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Viktoriia Olkhovska, Zalina Yeloyeva, Yevhen Olkhovskyi
ScienceRise: Medical Science pp 28-31; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4798.2021.240151

Abstract:
The aim of the work was to study the characteristics of the response of non-specific protective factors in tonsillitis of streptococcal etiology in children infected and uninfected with HHV-6 infection at different periods of the disease. Materials and research methods. In 78 children aged 3–15 years, inflammation markers and phagocytic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils (PAN) were determined using the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. The studies were carried out in the acute period and in the period of convalescence. Mathematical and statistical processing of the data obtained was carried out using Microsoft Excel 2003 and Statistica 6.0 programs. The significance of differences between the mean values was determined using the Student's test (t). Results. It was found that infection of children with HHV-6 leads to a decrease in the functional activity of neutrophils in the onset of streptococcal tonsillitis compared with uninfected patients (p<0.05). Also, the acute period of streptococcal tonsillitis in patients with co-infection is accompanied by a violation of the functional reserve of the oxygen-dependent mechanism of bactericidal neutrophils: minimal opportunities were found in tonsillitis on the background of HHV-6 infection (p<0.05). By the period of convalescence, a decrease in the indicators of the functional activity of neutrophils, increased in the acute period, was recorded, but in children infected with HHV-6, a complete recovery of indicators to the physiological norm did not occur. One of the features of streptococcal tonsillitis in children with HHV-6 infection is an increase in serum gamma globulin level (p˂0.05), lack of significant dynamics of decrease in the ASL-O indicator. Conclusions. The presence of VHL-6t infection in a child with streptococcal tonsillitis adversely affects the state of nonspecific protective factors, in particular PAN. The obtained data must be used to optimize the management of patients at different periods of the disease, including at the stages of dispensary observation
Yevheniia Vashchyk, Dmytro Morozenko, Nataliia Seliukova, Andriy Zakhariev, Roman Dotsenko, Andrii Zemlianskyi, Olga Shapovalova, Ekaterina Dotsenko
ScienceRise: Biological Science pp 33-40; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-8025.2021.241238

Abstract:
The aim: the aim of the research is an analytical review of the scientific literature on Рseudomonas aeruginosa as a priority group representative of bacteria with multiple antibiotics resistance. Materials and methods. The research was conducted by the method of scientific literature open source analysis: PubMed, Elsevier, electronic resources of the National Library named after V. I. Vernadsky and others. Results. The problem of antibiotic resistance is rightly called the “apocalypse of the XXI century”. P. aeruginosa bacteria are characterized by a very high natural ability to form resistant forms to antimicrobial drugs due to the formation of specific resistance genes, the ability to resist the entry of antibiotics into the cell or remove antibiotics from the cell, and form biofilms. A characteristic feature of the epidemic and epizootic processes of P. aeruginosa, as an opportunistic ubiquitous microorganism is host-pathogenic interaction - the interaction of the pathogen with the host organism. The peculiarity of this bacterium is opportunism and long-term persistence in the body of the host and in the environment. The global trend towards the spread of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, underscores the need to develop comprehensive response strategies targeting all sectors of health. Conclusions. Bacteria P. aeruginosa is classified in 1th Critical Group of the WHO list of resistant to antibiotics "priority pathogens". Among the main reasons that contribute to the emergence of resistance are irrational antibiotic therapy in both humans and animals, and the use of antibiotics as growth stimulants in animal husbandry. While more R&D is vital, alone, it cannot solve the problem. To address resistance, there must also be better prevention of infections and appropriate use of existing antibiotics in humans and animals, as well as rational use of any new antibiotics that are developed in future. New methods of combating antibiotic resistance and antibacterial substances, alternatives to antibiotics (biofilm-destroying drugs, antimicrobial peptides (AMP), bacteriophages, nanopreparations, etc.) can make a positive contribution to overcoming the multiple drug resistance of gram-negatives
Andrii Zemlianskyi, Olga Tymoshenko, Andriy Zakhariev, Yevheniia Vashchyk, Nataliia Seliukova, Roman Dotsenko
ScienceRise: Biological Science pp 26-32; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-8025.2021.241207

Abstract:
The aim of the research: to substantiate the pathogenetic role of lipid metabolism disorders in the occurrence and course of pancreatitis in dogs and to establish the informativeness of its indicators for diagnosis and evaluation of treatment effectiveness based on clinical and laboratory research methods. Materials and methods. Used clinical, instrumental, laboratory methods, including morphological studies of blood, urine, biochemical studies of serum: determination of the lipid profile by the content of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, lipoproteins cholesterol of very low – HDL, low – LDL and high density – VLDL, traditional tests and statistical methods. Results. It was found that the most significant changes are inherent in the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins in the serum: significantly increased concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerols, LDL cholesterol and especially LDL cholesterol. The content of HDL cholesterol, on the contrary, in the acute course of pancreatitis is below normal. The content of triacylglycerols, LDL cholesterol and VLDL remains high. Total cholesterol is normalized, and the level of HDL is below normal. Conclusions. Serum lipidogram of dogs without clinical symptoms of pathology does not differ in composition from the results obtained by other researchers. For pancreatitis in dogs, the concentration of total cholesterol increases by 1.9 times, triacylglycerols – by 5.4 times, cholesterol VLDL – in 6.0 times and LDL cholesterol – 7.7 times. The content of HDL cholesterol, in contrast, in the acute course of pancreatitis is 1.5 times lower than in clinically healthy dogs. Treatment reduces the degree of hyperenzymemia by ALT and AST, but α-amylase activity is not normalized in dogs. Above normal levels of triacylglycerols, LDL cholesterol and VLDL, and HDL cholesterol remain low, despite treatment
Roman Dotsenko, Maryna Romanko, Yevheniia Vashchyk, Andriy Zakhariev, Andrii Zemlianskyi, Ekaterina Dotsenko, Nataliia Seliukova
ScienceRise: Biological Science pp 41-48; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-8025.2021.241245

Abstract:
The aim: to determine the effect of a preparative form of an antiemeric agent based on maduramycin and nicarbazine on the body of white rats and broiler chickens under the conditions of a subacute experiment. Materials and methods. The formulation based on maduramycin and nicarbazine was administered to rats and broiler chickens with feed for 28 days. One control and three experimental groups were formed for the experiment: Group I – animals received a complete diet without admixture of the formulation (control group), Group II – animals that were administered the formulation (by the amount of active substances) at a dose of 5.0 mg / kg, III – 25.0 mg / kg and IV – 50.0 mg / kg of feed, respectively. In order to establish the toxic effect of the formulation on the body of experimental birds on 7, 14, 28 days of the experiment and 7 days after discontinuation of the formulation, 5 heads from each group were killed under light ether anesthesia, blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical studies. Results. During the study of the general clinical condition of rats and broiler chickens of the experimental groups, no significant changes in behavior and appearance were detected, compared with the control. Hematological parameters of broiler chickens it was found that the receipt of the formulation with feed at doses of 5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight, causes a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit in broiler chickens on day 7 of the experiment. It was found that the changes are reversible, on the 28th day of the experiment the value of these indicators was within the physiological norm. In the study of hematological and biochemical parameters of rats, it was found that the receipt of the formulation with food in doses of 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg for 28 days, causes a decrease in hemoglobin and increase hematocrit, total protein, albumin, creatinine and urea in male rats on the 7th day of the experiment. Conclusions. Under conditions of repeated oral administration of the preparation mixture to rats and poultry at doses of 5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight in the absence of clinical signs of poisoning, insignificant fluctuations in hematological and biochemical parameters were identified
Vira Tseluyko, Tetyana Pylova
ScienceRise: Medical Science pp 10-15; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4798.2021.241534

Abstract:
The aim of the study to evaluate the effect of supplementation of basic therapy by ranolazine in patients with INOCA on exercise test parameters and Holter ECG monitoring. Materials and methods. 53 patients with stable coronary heart disease were examined, including 18 men (33.9 %) and 35 (66 %) women, the average age of patients was 57 (±9.68) years. According to the results of coronary angiography all patients had non-obstructive coronary arteries. In addition to physical and laboratory examination, bicycle ergometry, Holter ECG monitoring and echocardiography were included in the examination of patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group I - patients who in addition to standard therapy received ranolazine at a dose of 1000 mg twice a day for 6 months, and group II patients with standard coronary heart disease therapy. After 6 months from the beginning of the observation an objective examination, echocardiography, exercise test, Holter ECG monitoring were repeated. Results. The study found that patients receiving ranolazine in addition to standard therapy had a statistically significant increase in exercise duration after 6 months compared with baseline and group II. Before treatment in group I, the duration of the exercise test was 356.51±180.24s, and after treatment 414.32±142.10s (p=0.03). In group II, the duration of the test before treatment was 361.4±160.24 c, and after 380.5±152.2 s (p=0.15). It was also found that the duration of the test differed significantly in group I after treatment of patients from group II after treatment of patients with a standard treatment regimen (p=0.04). According to the results of Holter ECG monitoring in group I found a positive effect of ranolazine on the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias: before treatment n=1142 [30; 2012], after treatment n=729 [23; 1420], while in group II a significant difference between the number of extrasystoles before treatment and after not detected (n=1026 [17; 1920], n=985 [15; 1680], respectively) p=0.18. Conclusions. The addition of ranolazine to the basic therapy of patients with non-obstructive coronary arteries disease helps to increase exercise tolerance (according to the loading stress test) and contributes to a significant reduction in the number of ventricular arrhythmias (according to Holter-ECG) compared with both baseline and group II
Iuliia Lozova, , , Tatiana Pochuеva
ScienceRise: Medical Science pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4798.2021.241951

