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, Santiago Sanguineti, Jeffrey M. Reece, Lutz Birnbaumer, Héctor N. Torres,
Published: 15 February 2004
Biochemical Journal, Volume 378, pp 63-72; https://doi.org/10.1042/bj20031147

Abstract:
Compartmentalization of cAMP phosphodiesterases plays a key role in the regulation of cAMP signalling in mammals. In the present paper, we report the characterization and subcellular localization of TcPDE1, the first cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase to be identified from Trypanosoma cruzi. TcPDE1 is part of a small gene family and encodes a 929-amino-acid protein that can complement a heat-shock-sensitive yeast mutant deficient in phospho-diesterase genes. Recombinant TcPDE1 strongly associates with membranes and cannot be released with NaCl or sodium cholate, suggesting that it is an integral membrane protein. This enzyme is specific for cAMP and its activity is not affected by cGMP, Ca2+, calmodulin or fenotiazinic inhibitors. TcPDE1 is sensitive to the phosphodiesterase inhibitor dipyridamole but is resistant to 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, rolipram and zaprinast. Papaverine, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine hydrochloride, and vinpocetine are poor inhibitors of this enzyme. Confocal laser scanning of T. cruzi epimastigotes showed that TcPDE1 is associated with the plasma membrane and concentrated in the flagellum of the parasite. The association of TcPDE1 with this organelle was confirmed by subcellular fractionation and cell-disruption treatments. The localization of this enzyme is a unique feature that distinguishes it from all the trypanosomatid phosphodiesterases described so far and indicates that compartmentalization of cAMP phosphodiesterases could also be important in these parasites.
Kirsty Ross,
Published: 27 October 2017
Journal: Clinical Science
Clinical Science, Volume 131, pp 2627-2642; https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20160894

Abstract:
The immune system has long been known to play a critical role in the body’s defence against cancer, and there have been multiple attempts to harness it for therapeutic gain. Renal cancer was, historically, one of a small number of tumour types where immune manipulation had been shown to be effective. The current generation of immune checkpoint inhibitors are rapidly entering into routine clinical practice in the management of a number of tumour types, including renal cancer, where one drug, nivolumab, an anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb), is licensed for patients who have progressed on prior systemic treatment. Ongoing trials aim to maximize the benefits that can be gained from this new class of drug by exploring optimal timing in the natural course of the disease as well as combinations with other checkpoint inhibitors and drugs from different classes.
Published: 2 November 2017
Neuronal signaling, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1042/ns20170112

Abstract:
MicroRNAs are small post-transcriptional regulators that play an important role in nervous system development, function and disease. More recently, microRNAs have been detected extracellularly and circulating in blood and other body fluids, where they are protected from degradation by encapsulation in vesicles, such as exosomes, or by association with proteins. These microRNAs are thought to be released from cells selectively through active processes and taken up by specific target cells within the same or in remote tissues where they are able to exert their repressive function. These characteristics make extracellular microRNAs ideal candidates for intercellular communication over short and long distances. This review aims to explore the potential mechanisms underlying microRNA communication within the nervous system and between the nervous system and other tissues. The suggested roles of extracellular microRNAs in the healthy and the diseased nervous system will be reviewed.
Xiaorui Han, XiaoMing Leng, Man Zhao, Mei Wu, Amei Chen, Guoju Hong, Ping Sun
Published: 23 November 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20171319

Abstract:
Disc nucleus pulposus (NP) matrix homeostasis is important for normal disc function. Mechanical overloading seriously decreases matrix synthesis and increases matrix degradation. The present study aims to investigate the effects of resveratrol on disc NP matrix homeostasis under a relatively high-magnitude mechanical compression and the potential mechanism underlying this process. Porcine discs were perfusion-cultured and subjected to a relatively high-magnitude mechanical compression (1.3 MPa at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 2 h once per day) for 7 days in a mechanically active bioreactor. The non-compressed discs were used as controls. Resveratrol was added along with culture medium to observe the effects of resveratrol on NP matrix synthesis under mechanical load respectively. NP matrix synthesis was evaluated by histology, biochemical content (glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and hydroxyproline (HYP)), and expression of matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II). Results showed that this high-magnitude mechanical compression significantly decreased NP matrix content, indicated by the decreased staining intensity of Alcian Blue and biochemical content (GAG and HYP), and the down-regulated expression of NP matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II). Further analysis indicated that resveratrol partly stimulated NP matrix synthesis and increased activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway in a dose-dependent manner under mechanical compression. Together, resveratrol is beneficial for disc NP matrix synthesis under mechanical overloading, and the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway may participate in this regulatory process. Resveratrol may be promising to regenerate mechanical overloading-induced disc degeneration.
Hong-Ling He,
Published: 7 December 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20170827

Abstract:
The network meta-analysis was conducted to compare the short-term efficacy of different single-drug targeted therapies in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We initially searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on different single-drug targeted therapies in treating RCC. The meta-analysis combined the direct and indirect evidence to calculate the pooled odds ratios (OR) and draw surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA). A total of 14 eligible RCTs were ultimately selected. The partial response (PR) of Cabozantinib in the treatment of RCC was better than Sunitinib (OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.0–7.8), Everolimus (OR = 8.1, 95%CI = 3.1–25.0), and Temsirolimus (OR = 4.8, 95%CI = 1.0–31.0); the overall response rate (ORR) of Cabozantinib was better than Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Everolimus, and Temsirolimus (OR = 5.5, 95%CI = 1.1–27.0; OR = 2.6, 95%CI = 1.1–6.6; OR = 8.3, 95%CI = 3.5–20.0; OR = 5.7, 95%CI = 1.3–28.0 respectively). In addition, as for complete response (CR), PR, stable disease (SD), progressive disease (PD), ORR, and disease control rate (DCR), Cabozantinib had the best short-term efficacy among nine single-drug targeted therapies in the treatment of RCC (CR: 50.3%; PR: 93.6%; SD: 75.1%; PD: 68.0%; ORR: 95.5%; DCR: 73.2%); while Everolimus had the worst short-term efficacy (CR: 33.6%; PR: 22.3%; SD: 78.0%; PD: 35.9%; ORR: 22.9%; DCR: 19.9%). Our network meta-analysis indicated that Cabozantinib might have better short-term efficacy than other regimens in the treatment of RCC, while Everolimus might have poor short-term efficacy.
Published: 22 March 2005
Journal: Clinical Science
Clinical Science, Volume 108, pp 277-292; https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20040302

Abstract:
DP (dipeptidyl peptidase) IV is the archetypal member of its six-member gene family. Four members of this family, DPIV, FAP (fibroblast activation protein), DP8 and DP9, have a rare substrate specificity, hydrolysis of a prolyl bond two residues from the N-terminus. The ubiquitous DPIV glycoprotein has proved interesting in the fields of immunology, endocrinology, haematology and endothelial cell and cancer biology and DPIV has become a novel target for Type II diabetes therapy. The crystal structure shows that the soluble form of DPIV comprises two domains, an α/β-hydrolase domain and an eight-blade β-propeller domain. The propeller domain contains the ADA (adenosine deaminase) binding site, a dimerization site, antibody epitopes and two openings for substrate access to the internal active site. FAP is structurally very similar to DPIV, but FAP protein expression is largely confined to diseased and damaged tissue, notably the tissue remodelling interface in chronically injured liver. DPIV has a variety of peptide substrates, the best studied being GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1), NPY (neuropeptide Y) and CXCL12. The DPIV family has roles in bone marrow mobilization. The functional interactions of DPIV and FAP with extracellular matrix confer roles for these proteins in cancer biology. DP8 and DP9 are widely distributed and indirectly implicated in immune function. The DPL (DP-like) glycoproteins that lack peptidase activity, DPL1 and DPL2, are brain-expressed potassium channel modulators. Thus the six members of the DPIV gene family exhibit diverse biological roles.
Published: 1 June 2004
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 32, pp 468-469; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0320468

