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Case Studies in the Environment, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1525/cse.2021.1425104
Despite repeated emphasis on the links between the natural environment and human well-being and the disproportionate and direct dependence of the rural poor on natural resources, these links have not been well addressed in poverty assessments. Common poverty profiles neither reflect the contribution of nature to well-being nor the multiple values and meanings that people ascribe to nature. Building on a conceptual grounding for including environmental components in well-being measures, our work aimed to determine for which components it is legitimate to do so according to the people whose well-being is measured. We developed a focus group discussion protocol to elicit perceptions of environment-well-being relationships in rural settings in Rwanda and Malawi. The protocol included a well-being free-listing exercise, a matching exercise linking the listed items to predefined well-being dimensions, and a discussion of environment-well-being connections. We found that severe environmental degradation, hazards, and conflicts over access to land and forests in these diverse rural areas are deeply and directly linked to well-being. Environmental changes such as flooding or extended drought led to losses of income, crops, and assets, as well as prolonged periods of psychological stress, constrained freedom of choice, and in extreme cases, death. Our results suggest that some environmental components are constituent to well-being. We emphasise the importance of validating the precise environmental components that are considered relevant to well-being in different contexts. Extending poverty measurement with relevant environmental components can help in targeting action towards reducing poverty in a more legitimate, context-specific way.
Case Studies in the Environment, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1525/cse.2021.1342727
Previous studies have provided important scientific information on ant species richness and composition relating to the effects of elevation, sampling approaches, stratification, and forest succession. Yet, they have primarily focused on single sites or regions. Knowledge of ant ecology should also include the impact of disturbance in various forest types. Tuna baiting and hand collection methods were used to investigate diversity and community composition of ants in 16 sites sampled across Papua New Guinea, in both disturbed and pristine forest, at heights ranging from 28 to 2,728 m above sea level. We found 176 species as a result of exposing 320 tuna baits and traversing 72 hand-searched plots. Baiting samples were strongly dominated by a few common species, while the hand-collecting captured more species per plot. The Chao 2 richness estimator for both methods predicted undersampling of the local community. As expected, ant species diversity and richness significantly decrease with increasing elevation. We observed, on average, greater species diversity of ground-dwelling ant communities in disturbed compared to undisturbed forests. The effect was not significant using multivariate randomisations, since the same species dominated both forest classes. The unexpected pattern of ant species richness being locally higher in the disturbed sites is driven by our sampling of undisturbed communities at all elevations, but sampling of the disturbed communities only up to 1,600 m above sea level. Hence, future studies should consider more locations, aiming ideally for an equal sampling effort to capture disturbance stage and elevation.
The Succeeders pp 245-278; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-009
The Succeeders; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-toc
The Succeeders pp 201-244; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-008
The Rich and the Pure; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-002
The Succeeders pp 107-194; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-006
The Rich and the Pure pp 389-411; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-016
The Rich and the Pure pp 160-191; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-011
The Rich and the Pure; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-001
The Rich and the Pure pp 11-34; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-006
The Succeeders pp 61-106; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-005
The Rich and the Pure pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-005
Case Studies in the Environment, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1525/cse.2021.1434919
The Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea, conducted an independence referendum in 2019, which resulted in the region seeking a pathway to complete independence. One of the requirements in establishing independence is ensuring “good governance,” an important facet of which is establishing a stable and adequate food supply. This is framed globally as achieving Sustainable Development Goal Two (SDG #2) to end hunger and malnutrition. This article seeks to assess the measures that government and major donors have taken to implement SDG #2 in Bougainville using a pressure-state-response framework and desktop-based risk assessment to identify areas for further work. The investigation aims to identify effective policy focus areas in order to better implement SDG #2, namely, prioritising civil conflict avoidance, facilitating adaptation planning for climate regime shifts, and ensuring sustainable agricultural intensity and fisheries extraction. Based on these, recommendations for good governance include sustainable and equitable long-term interventions that reduce the risk of political disturbance and environmental degradation. As a result of engaging in this case, readers will be able to apply similar methodologies to inform development decisions in postconflict contexts. Bougainville faces similar challenges to many Pacific islands, including the impacts from climate change, food insecurity, conflict, population growth, and changing land tenure. This case can be extrapolated to these greater contexts.
