, India. Lotha is a generic name and refers to both the linguistic group and the ethno-cultural entity. Lothas are racially Mongoloid and linguistically, it has been classified under the Central Naga group of the Naga sub-branch of the Tibeto-Burman languages. Pronouns in Lotha are free forms which can function solely to fill the position of a noun phrase in a clause. Personal pronouns are typically deixis to the speech participants for each of the three grammatical person i.e. first person, second person and third person. In annex to person, numbers i.e. singular, dual and plural are also distinguished on pronouns. Personal pronouns in Lotha are independent and free-standing and for that matter it takes case-markers and postposition in similar ways as full noun phrase. The first, second and third personal pronouns take case marking only when it serves as a subject and does not take any case markers when it serves as an object. Demonstrative pronouns function in several ways based on proximity and distance in time. Lotha has three-way distinction of identifying demonstrative pronoun i.e. proximate, distance and remote marked by ʃi ‘this’ (near the speaker), ci ‘that’(near the hearer) and o-ci ‘over there’( far away from both the speaker and hearer). The interrogative pronouns kvə, ndo and otʃɔ are attached to the bound nominal suffixes. Indefinite pronouns can be formed from the question words which can change to affirmative by attaching the indefinite suffix -sana and its negative particle counterpart mek. Reflexive pronoun in Lotha is expressed by the reflexive lexeme bɔbɔ ‘self’ which is a free morpheme.
Palash Das, Madhumita Barbora
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 1, pp 1-15;

Word formation by derivation is very productive in Assamese. A significant amount of words in Assamese owe their origin to derivation. The analysis in this paper takes into account the derivational processes related with lexical word categories, and, numerous bound morphemes that are used in the derivational process in the language. This analysis helps us to understand some of the important aspects of Assamese morphology. These aspects are - role of class maintaining and class changing morphemes, derivation of word from synonyms, productivity of derivational morphemes, morphophonemic changes in root as a result of affixation of derivational morphemes, presence of allomorphs of various bound morphemes, ability of a morpheme to derive words from different word categories. The significance of this papers lies in the fact that these word formation processes could help develop morphological rules that can be used for developing computational morphological tools like- stemmer, spell checker, tagger etc.
Kambar Chendappa Rajappa, Gulati Varun
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 13-23;

In Sanskrit, ‘‘Yatra naryastu pujyante ramante tatra Devata' means that wherever a woman is worshipped, gods rejoice. This sholka represents the importance of women, and one can say, "Home is the first school, Mother is the first teacher," demonstrating the respect and value given to women. However, these words exist only in the form of letters and not in practise. It is a great tragedy that man is hesitant to use and accept her gratitude. When this is the case, discrimination is quite common in Dalit communities even today, and the Manuvadi attitude of discrimination against Dalit women is growing like anything else. There could be several reasons for this context. But you can always imagine upper-class communities viewing her as an object of prejudice, abusing her caste, discriminating against her caste, mischief, and reduction. This article attempted to review the social conflicts of Dalit women in India, with a focus on the unpleasant events of the time, such as raping, ignoring, disrespecting, intimidating, and so on.
Imu Oghoghophia Famous
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 27-33;

This paper examines case role in the Urhobo language. Case theory is used as theoretical frame work, the specific objectives is to investigate type of cases and to relate cases roles to argument structures in Urhobo. The study reveals that in the Urhobo language every lexically headed NP must receive case from a case assigner. The Case theory requires that the case assigner govern the NP to which its assigns case. Tense, verb and preposition are case assigners. The infinitive ‘to’ and the passive participles are not case assigners. Case assignment can take place only when the case assigner and the NP to which it assigns case bear a structural relation to one another. It also reveals that irrespective of the theory and its arguments, Urhobo verbs are the basses and centre of its expansion of its constructions. This research also finds out, that the argument structures identified in universal grammar (UG) align with the argument structure of the Urhobo language; the verb assigns arguments to the noun phrases in a sentence. This is traced to the structure of the Urhobo language which is subject-verb-object (SVO). Finally, the study reveals that the function of the nominative case is to mark the subject of the sentence; the vocative is the case of address; the accusative is used to mark the object of a transitive verb; the genitive is the case of possession, ablative case is to mark the instrument with which something is done and the dative case marks the indirect object in the Urhobo language.
Virginus Onyebuchi Aruah, Jacinta Ukamaka Eze, Stella Nkeiruka Aruah-Buchi, Augustina Ngozi Eze
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 1, pp 31-40;