Abstract:
Otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases of the middle ear in preschool age, but its relationship with vestibular dysfunction remains controversial. The aim of the study was to carry out a comparative analysis of stabilometric indicators of preschool children with suppurative and non-suppurative otitis media. Materials and methods: 22 children with suppurative otitis media and 22 children with non-suppurative otitis media at the age from 4 to 7 years were examined by the method of static stabilometry on the device “MPFI Stabilograph 1” (LLC "ASTER IT", Kharkov, Ukraine). We took into account the indices of variation and distribution of the center of pressure, spectral and correlation indices of the stabilogram, as well as integral indices of stability (length, velocity and angle of postural oscillations) and the quality of the balance function in two sensory states (open and closed eyes), which were calculated in the software providing StabiliS. Results. In children with non-suppurative otitis media, the coordinates of the center-of-pressure corresponded (7.04 [2.16–10.09]; -1.14 [-28.90–9.11]), and with suppurative otitis media – (7.04 [3.30–16.16]; -13.72 [(-25.17)–(-10.30)]) with closed eyes. The averaged figure of the projection of the center-of-pressure in the test with eyes closed is actually represented by a circle in both groups, but with open eyes it is represented by an ellipse, which, in case of non-suppurative otitis media, is stretched along the sagittal axis, and in case of suppurative otitis media, along the frontal axis. In both sensory states, children with non-suppurative otitis media were characterized by large (p≤0.05) values of KurtosisX, Length and lower (p≤0.05) values of CC0X, Pup2Sigma compared with non-purulent otitis media. Conclusions: In preschool age, suppurative otitis media more significantly disrupts the balance function compared with non-suppurative otitis media, which was manifested by a significant decrease in the stability of the main stance and the predictability of oscillatory movements compared with non-suppurative otitis media
Amit Mittal, Manoj Kumar Singh, Rajeev Kumar, Deepti Mandsorwale
ScienceRise: Medical Science pp 48-51; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4798.2021.238014

Abstract:
Coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviated “COVID-19”) is an emerging respiratory disease that is caused by a novel coronavirus and was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The cases of COVID-19 infection since then were showing increasing trend in all over the world. The aim: to study the epidemiological distribution and determinants of COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: it is a descriptive study carried out at a tertiary care hospital of India. The population comprised of patients admitted in the hospital. Sample size comprised of all the subjects admitted in the hospital with established COVID 19 +ve cases. The duration of study was April 2020 to June 2020. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical committee and Informed consent was obtained from each subject before the conduct of the study. Data collection was done by a pre-structured questionnaire. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 20 software. Results: out of total 38 COVID-19 +ve cases, 95 % were male and 5 % female ant the maximum numbers of cases ranges between 36–40 years of age group with the median age of 32 years.53 % of cases were Muslim and 47 % Hindu by religion. The median duration of stay in hospital of all COVID-19 +ve cases was11 day that on further differentiation with co-morbidity was 15 days and 11.5 without any co-morbidity. The median duration taken between 1st sample taken and report provided was 2 days, between 2nd sample taken and report provided 1 day and between 1st and 2nd sample taken was 11 days. Conclusions: present study concluded that middle age persons were affected in majority which may be due to more exposure to public places. Co-morbidities are strong predictors of requirement for admission and duration of stay at hospital
Nigar Hidayet Pashayeva, Tahir Abbasali Suleymanov, Yusif Balakerim Kerimov, ,
ScienceRise: Biological Science pp 15-20; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-8025.2021.241865

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to study of diagnostic signs of the morphological and anatomical structure of Veronica crista-galli Steven. from the flora of Azerbaijan. Materials and methods. The samples for research were collected during their flowering time in June 2018, in the Ismailli region of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Plant samples were fixed in a solution made in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH=7.4), containing 2.5 % glutar-aldehyde, 2.5 % paraformal-aldehyde and 0.1 % picric acid. In the next stage was the preparation of block and their filling in Araldite – Epon according to the TEM method. Results. The leaf is simple, lower part is short-petiolate and upper is sessile. The surface, on both sides of the leaf, is reliefly, and 7–8 conductive veins are clearly visible. The lower and upper sides of the leaf, and also margin, are strewn with multicellular hairs. The calyx of the flower consists of two sepals which grown together at the base, covered with simple multicellular hairs. The stalk in is a long filiform. The corolla of flower consists of 4 petals which grown together at the base and 2 stamens attached to the tube of the corolla. On the epidermis, cells with sinuous and bead-like walls, numerous stomata of the stavrocytic type, capitate hairs are visible. From the cross section of the leaf, it is visible that palisade tissue at the upper and sponge tissue at the bottom. Conclusions. As a result of morphological and anatomical studies, it was revealed that diagnostic signs of plant raw material can be: Present of multicellular hairs on the leaf blade; The location of the capsule between the sepals; Stavrocytic type of the stoma structure; The bead-like walls of the epidermis; Capitate hairs on the epidermis; Sepals covered by hairs. The established anatomical diagnostic features can be used for the drafting of the normative document on the plant raw materials and for identification of plant raw material of Veronica crista-galli
Mariia Ievtushenko, Olena Koshova, Svitlana Kryzhna
ScienceRise: Medical Science pp 41-47; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4798.2021.241983

Abstract:
The aim of the research: to experimentally study at the histological and morphological level the degree of the corrective effect of bacterial lysate of the disturbed non-specific defense of the body on the model of periodontitis based on the Central Research Laboratory of the National University of Pharmacy. Materials and methods: prospective study has been conducted on experimental periodontitis in 42 rats for 90 days. The animals were treated with «Respibron» and the reference drug «Imudon». Histological and morphometric studies were carried out according to standard methods. Micropreparations were viewed under a Granum DCM 310 digital video camera. All interventions and euthanasia of animals were carried out in compliance with the European principles. Results: by the end of 90 days of experimental periodontitis at the local level in the homogenate of animal gum tissue compensatory mechanisms are depleted and differed from the norm by 397 times. The dynamics of the studied morphometric and histological parameters of "Respibron" was similar to the "Imudon", but the magnitude of destruction was less pronounced and differed at the end of the experiment by 17.2 times in comparison with the intact control, and in the control group the results improved by 23.1 times. Conclusion: the obtained data from the study indicate a high decompensation of experimental periodontitis. It is characterized by the formation of periodontal pockets and inflammatory bone loss. The magnitude of destruction differed from the norm by 397 times. Applying of bacterial lysates led to the compensation of bacterial dysbiosis, restoration of the tissues of paradont. The therapeutic effect of "Respibron" can be assessed as more powerful in comparison with "Imudon" in terms of the studied morphometric and histological parameters: the magnitude of improvement "Respibron" was 3.72 times higher than the indicators of "Imudon". We should continue the study of experimental periodontitis as mechanisms of development, protection, and restoration of tissues under conditions of pharmacological correction by bacterial lysate "Respibron"
Olga Dubenko, Victoria Anysienkova
ScienceRise: Medical Science pp 16-21; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4798.2021.241147

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to evaluate serum level biomarkers of atherosclerosis lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and E-selectin in patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis with different clinical manifestation in associated with vascular risk factors. Materials and methods: A total 106 patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis (74 men and 32 women, aged from 31 to 74 years, mean 62.6±0.9) were included: with acute ipsilateral atherothrombotic stroke (35), history of stroke and carotid endarterectomy (41) and 30 patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. The control group consist of 20 health subjects without cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent duplex sonography. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and E-selectin was measured using commercially available (ELISA) kit. Results: The level of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 was in general 55.664±3.537 ng/ml, which was significantly higher (M-W U=10, p=1.023136´10-11 70 % was greater in this group. The level of E-selectin in the study patients was significantly higher (7.653±0.246 pg/ml) than in the control group (3.101±0.503 pg/ml) p<0.05. No association the serum level of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and E-selectin with common stroke risk factor such as hypercholesterinemia, smoking and body mass index were found, but positive correlation of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 with E-selectin was significant (p=0.00085). Conclusions: Increasing plasma level lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and E-selectin in patients with the carotid atherosclerotic stenosis were observe. Statistically significant correlation between the level of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and E-selectin were found in symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic stenosis
Alla Ishchenko, Haiova Liudmyla, Oksana Horkunenko
ScienceRise: Pedagogical Education pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4984.2021.241453

Abstract:
Chemical safety is a component of general and professional competencies of future doctors, namely: general culture (handling of chemical substances, household chemicals); promotion of a healthy lifestyle; prevention of diseases of the population; protection and preservation of public health; providing emergency medical care in emergencies (related to chemical accidents). The article substantiates the method of improving the professional training of future doctors by integrating modern aspects of chemical safety into biochemical training. The potential of the discipline "Biological and Bioorganic Chemistry" as a tool for the formation of competence in chemical safety of future physicians, due to a combination of theoretical training (training material on the mechanisms of inhibition of enzymatic reactions by toxicants; inhibitors and disintegrants of oxidative phosphorylation; molecular mechanisms of action of toxicants; formation and disposal of endogenous toxins; biotransformation of xenobiotics) and laboratory workshops (handling of chemical reagents; modern approaches to hazard labeling and labeling of chemicals; toxicants’ action modeling) is substantiated. The method of studying the educational material of the discipline "Biological and Bioorganic Chemistry" in the context of modern ideas on chemical safety is described. It provides a comprehensive application of modern teaching methods (design, solving situational problems, laboratory experiments, simulating the action of hazardous chemicals, testing) and teaching aids (glossary of terms on biochemical aspects of chemical safety; video lectures and methodical recommendations for independent work of students). The stages of the study method realization of the "Biological and bioorganic chemistry" discipline’s educational material in the context of modern ideas on chemical safety are described. These are the substances’ handling culture formation; formation of biochemical aspects of chemical safety; integration of modern ideas in the field of chemical safety and biochemical components
Iryna Klymchuk
ScienceRise: Pedagogical Education pp 11-14; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4984.2021.241186