The Succeeders pp 195-200; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-007
The Rich and the Pure pp 97-126; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-009
The Rich and the Pure; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-fm
The Succeeders pp 31-60; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-004
The Rich and the Pure pp 127-159; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-010
The Rich and the Pure; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-toc
The Rich and the Pure pp 239-318; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-014
The Rich and the Pure pp 192-228; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-012
The Rich and the Pure pp 319-388; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-015
The Rich and the Pure; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-003
The Succeeders pp 1-30; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-003
The Rich and the Pure pp 35-70; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-007
The Succeeders pp 279-295; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-010
The Rich and the Pure; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-004
The Succeeders; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-001
The Succeeders; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-fm
The Succeeders; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306-002
The Rich and the Pure pp 229-238; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-013
The Rich and the Pure pp 71-96; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599-008
Published: 3 September 2021
Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2020.00105
Managed and wild bee populations are declining around the world, in part due to lost access to bee forage (i.e., nectar and pollen). As bee forage diminishes, the remaining acres become sites of contestation between beekeepers, land managers, ecologists, and regulatory agencies. This article applies a commons framing to contextualize these conflicts and attempts to resolve them. Drawing from the concepts of commons and commoning, I argue that nectar and pollen are common-pool resources for pollinators, beekeepers, and land managers, currently managed through varied access arrangements such as informal usufruct rights and pseudo-commoning practices. Like commoning, pseudo-commoning aims to collectively manage a resource through a set of protocols that involve equitable resource sharing and communication. However, because pseudo-commons are implemented from the top down, for example, from institutional actors driven in part by economic interests, they often do not result in widespread adoption on the ground. Through a case in California almond orchards, I make two additional arguments. First, because beekeepers are largely migratory and do not own the land they need for production, their subordinate position to landowners can challenge equitable bee forage management. Second, while floral pseudo-commons may aim to counter the negative effects of industrialized agricultural production (e.g., by limiting pesticide exposure to honey bees), they also provide a “fix” that supports and expands industrial agriculture by stabilizing managed bee pollination services. Increasing reliance on managed bee pollination services can thus disincentivize transitions to sustainable food production, such as adopting diversified practices that would support native bee populations and reduce the need for managed honey bees on farms.
Published: 3 September 2021
Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2020.00125
PM2.5 and its bound metals pose a serious threat to human health. Understanding their contamination characteristics and source could provide implication for controlling their spreading and ensuring air quality. In this article, 1,600 of PM2.5 samples were collected from 5 urban sites in Lanzhou, China. The contamination characteristics of PM2.5, its relationship with meteorological factors, and the source of its bound metals were studied based on multiple linear regression analysis, enrichment factor (EF), principal component analysis and correlation analysis. The outcomes show that the PM2.5 concentrations in winter (0.117 mg·m–3) and spring (0.083 mg·m–3) are higher than those in summer (0.043 mg·m–3) and autumn (0.048 mg·m–3). The influence degree of meteorological factors on PM2.5 concentration is in the order of wind speed > atmospheric pressure > temperature > humidity. The major source of Fe and Cu in PM2.5 is construction dust, Pb and As is industrial, and Hg is coal combustion. In addition, Cd, V, Co, and Mn are mainly derived from dust produced by weathering of soil or rock. In general, the spatiotemporal distribution of PM2.5 and its bound metals are different, which is closely related to geographical location, source, and meteorological factors. The results in this article could provide support for the scientific formulation to prevent air pollution in Lanzhou.
Asian Survey pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2021.1422538
Eliminating corruption is seen as a practice that supports democratic governance. We argue, however, that particular anticorruption politics in contemporary India can damage the project of democratic deepening, because elites often deploy these politics against the representation of the marginalized. Anticorruption politics can subvert democratic deepening by challenging as corrupt the means by which the parties of the marginalized mobilize resources to compete in elections and by selectively targeting lower-caste political leaders for indictment on corruption charges within an overall discriminatory politics of deservedness. Anticorruption governance by parties in power seriously hinders the provision of welfare to the poor because of the technocratic and centralizing character of the governance reforms. We argue overall that while corruption is indeed damaging to democracy, elite anticorruption politics can also represent a significant barrier to democratic deepening and welfare.
Collabra: Psychology, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.27386
Personality traits describe how people typically think, feel, and behave. Personality states describe how people think, feel, and behave in a given moment. In their daily lives, people often behave the way they typically do (they enact trait-congruent personality states), but occasionally behave differently from how they typically do (trait-incongruent personality states). Several theories propose that such incongruent personality states should be associated with undesirable outcomes such as less positive affect or more tiredness, but the current state of evidence is inconclusive and mostly based on one personality dimension: extraversion. In this study, we contribute to filling important gaps in the literature by examining congruence of personality dimensions other than extraversion, considering characteristics of the situation, and modeling congruence with state-of-the-art response surface analyses. We aimed to manipulate state honesty-humility and state agreeableness as well as perceived adversity and deception of the situation in a prisoner’s dilemma paradigm. The manipulations mostly had the intended effects but they also had additional unspecific effects on other personality states and situation characteristics. The study thus emphasized the difficulty of manipulating personality states, situation characteristics, and trait–state and state–situation congruence. In pre-registered analyses of variance, response surface analyses, and specification curve analyses, we then examined how trait–state congruence and state–situation congruence were associated with positive affect, tiredness, and performance in a numerical Stroop task. Neither trait–state congruence nor state–situation congruence were associated with positive affect, tiredness, or cognitive performance. However, in light of this study’s limitations, more studies that are carefully designed, carefully operationalized, and well-powered are needed to examine trait–state and state–situation congruence. Because experimental research can advance the understanding of personality dynamics substantially, future research should additionally further aim to develop valid and reliable manipulations of personality states and situation characteristics.