This study examines how analogical mapping is used to analyse ọkụkọ proverbs in Ideke lect. The objectives of the study are to analyse the attribute and relational mapping of selected ọkụkọ proverbs in Ideke lect. The data of the study are drawn from ọmaba chant of Ụmụdịaka in Nsukka area of Enugu State, through an audio recording of Ụdara Nwa onyishi (Ọmabe) chant and also the study uses introspection since the researchers are indigenous speakers of the Ideke lect. The research desgn used in this study is a qualitative research paradigm. The study was done descriptively and purposive sampling was used to sample the population. The analogical mapping theory is adopted as the framework for this study. The study finds out that ọkụkọ proverbs in Ideke lect has abstract meanings which contradict the physical (source concepts) image. Another finding of the study proves that in Ideke lect, ọkụkọ as used in this study possess different semantic impulse due to the sociolinguistic environment where such proverbs are being used. These different shades of meanings will be gotten by aligning the physical concept to abstract concept(s). During the analysis of ọkụkọ proverbs in Ideke lect, it is evident that source domain is liable to form various new abstract semantic realisations which was not the initial semantic usage of the linguistic expression. From the semantic purview, proverbs are complex cognitive tasks which links source domain to the target domain.
Janaki Vidanapathirana
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 4, pp 37-43;

Gender equity is at the cornerstone of the Universal health coverage (UHC), where no one is to be left behind. This paper highlights the Sustainable Development goal 5 and goal 3 with relevance to the Sri Lankan situation under the topic of “Reaching equal health: a Gender Perspective. The Sri Lankan Gender Gap Index holds the 116th position out of 152 countries. Higher mortalities are observed in males, while higher morbidity is observed in females. Social isolation and poverty in females are common in addition to the diseases at old age. Gender roles and masculine identities have led men to be more vulnerable to risk behaviours and seek access to healthcare services less. The Gender equity is at the cornerstone of the Universal Health Coverage which should be targeted to provide health services for all individuals and communities which they need, without suffering financial hardship by 2030. Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) is a major determinant of health and females are more vulnerable for that. Unmet need of family planning and abortions are leading causes for maternal mortality. 25,000 abortions occur every year in Sri Lanka. Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer populations and people with special need are more vulnerable for not getting equal health. Strengthening the health policies and guidelines should be addressed to reduce gender inequalities. Indicators of sex disaggregated data should be included in the routine assessment of all healthcare settings and research agenda should be in place to identify gender inequalities in health research.
Mohammed Yakub
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 1, pp 1-18;

In the field of Onomastics, many researchers have delved into the study of personal names, place names, church names and school names, among others. This paper gathers another exciting data, (i.e. names that are ascribed to pets in Nzema society) and seeks to examine the morpho-syntactic features of the ‘pet names’. The paper employs the qualitative research approach in providing a descriptive analysis of the linguistic properties that feature in pet names among the people of Nzema. In this paper, ninety (90) pet names are discussed. Relying on Haspelmath’s notion of Framework-free Theory of Grammatical Analysis, the paper demonstrates that the morphological structures of Nzema pet names include single root morphemes, lexical compounding, derivational and inflectional processes, lexical borrowing, and reduplication. These word formation processes are accompanied by some phonological processes such as vowel elision and harmony. At the syntactic/sentential level, the pet names function as simple declarative sentences, imperatives and interrogatives. Compound and complex-embedded clauses were also prevalent in the structure of the pet names. It is ascertained that these pet names are grammatically insightful and can provide a window to understanding the morphosyntactic features of the Nzema language.
Terfa Aor, Pilah Godwin Anyam
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 27-37;