Abstract:
A literary analysis of economic issues of financing education by the state, in accordance with international law and globalization of the world economy in order to implement the right to quality education is presented. A conceptual analysis of the system of improving the financing of educational institutions in Ukraine, in particular the specifics and various mechanisms for raising funds and international cooperation of developing countries with developed countries and international programs has been conducted. In addition, the results of international assistance to Ukraine, including financial assistance at the level of general education – international charitable assistance in the form of an international project "House of Europe", within the international programs "Erasmus +" and "European Solidarity Corps" are analyzed. The international program "House of Europe" is presented, which supports creative cooperation between Ukrainian organizations, educational institutions and their partners from the EU and the UK, finances the development of cultural infrastructure and educational programs for young people. Also presented is the Erasmus + Program (2021–2027), an EU program to support and develop education, training, youth and sport in Europe. The program focuses on the social integration of young people, the environmental and digital development of developing countries, and the participation of young people in democratic life. According to the results of joint activities within the international program / project "House of Europe", the international program "Erasmus" and the European Solidarity Corps, the most defined criteria for the quality of general secondary education are identified, namely: objective assessments of educational institutions - student performance tests, the probability of successful entry into prestigious colleges and universities after graduating from primary and secondary school; as well as subjective assessments - attendance of classes, received assessments (success), students' interest in certain training courses / programs, taught in an educational institution. Statistics on the activities of the "ESC Summary" / European Solidarity Corps and "Erasmus +" for 2019–2020 according to the reporting "ESC Summary" / European Solidarity Corps and "Erasmus +" are presented
Iryna Skril
ScienceRise: Pedagogical Education pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4984.2021.241191

Abstract:
Methodological approaches to the formation of professionally oriented English lexical competence in speaking in future hotel and restaurant specialists are selected and revealed, and the principles of this process are substantiated. The essence and structure of professionally oriented English lexical competence in speaking of future specialists of hotel and restaurant business are formulated. The preconditions of vocabulary use, including terminological, are considered. It has been found, that the production of oral speech is impossible without the perception and understanding of oral speech by ear. The following approaches are described, which provide methodical and methodological substantiation of the process of formation of professionally oriented English lexical competence in speaking in future specialists of hotel and restaurant business, such as: communicative, interactive, student-centric, sociolinguistic. The peculiarities of formation of professionally oriented English lexical competence in speaking in future specialists of hotel and restaurant business on the basis of the communicative approach are outlined. The educational materials, used in the application of the communicative approach, are investigated. The interactive discourse, which is a type of communicative activity, is considered. The principles, on which this process is based, are analyzed: general methodological principles (situational; communicative activity; communicative value; immersion), specific principles speech clichés, parallel activation of visual and auditory channels of information perception). Recommendations for the optimal combination of classroom learning and extracurricular learning, including independent work with the help of network technologies using video, audio and text materials, are given. Learning outcomes are formulated on the basis of the student-centered approach, attention is focused on students' skills and competencies. On the basis of the sociolinguistic approach, the creation of educational situations for the purpose of reproduction of scenarios of professionally oriented communication of experts of hotel and restaurant business is provided. It is concluded, that the formation of professionally oriented English lexical competence in speaking in future hotel and restaurant professionals on the basis of communicative, interactive, student-centric, sociolinguistic approaches will ensure the effectiveness of this process
Marine Georgiyants, Volodymyr Korsunov, , Oleg Loskutov, Nataliia Bohuslavska, Vadim Nikonov, Lidiya Cherkashyna, Oleksiy Oparin, Pavel Nartov, Maksym Holianishchev
ScienceRise: Medical Science pp 4-9; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4798.2021.241456

Abstract:
The aim of the research. The aim of this work was to summarize the scientific literature data on the pathogenesis and intensive care of the severe course of coronavirus infection. Materials and methods. Databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web Of Science 2020-2021 were used for literary searches. Results. An intense inflammatory response against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in COVID-19 patients causes a cytokine storm and hypercoagulability with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure. Approximately 17 % to 35 % of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are treated in the intensive care unit, most often due to hypoxemic respiratory failure and the development of ARDS, and between 29 % and 91 % of patients in intensive care units require invasive ventilation. In addition to acute respiratory failure, hospitalized patients may have acute renal failure (9 %), liver dysfunction (19 %), coagulation disorders (10 %–25 %), and septic shock (6 %). More than 75 % of hospitalized patients require additional oxygen therapy. Respiratory support could vary from the need for oxygen supplementation through a nasal catheter to invasive ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with the most severe ARDS. The uncontrolled inflammation and coagulation seen in COVID-19 patients is similar to multifactorial ARDS, where a plethora of evidence has demonstrated the ability of long-term corticosteroid therapy (CST) to reduce inflammation-coagulation-fibroproliferation and accelerate recovery. With regard to the assessment of the benefits of therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with elevated D-dimer, the question has not yet been finally resolved, and research devoted to this is still ongoing. Conclusions. The approaches to respiratory, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 require further research to determine the optimal treatment tactics
Liubov Galuzinska, Vira Kravchenko, , Tetiana Briukhanova,
ScienceRise: Biological Science pp 10-14; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-8025.2021.241538

Abstract:
Medicinal plants have been widely used in the treatment of many diseases, especially in the gastroenterology, given that the use of synthetic antiulcer drugs in clinical practice often leads to the development of various kinds of side effects and, accordingly, have a large list of contraindications. The aim of this experimental work was the study of the antiulcer activity of the food concentrate of phenolic compounds of apples on the models of experimental ulcers in rats. Materials and methods. The studies included two stages, which were carried out on models: stage I – a model of alcohol–prednisolone stomach ulcer in rats, stage II – a model of indomethacin stomach ulcer in rats in accordance with the methodological recommendations of the SEC of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The studied concentrate was administered in a dose based on the total content of polyphenols – 9 mg per 100 g of weight. Quercetin at a dose of 5 mg / kg and ranitidine at a dose of 20 mg / kg were used as reference drugs. After replicating the models, a macroscopic examination of the gastric mucosa was carried out and the content of TBA-reactants and reduced glutathione in the stomach homogenate was determined. Results. Under pathological conditions, the therapeutic effect of the food concentrate of phenolic compounds of apples and reference drugs was comparable in terms of the degree of ulcer defect. It was proved that food concentrate of phenolic compounds of apples and reference drugs inhibit the course of lipid peroxidation reactions and support endogenous antioxidant defense systems. Conclusions. The obtained results make it possible to recommend a further study of the food concentrate of phenolic compounds of apples for the creation of a pharmaceutical preparation on its basis. A promising area of application of this concentrate will be the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcer
Yuliia Olizko, Nataliia Saienko
ScienceRise: Pedagogical Education pp 4-10; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4984.2021.238556

Abstract:
This article analyses professional development, completed by 34 in-service ESP teachers of the Department of English for Engineering No. 1 at Igor Sikorsky KPI during March-December 2020. In total 3344.3 hours of professional teacher development were analysed. They were confirmed by certificates of attendance and completion. A significant rise in the number of hours ESP teachers of the Department of English for Engineering No. 1 at Igor Sikorsky KPI spend professionally developing was noticed compared to the years before the pandemic. Quantitative methods and statistical and mathematical processing were used to analyse the data. Nine main categories of professional development were outlined. ICT teacher skills (51.8 % hours), teaching approaches, methods and techniques (18.4 %), student and teacher assessment and evaluation (14.5 %) were distinguished as the three top categories of professional development during the COVID-19 era at the department. Together these categories embraced approximately 85 % of all time, spent on professional growth by ESP teachers of the Department of English for Engineering No. 1 at Igor Sikorsky KPI. Other six categories included: connections with other disciplines (6.6 %), academic publications and research issues (4.8 %), international teacher collaboration (2.1 %), student and teacher behavior problems (1.6 %), language issues (0.2 %), curriculum development (0.07 %). The results confirmed the high demand for learning new ICT tools, platforms, and Google services in March-December 2020, the high interest in teaching approaches, methods and techniques, which can be used during the COVID-19 era, and ways to assess and evaluate students’ and teacher’s performance. Webinars, online conferences and online courses turned out to be the most popular forms of professional development of ESP teachers at Igor Sikorsky KPI during March-December 2020. Another discovered trend was the variety of providers of trainings for ESP teachers during the COVID-19 era. The list of them included 37 different organisations, institutes and centers, such as Dinternal education, Training Center Linguist (Cambridge University Press), Educational project “Na urok”, The Ukrainian Institute of Information Technologies in Education, Oxford University Press, Macmillan Education and others
Vita Skoryk
ScienceRise: Medical Science pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4798.2021.241013

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To compare the effectiveness of methylprednisolone, dexamethasone and tocilizumab in patients with severe coronavirus disease. Identify the most appropriate treatment option. Materials and methods. Patients of group 1 (n=20) received for anti-inflammatory purposes tocilizumab at a dose of 600–800 mg. Patients in group 2 (n=82) received pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. Patients in group 3 (n=20) received dexamethasone 6 mg / day. Data are presented as M [25–75]. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the program "Statistica 10". Significance of differences in indicators was assessed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon test. The results were considered reliable at values of p 0.05). The level of IL-6 in group 1 was 61.8 pg / ml, in group 2 – 64.6 pg / ml, and in group 3 – 46.5 pg / ml without significant differences between groups (p> 0.05). The level of ferritin in all groups exceeded normal values. Conclusions The most favourable result was obtained when using methylprednisolone: it was possible to reduce the mortality rate to 59.8 %. The relative risk of developing VTE was significantly higher in groups 1 and 3 (RR12 6.8 [2.7–16.8] p12 <0.0001, RR23 0.15 [0.06–0.35] p23 <0.0001), which gives grounds to confirm the presence of anticoagulant activity in methylprednisolone
ScienceRise: Pedagogical Education pp 23-29; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4984.2021.241236