Abstract:
Neutrophil purification has traditionally been performed by centrifugation of leucocytes through density gradients. These reliable methods produce populations that are typically >95% pure neutrophils, and have allowed the widespread study of the function of these cells. Our recent work has suggested that residual monocytes may play a more important role than has been previously realized, and suggest that for some functional experiments, further purification of cells is required to understand fully the neutrophil phenotype.
A.J. Valentijn, N. Zouq,
Published: 1 June 2004
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 32, pp 421-425; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0320421

Abstract:
Anoikis is apoptosis induced by loss of cell adhesion or inappropriate cell adhesion. Adhesion on the extracellular matrix is important to determine whether a cell is in the correct location and to delete displaced cells by apoptosis. The ability to overcome this requirement has important implications for metastatic cancer. However, how adhesion signals are interpreted by a cell into a life or death decision is complex. In this paper, we will examine this from the point of view of the apoptotic machinery of the cell, and discuss the various ways in which adhesion can influence this process.
Published: 1 April 2004
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 32, pp 168-171; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0320168

Abstract:
We revisit the case for the hyperthermophilic scenario for the origin of life and the last common ancestor. Evidence includes studies of phylogenetic trees, rRNA, G and C content, hyperthermophilic proteins, correlations between maximal temperature tolerances and genetic distances, saline stabilization of DNA/RNA, and the inferred climatic temperatures of the early Earth. Although some doubts remain, the case for hot biogenesis and the last common ancestor has gotten stronger.
Published: 1 August 2003
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 31, pp 869-874; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0310869

Abstract:
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a diverse family of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels which contain five transmembrane subunits arranged around a central pore. Distinct receptor subtypes are expressed at the vertebrate skeletal neuromuscular junction, in mechanosensory cells and within the central and peripheral nervous systems. A total of 17 nAChR subunits (α1–α10, β1–β4, γ, δ and ∊) have been identified in vertebrate species, which can co-assemble to generate a wide variety of nAChRs. Nicotinic receptors also constitute an abundant and diverse family of receptors in invertebrates. As a consequence of studies which have been conducted with both native and recombinant nAChRs, the subunit composition of nAChRs and the rules governing subunit co-assembly are becoming clearer. In this paper the extent of nAChR subunit diversity and evidence for receptor subunit composition is reviewed.
C. Geetha, S.G. Venkatesh, B.H. Fasciotto Dunn, S.-U. Gorr
Published: 1 August 2003
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 31, pp 815-818; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0310815

Abstract:
Parotid secretory protein (PSP) is an abundant protein in mouse and rat parotid glands. A related sequence (C20orf70) was identified on human chromosome 20. The goal of this study was to determine if PSP is expressed in the human parotid gland. The cDNA for human PSP was amplified from a human parotid cDNA sample. A peptide antibody, raised to the C-terminal peptide of PSP, identified the protein in human parotid tissue by immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunoaffinity chromatography suggested that PSP was expressed in human saliva. PSP is related to bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI). To test if PSP exhibits anti-bacterial activity, epitope-tagged PSP was expressed in rat GH4C1 cells. The secretion medium exhibited bacteristatic or bactericidal effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a colony-forming assay when compared with secretion medium from GH4C1 cells that did not express PSP. These results suggest that PSP is expressed in the human parotid gland and saliva, where it functions as a BPI-like anti-bacterial protein.
Published: 1 June 2003
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 31, pp 723-727; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0310723

Abstract:
Neprilysin [or neutral endopeptidase (NEP)] and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are zinc metallopeptidases involved in the extracellular metabolism of biologically active peptides. Recent genomic advances have led to the identification of novel homologues of each of these ectoenzymes and new physiological and pathological roles are emerging for them. The structures of each of these peptidases have recently been solved providing insight into their distinct catalytic sites. In addition to its originally identified role in neuropeptide metabolism in the nervous system, NEP is implicated in regulation of the cardiovascular system and is protective in prostate and certain other cancers. Hence the cellular concentration of NEP is critical to tissue homoeostasis. Most recently, NEP has been shown to exert neuroprotective actions, principally through its ability to catabolize the neurotoxic Alzheimer's amyloid peptide. The only known homologue of ACE, termed ACE2, is critical to cardiovascular function, but its physiological substrates and precise metabolic roles remain to be elucidated. Other members of these growing metallopeptidase families await further characterization and possible exploitation as therapeutic targets.
Published: 1 June 2003
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 31, pp 659-663; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0310659

Abstract:
The Toll receptor was first found to function in the dorsoventral patterning pathway of Drosophila embryos. It is activated by a specific protein ligand, Spätzle, generated at ventral positions in the early embryo. Drosophila Toll (dToll) also functions in innate immune responses to Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, and Spätzle is required for this response. We have shown that Spätzle is necessary and sufficient for activation of the dToll pathway, and that it probably acts by cross-linking two molecules of Toll to form homodimers. In the present paper, we contrast this mode of regulation with that proposed for the vertebrate Toll-like receptor family, which mediate analogous responses to pathogen pattern antigens. In contrast with dToll, these receptors appear to be activated by direct exposure to pathogen patterns, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. We discuss the evolutionary basis of this functional divergence of the vertebrate and invertebrate Toll-like receptors.
, M. Banerjee,
Published: 1 April 2003
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 31, pp 447-448; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0310447

Abstract:
The elderly are more susceptible to infectious diseases. Mortality and morbidity from infections increase sharply over the age of 65 years. At the same time, the efficacy of vaccinations in the elderly is decreased. The elderly also have an increased incidence of cancer and inflammatory diseases. All the above indicate an age-related dysregulation of the immune system. Evidence suggests that the change in the humoral immune response with age is a qualitative rather than a quantitative one, i.e. it is the affinity and specificity of the antibody that changes, rather than the quantity of antibody produced. There are a number of possible causes of this failure, one of which is a defect in the mechanism of hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. We have studied individual clonal responses within germinal centres of spleen and Peyer's patches in young and old patient groups. Our results indicate that there is no difference in the actual mechanism of hypermutation with age. There are, however, differences that are due either to a change in selection processes or to a change in the founder cells available for activation.
Published: 1 November 2002
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 30, pp 1086-1090; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0301086

Abstract:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors. Three PPAR subtypes, PPARα, PPARδ (PPARβ) and PPARγ, have been described in mammals. The tissue distribution of PPARs is heterogeneous: PPARα is highly expressed in liver and skeletal muscle, PPARγ is preferentially expressed in adipose tissues, and PPARδ is expressed in most cell types with relative abundance. Unlike most receptors, PPARs show low ligand specificity, being activated by many long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, or by eicosanoids. PPARs are transcriptionally active as heterodimeric complexes with the retinoid X receptor and bind to specific recognition sequences in the regulatory region of target genes. Many PPAR-regulated genes encode proteins that regulate fatty acid oxidation and storage. Elucidation of the biological functions of PPARs has been aided by the development of PPAR-null mice and the identification of humans bearing PPAR mutations, together with the discovery of synthetic small-molecule ligands that selectively activate individual PPAR subtypes. Using these genetic and pharmacological approaches, it has been shown that PPARα predominantly regulates pathways of fatty acid oxidation, whereas PPARγ modifies fatty acid synthesis and storage in adipose tissues. By reducing systemic fatty acid availability, thiazolidinedione PPARγ activators regulate glucose metabolism and are now used clinically in the treatment of Type II diabetes. In summary, PPARs play a central role in the mechanisms that balance fatty acid oxidation and storage in the face of fluctuations of dietary fat intake and energy expenditure.
H. Marrakchi, Y.-M. Zhang, C. O. Rock
Published: 1 November 2002
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 30, pp 1050-1055; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0301050