Metathesis, the transposition of letters and syllables, is a minor phonological process that is found in both English and Tiv languages. This phonological process has not received much attention it deserves because most scholars considered it as a figure of misspelling which is not worthy of researching. This paper investigates the nature of English and Tiv metatheses. The objectives of this paper are to classify English and Tiv metatheses, discuss the formation of metatheses in English and Tiv and state the functions of metatheses in English and Tiv languages. This paper used comparative linguistic theory which compares the nature of English and Tiv metatheses. The researcher used participant observation tool for elicitation of data for this study. Secondary materials such as journal articles, textbooks, dictionaries and encyclopaedias and Internet sources were used. This study links phonology, historical linguistics, onomastics and language pathology (speech disorder). The study has established that metathesis has phonological, orthographic, metrical and onomastic relevance. This paper provides an in-depth material for teaching and learning of English and Tiv languages. It has been recommended that lecturers in the National Institute for Nigerian Languages, Departments of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages should write books and critical works on Nigerian or African languages.
Mulugeta Asnakew Tadesse
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 34-42;

This research paper investigates the factors that affect student’s interpersonal communication skills in English language and literature regular students at Kabridahar University. It focused on English Language and Literature regular students in Kabridahar University. The objective of the study was to investigate the major factors that affect student’s interpersonal communication. The researcher collected data from the students by using Questionnaire, Interview and observation in order to get an appropriate finding. The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis. The study shows that, the students have interest to communicate and interact with each other. But, some of barriers like mother tongue influence and variety of language affect their interpersonal communication as well as their relationship. Also, factors like weak relationship to others, lack of interest, inexperience, lack of practice and gender issues are the major barriers which affected student’s interpersonal communication.
Hamthoon Pm
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 19-24;

Jahillayath means ignorance. The Arabic word Jahiliyyah refers to the zealous culture and civilized society in the Islamic case. It is against Islam. The Jahiliyya community is a brutal society with human characteristics cut off. Gus bin Zaydah was a literary figure who lived in the so-called Jahiliyya social period. It can be observed that Islamic thought is often exaggerated in his poetry and prose literature. Much of his literature, prose and poetry, speaks of the triviality of worldly life and the permanence of the afterlife. Death is expressed in many of his speeches and poems. This is in stark contrast to pagan literature. Therefore, this study seeks to introduce Jahiliyyah and express the uniqueness of Arabic literature and to reveal the secular expressions of thought in the literary aspects of the Jahiliyya period writer Gus bin Zaydah. For this purpose descriptive and analytical methods were used and studied.
Chandrabose R
Indian Journal of Multilingual Research and Development pp 25-38;

Poems written in Tribal languages are a notable presence in contemporary Malayalam poetry. As there is no script for those endangered tribal languages, they are written in Malayalam script. They are being translated into Malayalam. These poems become a declaration of the aboriginal community and of the aesthetics that obscure mainstream aesthetic concept. Tribal communities in Kerala lives in the forest areas of Idukki, Wayanad, Palakkad, Kasaragod, Trissur, Cochin, Trivandrum and Kollam districts. These marginalized people are facing a crisis of survival. The neglect of the main stream society and the Government and the destruction of the habitat have made their lives miserable. Indigenous tribal languages are endangered. It is in this context that the new generation of educated Adivasis seek to document their survival problem through poetry in the tribal language itself. Poems are written in tribal languages such as Irula, Rawla, Malavettuva, Paniya, Mavila and Muthuvan appearing in social media and in print and book form, they symbolize a different sensibility. The aim of this paper is to findout the political attitudes, aesthetic concepts and features of languages of the aboriginal community by studying these poems.
Biruk Tadele, Emer T Quezon
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 8-14;