Abstract:
The creation of a virtual educational environment, consisting of an information space that ensures the availability of unlimited educational material through communication means, a virtual or real communication channel between a student and a teacher, increases the role of self-education, the dominance of learning over teaching. Paraphrasing [1], we can say that physics is owned not by the one who knows the formulas and definitions, but by the one who, with their help, can solve physical problems (PP). Similarly to the words of E. Fermi [2]: "A person knows physics if he/she can solve problems." The ability to solve PP contributes to the concretization of students' knowledge; without it, there is a separation of theoretical, lecture, educational material from the main task of any learning process – the practical application of accumulated knowledge and skills. Solving of PP contributes to the development of mental activity, the formation of creativity, intelligence, observation, independence and accuracy, is one of the forms of repetition, control and assessment of knowledge. At the same time, it is the solution of problems that is the most difficult element of physical education, causing methodological, didactic, psychological, and mathematical difficulties. It is known, that along with the traditional methods of solving PP: arithmetic, algebraic, geometric, graphic, experimental, since the beginning of the 2000s, information technology, computer technology, and programs - answer books have been actively used. The traditionally difficult issue of solving problems in physics requires both the improvement of classical methods and the development of new software tools for solving problems. The paper discusses the possibilities of using computers to solve various types of physical problems, the use of a site, created by the author, with considered examples of solving more than 2500 problems in physics, a developed program for automatic solution of problems in physics (APS - automatic physics solver) during practical exercises.
Lyudmyla Derymedvid, Lyudmyla Korang
ScienceRise: Biological Science pp 21-25; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-8025.2021.242006

Abstract:
Opioid and non-narcotic analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, anesthetics, antidepressants, myorelaxants, combined agents and phytopreparations are widely used for the treatment of pain syndrome. One of the promising phytogenic objects with potential analgesic properties is the Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag). The aim: the purpose of the study is to determine the analgesic effect of the dealcoholized extract of Acorus calamus leaves (DEAL) on a model of pain in the "Hot plate" test and in the test of tail heat immersion. Materials and methods. During the experimental study, the pharmacological methods have been used. The analgesic properties of DEAL were studied in mice on the "Hot plate" model using the Hot / Cold Plate (Bioseb, France) and in the test of the heat immersion in rats. The results. On the models of pain in the "Hot plate" and tail heat immersion tests, the analgesic effect of the dealcoholized extract of Acorus calamus leaves (DEAL) is determined. On the "Hot plate" model, the use of DEAL probably increased the duration of the latency period. According to the analgesic effect of DEAL and metamizol sodium were comparable to each other continues to 1 and 1.5 hours of experiment, but starting with 2 hours of experiment the analgesic action of metamizol sodium statistically exceeded the analgesic effect of DEAL. In the test of heat immersion tail in rats, DEAL increased the latency period of shocking of the rats’ tail compared to the starting background by 43.13 % as well as metamizol sodium by 66.6 %. The studies have shown the presence of moderate analgesic effects of DEAL in the investigated dose. Conclusions. The analgesic effect of a dealcoholized extract of Acorus calamus leaves (DEAL) on a model of pain in the "Hot plate" and heat tail immersion tests has been carried out. Under the "Hot plate" test in mice, DEAL produces a distinct analgesic effect, however, slightly inferior to the severity of metamizol sodium. Presence of moderate analgesic properties of DEAL has been verified in comparison with the metamizel sodium in thetail heat immersion test in rats. The obtained results indicate the influence of DEAL on the central mechanisms of pain formation
Petr Dzhurinsky
ScienceRise: Pedagogical Education pp 30-33; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4984.2021.241256

Abstract:
It has been established, that the training of future physical culture specialists for health preservation of students in the context of the development of education in Ukraine is characterized by active innovative shifts, associated with the formation of the content of new higher education, in connection with which its purpose is expanding and changing. Health preservation and health-preserving technologies constitute one of the most promising educational systems. It has been determined, that today the development of a comprehensive program of a higher educational institution is urgent, which would allow solving problems of creating conditions, conducive to preservation and strengthening of health; introduction of a methodology, principles and methods of health-preserving education, software and hardware tools for monitoring, shaping, developing and maintaining the health of participants in the educational process; control over the observance of legislative and regulatory legal acts, regulating the activities of an educational institution on the issues of health preservation. It is believed, that health-preserving activity of physical culture specialists is a set of actions, operations and procedures that functionally and technologically ensure the achievement of a result in maintaining and strengthening health. We understand health-preserving activity as a professional property, which expresses the degree of assimilation of social experience in the field of ensuring education and health of students by means of physical culture by a future specialist, as well as the ability to use this experience in professional activity. The most significant structural components of the readiness of future physical culture specialists for health preservation of students have been revealed, namely: motivational and creative components. The levels of the readiness of the subjects for the motivational, cognitive, activity, creative and organizational and educational aspects have been determined
Iryna Herasymets, Liudmila Fira, Igor Medvid
ScienceRise: Biological Science pp 4-9; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-8025.2021.239920

Abstract:
The aim. To study the effect of a dry extract from reishi mushrooms on the activity of lipoperoxidation and oxidative modification of proteins under the conditions of a simulated paracetamol hepatitis in rats. Materials and methods. The study was performed on white male rats. The animals were divided into 10 groups, each included 6 animals. Acute hepatitis was simulated by the intragastric administration of paracetamol in the dose of 1250 mg/kg once per day (for 2 days). Correction of the pathology induced was performed with a dry extract of reishi mushrooms in the dose of 100 mg/kg of the body weight. The reference drug “Silybor” was administered in the dose of 20 mg/kg of the animal body weight. On Day 3, 7 and 10 from the beginning of the lesion, rats were euthanized using sodium barbamyl. The liver homogenate and blood serum were used for the studies. The activity of free radical oxidation processes under the conditions of acute toxic hepatitis and after the introduction of corrective factors was assessed by superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, the content of TBA-AP and OMP products. Results and discussion. The development of acute paracetamol hepatitis in rats and damage of hepatocyte membranes are indicated by an increase in the content of TBA-active products, products of oxidative modification of neutral and basic proteins in the serum and liver of animals. Simultaneously, a decrease in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed. After correction of the pathology induced with a dry extract of reishi mushrooms a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, a decrease in the content of lipid peroxidation products and oxidative modification of proteins in the serum and liver of the affected animals were observed. Conclusions. It has been experimentally proven that the use of dry extract of Reishi mushrooms in paracetamol hepatitis in rats caused a significant decrease in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, a decrease in TBA-AP, neutral and basic 2,4-DNPH in the serum and liver of animals. The results of the research indicate an effective impact of reishi mushrooms dry extract on the normalization of lipoperoxidation, oxidative modification of proteins and antioxidant protection
, Yuliya Sobolevska, , Olexandr Fedorenko, Oleksndr Tokin, Andrii Pavliv, Ivan Kravets, Julia Lesiv
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 26-33; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.238440

Abstract:
This paper reports the analysis of methods for determining temperature stresses and deformations in bridge structures under the influence of climatic temperature changes in the environment. A one-dimensional model has been applied to determine the temperature field and thermoelastic state in order to practically estimate the temperature fields and stresses of strengthened beams taking into consideration temperature changes in the environment. The temperature field distribution has been determined in the vertical direction of a reinforced concrete beam depending on the thickness of the structural reinforcement with methyl methacrylate. It was established that there is a change in the temperature gradient in a contact between the reinforced concrete beam and reinforcement. The distribution of temperature stresses in the vertical direction of a strengthened reinforced concrete beam has been defined, taking into consideration the thickness of the reinforcement with methyl methacrylate and the value of its elasticity module. It was established that the thickness of the reinforcement does not have a significant impact on increasing stresses while increasing the elasticity module of the structural reinforcement leads to an increase in temperature stresses. The difference in the derived stress values for a beam with methyl methacrylate reinforcement with a thickness of 10 mm and 20 mm, at elasticity module E=15,000 MPa, is up to 3 % at positive and negative temperatures. It has been found that there is a change in the nature of the distribution of temperature stresses across the height of the beam at the contact surface of the reinforced concrete beam and methyl methacrylate reinforcement. The value of temperature stresses in the beam with methyl methacrylate reinforcement and exposed to the positive and negative ambient temperatures increases by three times. It was established that the value of temperature stresses is affected by a difference in the temperature of the reinforced concrete beam and reinforcement, as well as the physical and mechanical parameters of the investigated structural materials of the beam and the structural reinforcement with methyl methacrylate
Natalia Sytnik, , Viktoria Mazaeva, Viktoriia Kalyna, Andrii Chernukha, Serhii Vazhynskyi, Oleksandr Yashchenko, Murat Maliarov, Oleg Bogatov, Borys Bolibrukh
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 6-13; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.236984

Abstract:
As a result of alkaline neutralization of oils, a significant amount of soapstock is formed, the utilization of which creates an environmental and economic problem. The production of fatty acids from soapstock using sulfuric acid decomposition is investigated in this work. The peculiarity of the work is the determination of regression dependences of the yield and neutralization number of fatty acids on the soapstock processing conditions: temperature and duration. Soapstock obtained after neutralization of sunflower oil was used as raw material. Soapstock indicators: mass fraction of moisture – 15.4 %, total fat – 71.9 %, fatty acids – 64.5 %, neutral fat – 7.4 %. Rational conditions of soapstock processing are determined: temperature (90–95) °С, duration 40 min. Under these conditions, the fatty acid yield is 79.0 %, the neutralization number is 180.0 mg KOH/g. Quality indicators of the obtained fatty acids: mass fraction of moisture and volatile substances – 1.8 %, mass fraction of total fat – 97.0 %, cleavage depth – 64.5 % of oleic acid, the presence of mineral acids – no. Fatty acids correspond to fatty acids of the first grade according to DSTU 4860 (CAS 61788-66-7). An increase in the temperature and duration of soapstock contact with sulfuric acid increases the yield and neutralization number of fatty acids. This is due to a decrease in the viscosity of the reaction medium, an increase in the depth of cleavage of soapstock soaps with sulfuric acid, an increase in the intensity and duration of mass transfer. The developed rational conditions allow obtaining fatty acids from soapstock, which correspond in composition to fatty acids from refined deodorized sunflower oil. The results allow solving a number of economic and environmental problems associated with soapstock utilization and can be implemented in oil refineries and fatty acid production
Viktor Durcek, Michal Kuba,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.225852