The Succeeders; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520976306
The Rich and the Pure; https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520381599
Published: 1 September 2021
Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Volume 54, pp 137-137; https://doi.org/10.1525/j.postcomstud.2021.54.3.137
Published: 1 September 2021
Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Volume 54, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1525/j.postcomstud.2021.54.3.1
What explains how citizens living in young democracies feel about their authoritarian past? While the impact of autocratic legacies on support for democracy and left–right placement has been thoroughly studied, we know less about the determinants of attitudes toward the past in post-authoritarian democracies. This study relies on survey data collected in Southern and Central European countries ten years after their transitions to democracy in order to test context-dependent variance in the relevance of ideology and party identification on citizen attitudes toward the past. The results show that classical factors such as regime type and mode of transition are not the main determinants of the politicization of attitudes toward the past and that the existence of a strong authoritarian successor party is associated with stronger politicization of the past.
Current History, Volume 120, pp 233-239; https://doi.org/10.1525/curh.2021.120.827.233
Long considered objects of pity and welfare assistance, people with disabilities in South Korea and Japan are increasingly treated as rights-bearers. Through activism, litigation, and involvement in international treaty negotiations, Koreans and Japanese with disabilities spurred reforms that created new anti-discrimination protections and obligations to provide reasonable accommodations, access, employment, and social supports. These policy changes also signal a notably more legalistic approach to governance, particularly in South Korea, because they include more detailed rules and formal rights, more enforcement mechanisms like fines, and better recourse to judicial or other dispute resolution bodies.
Current History, Volume 120, pp 221-226; https://doi.org/10.1525/curh.2021.120.827.221
Military-run business activities can turn into an unrestrained form of parasitic capitalism, preying on national economies. The militaries of Thailand and Myanmar have evolved as predatory “khaki capitalist” institutions. Thailand’s military, deriving its legitimacy as guardian of the monarchy, has used that role to justify its accumulation of economic resources. Myanmar’s military, in power for most of the decades since independence, has invoked national security to expand its budget and business interests. Both militaries have repeatedly employed coups to consolidate their economic power, most recently in 2014 in Thailand and 2021 in Myanmar. Fragile democratic governments and international sanctions have proved ineffective in restraining them.
Current History, Volume 120, pp 250-252; https://doi.org/10.1525/curh.2021.120.827.250
Chinese dating apps have provided LGBT people with rare spaces for community building as well as personal connections. But the same apps can end up reinforcing heteronormative hierarchies and excluding some queer groups.
The American Biology Teacher, Volume 83, pp 479-481; https://doi.org/10.1525/abt.2021.83.7.479
Teaching cellular respiration in the secondary classroom requires a carefully crafted approach. The discipline, though complex, represents the cornerstone of cellular metabolic transactions. Therefore, this article proposes a method to engage students in the subject through an agricultural lens. Specifically, this will be done by having students consider why animals eat feed and where feed energy goes. After developing an appreciation for such feeding dynamics in animals, students will be better suited for studying the molecular nature of cellular respiration.
The American Biology Teacher, Volume 83, pp 436-440; https://doi.org/10.1525/abt.2021.83.7.436
Conceptual teaching was developed three decades ago as an alternative to conventional teaching approaches. It promised a significant shift in teaching practices across different disciplines and age groups. Traditionally, science subjects in high school tend to be content-heavy. Teaching science, especially biology, is still rooted in teaching methods that facilitate factual understanding and low-road transfer of knowledge. As a result, students’ knowledge remains compartmentalized. Students rarely make connections with other disciplines and transfer their biological knowledge to new situations. Bringing concepts to biology is a challenging task. Despite compelling evidence for concept-based teaching, there are few examples of how it can be implemented and replace content-based teaching. This article describes the changes to teaching instructions in biology over the last decade as well as the main challenges that prevent incorporating novel teaching approaches in a biology classroom. The author suggests concept-based teaching as an effective alternative to conventional, content-focused teaching and offers some ideas for implementing concepts into teaching biology in the context of blended learning.