Abstract:
Fatty acid biosynthesis is catalysed in most bacteria by a group of highly conserved proteins known as the Type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) system. The Type II system organization is distinct from its mammalian counterpart and offers several unique sites for selective inhibition by antibacterial agents. There has been remarkable progress in the understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and regulation of Type II FASs. One important advance is the discovery of the interaction between the fatty acid degradation regulator, FadR, and the fatty acid biosynthesis regulator, FabR, in the transcriptional control of unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. The availability of genomic sequences and high-resolution protein crystal structures has expanded our understanding of Type II FASs beyond the E. coli model system to a number of pathogens. The molecular diversity among the pathway enzymes is illustrated by the discovery of a new type of enoyl-reductase in Streptococcus pneumoniae [enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase II, FabK], the presence of two enoyl-reductases in Bacillus subtilis (enoyl-ACP reductases I and III, FabI and FabL), and the use of a new mechanism for unsaturated fatty acid formation in S. pneumoniae (trans-2-cis-3-enoyl-ACP isomerase, FabM). The solution structure of ACP from Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed features common to all ACPs, but its extended C-terminal domain may reflect a specific interaction with very-long-chain intermediates.
Published: 1 November 2002
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 30, pp 1014-1019; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0301014

Abstract:
Decay Accelerating Factor (or CD55) is a major regulator of the alternative and classical pathways of complement activation and is expressed on all serum-exposed cells. It is commonly hijacked by invading pathogens, including many enteroviruses and uropathogenic Escherichia coli, to promote cellular attachment prior to infection. This review will attempt to summarize our knowledge about these interactions between CD55 and various pathogens and also what is known about the non-complement interaction between CD55 and CD97.
, P. Anderson
Published: 1 November 2002
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 30, pp 963-969; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0300963

Abstract:
Mammalian stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic domains into which mRNAs are sorted dynamically in response to phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α, a key regulatory step in translational initiation. The activation of one or more of the eIF2α kinases leads to SG assembly by decreasing the levels of eIF2-GTP-tRNAMet, the ternary complex that is normally required for loading the initiator methionine onto the 48 S preinitiation complex to begin translation. This stress-induced scarcity of eIF2-GTP-tRNAMet allows the RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 (T-cell internal antigen-1) and TIAR (TIA-1-related protein) to bind the 48 S complex in lieu of the ternary complex, thereby promoting polysome disassembly and the concurrent routing of the mRNA into a SG. The actual formation of SGs occurs upon auto-aggregation of the prion-like C-termini of TIA-1 proteins; this aggregation is reversed in vivo by overexpression of the heat-shock protein (HSP) chaperone HSP70. Remarkably, HSP70 mRNA is excluded from SGs and is preferentially translated during stress, indicating that the RNA composition of the SG is selective. Moreover, the effects of HSP70 on TIA aggregation suggest a feedback loop whereby HSP70 synthesis is auto-regulated. Proteins that promote mRNA stability [e.g. HuR (Hu protein R)] and destabilize mRNA [i.e. tristetraprolin (TTP)] are also recruited to SGs, suggesting that SGs effect a process of mRNA triage, by promoting polysome disassembly and routing mRNAs to cytoplasmic domains enriched for HuR and TTP. This model reveals connections between the eIF2α kinase system, mRNA stability and cellular chaperone levels.
Published: 1 August 2002
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 30, pp 815-818; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0300815

Abstract:
Several genetic defects in class switch recombination, which lead to a hyper-IgM syndrome, have been described recently in humans. In addition to the well known role of CD40-ligand-CD40 interaction, these pathologies demonstrate definitively the requirement of CD40-mediated nuclear factor kB activation and the essential role of a recently described molecule, the activationinduced cytidine deaminase in an efficient humoral response, which includes class switch recombination and the production of high-affinity antibodies.
Published: 1 August 2002
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 30, pp 751-755; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0300751

Abstract:
The successful design of orally active non-toxic selective metal chelators is a much sought-after goal. In order to identify an ideal chelator for clinical use, a range of specifications must be considered, such as metal selectivity and affinity, kinetic stability of the complex, bioavailability and toxicity. In this overview the comparative properties of ligands capable of endowing complexes with such properties will be discussed.
Published: 1 August 2002
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 30, pp 590-595; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0300590

Abstract:
The terminal three steps in haem biosynthesis are the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX, followed by the six-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen to protoporphyrin IX, and finally the insertion of ferrous iron to form haem. Interestingly, Nature has evolved distinct enzymic machinery to deal with the antepenultimate (co-proporphyrinogen oxidase) and penultimate (protoporphyrinogen oxidase) steps for aerobic compared with anaerobic organisms. The terminal step is catalysed by the enzyme ferrochelatase. This enzyme is clearly conserved with regard to a small set of essential catalytic residues, but varies significantly with regard to size, subunit composition, cellular location and the presence or absence of a [2Fe-2S] cluster. Coproporphyrinogen oxidase and protoporphyrinogen oxidase are reviewed with regard to their enzymic and physical characteristics. Ferrochelatase, which is the best characterized of these three enzymes, will be described with particular emphasis paid to what has been learned from the crystal structure of the Bacillus subtilis and human enzymes.
Ji Young Lee, Mi-Sook Kim, Mi So Lee, Jae Eun Ju, Namhyun Chung,
Published: 22 November 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20171257

Abstract:
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a ubiquitous multifunctional enzyme usually known as a tumor suppressor. Recent studies have reported that although inhibition of PP2A leads to acceleration of cell growth, it also induces damaged cells to pass through the cell cycle and renders them sensitive to radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the radiosensitizing effects of digoxin as a PP2A inhibitor in two non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell types (H460 and A549) with differential sensitivity to radiation. Digoxin inhibited the proliferation of H460 and A549 cells in a dose-dependent fashion and was especially effective on radioresistant A549 cells. Interestingly, the radiosensitizing effect of digoxin was only present in the radioresistant A549 cells and xenografts. The combination of digoxin and ionizing radiation (IR) significantly reduced clonogenic survival and xenograft tumor growth (P<0.001), compared with IR alone. Digoxin suppressed PP2A protein expression and prevented IR-induced PP2A expression in A549 cells. Digoxin treatment combined with IR allowed the damaged cell to progress through the cell cycle via suppression of cell cycle-related proteins (p53, cyclin D1, cyclin B1, CDK4, and p-cdc2). Moreover, digoxin enhanced IR-induced DNA damage through reduction in levels of repair proteins and elevation of p-ATM foci formation up to 24 h (P<0.001). In conclusion, digoxin has a novel function as a PP2A inhibitor, and combined with IR produces a synergistic effect on radiosensitizing cells, thereby indicating a potentially promising therapeutic approach to radioresistant lung cancer treatment.
Zhibiao Liu, Xin Jin, Wen Pi, Shouhou Liu
Published: 5 December 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20170772

Abstract:
Folic acid (FA), which is necessary for normal cell division of mammals, has been implicated to be involved in many tumors. Dietary FA intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). However, the molecular mechanisms of FA in NPC cells remain unclear. In the present study, we found that FA treatment dose dependently inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of NPC cells, via folate receptor α (FRα). We further found that FA, bound to FRα, induced the activation of MEK/ERK1/2, and increased the expressions of TSLC1 and E-cadherin. Moreover, blocking of ERK1/2 activation attenuated FA-mediated increase in TSLC1 expression. In addition, knockdown of TSLC1 abolished the FA-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and suppressed the FA-mediated increase oinE-cadherin expression in NPC cells. Taken together, our data suggest that FA treatment inhibits NPC cell proliferation and invasion via activation of FRα/ERK1/2/ TSLC1 signaling pathway. Therefore, FA could be explored as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of NPC, and TSLC1 may act as a tumor suppressor in NPC.
Published: 25 October 2017
Journal: Clinical Science
Clinical Science, Volume 131, pp 2573-2599; https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20160982