Abstract:
This paper investigates the construction of random-structure LDPC (low-density parity-check) codes using Progressive Edge-Growth (PEG) algorithm and two proposed algorithms for removing short cycles (CB1 and CB2 algorithm; CB stands for Cycle Break). Progressive Edge-Growth is an algorithm for computer-based design of random-structure LDPC codes, the role of which is to generate a Tanner graph (a bipartite graph, which represents a parity-check matrix of an error-correcting channel code) with as few short cycles as possible. Short cycles, especially the shortest ones with a length of 4 edges, in Tanner graphs of LDPC codes can degrade the performance of their decoding algorithm, because after certain number of decoding iterations, the information sent through its edges is no longer independent. The main contribution of this paper is the unique approach to the process of removing short cycles in the form of CB2 algorithm, which erases edges from the code's parity-check matrix without decreasing the minimum Hamming distance of the code. The two cycle-removing algorithms can be used to improve the error-correcting performance of PEG-generated (or any other) LDPC codes and achieved results are provided. All these algorithms were used to create a PEG LDPC code which rivals the best-known PEG-generated LDPC code with similar parameters provided by one of the founders of LDPC codes. The methods for generating the mentioned error-correcting codes are described along with simulations which compare the error-correcting performance of the original codes generated by the PEG algorithm, the PEG codes processed by either CB1 or CB2 algorithm and also external PEG code published by one of the founders of LDPC codes
Areej Adnan Abed, , Ruslan Zhyvotovskyi, Andrii Shyshatskyi, Spartak Hohoniants, Serhii Kravchenko, Iryna Zhyvylo, Mykola Dieniezhkin, Nadiia Protas, Oleksandr Shcheptsov
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 43-55; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.237996

Abstract:
In order to objectively and completely analyze the state of the monitored object with the required level of efficiency, the method for estimating and forecasting the state of the monitored object in intelligent decision support systems was improved. The essence of the method is to provide an analysis of the current state of the monitored object and short-term forecasting of the state of the monitored object. Objective and complete analysis is achieved using advanced fuzzy temporal models of the object state, taking into account the type of uncertainty and noise of initial data. The novelty of the method is the use of an improved procedure for processing initial data in conditions of uncertainty, an improved procedure for training artificial neural networks and an improved procedure for topological analysis of the structure of fuzzy cognitive models. The essence of the training procedure is the training of synaptic weights of the artificial neural network, the type and parameters of the membership function and the architecture of individual elements and the architecture of the artificial neural network as a whole. The procedure of forecasting the state of the monitored object allows for multidimensional analysis, accounting and indirect influence of all components of the multidimensional time series with their different time shifts relative to each other in conditions of uncertainty. The method allows increasing the efficiency of data processing at the level of 12–18 % using additional advanced procedures. The proposed method can be used in decision support systems of automated control systems (ACS DSS) for artillery units, special-purpose geographic information systems. It can also be used in ACS DSS for aviation and air defense and ACS DSS for logistics of the Armed Forces of Ukraine
, Serhii Sidchenko, Dmitriy Barannik, Sergii Shulgin, Valeriy Barannik, Anton Datsun
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 6-17; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.237359

Abstract:
Along with the widespread use of digital images, an urgent scientific and applied issue arose regarding the need to reduce the volume of video information provided it is confidential and reliable. To resolve this issue, cryptocompression coding methods could be used. However, there is no method that summarizes all processing steps. This paper reports the development of a conceptual method for the cryptocompression coding of images on a differentiated basis without loss of information quality. It involves a three-stage technology for the generation of cryptocompression codograms. The first two cascades provide for the generation of code structures for information components while ensuring their confidentiality and key elements as a service component. On the third cascade of processing, it is proposed to manage the confidentiality of the service component. The code values for the information components of nondeterministic length are derived out on the basis of a non-deterministic number of elements of the source video data in a reduced dynamic range. The generation of service data is proposed to be organized in blocks of initial images with a dimension of 16×16 elements. The method ensures a decrease in the volume of source images during the generation of cryptocompression codograms, by 1.14–1.58 times (12–37 %), depending on the degree of their saturation. This is 12.7‒23.4 % better than TIFF technology and is 9.6‒17.9 % better than PNG technology. The volume of the service component of cryptocompression codograms is 1.563 % of the volume of the source video data or no more than 2.5 % of the total code stream. That reduces the amount of data for encryption by up to 40 times compared to TIFF and PNG technologies. The devised method does not introduce errors into the data in the coding process and refers to methods without loss of information quality.
Iryna Bondarieva, Volodymyr Malyi, , Zhanna Mala, Maryna Nessonova
ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4852.2021.239389

Abstract:
The aim of the work is to develop scientific and methodological approaches to modelling the optimal strategy to increase the competitiveness of pharmacy chains (PC), which belong to different clusters. Materials and methods. The algorithm for determining the optimal strategy for increasing the competitiveness of PC for different clusters using the method of constructing a decision tree and cluster analysis is proposed. To solve this problem, an expert survey of more than 400 pharmacy managers, who were part of the PC of different sizes, was previously conducted. According to the results of an expert survey using hierarchical clustering methods based on the values of 13 input variables - scores of the strengths of the competitiveness of the PC, three clusters of networks were identified, each of which proposed its own algorithm for modelling the optimal strategy of competitiveness. Results. Using modern economic and mathematical tools, the distribution of PC depending on their size into clusters for modelling the dynamics of competitiveness is substantiated. Indicators are identified, which show a significant difference between clusters, which was taken into account in the process of modelling and selection of the optimal strategy to increase the competitiveness of PC. It is established that the biggest negative impact on the strategy of increasing the competitiveness of small networks has a slow response to changes in market conditions, the biggest positive impact – the availability of additional services in the networks; for medium PC the most important factors influencing the level of competitiveness are the location of pharmacies and competent management; for large PC – the use of modern automated management programs, the level of efficiency of the marketing complex and location features. The algorithm of the generalized model of “decision tree” for a choice of optimum strategy of increase of competitiveness depending on the size of PC is constructed. It was found that the following factors are of the greatest importance: the size of the PC, the use of the discount card system, and the least - the speed of response to market changes and the stability of the financial condition. Conclusions. The proposed generalized mathematical model of the “decision tree” allows a reasonable approach to choosing the optimal strategy to increase the competitiveness of PC depending on its size. The assessment of the importance of predictor variables for each cluster of PC allows determining the priority factors in the implementation of measures aimed at implementing the chosen strategy to increase competitiveness
, Oksana Kornukh
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 66-77; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.237900

Abstract:
It has been substantiated that personnel is the driving force of innovative development of enterprises. The interrelation of the components of the formation of innovativeness of the company’s personnel, such as innovative potential, the innovative activity of employees, and the effectiveness of their innovative activity was demonstrated. A comprehensive approach to assessing the innovativeness of the company’s personnel, which consists of six stages describing the procedure of such evaluation, was proposed. It was proved that it is appropriate to evaluate the innovativeness of the company’s personnel in the areas of innovative activity of employees and the effectiveness of their innovative activities. The systems of partial, integrated, and general indicators of innovativeness of the company’s personnel and criteria for assessing its level were proposed. A system of indicators of innovative activity of personnel based on qualimetric assessment of their innovative potential was offered. The procedure for assessing the level of innovative activity of employees was improved by introducing a partial indicator of personnel’s desire to carry out innovative activities. A system of indicators for assessing the effectiveness of innovative activities of personnel, including two groups, was proposed. The first group of partial indicators characterizes the effectiveness of innovative activity of the company’s personnel, the second group focuses on the effectiveness of commercialization of innovative products. To determine the level of innovativeness of the company’s personnel, a matrix that combines assessment of the levels of innovative activity and effectiveness of innovative activities of employees was proposed. The results of the study make it possible to determine the level of innovativeness of personnel, to develop an effective strategy for the creation and commercialization of innovative products of an enterprise.
Valentyn Lesinskyi, , Oksana Zarytska, ,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 15-33; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.238795

Abstract:
This paper reports modeling the assessment of the potential of loan financing of projects aimed at implementing energy-saving technologies. An array of information to assess the potential of loan financing of these projects was formed. The methods for assessing the existing and prospective potential of loan financing of projects for the implementation of energy-saving technologies were devised. The criteria for the selection of energy-saving projects, which should be financed at the expense of loan funds, were systematized and ordered. The appropriateness of these studies is determined by the need to reduce the volume of energy consumption of non-renewable energy resources in many countries of the world. This causes the need to determine the potential of financial support, in particular the potential of loan financing, the implementation of energy-saving projects, first of all, projects for the implementation of energy-saving technologies at enterprises. The obtained theoretic and methodological results for the sample of enterprises were tested. It was established that the absolute magnitude of the potential of loan financing of projects implementing technologies that ensure reducing natural gas consumption at the studied enterprises is 42 projects and USD 1,805 thousand. As for the relative level of this potential, for the whole totality of enterprises it is: by the number of projects – 0.447; by financing volumes – 0.420. The obtained theoretical and methodological results can be applied by enterprises of all types of economic activity in assessing the magnitude of the potential of loan financing of energy-saving projects. In addition, these results can be used by the authorities in the development of the programs of preferential lending of the projects of implementation of energy-saving technologies
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239165

Abstract:
The main attention is paid to the analysis of electromyogram (EMG) signals using Poincaré plots (PP). It was established that the shapes of the plots are related to the diagnoses of patients. To study the fractal dimensionality of the PP, the method of counting the coverage figures was used. The PP filtration was carried out with the help of Haar wavelets. The self-similarity of Poincaré plots for the studied electromyograms was established, and the law of scaling was used in a fairly wide range of coverage figures. Thus, the entire Poincaré plot is statistically similar to its own parts. The fractal dimensionalities of the PP of the studied electromyograms belong to the range from 1.36 to 1.48. This, as well as the values of indicators of Hurst exponent of Poincaré plots for electromyograms that exceed the critical value of 0.5, indicate the relative stability of sequences. The algorithm of the filtration method proposed in this research involves only two simple stages: Conversion of the input data matrix for the PP using the Jacobi rotation. Decimation of both columns of the resulting matrix (the so-called "lazy wavelet-transformation", or double downsampling). The algorithm is simple to program and requires less machine time than existing filters for the PP. Filtered Poincaré plots have several advantages over unfiltered ones. They do not contain extra points, allow direct visualization of short-term and long-term variability of a signal. In addition, filtered PPs retain both the shape of their prototypes and their fractal dimensionality and variability descriptors. The detected features of electromyograms of healthy patients with characteristic low-frequency signal fluctuations can be used to make clinical decisions.
, , Rustam Buzyakov, Yelena Neshina, Aliya Alkina
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 34-44; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.237873