Engineers have been using modified binders to improve the quality of flexible pavements. The use of waste material is one of the solutions taken in this direction. It is for this ground that the studies emphasis on the evaluation of waste engine oil as a modifier for asphalt binder as a pavement material. In the study uses four samples extracted from 80/100 penetration grade bitumen. From four sample first sample was checked for weather requirements of asphalt binder meet or not and the three were modified with different content of engine oil (3,6 and 9%). The behaviors of both unmodified and modified binder were checked for rheological properties. Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) was used to determine high temperature performance grade (PG) and multiple stress creep recovery tests to determine rutting resistance properties of the binder. PG analysis indicates that both aged and un-aged 3% and 6% modified binder have similar higher PG grade with the unmodified one and 9% modified to have lower PG vale. Jnr3.2 value of modified asphalt binder is lower than unmodified binder indicating that modification had improved the rutting resistance and design traffic load (ESALS). The study shows that it is possible to use waste engine oil-modified binder as a pavement material.
Mustapha Kulungu
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 4, pp 88-99;

The Boko Haram group in the Nigerian and Lake Chad Basin has gained immense sympathy in the region, appearing to mount political challenges against corruption and social and economic inequalities. Security experts did not anticipate that the group would become violent based on its past actions. However, researchers recently have revealed that the group has had transnational connections to other terrorist groups, such as Al-Shabaab in the Horn of Africa, and Al Qaeda, which have influenced its propensity for violence. This research attempts to understand Boko Haram by examining data supplied by research, documents, and reports from numerous groups. The method implemented here entails a historical approach, including observation, a way by which the historian aims to determine the soundness of observational reports conducted by previous investigators. This research utilizes a historical methodology that requires exploring, documenting, evaluating, and interpreting past occurrences to discover indications that aid in understanding historical and present activities and to a significant but limited extent for projecting the future. This study examines the origin of Boko Haram and speculates as to its future by concentrating on why the group primarily thrives in some parts of Nigeria and the Lake Chad region. It also looks at responses to security challenges from American, Nigerian, and neighboring governments. Additionally, it looks at the use of community engagement and soft power as a possible means to mitigate violence in the region. Finally, the document identifies implications for the group's continued existence and stability in the area based on data analysis. This research also offers policy recommendations for the United States, Nigeria, and the surrounding countries that could minimize the threats of Boko Haram.
Sumudu Rajasinghe, Carukshi Arambepola
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 4, pp 37-46;

Competition related anxiety is a major psychological issue among athletes and this study estimates the prevalence of competition related anxiety, its associated factors and coping strategies used, among school athletes in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 330 athletes. Two-stage simple random sampling was used. Competition related anxiety level was determined by Sport Competition Anxiety Test for adults (SCAT-A). Prevalence of ‘high’ level of sport competition related anxiety was 19.4% and it was significantly associated with individual sports, fear of failure, experience of past defeat, and poor support received from parents/friends. Listening to music, goal setting, positive self-talk and meditation were positive coping strategies used by athletes. The main negative coping strategy was being angry. High competition related anxiety prevalent in about 1/5th of school athletes was influenced by several factors related to the sport event. Psychological support incorporated into routine physical training sessions is recommended.
Guo-Hui Xie, Early Years Research Association of Singapore., Qi Wang
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 4, pp 30-36;