Abstract:
Adaptive homeostasis is defined as the transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range following exposure to subtoxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events (Mol. Aspects Med. (2016) 49, 1–7). Adaptive homeostasis allows us to transiently adapt (and then de-adapt) to fluctuating levels of internal and external stressors. The ability to cope with transient changes in internal and external environmental stress, however, diminishes with age. Declining adaptive homeostasis may make older people more susceptible to many diseases. Chronic oxidative stress and defective protein homeostasis (proteostasis) are two major factors associated with the etiology of age-related disorders. In the present paper, we review the contribution of impaired responses to oxidative stress and defective adaptive homeostasis in the development of age-associated diseases.
Na Zhao, Li Zeng, Yang Liu, , Haochen Liu, , Yuxi Jiang, Cuiying Li, Tao Cai, Hailan Feng, et al.
Published: 13 November 2017
Journal: Clinical Science
Clinical Science, Volume 131, pp 2721-2735; https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20171231

Abstract:
The underlying molecular mechanism of the increased bone mass phenotype in Tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome remains largely unknown. Our previous study has shown that the TDO point mutation c.533A>G, Q178R in DLX3 could increase bone density in a TDO patient and transgenic mice partially through delaying senescence in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). In the present study, we provided a new complementary explanation for TDO syndrome: the DLX3 (Q178R) mutation increased BMSCs proliferation through H19/miR-675 axis. We found that BMSCs derived from the TDO patient (TDO-BMSCs) had stronger proliferation ability than controls by clonogenic and CCK-8 assays. Next, experiments of overexpression and knockdown of wild-type DLX3 via lentiviruses in normal BMSCs confirmed the results by showing its negative role in cell proliferation. Through validated high-throughput data, we found that the DLX3 mutation reduced the expression of H19 and its coexpression product miR-675 in BMSCs. Function and rescue assays suggested that DLX3, long noncoding RNA H19, and miR-675 are negative factors in modulation of BMSCs proliferation as well as NOMO1 expression. The original higher proliferation rate and the expression of NOMO1 in TDO-BMSCs were suppressed after H19 restoration. Collectively, it indicates that DLX3 regulates BMSCs proliferation through H19/miR-675 axis. Moreover, the increased expression of NOMO1 and decreased H19/miR-675 expression in DLX3 (Q178R) transgenic mice, accompanying with accrual bone mass and density detected by micro-CT, further confirmed our hypothesis. In summary, we, for the first time, demonstrate that DLX3 mutation interferes with bone formation partially through H19/miR-675/NOMO1 axis in TDO syndrome.
Sudha K. Shenoy, Robert J. Lefkowitz
Published: 1 November 2003
Biochemical Journal, Volume 375, pp 503-515; https://doi.org/10.1042/bj20031076

Abstract:
β-Arrestins are cytosolic proteins that bind to activated and phosphorylated G-protein-coupled receptors [7MSRs (seven-membrane-spanning receptors)] and uncouple them from G-protein-mediated second messenger signalling pathways. The binding of β-arrestins to 7MSRs also leads to new signals via activation of MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) such as JNK3 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3), ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and p38 MAPKs. By binding to endocytic proteins [clathrin, AP2 (adapter protein 2), NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein) and ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6)], β-arrestins also serve as adapters to link the receptors to the cellular trafficking machinery. Agonist-promoted ubiquitination of β-arrestins is a prerequisite for their role in receptor internalization, as well as a determinant of the differing trafficking patterns of distinct classes of receptors. Recently, β-arrestins have also been implicated as playing novel roles in cellular chemotaxis and apoptosis. By virtue of their ability to bind, in a stimulus-dependent fashion, to 7MSRs as well as to different classes of cellular proteins, β-arrestins serve as versatile adapter proteins that regulate the signalling and trafficking of the receptors.
Damien S. K. Samways, Wen-Hong Li, , Andrew B. Holmes, , Graeme Henderson
Published: 1 November 2003
Biochemical Journal, Volume 375, pp 713-720; https://doi.org/10.1042/bj20030508

Abstract:
Activation of Gi/Go-coupled opioid receptors increases [Ca2+]i (intracellular free-Ca2+ concentration), but only if there is concomitant Gq-coupled receptor activation. This Gi/Go-coupled receptor-mediated [Ca2+]i increase does not appear to result from further production of InsP3 [Ins(1,4,5)P3] in SH-SY5Y cells. In the present study, fast-scanning confocal microscopy revealed that activation of μ-opioid receptors alone by 1 μM DAMGO ([d-Ala, NMe-Phe, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) did not stimulate the InsP3-dependent elementary Ca2+-signalling events (Ca2+ puffs), whereas DAMGO did evoke Ca2+ puffs when applied during concomitant activation of M3 muscarinic receptors with 1 μM carbachol. We next determined whether μ-opioid receptor activation might increase [Ca2+]i by sensitizing the InsP3 receptor to InsP3. DAMGO did not potentiate the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i increase evoked by flash photolysis of the caged InsP3 receptor agonist, caged 2,3-isopropylidene-InsP3, whereas the InsP3 receptor sensitizing agent, thimerosal (10 μM), did potentiate this response. DAMGO also did not prolong the rate of decay of the increase in [Ca2+]i evoked by flash photolysis of caged 2,3-isopropylidene-InsP3. Furthermore, DAMGO did not increase [Ca2+]i in the presence of the cell-membrane-permeable InsP3 receptor agonist, InsP3 hexakis(butyryloxymethyl) ester. Therefore it appears that μ-opioid receptors do not increase [Ca2+]i through either InsP3 receptor sensitization, enhancing the releasable pool of Ca2+ or inhibition of Ca2+ removal from the cytoplasm.
Jiro Ogura, , Kazumi Shimono, Shengping Yang, Sathisha Gonchigar, Vadivel Ganapathy,
Published: 29 September 2017
Biochemical Journal, Volume 474, pp 3391-3402; https://doi.org/10.1042/bcj20170583

Abstract:
Carbidopa is used with l-DOPA (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients exhibit lower incidence of most cancers including pancreatic cancer, but with the notable exception of melanoma. The decreased cancer incidence is not due to l-DOPA; however, the relevance of Carbidopa to this phenomenon has not been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Carbidopa, independent of l-DOPA, might elicit an anticancer effect. Carbidopa inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Based on structural similarity with phenylhydrazine, an inhibitor of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), we predicted that Carbidopa might also inhibit IDO1, thus providing a molecular basis for its anticancer effect. The inhibitory effect was confirmed using human recombinant IDO1. To demonstrate the inhibition in intact cells, AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) activity was monitored as readout for IDO1-mediated generation of the endogenous AhR agonist kynurenine in pancreatic and liver cancer cells. Surprisingly, Carbidopa did not inhibit but instead potentiated AhR signaling, evident from increased CYP1A1 (cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1), CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 expression. In pancreatic and liver cancer cells, Carbidopa promoted AhR nuclear localization. AhR antagonists blocked Carbidopa-dependent activation of AhR signaling. The inhibitory effect on pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and the activation of AhR occurred at therapeutic concentrations of Carbidopa. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed that Carbidopa promoted AhR binding to its target gene CYP1A1 leading to its induction. We conclude that Carbidopa is an AhR agonist and suppresses pancreatic cancer. Hence, Carbidopa could potentially be re-purposed to treat pancreatic cancer and possibly other cancers as well.
, John C. Reed
Published: 23 October 2017
Biochemical Journal, Volume 474, pp 3643-3657; https://doi.org/10.1042/bcj20170080

