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Mamuka Matsaberidze, Inga Janelidze
Published: 4 October 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.05.02

Abstract:
Microencapsulation as a principle of creating systems for targeted delivery of substances is widely used in the production of various products and preparations. The scientific and practical interest in the problems of microencapsulation is very high, as evidenced by the creation of the international community of microencapsulation. The creation of products and preparations in microencapsulated and gel-like forms is an innovative segment of various fields of scientific and technical activity.
Library of Tbilisi State Medical University
Published: 3 October 2022
Abstract:
The bio-bibliography of the Georgian famous physicians, MD, Ph.D., Doctor Med. Sciences, Professor, Boris Korsantia, contains the materials of 1987-2020 years: scientific works, articles, works published under her editorship and other. Boris Korsantia is the author of more than 270 scientific publications devoted to immunological, virological and biotechnological aspects in various diseases. Under his leadership, about 60 candidate dissertations were defended. He was the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, vice-president of the Georgian Physicians Postgraduate Association, an expert of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, a member of the dissertation council. The material is arranged in chronological-alphabetical order. The bio-bibliography is prefaced by a short review of scientific, pedagogical and public activities of B. Korsantia. Indexes of names are applied in alphabetical order. გამოჩენილი ქართველი ექიმის, მედიცინის მეცნიერებათა დოქტორის, პროფესორის ბორის კორსანტიას ბიობიბლიოგრაფიაში თავმოყრილია 1987-2020 წლების მასალა: სამეცნიერო შრომები, სტატიები, მისი რედაქტორობით გამოცემული წიგნები, მეთოდური რეკომენდაციები, წერილები და სხვადასხვა მასალა. ბორის კორსანტია ავტორია 270-ზე მეტი სამეცნიერო ნაშრომისა, რომლებიც ეხება იმუნოლოგიის, ვირუსოლოგიისა და ბიოტექნოლოგიის ასპექტებს სხვადასხვა პათოლოგიების დროს. მისი ხელმძღვანელობით დაცულია 60-მდე საკანდიდატო და აკადემიური დოქტორის დისერტაცია, 6 სადიპლომო ნაშრომი. იყო საქართველოს ექიმთა პოსტდიპლომური განათლების ასოციაციის ვიცე-პრეზიდენტი და კონფერენციების სამეცნიერო დირექტორი, სადისერტაციო საექსპერტო საბჭოს წევრი, ჟურნალ “ექსპერიმენტული და კლინიკური მედიცინის” მთავარი რედაქტორი. მასალა განლაგებული ქრონოლოგიურ-ანბანური რიგით. ბიობიბლიოგრაფიას წინ უძღვის...
Tamta Abuladze, Nani Gvarishvili, Nino Kiknadze
Published: 1 October 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 451-455; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.46

Abstract:
River Adjaristskhali gorge alongside territories are refugium for third moisture Kolkhetian relictic forest eco-systems which was given UNESCO world natural heritage status. At present construction and exploitation of cascade type derivative hydroelectric stations in the gorge creates risk for fragmentation, destroy and losing of natural habitats. Elemental analysis of underground spring water by plasma atomic-emission spectrometry was carried out at Shuakhevi township location.The obtained data were compared with the results of the multi-elemental analysis of the Achariskali River. The basic macro-elements in spring water and river Adjaristskhali are Ca and Mg. in samples of river Adjaristskhali concentrations of P, Fe, Al are beyond MPC which is the verification for their anthropogenic pollutions. Besides such dangerous pollutants as Hg, Li, Pb, Ti is beyond MPC. Foreseeing the specificity, relief of Adjaristskhali it is necessary to carry serious geological and ecological examinations during construction and exploitation of Hydroelectric Stations, later - carrying periodic monitoring in order to identify problem areas and carry proper preventive measures.
Irakli Gogiberidze
Published: 30 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 447-450; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.45

Abstract:
In this article is discussed the so-called term of “deisolation” of the occupied territories of Georgia – Abkhazia and Tskhinvali region/South Ossetia, used by the Russian Federation in order to use it for achieving the main goal of final disintegration of those parts from the rest of Georgia.
Mamuka Matsaberidze, Inga Janelidze
Published: 25 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 412-427; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.43

Abstract:
Article about the mechanisms for obtaining effects self-healing of initial properties or any characteristics in various artificially created materials, such as polymers, ceramics, metals, composite materials, etc. The chemical and physical processes that cause the effects of self-healing are briefly considered, as well as examples and experimental prototypes of self-healing materials are given.
Mamuka Matsaberidze, Inga Janelidze
Published: 25 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 428-446; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.44