Mandalas (in Sanskrit refers to “circle” or “discoid object”) have been exclusively a part of the Eastern religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Jainism and Shintoism, for hundreds of years. They represent the different aspects of the universe. They are also used as sacred meditation tools as well as consecrated symbols of prayer, most notably in China, Japan, and Tibet. Only in recent years that mandalas have been found to promote the mental as well as physical well-being or wellness, especially for those who are experiencing stress, anxiety and depression (also known as SAD syndrome). They are eventually incorporated into art as therapy and counseling as part of the repertoire of intervention tools. Generally, mandala art therapy can be divided into three different forms: (i) mandala meditation, (ii) mandala drawing, and (iii) mandala coloring. Each of these forms is a therapeutic tool that serves to help a person to relax and be at peace with oneself. According to Jungian concept of a mandala, it refers to the psychological expression of the totality of the self, and hence, mandala art therapy in whichever of its three forms can help to establish the positive wholesomeness of self. In this paper, the authors have chosen to focus on mandala coloring as a therapeutic tool and introduced the simple five-step procedure to implement it.
Mervet A Shanab
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 1-7;

This paper presents a developed method to calculate the parameters for thirty-three squirrel cage induction motors operating at three-phase ac voltage of 380 volts. These motors are the total product of an Egyptian factory holding a license from SIEMENS international company to fabricate all parts of these motors. The parameters of all mentioned motors are computed based on the proposed method. Then, the performance characteristics of these motors are investigated at full-load using the conventional equivalent circuit in order to validate the proposed method. The obtained curves achieve significant convergence with the full-load values provided by the data sheets of investigated motors. This confirms the validity of the proposed method.
Edin Kukavica
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume .4, pp 47-53;

The culture of life is a theological-philosophical term, which signifies a commitment to respect and protect life. The aim of this study was to investigate students’ attitudes towards the culture of life in Sarajevo Canton. Research included a sample of 1204 students of 6th grade of primary schools in Sarajevo Canton, divided into two subsamples of 602 students attending schools in suburban and urban parts of Sarajevo Canton, we examined the attitudes of students who acquired competencies in the subject Culture of Living to the aspect of culture as a phenomenon, with all its integral wholes from healthy lifestyles, through general cultural habits to traditional values. The results obtained by factor analysis indicate that students attending schools in the suburbs of Sarajevo Canton determine attitudes that have the premise of education in relation to students attending schools in urban areas of Sarajevo Canton, which are more determined by educational categories of attitudes. to conclude that the children of suburban schools have a greater influence of parents and families on attitudes compared to urban schools where the influence of teachers and schools is greater, based on the attitudes of students through a survey conducted.
Asmaa Adel Abdulrahman, Ramamoorthy L
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 39-48;

This experimental study aims at investigating the English word-stress patterns used by Yemenis, learning English as a foreign language, and the erroneous stress patterns used by them. Accent or stress is a feature of high significance in English speech. At the level of a word, one syllable gets accentuated with primary stress. To achieve the purpose of this study, and to find out to what extent word stress of Received Pronunciation English poses difficulty on Yemeni Arabic speakers using English as a foreign language, 120 subjects of various scientific disciplines, were chosen for data collection. They were recorded and their utterances went through deep analysis based on the auditory impression of the researcher and on the spectrographic evidence resulting from the speech analysis of the software program PRAAT. The most significant findings reached by the researcher were that word-stress in the four-syllable target words were the most problematic for the speakers in which 53.2% of them put the stress, randomly, on the wrong syllables in words. Three-syllable target words appeared to be less problematic as 44.4% of the participants placed the stress inaccurately in words. The least difficulties encountered by the speakers were with the two-syllable target words where 70.6% of the speakers managed to pronounce the words with correct stress placement. It is noteworthy to mention that there was a tendency among the speakers who produced wrong stress patterns, to accent either the first syllable or the one including a long vowel or a diphthong in the words.
Rukmani P, Kamran Shavarebi
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 4, pp 10-16;