Abstract:
Members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) gene family are attractive targets for cancer therapy as they play a key role in promoting cell survival, a long-since established hallmark of cancer. Clinical utility for selective inhibition of specific anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins has recently been realized with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of venetoclax (formerly ABT-199/GDC-0199) in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with 17p deletion. Despite the impressive monotherapy activity in CLL, such responses have rarely been observed in other B-cell malignancies, and preclinical data suggest that combination therapies will be needed in other indications. Additional selective antagonists of Bcl-2 family members, including Bcl-XL and Mcl-1, are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development and hold the promise of extending clinical utility beyond CLL and overcoming resistance to venetoclax. In addition to direct targeting of Bcl-2 family proteins with BH3 mimetics, combination therapies that aim at down-regulating expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members or restoring expression of pro-apoptotic BH3 family proteins may provide a means to deepen responses to venetoclax and extend the utility to additional indications. Here, we review recent progress in direct and selective targeting of Bcl-2 family proteins for cancer therapy and the search for rationale combinations.
Chris Marley, Danielle Hodson, , Lewis Fall,
Published: 28 November 2017
Journal: Clinical Science
Clinical Science, Volume 131, pp 2807-2812; https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20171406

Abstract:
Post-prandial hyperlipidaemia (PPH) acutely impairs systemic vascular endothelial function, potentially attributable to a free radical-mediated reduction in vascular nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability (oxidative–nitrosative stress). However, it remains to be determined whether this extends to the cerebrovasculature. To examine this, 38 (19 young (≤35 years) and 19 aged (≥60 years)) healthy males were recruited. Cerebrovascular function (middle cerebral artery velocity, MCAv) and cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnea (CVRCO2Hyper) and hypocapnea (CVRCO2Hypo) were determined via trans-cranial Doppler ultrasound and capnography. Venous blood samples were obtained for the assessment of triglycerides (photometry), glucose (photometry), insulin (radioimmunoassay), ascorbate free radical (A•−, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy) and nitrite (NO2–, ozone-based chemiluminescence) in the fasted state prior to and 4 h following consumption of a standardized high-fat meal (1362 kcal; 130 g of fat). Circulating triglycerides, glucose and insulin increased in both groups following the high-fat meal (P<0.05), with triglycerides increasing by 1.37 ± 1.09 mmol/l in the young and 1.54 ± 1.00 mmol/l in the aged (P<0.05). This resulted in an increased systemic formation of free radicals in the young (P<0.05) but not the aged (P>0.05) and corresponding reduction in NO2– in both groups (P<0.05). While the meal had no effect on MCAv in either age group, CVRCO2Hyper was selectively impaired in the aged (P<0.05). These findings indicate that PPH causes acute cerebrovascular dysfunction in the aged subsequent to systemic nitrosative stress.
Mehari B. Zerihun,
Published: 20 October 2017
Biochemical Society Transactions, Volume 45, pp 1253-1261; https://doi.org/10.1042/bst20170063

Abstract:
Evolution leads to considerable changes in the sequence of biomolecules, while their overall structure and function remain quite conserved. The wealth of genomic sequences, the ‘Biological Big Data’, modern sequencing techniques provide allows us to investigate biomolecular evolution with unprecedented detail. Sophisticated statistical models can infer residue pair mutations resulting from spatial proximity. The introduction of predicted spatial adjacencies as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction workflows has transformed the field of protein and RNA structure prediction toward accuracies approaching the experimental resolution limit. Going beyond structure prediction, the same mathematical framework allows mimicking evolutionary fitness landscapes to infer signaling interactions, epistasis, or mutational landscapes.
Haiqing Bai, Gillian Schiralli Lester, Laura C. Petishnok,
Published: 29 November 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20160616

Abstract:
Productive transfection and gene transfer require not simply the entry of DNA into cells and subsequent transcription from an appropriate promoter, but also a number of intracellular events that allow the DNA to move from the extracellular surface of the cell into and through the cytoplasm, and ultimately across the nuclear envelope and into the nucleus before any transcription can initiate. Immediately upon entry into the cytoplasm, naked DNA, either delivered through physical techniques or after disassembly of DNA–carrier complexes, associates with a large number of cellular proteins that mediate subsequent interactions with the microtubule network for movement toward the microtubule organizing center and the nuclear envelope. Plasmids then enter the nucleus either upon the mitotic disassembly of the nuclear envelope or through nuclear pore complexes in the absence of cell division, using a different set of proteins. This review will discuss our current understanding of these pathways used by naked DNA during the transfection process. While much has been elucidated on these processes, much remains to be discerned, but with the development of a number of model systems and approaches, great progress is being made.
Li Miao, Shujun Zhan,
Published: 21 November 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20170973

Abstract:
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a proinflammatory cytokine, and its increased level correlates with the severity of periodontitis. However, its role in the pathogenesis of tooth periapical lesions is controversial and has not been completely clarified. The present study aimed to investigate whether IL-12 affects the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs). After treatment with IL-12 for different times, real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, respectively. ELISA was applied to measure MMPs and TIMPs secretion production. The results indicated that IL-12 significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13, but down-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in the hPDLFs. Furthermore, IL-12 (10 ng/ml) enhanced the secreted protein production of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13, and conversely lowered MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion levels. However, IL-12 treatment did not exert a significant effect on the mRNA and protein levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 and their secreted production. Additionally, IL-12 increased the phosphorylated levels of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB P65 (NF-κB P65), and promoted NF-κB P65 subunit nuclear translocation. Pretreatment with NF-κB inhibitor not only attenuated IL-12-induced IκBα and NF-κB P65 phosphorylation and inhibited NF-κB P65 subunit into nucleus, but also antagonized IL-12-mediated MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 expression in the hPDLFs. These findings indicate that NF-κB-dependent activation is possibly indispensable for IL-12-mediated MMP expression in hPDLFs.
Xiaohua Ye, , , Jiayue Dong
Published: 23 November 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20170964

Abstract:
Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains to be challenging for its unpredictable inflammatory progression from acute pancreatitis to SAP. Apoptosis is an important pathology of SAP. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) has been reported to be involved in apoptosis. The present study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of an adenovirus-mediated artificial miRNA targetting FGL2 (Ad-FGL2-miRNA) in taurocholate-induced murine pancreatitis models. Sodium taurocholate was retrogradely injected into the biliopancreatic ducts of the C57/BL mice to induce SAP. FGL2 expression was measured with reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. ELISA was used to detect the activity of amylase and the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In addition, the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were also detected. Finally, apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method and Western blotting. Ad-FGL2-miRNA significantly suppressed FGL2 expression and alleviated pancreatic injury. Also, Ad-FGL2-miRNA markedly inhibited a post-SAP increase in the activation of TNF-α and IL-1β. Finally, pretreatment with Ad-FGL2-miRNA ameliorated apoptosis at the early stage of SAP by modulating cleaved caspase-3 and therefore played a protective role. These results indicated that FGL2 might be a promising target for attenuating the severity of SAP and adenovirus-mediated artificial miRNAs targetting FGL2 represented a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of SAP.
Biao Wang, Zhen Tang, Huiyuan Gong, Li Zhu,
Published: 29 November 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20171092