Abstract:
The article discusses the functional systematology of smart materials, which is a new design philosophy that combines the actions of sensors, actuators, and control element circuits in one system. Smart materials can change their functions depending on changes in the environment. The intelligent construction of smart materials has a number of important advantages compared to traditional ones.
Amiran Berdzenishvili, Kakha Ketsbaia
Published: 23 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 406-411; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.42

Abstract:
In the article consists of two parts. The first part is theoretical, concerned with the future of education in the epoch of social-technological mutations and is based on Alvin Toffler’s futurological conception of education and Zygmunt Bauman’s theory of liquid education (A. Berdzenishvili, K. Ketsbaia). The second part is ofthe practical character and is concerned with the experience (personal experience) gained in the sphere of distance teaching and the challenges revealed (A. Berdzenishvili).
Nino Ramazashvili
Published: 21 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 399-405; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.41

Abstract:
The world as we know it was shaped by technological innovation. A new technology, Blockchain, that allows digital records and information to be shared securely and transparently. It can carry out transactions with a high level of security and have a significant impact on trade operations, reducing fraud and improving traceability and strengthening trust in value chains.Paperless trade, blockchain uniqueness, digital documentation, all these have brought huge benefits to many developing countries, as the successful implementation of the single window principle in Singapore, Korea and Mexico. It's a "battle of the technologies" aimed at convincing governments that blockchain is the superior technology. Blockchain technology (like many other technologies) is maturing.
Teona Korkotadze, Ketevan Mchedlidze, Giorgi Chabashvili, Vakhtang Mshvildadze, Dali Berashvili
Published: 20 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 362-373; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.39

Abstract:
It has been studied perspective medicinal plant S. glutinosa  aboveground parts vegetative and generative organs internal diagnostic features. The aboveground vegetative and generative organs of the plant are lined with unicellular or multicellular, conical trichomes, glands, unicellular or multicellular, also conical, spherical, secretory trichomes; Basal layer cells of curved and curved wall epidermal tissue is characteristic feature for leaf. The leaf is bifacial, amphistomatic, dorsoventral structure. Folium and axial organs cover tissue are presented diacytic type stomata. Lentil-like Guard cells of stomata, subsidiary cells stomata are curvilinear structure.In the internal structure of aboveground part polygonal structure tissue and mechanical tissue are actively represented, fiber and collenchyma existence are particularly characteristic sign for mechanical tissue. The transport system is monocyclic, collateral vascular bundles reflected in the stem, leaf stalk, and midrib. Longitudinally arranged, spherically shaped vascular vessel and tracheid element is in the transport system cortex. The axis organs xylem vessel mainly is spiral type, rarely porous wall thickening.
Iona Tsintsadze
Published: 20 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 374-398; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.40

Abstract:
After the end of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, evaluation of the new international system became quite important subject in the field of international relations. The group of specific authors recognized the system as the Unipolar one. However, there were others, who regarded the moment as unipolar, not the system. Several years later, the new evaluation was born, referring to the US as declining power and hinting that the system was in transition. Conversely, still there were scientists who emphasized that the United States was the unchallengeable sole superpower on the world political map. Meanwhile, certain authors suggested that the system became bipolar because of China’s irreversible economic progress. Thus, the bipolarists claim that there are only two great powers in the contemporary international system. Against the all above-mentioned evaluations, there is another assumption that the current world is multipolar, with more than two great powers. However, the present-day multipolarity is quite different than 19th century original analogy. The simple verdict that can be derived from different evaluations of international system is that the conclusions of contemporary authors make understanding of modern system quite vague. Thus, it is important to ask what the ongoing international model is. The aim of the article was to find out the type of system not via supporting an author’s verdict but to discover links and common ground among different conclusions. The goal didn’t prevail however, the result made by specific evaluation turned out to be anomalous.
Ia Kurashvili, Tornike Kimeridze, Kakhaber Shamatava, Avtandil Sichinava, George Darsavelidze
Published: 16 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.36

Abstract:
The effect of 60Co gamma–photon irradiation on the radiation defects generation and their isochronal annealing in monocrystalline n-Si+4at%Ge:P alloy has been studied. Experimental bulk crystals were grown by Czochralski method in Ar atmosphere. Electrophysical characteristics were determined by the Hall effect measuring in a constant magnetic field at different stages of 20-minute isochronal annealing in 20-400°C temperature interval. It is established, that under the influence of compressive stresses localized near Ge atoms in the crystalline lattice of the experimental SiGe alloy decrease of the annealing temperature of radiation A-centers (VO) takes place. A change in dissociation temperature of radiation E-centers (PV) is revealed, stipulated by their directed migration in the stress field localized near dislocation.
David Kajaia, Davit Kochiashvili, Shota Kepuladze, George Burkadze
Published: 17 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.52340//gs.2022.04.04.38