Abstract:
The study was devoted to solving the issue of creating new electric heating devices that can be used in autonomous heat supply systems. The issues were resolved by developing an original low-pressure electric steam heater. The study was aimed at improving the efficiency of heat supply systems for buildings and structures. Given the current trends in the global striving for energy conservation, it cannot be fully realized without the introduction of high-tech and low-energy-consuming electrical equipment. As a result of theoretical studies of a heat pipe with an electric heater, a design of an electrovacuum heating element has been developed. The low-pressure electric steam heater can be used in heat supply systems of autonomous users. Thermal energy transfer is currently accompanied by substantial energy losses since the heat carrier has to pass considerable distances. Switching of the facility to the heating plant is impossible in some cases because of technical problems or significant material costs for laying pipelines. As a result of the study, the dependence of heating the heat pipe at various volumes of the heat carrier and mass of the pipe itself was established. When a certain mass is reached, the temperature of the heating surfaces can reach 70 °C which is considered acceptable. The experimental data obtained have made it possible to develop an electric heater of new generation with a fundamentally new design of the heating element. It combines the efficiency of an electric spiral and comfortable warmth from a traditional radiator. This heater is an explosion and fire-safe and can be integrated into the Smart Home system
Dmytro Ruban, Lubomir Kraynyk, Hanna Ruban, Andrii Sosyk, Andriy Shcherbyna, Olga Dudarenko, Alexander Artyukh
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 26-33; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.238171

Abstract:
This paper addresses the issue related to forecasting the durability indicators of public transport buses under operational conditions. It has been established that when buses are operated to transport passengers the bus bodies wear at different intensities. During operation, the strength of the body frame weakens under the influence of corrosion in combination with sites of fatigue destruction. As it was established, the intensity of corrosion of the bus body depends on the number of residents in the city where the bus is operated. The earlier established dependences were taken into consideration; the current study has identified two conditional variants of corrosion evolution based on the number of inhabitants: up to 1 million and exceeding 1 million. The expediency of repairs and their impact on the bus passive safety has been analyzed. It was found that the elements of the body frame, without external characteristic damage, no longer meet the specified conditions of strength as a result of sign-alternating loads and during long-term operation. Determining the durability of the bus body was made possible through the construction of a mathematical model. The model’s adequacy was confirmed by road tests of the bus. The devised model describes the movement of the bus over a road surface with different micro profiles, with different corrosion penetration, different loading by passengers, and bus speeds. It was established that the reason for the evolution of structural corrosion is the influence of salt mixtures preventing the icing of roads, as well as ignoring the washing of buses after such trips. It is recommended to use new software for the in-depth study into this issue addressing the combination of various factors of destruction: cyclic loads at variable bus speeds and the corrosion progress. The study results could make it possible to predict a life cycle of the body frame under factors that correspond to actual operating conditions.
Oleksiy Andryushayev, , , Inna Rusak
ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science pp 4-10; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4852.2021.238329

Abstract:
The aim. To determine the intensified method of extraction of phenolic compounds from Acorus calamus leaves and optimal conditions for the process. Materials and methods. In order to develop the optimal intensified method of extraction samples were prepared in different conditions of raw materials-extractant ratio, temperature, time and multiplicity. As a raw materials spectrophotometrically pre-standardized Acorus calamus leaves were used. The extraction was carried out in a hermetically sealed ultrasonic extraction reactor PEX 1 (REUS, Contes, France). As the criteria of extraction efficiency were indicators of dry residue and total amount of flavonoids determined using methods described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. The amount of flavonoids was determined spectrophotometrically on a certified device Specord 200 (Analytik Jena, Germany). Results. According to our research results it was found that ultrasonic action and addition of surfactant significantly improves the efficiency of the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the process were determined. Experimentally proved that the rational raw material-extractant ratio is 1:15. Comparative study of the extraction process with different temperatures showed that the highest amount of extractives is achieved at temperature 70 °C and 45 min of duration. The optimal extraction multiplicity is 3. Conclusions. As a result of the study, the intensified extraction method for Acorus calamus leaves – re-maceration with ultrasound – was established. The conducted researches allowed to develop the method of extraction, expedient in the conditions of the modern pharmaceutical industry.
, Ivan Morozov, Vladimir Morozov, Mykola Krekot, Anatolii Poliakov, Ivan Kiralhazi, Mykhailo Lohvynenko, Viktor Ryndiaiev, Sergey Dyakonov, Mykola Stashkiv
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 61-75; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239304

Abstract:
One of the promising methods for improving the uniformity of seed distribution in the soil is the control of the grain flow by guiding elements in the openers. This creates favorable conditions for the flight of seeds in the openers and when leaving them backwards, which equalizes the speed, in modulus, of seeds and the unit, improves the uniformity of their distribution in the soil. The presence and parameters of the guiding elements of the openers was theoretically substantiated, which gave the development of the process of controlling the grain flow in the openers and at the exit from them by using the guiding elements. Analytical expressions have been obtained to determine the characteristics of the movement of particles on various surfaces, which are recommended to be used for guides in the openers. Experimental studies have shown that openers with guides reduce the coefficient of variation along the row by 20 ... 45% and have it 88 ... 98%, and in depth - 24 ... 27%. On the basis of experiments, it is recommended that 3 ... 4 guides are recommended for front openers (arithmetic mean interval along the row 18.5 ... 23.5 mm, coefficient of variation 88 ... 98%). The advantage of the experimental opener in the distribution of seeds by depth is due to the use of guide elements in combination with an improved soil shedding process. This eliminated the technological drawback - the formation of a sub-opener inclined surface (arithmetic mean interval 42 ... 37 mm, coefficient of variation 24 ... 27%). For a double disc opener, an improved guide is recommended, the bottom edge of which protrudes 2 cm in front of the vertical diameter of the discs and is located at a distance of 9 cm from the reference plane. The arithmetic mean spacing along the row of this opener is 15 mm, the coefficient of variation is 106%.
, Mahmoud A. Mashkour, Laith Jaafer Habeeb,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 83-89; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.238700

Abstract:
The thermal coefficient of a solar photovoltaic (PV) panel is a value that is provided with its specification sheet and tells us precisely the drop in panel performance with rising temperature. In desert climates, the PV panel temperatures are known to reach above 70 degrees centigrade. Exploring effective methods of increasing energy transfer efficiency is the issue that attracts researchers nowadays, which also contributes to reducing the cost of using solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with storage batteries. Temperature handling of solar PV modules is one of the techniques that improve the performance of such systems by cooling the bottom surface of the PV panels. This study initially reviews the effective methods of cooling the solar modules to select a proper, cost-effective, and easy to implement one. An active fan-based cooling method is considered in this research to make ventilation underneath the solar module. A portion of the output power at a prespecified high level of battery state-of-charge (SOC) is used to feed the fans. The developed comparator circuit is used to control the power ON/OFF of the fans. A Matlab-based simulation is employed to demonstrate the power rate improvements and that consumed by the fans. The results of simulations show that the presented approach can achieve significant improvements in the efficiency of PV systems that have storage batteries. The proposed method is demonstrated and evaluated for a 1.62 kW PV system. It is found from a simultaneous practical experiment on two identical PV panels of 180 W over a full day that the energy with the cooling system was 823.4 Wh, while that without cooling was 676 Wh. The adopted approach can play a role in enhancing energy sustainability.
Valeriy Zhdaniuk, Victoria Novakovska
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 14-22; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.237323

Abstract:
To produce cationic bitumen emulsions, bitumen is used, whose penetration is not lower than 90 mm-1. Such bitumen has a small plasticity interval, which leads to a deterioration in its heat resistance at elevated temperatures and narrows the scope of application of emulsions based on it. Based on the review of emulsion modification methods, the modification has been proposed that involves mixing the finished bitumen emulsions with aqueous cationic latex. The process of interaction between a bituminous emulsion and an aqueous cationic latex has been considered. A mechanism for the disintegration of the modified bitumen emulsion on the surface of mineral materials was proposed. The emulsifiers have been selected and the composition of the aqueous phase has been chosen based on the analysis of surface tension isotherms. The influence of the modification on the properties of bitumen emulsions was investigated. It was established that the main physicochemical characteristics of the interphase surface accept similar values for the aqueous phase and emulsions based on it. It has been proven that the introduction of aqueous cationic latex quite moderately affects the basic physical-mechanical properties of emulsions, which makes it possible not to change the main technological parameters when using them. It was established that increasing the concentration of the polymer in the emulsion has a positive effect on the physical-mechanical properties of the binder. With an increase in the concentration of the polymer to 6 % the softening temperature increases by 16 °C, elasticity is 74 %, and the holding capacity at minus 25 °C is approaching 100 %. Improving the physical-mechanical properties of residual binder as a result of emulsion modification could increase the durability of layers in a roadbed based on bitumen emulsions and expand the scope of their application in the construction and repair of motorways
, Aizat Kydyrbekova, , Dina Oralbekova, Bagashar Zhumazhanov, Bulbul Nuranbayeva
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 32-45; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239186