Abstract:
A recent study indicated that high Wnt5a expression is associated with poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; however, the underlying mechanism was not clear yet. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were performed to examine the protein expression level in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. The role of Wnt5a in clone formation, invasiveness, migration, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of NSCLC cells was studied. Luciferase reporter assay was used to evaluate the Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. For assessing the effects of Wnt5a on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, A549 cells transfected with sh-Wnt5a were subcutaneously or orthotopically injected into nude mice. In NSCLC tissues, higher expression levels of Wnt5a and ROR2 were found, β-Catenin was expressed exceptionally, and EMT was prompted. Wnt5a overexpression increased clone formation, migration, and invasion, as well as prompted EMT of NSCLC cell in vitro, whereas Wnt5a knockdown showed the absolutely reversed results. Wnt5a overexpression enhanced the Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity and elevated the nuclear β-catenin level in NSCLC cells, without altering the ROR2 expression. We also demonstrated that si-β-catenin antagonized Wnt5a overexpression nduced EMT and invasiveness. Besides, in vivo experiment showed that sh-Wnt5a significantly increased tumor volume and tumor weight, and prompted EMT in A549 tumor-bearing mice as compared with the control. No metastasis was found in the liver tissue after sh-Wnt5a-transfected cells were orthotopically injected into nude mice as compared with the control. In conclusion, Wnt5a promotes EMT and metastasis in NSCLC, which is involved in the activation of β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling.
, Rain Dunaway, Parag P. Shah, Julie A. Gosney, Leah J. Siskind, Brian P. Ceresa,
Published: 6 December 2017
Biochemical Journal, Volume 474, pp 4105-4118; https://doi.org/10.1042/bcj20170620

Abstract:
Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates growth, proliferation and survival. Dysregulation of IGF pathway contributes to the initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer and is also involved in diseases of glucose metabolism, such as diabetes. We have identified Ubiquilin1 (UBQLN1) as a novel interaction partner of IGF1R, IGF2R and insulin receptor (INSR). UBQLN family of proteins have been studied primarily in the context of protein quality control and in the field of neurodegenerative disorders. Our laboratory discovered a link between UBQLN1 function and tumorigenesis, such that UBQLN1 is lost and underexpressed in 50% of human lung adenocarcinoma cases. We demonstrate here that UBQLN1 regulates the expression and activity of IGF1R. Following loss of UBQLN1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells, there is accelerated loss of IGF1R. Despite decreased levels of total receptors, the ratio of active : total receptors is higher in cells that lack UBQLN1. UBQLN1 also regulates INSR and IGF2R post-stimulation with ligand. We conclude that UBQLN1 is essential for normal regulation of IGF receptors. UBQLN-1-deficient cells demonstrate increased cell viability compared with control when serum-starved and stimulation of IGF pathway in these cells increased their migratory potential by 3-fold. As the IGF pathway is involved in processes of normal growth, development, metabolism and cancer progression, understanding its regulation by Ubiquilin1 can be of tremendous value to many disciplines.
Vanina Saraullo, Nicolas Di Siervi, Belen Jerez, Carlos Davio,
Published: 21 November 2017
Biochemical Journal, Volume 474, pp 4001-4017; https://doi.org/10.1042/bcj20170590

Abstract:
Despite its importance in the regulation of growth and differentiation processes of a variety of organisms, the mechanism of synthesis and degradation of cAMP (cyclic AMP) has not yet been described in Giardia lamblia. In this work, we measured significant quantities of cAMP in trophozoites of G. lamblia incubated in vitro and later detected how it increases during the first hours of encystation, and how it then returns to basal levels at 24 h. Through an analysis of the genome of G. lamblia, we found sequences of three putative enzymes — one phosphodiesterase (gPDE) and two nucleotidyl cyclases (gNC1 and gNC2) — that should be responsible for the regulation of cAMP in G. lamblia. Later, an RT-PCR assay confirmed that these three genes are expressed in trophozoites. The bioinformatic analysis indicated that gPDE is a transmembrane protein of 154 kDa, with a single catalytic domain in the C-terminal end; gNC1 is predicted to be a transmembrane protein of 74 kDa, with only one class III cyclase homology domain (CHD) at the C-terminal end; and gNC2 should be a transmembrane protein of 246 kDa, with two class III CHDs. Finally, we cloned and enriched the catalytic domain of gNC1 (gNC1cd) from bacteria. After that, we confirmed that gNC1cd has adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. This enzymatic activity depends on the presence of Mn2+ and Ca2+, but no significant activity was displayed in the presence of Mg2+. Additionally, the AC activity of gNC1cd is competitively inhibited with GTP, so it is highly possible that gNC1 has guanylyl cyclase activity as well.
Geethu Emily Thomas, Marira R. Renjith,
Published: 18 October 2017
Biochemical Journal, Volume 474, pp 3559-3577; https://doi.org/10.1042/bcj20170518

Abstract:
Chromosome congression and segregation require robust yet dynamic attachment of the kinetochore with the spindle microtubules. Force generated at the kinetochore–microtubule interface plays a vital role to drive the attachment, as it is required to move chromosomes and to provide signal to sense correct attachments. To understand the mechanisms underlying these processes, it is critical to describe how the force is generated and how the molecules at the kinetochore–microtubule interface are organized and assembled to withstand the force and respond to it. Research in the past few years or so has revealed interesting insights into the structural organization and architecture of kinetochore proteins that couple kinetochore attachment to the spindle microtubules. Interestingly, despite diversities in the molecular players and their modes of action, there appears to be architectural similarity of the kinetochore-coupling machines in lower to higher eukaryotes. The present review focuses on the most recent advances in understanding of the molecular and structural aspects of kinetochore–microtubule interaction based on the studies in yeast and vertebrate cells.
Anqiang Yang, , Xiaobing Yang
Published: 15 December 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20170871

Abstract:
Human glioma is one of the malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Its prognosis is poor, which is due to its genetic heterogeneity and our poor understanding of its underlying molecular mechanisms. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and their effects on the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. The expression levels of PVT1 and EZH2 in human glioma tissues and cell lines were measured using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Then, after siRNA-PVT1 and entire PVT1 sequence vector transfection, we determined the regulation roles of PVT1 in the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. We found that the expression levels of both PVT1 and EZH2 were up-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines, and positively correlated with glioma malignancy. And, silencing of PVT1 expression resulted in decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased migration and invasion. In addition, exogenous PVT1 led to increased EZH2 expression and increased proliferation and induced proliferation and invasion. These data inferred that long non-coding RNA PVT1 could be served as an indicator of glioma prognosis, and PVT1–EZH2 regulatory pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for treating glioma.
Shujie Lai, Yan Li, Yi Kuang, Hongli Cui, Yang Yang, Wenjing Sun, Kaijun Liu, Ngfeng Chen, Qixian Yan,
Published: 23 November 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20170869

Abstract:
Protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) plays an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, the mechanism remains unknown. The present study explored the role of PKCδ in NAFLD development and investigated the relationships between PKCδ, calcium homeostasis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS). Hepatic steatosis cell model was induced by palmitic acid (PA) in L02 cells. Lipid accretion was evaluated using Oil Red O staining and a triglyceride (TG) detection kit. PKCδ was down-regulated by siRNA. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of ERS markers. The fluorescence of Ca2+ influx was recorded using confocal microscopy. Sarco-ER Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) activity was measured by ultramicro-ATP enzyme test kit. PA treatment induced lipid accretion in L02 cells, destroyed the ER structure, and increased PKCδ activation in a time-dependent manner. Further, PA treatment significantly increased the expression of ERS markers, Ig heavy chain binding protein (Bip), and homologous proteins of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins (CHOP). PKCδ silencing down-regulated Bip and CHOP expression, indicating a successful alleviation of ERS. The increased calcium storage induced by PA stimulation was significantly decreased in L02 cells treated with PKCδ siRNA compared with the negative control. Moreover, diminished SERCA activity caused by PA was recovered in PKCδ siRNA transfected cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the inhibition of PKCδ alleviates ERS by enhancing SERCA activity and stabilizing calcium homeostasis.
Hyo Jung Kim, Ki-Young Lee, , Bong-Jin Lee
Published: 17 November 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20171106