Objective of this conceptual study is to investigate the demand for project management skills in Malaysian economic sectors and to develop strategies on narrowing down the project management talent gap to enable the nation in leveraging on project management talents to implement strategic initiatives, driving change, and delivering innovation to Malaysia whilst contributing to nation’s productivity and standard of living. Previous studies on project management skills demand in Malaysian economic sector is limited, mostly related to non-Malaysian economies and other areas of skills. Demand and supply theory based on Graduate Tracer Study is used as basis to understand and close the gap in project management skills demand and project management talent shortages and, in consideration of potential job mismatch due to traits of workers and the impact of curriculum design on employability competence. This study on project management skills in Malaysia will serve as basis to identify the project management skills gap in Malaysian economic sectors. Proposed model of strategies expected to be developed in this study is aimed to provide granular level insights for government in adopting more targeted approach in meeting the demand for project management skills and narrowing down project management talent shortages.
Kurihara Y
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 4, pp 1-9;

IT (Information Technology) was invented and penetrated into our daily lives and business world from the 1980s. It has also spread quickly in developed economies. This study examines whether such phenomenon has impacted international trade. More concretely, this study empirically examines the relationship (1) between the improvement of banking and financial services and international trade, (2) between the Internet speed and international trade, and (3) mobile subscribers and international trade. The empirical results show that GDP per capita is positively related with international trade significantly. Moreover, they show that banking and financial services can increase international trade. Also, Internet speed is significantly associated with promoting international trade. However, there is no evidence that the spreading use of mobile has caused increasing international trade. If the pros of the spreading use of mobile related IT are large, there is some room for promoting this transition. Security, reliability, and so on are key factors to promote mobile into business, including international trade.
Sayed Ahmed
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 4, pp 17-29;

The German capital city of Berlin, amongst all European cities, is well known as one of the most freethinking center but yet historical. Its industrial historic structures and heritage elements over the spree river shore are reanalyzed and reexamined in this case study with emphasis on club culture and social recreation. The important issue is that, the structures and architectural style of these few surviving buildings have the common features and also diversities which were never brought under light and even ignored to let them became hub for unsocial activities like drug dealing and unhygienic adobes for homeless peoples. To discover and recognize their current contribution and possible social attribute over the whole city fabric, the main construct of this paper is to rethink Berlin’s so called public cohesion on the basis of recreational character and its associated urban order. The research question is: “What is the topmost role played by such built elements for formation of a distinct civic culture and keep Berlin alive?” To reveal the conceivable theoretical framework of this study will try to accentuate same facts and aspects followed by descriptive-analytical method and suggest independent and dependent variables, possible cooperative urban inventions based on the inhabitants’ interest, protest and demands against privatization of Media Spree. Documentation, field survey, associated drawings, related photographs from different time intervals and model studying was helpful for analyzing the urban morphology. The proposed design will try to indicate that the historic industrial buildings, pubs and markets, art practice and the overall landscape has tremendous bilateral relations for the wellbeing of city dwellers; which could be shaped well into a main ‘Axis’ of cultural activities, which Berlin is not posed with currently.
Yajun Wu, Xia Kang
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume 4, pp 80-87;

From epistemological and methodological perspectives, the pre-predicative experience is essential for the self-performed knowledge assessment. Husserl speaks about the “self-evident” knowledge in the context of phenomenological reduction, and the concept of self-evidence is postulated to unfold as part of pre-predicative experience. However, Husserl does not explain the content of the latter. This article conducts a comprehensive study of the attributes of pre-predicative experience and precedent phenomenon alongside three dimensions of order, category, and function. The analysis argues that the pre-predicative experience is influenced by precedent knowledge.
Dong-Ching Day
Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Volume .4, pp 54-61;

Developmental state used to be and is still regarded as a very practical theory to explain why Four Asian Tigers-Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore enjoyed almost averagely double-digit economic growth rate each year from 1970 to 1990 as well as East Asian economic development. However, developmental state theory couldn’t tell why South Korea and Singapore’s economic development had done much better than Taiwan and Hong Kong’s in terms of GDP per capita after 2003 and 2004 respectively. The aim of the study is trying to use national identity perspective to explain why it happens like this, since Four Asian Tigers’ economic development more or less was troubled by national identity issue. The major difference between these two groups is that South Korea and Singapore have done better in dealing with national identity issue than Taiwan and Hong Kong.
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