Abstract:
The widespread use of biometric systems entails increased interest from cybercriminals aimed at developing attacks to crack them. Thus, the development of biometric identification systems must be carried out taking into account protection against these attacks. The development of new methods and algorithms for identification based on the presentation of randomly generated key features from the biometric base of user standards will help to minimize the disadvantages of the above methods of biometric identification of users. We present an implementation of a security system based on voice identification as an access control key and a verification algorithm developed using MATLAB function blocks that can authenticate a person's identity by his or her voice. Our research has shown an accuracy of 90 % for this user identification system for individual voice characteristics. It has been experimentally proven that traditional MFCCs using DNN and i and x-vector classifiers can achieve good results. The paper considers and analyzes the most well-known approaches from the literature to the problem of user identification by voice: dynamic programming methods, vector quantization, mixtures of Gaussian processes, hidden Markov model. The developed software package for biometric identification of users by voice and the method of forming the user's voice standards implemented in the complex allows reducing the number of errors in identifying users of information systems by voice by an average of 1.5 times. Our proposed system better defines voice recognition in terms of accuracy, security and complexity. The application of the results obtained will improve the security of the identification process in information systems from various attacks.
, Larisa Morozyuk, Sergii Psarov, Artem Kukoliev
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 23-33; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.238203

Abstract:
The search for new and improvement of existing technical design of energy converter systems for specific consumers requires a reasonable choice of the most rational design for these objects. Thermotransformers that operate on the reverse and mixed thermodynamic cycles, in combination with power plants utilizing renewable and non-traditional primary energy (fuel), are considered to be of interest for small-scale power generation (trigeneration systems), which is consistent with the concept of distributed energy generation. Cold in trigeneration systems is provided by heat-using thermotransformers. This paper reports a method for synthesizing a scheme-cycle designs of absorption water-ammonia thermotransformers that utilize renewable heat sources with a low-temperature potential of 90–250 °С. A "cycle method" was applied to perform the thermodynamic analysis of the cycle of simple absorption thermotransformers with the expansion of the degazation zone with an increase in the temperature of the heating source; the technological schemes for the corresponding cycles have been substantiated. The influence of changing the degazation zone on the energy efficiency of the machine has been established. A scheme-cycle designs of the thermochemical compressor for a thermotransformer with a return supply of solutions to the generator and absorber at " excess temperatures" has been proposed, as a way to improve the cycle energy efficiency. A comparative analysis of the degree of thermodynamic perfection of the considered cycles has been performed using a specific example. The thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that the practical implementation of the scheme-cycle designs "with excess temperatures" could provide energy-saving conditions in small-scale trigeneration systems.
Olena Illiashenko,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 42-51; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239167

Abstract:
The organizational and economic foundations for the formation of an investment strategy for the development of urban electric transport enterprises have been developed. The economic content of the main stages of the investment process at these enterprises has been clarified. A list of basic principles for the effective formation of the investment process has been compiled. It is proved that the enterprises of urban electric transport in Ukraine are currently unprofitable and the problems of investment support for them are extremely relevant and important. The main directions of the development of investment activity of urban electric transport enterprises have been investigated and strategic, tactical and operational methods of its activation have been proposed. At the same time, there are three main aspects of enhancing investment activity: investment, innovation and technological. The main provisions of the strategy of attracting investment sources by urban electric transport enterprises have been developed, which allows ensuring the required level of investment flexibility of the enterprise and independence in obtaining investment resources from various sources. The main stages of this process have been identified and substantiated, which include: the time of action, the formation of strategic goals, the algorithm for selecting and justifying the sources of investment resources and the practical implementation of the investment strategy. The practical aspects of rating sources of investment resources have been investigated, taking into account risk factors, time of use, investment prices, the ability of an enterprise and the state to influence the formation and use of investment sources. An integral indicator has been determined for each of the possible sources of investment resources, according to which the most acceptable for urban electric transport enterprises in terms of the cost of attracting and the likelihood of risk occurrence are own funds (32 points), as well as state budget funds (22 points) and local budgets (21 points). Practical recommendations on the use of the developed provisions have been formed
Dianta Mustofa Kamal, Iwan Susanto, Rahmat Subarkah, , Belyamin Zainuri, Tia Rahmiati, Sulaksana Permana, Adi Subardi,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 6-11; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239162

Abstract:
Solid oxide structure of the cobalt-free composite has been exploited as a new cathode material for IT-SOFCs. The composite model system was synthesized using the metallic oxide material, which was formed by a solid-state reaction technique. The generation of the Sm0.5Sr0.25Ba0.25FeO3-δ (SSBF) model system was carried out during the sintering process. The weight loss and oxygen content were investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). Meanwhile, X-ray diffraction characterized the structure of the composite and thermal conductivity tested the conductivity properties. The results showed that the structure of the SSBF composite demonstrated the perovskite single phase leading to the structural design. The decomposition and evaporation of the constituent elements of the composite corresponded to weight losses during the constructing process. The oxygen content of the model system was 2.98 after the calcination process. The electrical conductivity value reached 2 S cm-1 at 400 °C and increases to a maximum of 7.5 S cm-1 at 710 °C. The metallic element played to generating the conductive behavior at the low temperature, while the ionic structure acted as elevated temperature. So, mixed ionic and electric conductors (MIEC) were employed comprehensively for creating the conductive properties. Based on the structure and conductivity results, the SSBF composite has a good chance as an alternative cathode material with a perovskite single phase for future TI-SOFCs applications
Serhii Pozdieiev, Vadym Nizhnyk, Yurii Feshchuk, Valeriia Nekora, Oleksandr Nuianzin,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239235

Abstract:
The issue related to the conditions for creating the required temperature regime of fire when testing structures for fire resistance has not been studied in detail up to now. That necessitated determining the technical conditions under which it is possible to comply with the standard temperature regime of fire in the fire chamber of the furnace. The influence of the design parameters of the fire furnace chamber on the condition of compliance with the standard fire temperature regime when tested for fire resistance has been established. One of the most effective methods for examining such an impact is computer simulation. A computer model of the fire furnace was built on the basis of a comprehensive analysis and earlier work on the study of such furnaces, taking into consideration technical characteristics, in particular, geometrical parameters, fuel and air supply systems. The obtained research results are a prerequisite for scientific substantiation of the design parameters of fire furnaces and their engineering systems, which is necessary to comply with the standard temperature regime of fire in the furnace fire chamber. This makes it possible to provide the necessary conditions for testing building structures for fire resistance in compliance with the requirements of the relevant standards. The computer model constructed makes it possible to create the necessary temperature regime in the fire chamber of the furnace (in this study, the standard temperature of fire). As a result of the study, the technical parameters of the fuel supply and ventilation system were determined, which ensure compliance with the standard temperature regime in the fire chamber of the furnace. That makes it possible to build an automated complex of the testing process for fire resistance of building structures. In addition, the data obtained can be the basis for the design of such fire furnaces with the ability to comply with different fire temperature regimes without the intervention of the operator.
, Mykhailo Protsenko, Anton Chernukha, , Sergey Rudakov, Serhii Shevchenko, Oleksandr Chernikov, Nadiia Kolpachenko, Volodymyr Timofeyev,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 65-77; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.238601

Abstract:
The tasks that unmanned aircraft systems solve include the detection of objects and determining their state. This paper reports an analysis of image recognition methods in order to automate the specified process. Based on the analysis, an improved method for recognizing images of monitored objects by a convolutional neural network using a discrete wavelet transform has been devised. Underlying the method is the task of automating image processing in unmanned aircraft systems. The operability of the proposed method was tested using an example of processing an image (aircraft, tanks, helicopters) acquired by the optical system of an unmanned aerial vehicle. A discrete wavelet transform has been used to build a database of objects' wavelet images and train a convolutional neural network based on them. That has made it possible to improve the efficiency of recognition of monitored objects and automate a given process. The effectiveness of the improved method is achieved by preliminary decomposition and approximation of the digital image of the monitored object by a discrete wavelet transform. The stages of a given method include the construction of a database of the wavelet images of images and training a convolutional neural network. The effectiveness of recognizing the monitored objects' images by the improved method was tested on a convolutional neural network, which was trained with images of 300 monitored objects. In this case, the time to make a decision, based on the proposed method, decreased on average from 0.7 to 0.84 s compared with the artificial neural networks ResNet and ConvNets. The method could be used in the information processing systems in unmanned aerial vehicles that monitor objects; in robotic complexes for various purposes; in the video surveillance systems of important objects
Oksana Lys, Mykhailo Reheda, Nataliya Sementsiv, Mariana Reheda-Furdychko, Stepan Reheda
ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science pp 24-28; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4852.2021.238320

Abstract:
The aim: of the study was to elucidate the changes to nitric oxide activity in the blood during adrenaline-induced myocardial injury under immobilization stress and to establish the corrective effect of L-arginine. Methods: determination of free arginine was conducted by the method of Aleinikova T.L., total nitric oxide products in the blood by the method of Schmidt H.H., the total activity of nitric oxide synthase by the method of Sumbaiev V.V.. Immobilization stress was reproduced by the method of Horizontov P.D. Adrenaline-induced myocardial injury was reproduced by the method of Markova O.O. L-arginine was injected based on scientific data by Kiryanova N.A. Results. Studies have shown that on days 1 and 3 with adrenaline-induced myocardial injury under immobilization stress there was an increase in nitric oxide products in the blood, respectively, according to control. The use of L-arginine on the 5th day, led to a decrease in levels of NO products in the blood by less than, lower against the group of animals with MI and IS, to treatment. Conclusions. Thus, biochemical studies of NO system in the dynamics of IS and MI showed an increase in food content and total synthase activity of NO on the background of reduced levels of L-arginine, which were detected at all stages of the study and especially expressed on the 1st day before treatment. The use of the drug L-arginine, made it possible to identify its corrective effect on impaired metabolic processes in MI and IS
, Irina Posohova, Yuliia Fedchenkova, Kateryna Skrebtsova
ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science pp 50-58; https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-4852.2021.239335