Abstract:
The DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily of proteins is highly conserved across all biological kingdoms showing divergent multifunctions, such as chaperone, catalase, protease, and kinase. The common theme of these functions is responding to and managing various cellular stresses. DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily members are classified into three subfamilies according to their quaternary structure (DJ-1-, YhbO-, and Hsp-types). The Hsp-type subfamily includes Hsp31, a chaperone and glyoxalase III. SAV0551, an Hsp-type subfamily member from Staphylococcus aureus, is a hypothetical protein that is predicted as Hsp31. Thus, to reveal the function and reaction mechanism of SAV0551, the crystal structure of SAV0551 was determined. The overall folds in SAV0551 are similar to other members of the Hsp-type subfamily. We have shown that SAV0551 functions as a chaperone and that the surface structure is crucial for holding unfolded substrates. As many DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily proteins have been characterized as glyoxalase III, our study also demonstrates SAV0551 as a glyoxalase III that is independent of any cofactors. The reaction mechanism was evaluated via a glyoxylate-bound structure that mimics the hemithioacetal reaction intermediate. We have confirmed that the components required for reaction are present in the structure, including a catalytic triad for a catalytic action, His78 as a base, and a water molecule for hydrolysis. Our functional studies based on the crystal structures of native and glyoxylate-bound SAV0551 will provide a better understanding of the reaction mechanism of a chaperone and glyoxalase III.
Xiao Juan Wang, Jing Jing Xiao, Lei Liu, Hong Chao Jiao,
Published: 17 November 2017
Bioscience reports, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20171056

Abstract:
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-dependent proteolysis plays a major role in the muscle catabolic action of glucocorticoids (GCs). Atrogin-1 and muscle-specific RING finger protein 1 (MuRF1), two E3 ubiquitin ligases, are uniquely expressed in muscle. It has been previously demonstrated that GC treatment induced MuRF1 and atrogin-1 overexpression. However, it is yet unclear whether the higher pharmacological dose of GCs induced muscle protein catabolism through MuRF1 and atrogin-1. In the present study, the role of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in C2C12 cells protein metabolism during excessive dexamethasone (DEX) was studied. The involvement of Akt/forkhead box O1 (FoXO1) signaling pathway and the cross-talk between anabolic regulator mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and catabolic regulator FoXO1 were investigated. High concentration of DEX increased MuRF1 protein level in a time-dependent fashion (P<0.05), while had no detectable effect on atrogin-1 protein (P>0.05). FoXO1/3a (Thr24/32) phosphorylation was enhanced (P<0.05), mTOR phosphorylation was suppressed (P<0.05), while Akt protein expression was not affected (P>0.05) by DEX. RU486 treatment inhibited the DEX-induced increase of FoXO1/3a phosphorylation (P<0.05) and MuRF1 protein; LY294002 (LY) did not restore the stimulative effect of DEX on the FoXO1/3a phosphorylation (P>0.05), but inhibited the activation of MuRF1 protein induced by DEX (P<0.05); rapamycin (RAPA) inhibited the stimulative effect of DEX on the FoXO1/3a phosphorylation and MuRF1 protein (P<0.05).
, Stéphanie Lebreton, Mickaël Lelek, Patrizia Riccio, , Christophe Zimmer,
Published: 1 December 2017
Biochemical Journal, Volume 474, pp 4075-4090; https://doi.org/10.1042/bcj20170582

Abstract:
Spatio-temporal compartmentalization of membrane proteins is critical for the regulation of diverse vital functions in eukaryotic cells. It was previously shown that, at the apical surface of polarized MDCK cells, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are organized in small cholesterol-independent clusters of single GPI-AP species (homoclusters), which are required for the formation of larger cholesterol-dependent clusters formed by multiple GPI-AP species (heteroclusters). This clustered organization is crucial for the biological activities of GPI-APs; hence, understanding the spatio-temporal properties of their membrane organization is of fundamental importance. Here, by using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy coupled to pair correlation analysis (pc-STORM), we were able to visualize and measure the size of these clusters. Specifically, we show that they are non-randomly distributed and have an average size of 67 nm. We also demonstrated that polarized MDCK and non-polarized CHO cells have similar cluster distribution and size, but different sensitivity to cholesterol depletion. Finally, we derived a model that allowed a quantitative characterization of the cluster organization of GPI-APs at the apical surface of polarized MDCK cells for the first time. Experimental FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)/FLIM (fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy) data were correlated to the theoretical predictions of the model.
Yong Guo, , Bing Xiang, Xiao-Ou Huang, Hong-Bing Ma, Fang-Fang Wang,
Published: 6 December 2017
Biochemical Journal, Volume 474, pp 4153-4170; https://doi.org/10.1042/bcj20170386

Abstract:
Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) is triggered by BCR/ABL kinase. Recent efforts focused on the development of more potent tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that also inhibit mutant tyrosine kinases such as nilotinib and dasatinib. Although major advances in the treatment of this aggressive disease with potent inhibitors of the BCR/ABL kinases, patients in remission frequently relapse due to drug resistance possibly mediated, at least in part, by compensatory activation of growth-signaling pathways and protective feedback signaling of leukemia cells in response to TKI treatment. Continuous activation of AKT/mTOR signaling and inactivation of p53 pathway were two mechanisms of TKI resistance. Here, we reported that nutlin-3 plus tanshinone IIA significantly potentiated the cytotoxic and apoptotic induction effects of imatinib by down-regulation of the AKT/mTOR pathway and reactivating the p53 pathway deeply in Ph+ ALL cell line. In primary samples from Ph+ ALL patients, nutlin-3 plus tanshinone IIA also exhibited synergetic cytotoxic effects with imatinib. Of note, three samples from Ph+ ALL patients harboring T315I mutation also showed sensitivity to the combined treatment of imatinib, nutlin-3 plus tanshinone IIA. In Ph+ ALL mouse models, imatinib combined with nutlin-3 plus tanshinone IIA also exhibited synergetic effects on reduction in leukemia burden. These results demonstrated that nutlin-3 plus tanshinone IIA combined TKI might be a promising treatment strategy for Ph+ ALL patients.
Zahra Erami, Bassem D. Khalil, Gilbert Salloum, Yanhua Yao, Jaclyn LoPiccolo, Aliaksei Shymanets, , ,
Published: 16 November 2017
Biochemical Journal, Volume 474, pp 3903-3914; https://doi.org/10.1042/bcj20170279

Abstract:
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases) are regulated by a diverse range of upstream activators, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and small GTPases from the Ras, Rho and Rab families. For the Class IA PI 3-kinase PI3Kβ, two mechanisms for GPCR-mediated regulation have been described: direct binding of Gβγ subunits to the C2-helical domain linker of p110β, and Dock180/Elmo1-mediated activation of Rac1, which binds to the Ras-Binding Domain of p110β. We now show that the integration of these dual pathways is unexpectedly complex. In breast cancer cells, expression of constitutively activated Rac1 (CA-Rac1) along with either GPCR stimulation or expression of Gβγ led to an additive PI3Kβ-dependent activation of Akt. Whereas CA-Rac1-mediated activation of Akt was blocked in cells expressing a mutated PI3Kβ that cannot bind Gβγ, Gβγ and GPCR-mediated activation of Akt was preserved when Rac1 binding to PI3Kβ was blocked. Surprisingly, PI3Kβ-dependent CA-Rac1 signaling to Akt was still seen in cells expressing a mutant p110β that cannot bind Rac1. Instead of directly binding to PI3Kβ, CA-Rac1 acts by enhancing Gβγ coupling to PI3Kβ, as CA-Rac1-mediated Akt activation was blocked by inhibitors of Gβγ. Cells expressing CA-Rac1 exhibited a robust induction of macropinocytosis, and inhibitors of macropinocytosis blocked the activation of Akt by CA-Rac1 or lysophosphatidic acid. Our data suggest that Rac1 can potentiate the activation of PI3Kβ by GPCRs through an indirect mechanism, by driving the formation of macropinosomes that serve as signaling platforms for Gβγ coupling to PI3Kβ.
Richa Dubey, Pooja Minj, Nikita Malik, Devika M. Sardesai, Shruti H. Kulkarni, , Neel Sarovar Bhavesh, ,
Published: 16 November 2017
Biochemical Journal, Volume 474, pp 3915-3934; https://doi.org/10.1042/bcj20170323