Abstract:
The aim of our work was to carry out a comparative analysis of the essential oils of shoots and leaves of Laurus nobilis L. Ukrainian flora and to determine the prospects for their use in pharmacy. Materials and methods. Raw materials for obtaining essential oil (shoots and leaves) of Laurus nobilis L. were harvested in November 2017 in the southern regions of Ukraine. By the method of chromatography-mass spectrometry using an Agilent Technology 6890N chromatograph, the component composition of 4 samples of essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. raw material was investigated and identified. The composition of the essential oil was identified by comparing the results with the data from the NIsT 02 mass spectra library (more than 174,000 substances). Results. Thus, in the studied series of the essential oil of the shoots, a similarity was observed both in the set of components and in the relative content of a number of individual compounds and compounds of structurally related groups. The content in these samples was dominated by 1,8-cineole (19.63 % of the amount and 12.93 % of the amount, respectively), α-terpinyl acetate (16.22 % of the amount and 16.03 % of the amount, respectively). In contrast to the series of the essential oil of the shoots, the component composition of the essential oil of the leaves of the two series was significantly different. In both studied series, only 3 compounds were identified that are common - these are aromatic compounds methyleugenol, trans-methylisoevgenol, and the sequiterpenoid caryophyllene oxide. Conclusions. Thus, a comparative analysis of the component composition of biologically active substances in the essential oils of shoots and leaves of the Laurus nobilis L. Ukrainian harvest showed the prospects for further pharmacognostic research of this plant as a source of medicinal raw materials
Omirserik Zhortuylov, Gani Zhumatay, Askar Rzaliyev, Tokhtar Abilzhanuly, Orynzhamal Sarsembenova, Serik Bekbossynov, Daniyar Abilzhanov, Bauyrzhan Boranbayev
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 14-25; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239067

Abstract:
This paper presents the results of experimental research on the development and substantiation of parameters and operating modes of the drive mechanism of the cutting apparatus in a mower with a double knife stroke. A structural and technological scheme of the drive mechanism of the cutting device of the segment-finger type mower has been developed, in which a double stroke of the cutting device knife is provided. Analytical relationships were obtained to determine the knife stroke, speed and acceleration. Based on the results of theoretical and experimental studies, the main parameters of the mower drive mechanism were substantiated. Based on the condition of a high-quality cut of plants, at a minimum grass cutting speed, the minimum crank shaft speed was determined. By calculation, the feed area and the load area of the cutter for normal cutting with a double cut of the knife are determined. Analytical relationships were obtained to determine the power required to drive the cutterbar of a mower with a double knife stroke. Based on the research results, the main parameters of the mower with an improved drive are substantiated. An experimental sample was made and preliminary tests of the drive mechanism were carried out, agrotechnical and energy indicators of the mower operation were determined.
, Roman Dinzhos, Julii Sherenkovskii, Nataliia Meranova, Diana Izvorska, , ,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.236915

Abstract:
This paper reports the experimental study carried out to establish the dependence of the thermal conductivity of polypropylene-based nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes on the main parameter of the temperature regime of their manufacturing ‒ the level of overheating a polymer melt relative to its melting point. The study has been conducted for nanocomposites that were manufactured by applying a method based on the mixing of components in the polymer melt applying a special disk extruder. During the composite manufacturing process, the level of melt overheating varied from 10 to 75 K, with the mass share of filler ranging from 0.3 to 10.0 %. It is shown that increasing the overheating of a polymer melt causes an increase in the thermal conductivity of the composites. However, when the overheating has reached a certain value, its further growth does not increase the thermal conductivity of nanocomposites. Based on the established pattern, the rational level of this overheating has been determined. That resolves the tasks of manufacturing highly heat-conducting nanocomposites and implementing appropriate energy-saving technology. Data have been acquired on the effects of the impact of the amount of polymer melt overheating on the values of the first and second percolation thresholds for the examined nanocomposites. It is established that the value of the first percolation threshold is more sensitive to the specified amount of overheating. The dependences of the density of the examined composites on the level of polymer melt overheating have been derived. The correlation between a given dependence and the nature of a corresponding change in the thermal conductivity of the composites has been established. Applying the proposed highly heat-conducting nanocomposites is promising for micro and nanoelectronics, energy, etc.
Volodymyr Chenchevoi, , , Olga Chencheva, Iurii Zachepa, Oleksii Chornyi, Maksim Kovzel, Viktor Kovalenko, Mykola Babyak, Serhii Levchenko
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 67-82; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239146

Abstract:
The paper presents studies of the system "induction generator-induction motor" with parametric asymmetry on a mathematical model to determine the quality of generated electricity in load operating modes. A mathematical model of the "induction generator-induction motor" system has been developed taking into account losses in steel and parametric asymmetry. The analysis of the transient characteristics of an induction generator when a motor load is connected in symmetrical and asymmetrical modes of operation is carried out. The results of changes in the main characteristics of an induction motor at various degrees of parametric asymmetry in the generator are presented. The quality of the generated electricity was analyzed based on the calculations of the unbalance coefficients for each of the operating modes. The assessment of the thermal state in steady-state conditions was carried out using an equivalent thermal equivalent circuit. Thermal transients were investigated when starting an induction motor from an autonomous energy source based on an induction generator. On a thermal mathematical model, the study of the effect of the output voltage asymmetry on the heating of the connected induction motor was carried out. It is shown that the asymmetry of the output voltage of an induction generator reaches 3–10 % and causes overheating of the windings in excess of the permissible values. A regression model has been developed for studying the operating conditions of an induction motor when powered by an induction generator with an asymmetry of the stator windings. The use of the obtained equations will make it possible to determine the most rational combination of factors affecting the heating of the stator windings of induction machines, in which they will not overheat above the maximum permissible temperature values of the corresponding insulation classes
Alexandr Trunov, Volodymyr Beglytsia, Gennady Gryshchenko, Viktor Ziuzin, Vitalii Koshovyi
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 35-46; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239288

Abstract:
The current processes of recovery of post-infarction and post-stroke patients in the context of the establishment of the institution of family doctors and insurance medicine are considered. It was proposed to introduce modules for automation of recovery process (MARP) to ensure procedures, quality of life and reduce labor costs during the period of long-term recovery. The forms of presentation of the model of the integral indicator are substantiated, which, in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Health, assesses the generalized indicator of the patient's condition (GPC), the quality of medical services and increases the efficiency of data compression. A consistent application of two Euclidean norms is proposed, which leads indicators of dissimilar physical nature to a limited metric space. The relationship between the lower and upper bounds of the GPC, the error, the width of the sliding window, and the values of the derivatives was established on the basis of the Taylor series expansion, geometric inequality and limited space. The model for evaluating the GPS as a lower bound and the method for generating information about its properties are substantiated. A three-level comparator is applied and an indicator vector (IV) is introduced as an informational addition to the time series. Additional capabilities for intelligent analysis are demonstrated. The model of GPC through IV is presented. The examples of IV values are used to demonstrate its applicability to the intelligent analysis of the recovery process. Openness, accessibility, transparency of GPC and IV as tools of KIT is implemented by the princes of public administration (PA) by reducing it to quantitative control and comparison if there are quantitative and qualitative indicators in the list. IV, sliding windows, as PA and KIT tools in software (SW) for a diagnostic conclusion and correction of the course of procedures, are numerically investigated. It is demonstrated on examples of a numerical experiment with software how the combined application of the method for calculating the GPC and IV effectively affects the compression ratio, increasing it to 60–75 %
Dmytro Ivliev, Volodymyr Kosenkov, Oleksandr Vynakov, , Viktoria Yarmolovych
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 41-50; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.231733

Abstract:
Modern electric vehicles typically exploit synchronous motors with magnetoelectric excitation as traction engines. While possessing a series of undeniable advantages, the synchronous motor has one significant drawback ‒ the high cost predetermined by the high price of permanent magnets. In addition, the impossibility to disable a magnetic field in case of engine malfunction can lead to an emergency on the road. Given this, there is a need to design new structures of electrical machines with electromagnetic excitation. The structure of a DC traction motor with electromagnetic excitation involving the rotor or stator segmentation makes it possible to considerably weaken the field of the armature transverse reaction by decreasing magnetic conductivity of the magnetic circuit in the transverse direction. Therefore, such a structure lacks commutating poles and a compensation winding. There are no permanent magnets in the structure, all windings are stationary, an electronic switch is used instead of a collector, and a windingless low-inertia rotor does not require additional measures to remove heat. That all has made it possible to significantly reduce the cost of active materials for the traction engine and improve its reliability. To test the performance of the new design, a full-size model of the engine and a working experimental prototype were fabricated. Applying a synchronous jet engine with magnetization for the BMW i3 electric car as an analog, the engine calculations were performed and its simulation was carried out. The results of the analysis show that the mass of the new engine is 35 % greater than the mass of the analog but the cost of active materials is less than that of the analog by 63 %. The results testify to the possibility of implementing a given structure industrially
Pavlo Nosov, Serhii Zinchenko, Viktor Plokhikh, , Yurii Prokopchuk, Dmytro Makarchuk, Pavlo Mamenko, Vladyslav Moiseienko, Andrii Ben
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 27-35; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239093

Abstract:
On the basis of empirical experimental data, relationships were identified indicating the influence of navigators' response to such vessel control indicators as maneuverability and safety. This formed a hypothesis about a non-random connection between the navigator's actions, response and parameters of maritime transport management. Within the framework of this hypothesis, logical-formal approaches were proposed that allow using server data of both maritime simulators and operating vessels in order to timely identify the occurrence of a critical situation with possible catastrophic consequences. A method for processing navigation data based on the analysis of temporal zones is proposed, which made it possible to prevent manifestations of reduced efficiency of maritime transport management by 22.5 %. Based on cluster analysis and automated neural networks, it was possible to identify temporary vessel control fragments and classify them by the level of danger. At the same time, the neural network test error was only 3.1 %, and the learning error was 3.8 %, which ensures the high quality of simulation results. The proposed approaches were tested using the Navi Trainer 5000 navigation simulator (Wärtsilä Corporation, Finland). The simulation of the system for identifying critical situations in maritime transport management made it possible to reduce the probability of catastrophic situations by 13.5 %. The use of automated artificial neural networks allowed defining critical situations in real time from the database of maritime transport management on the captain's bridge for an individual navigator.
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