Abstract:
Protein misfolding and aggregation play an important role in many human diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) forms amyloid plaques in the pancreas of T2DM subjects (>95%) that are involved in deteriorating islet function and in mediating β-cell apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism of action, structure and nature of toxic hIAPP species responsible for this effect remains elusive to date mainly due to the high cost associated with the chemical synthesis of pure peptide required for these studies. In the present work, we attempted to obtain structural and mechanistic insights into the hIAPP aggregation process using recombinant hIAPP (rhIAPP) isolated from Escherichia coli. Results from biophysical and structural studies indicate that the rhIAPP self-assembled into highly pure, β-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils with uniform morphology. rhIAPP-mediated apoptosis in INS-1E cells was associated with increased oxidative stress and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. The transcript levels of apoptotic genes - Caspase-3 and Bax were found to be up-regulated, while the levels of the anti-apoptotic gene - Bcl2 were down-regulated in rhIAPP-treated cells. Additionally, the expression levels of genes involved in combating oxidative stress namely Catalase, SOD1 and GPx were down-regulated. rhIAPP exposure also affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets. The aggregation of rhIAPP also occurred significantly faster when compared with that of the chemically synthesized peptide. We also show that the rhIAPP fibrils were shorter and more cytotoxic. In summary, our study is one among the few to provide comprehensive evaluation of structural, biophysical and cytotoxic properties of rhIAPP.
, , Lakshmi Santhanam, Lacy M. Alexander
Published: 23 November 2017
Journal: Clinical Science
Clinical Science, Volume 131, pp 2777-2789; https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20171292

Abstract:
Microvascular dysfunction originating during a preeclamptic pregnancy persists postpartum and probably contributes to increased CVD risk in these women. One putative mechanism contributing to this dysfunction is increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1), mediated by alterations in ET-1 receptor type-B (ETBR). We evaluated ET-1 sensitivity, ETAR, and ETBR contributions to ET-1-mediated constriction, and the mechanistic role of ETBR in endothelium-dependent dilation in vivo in the microvasculature of postpartum women who had preeclampsia (PrEC, n=12) and control women who had a healthy pregnancy (HC, n=12). We hypothesized that (1) PrEC would have a greater vasoconstrictor response to ET-1, and (2) reduced ETBR-mediated dilation. We further hypothesized that ETBR-blockade would attenuate endothelium-dependent vasodilation in HC, but not PrEC. Microvascular reactivity was assessed by measurement of cutaneous vascular conductance responses to graded infusion of ET-1 (10−20–10−8 mol/l), ET-1 + 500 nmol/l BQ-123 (ETAR-blockade), and ET-1 + 300 nmol/l BQ-788 (ETBR-blockade), and during graded infusion of acetylcholine (ACh, 10−7–102 mmol/l) and a standardized local heating protocol with and without ETBR-inhibition. PrEC had an increased vasoconstriction response to ET-1 (P=0.02). PrEC demonstrated reduced dilation responses to selective ETBR stimulation with ET-1 (P=0.01). ETBR-inhibition augmented ET-1-mediated constriction in HC (P=0.01) but attenuated ET-1-mediated constriction in PrEC (P=0.003). ETBR-inhibition attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation responses to 100mmol/l ACh (P=0.04) and local heat (P=0.003) in HC but increased vasodilation (ACh: P=0.01; local heat: P=0.03) in PrEC. Women who have had preeclampsia demonstrate augmented vasoconstrictor sensitivity to ET-1, mediated by altered ETBR signaling. Furthermore, altered ETBR function contributes to diminished endothelium-dependent dilation in previously preeclamptic women.
Santiago Martinez Sosa,
Published: 13 October 2017
Journal: Clinical Science
Clinical Science, Volume 131, pp 2503-2524; https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20170981

Abstract:
The deep and periventricular white matter is preferentially affected in several neurological disorders, including cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms may be involved in this injury. Here we consider the potential pathogenic role of tissue hypoxia in lesion development, arising partly from the vascular anatomy of the affected white matter. Specifically, these regions are supplied by a sparse vasculature fed by long, narrow end arteries/arterioles that are vulnerable to oxygen desaturation if perfusion is reduced (as in SVD, MS and diabetes) or if the surrounding tissue is hypoxic (as in MS, at least). The oxygen crisis is exacerbated by a local preponderance of veins, as these can become highly desaturated ‘sinks’ for oxygen that deplete it from surrounding tissues. Additional haemodynamic deficiencies, including sluggish flow and impaired vasomotor reactivity and vessel compliance, further exacerbate oxygen insufficiency. The cells most vulnerable to hypoxic damage, including oligodendrocytes, die first, resulting in demyelination. Indeed, in preclinical models, demyelination is prevented if adequate oxygenation is maintained by raising inspired oxygen concentrations. In agreement with this interpretation, there is a predilection of lesions for the anterior and occipital horns of the lateral ventricles, namely regions located at arterial watersheds, or border zones, known to be especially susceptible to hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Finally, mitochondrial dysfunction due to genetic causes, as occurs in leucodystrophies or due to free radical damage, as occurs in MS, will compound any energy insufficiency resulting from hypoxia. Viewing lesion formation from the standpoint of tissue oxygenation not only reveals that lesion distribution is partly predictable, but may also inform new therapeutic strategies.
Lieke Jäkel, Lieke Jäkel, William E. Van Nostrand, William E. Van Nostrand, , , David J. Werring, David J. Werring, ,
Published: 28 September 2017
Journal: Clinical Science
Clinical Science, Volume 131, pp 2469-2488; https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20170033

Abstract:
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), due to vascular amyloid β (Aβ) deposition, is a risk factor for intracerebral haemorrhage and dementia. CAA can occur in sporadic or rare hereditary forms, and is almost invariably associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Experimental (animal) models are of great interest in studying mechanisms and potential treatments for CAA. Naturally occurring animal models of CAA exist, including cats, dogs and non-human primates, which can be used for longitudinal studies. However, due to ethical considerations and low throughput of these models, other animal models are more favourable for research. In the past two decades, a variety of transgenic mouse models expressing the human Aβ precursor protein (APP) has been developed. Many of these mouse models develop CAA in addition to senile plaques, whereas some of these models were generated specifically to study CAA. In addition, other animal models make use of a second stimulus, such as hypoperfusion or hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), to accelerate CAA. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive review of existing animal models for CAA, which can aid in understanding the pathophysiology of CAA and explore the response to potential therapies.
Published: 14 December 2012
Biochemical Journal, Volume 449, pp 497-506; https://doi.org/10.1042/bj20121122

Abstract:
Autophagy is a natural process of ‘self-eating’ that occurs within cells and can be either pro-survival or can cause cell death. As a pro-survival mechanism, autophagy obtains energy by recycling cellular components such as macromolecules or organelles. In response to nutrient deprivation, e.g. depletion of amino acids or serum, autophagy is induced and most of these signals converge on the kinase mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). It is commonly accepted that glucose inhibits autophagy, since its deprivation from cells cultured in full medium induces autophagy by a mechanism involving AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), mTOR and Ulk1. However, we show in the present study that under starvation conditions addition of glucose produces the opposite effect. Specifically, the results of the present study demonstrate that the presence of glucose induces an increase in the levels of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain)-II, in the number and volume density of autophagic vacuoles and in protein degradation by autophagy. Addition of glucose also increases intracellular ATP, which is in turn necessary for the induction of autophagy because the glycolysis inhibitor oxamate inhibits it, and there is also a good correlation between LC3-II and ATP levels. Moreover, we also show that, surprisingly, the induction of autophagy by glucose is independent of AMPK and mTOR and mainly relies on p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase).
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