Abstract:
Invasive urothelial carcinoma is the most common bladder malignancy, comprising 90% of all primary bladder carcinomas. According to the statistics of Georgia, according to NCDC data, bladder cancer is the third most common cancer among men. As a result of non-invasive urothelial carcinoma, 70% of the operated patients developed a recurrence in the 5-year period after the surgical intervention on the urinary bladder, among which the share of advanced, metastatic cases is 10-20%.Therefore, regardless of the same degree of differentiation and staging, the recurrence and progression of urothelial carcinoma varies in different patients. A cohort retrograde study was carried out, for which archival material of the teaching-scientific and diagnostic laboratory of Tbilisi State Medical University for the years 2019-2021 was used. The results of the study showed that molecular subtypes of urothelial invasive carcinomas express CK20 and CK5 with different intensity. Moreover, there are mixed, hybrid forms with the coexistence of both markers, which indicates the intratumoral heterogeneous nature of invasive carcinomas, which probably depends on the different clinical course and prognosis of tumors of the same histological type. The phenotypic characteristics of low- and high-grade non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinomas are fundamentally different from the characteristics of invasive urothelial carcinoma, which gives reason to assume that they are different tumors and require additional genomic changes to transform into invasive carcinoma.The phenotypic differences between them are likely to determine the risk of recurrence and invasive transformation. CK20, CK5, apoptotic and proliferative characteristics with androgen receptor expression. Together, it can be used to assess the risk of recurrence and transformation to invasive carcinoma of low- and high-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinomas.
Eka Zarkua, Marina Mamaladze, George Burkadze
Published: 17 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.37

Abstract:
The regular use of adhesive systems has revolutionized many aspects of restorative and preventive dentistry. Attitudes toward cavity preparation have changed since adhesive systems began to be used instead of mechanical retention. Using this technique, it may prevent micro-leakage as the main dental problem responsible for many cases of secondary caries. Therefore, adhesives are of crucial importance in esthetic restorative dentistry. The degree of penetration of IV, V and VII generation adhesive systems in different types of teeth was studied using the visioscopic method. It was shown that the adhesive system of the VII generation compared to the adhesive systems of the IV and V generations is characterized by a reliably low penetration, which may be the basis of a better result.
Nikoloz Gotsiridze, Tamar Sanikidze, Maia Mantskava
Published: 17 September 2022
Abstract:
In the book, the authors review the postulates and regularities of biomechanics and kinesiology, describe the biomechanical properties of cells, tissues, organs, systems, which contribute to the interdependence and normal functioning of cells, tissues, organs and systems. The book consists of 2 sections: Biomechanics I and Biomechanics II. The materials presented in the book is intended for a course of 100 and more hours. The text is illustrated with 180 images. Perception and the study of functional relationships were facilitated represented by the formulas. A description of laboratory works and the sequence of their implementation is included in the book as an appendix. For self-assessment of the material passed, the book provides a list of discussion issues. The book helps to combine theory and practical approaches in the field of biomechanics, develops the skills of multidisciplinary discussion of facts and events, which is very important for specialists in the field of medicine. The book is recommended for students of all levels of medical education, researchers, all interested parties. For them and for practicing physicians, rehabilitators, health professionals, and represetivests of theoretical biomedical area, the book will serve as a textbook. წიგნში ავტორები იხილავენ ბიომექანიკის და კინეზიოლოგიის პოსტულატებს და კანონზომიერებანს, აღწერენ ამა თუ იმ უჯრედების, ქსოვილების, ორგანოების, სისტემების ბიომექანიკურ თავისებურებებს, რომლებიც განაპირობებენ მათ ურთიერთშეთანხმებას და ნორმალურ ფუნქციონირებას. წიგნი შედგება 2 განყოფილებისგან: ბიომექანიკა I და ბიომექანიკა II. წიგნში წარმოდგენილი მასალა გათვალისწინებულია 100 და მეტ საათიანი კურსისთვის. ტექსტი ილუსტრირებულია 180 სურათით, რაც აიოლებს მოთხრობილის აღქმას და ფორმულებით გამოსახული ფუნქციური დამოკიდებულებების დასწავლას. წიგნში დანართის სახით განთავსებულია ლაბორატორიული სამუშაოების აღწერა, მათი განხორციელების მიმდევრობა. გავლილი მასალის თვითშეფასებისთვის წიგნში მოცემულია სადისკუსიო საკითხების ჩამონათვალი. წიგნი ბიომექანიკის მიმართულებით ეხმარება...
Nazi Pharsadanishvili, Anastasia Kitiashvili
Published: 19 September 2022
Abstract:
The article concerns perceived stigma, construction of the scale measuring social vulnerability status related to perceived stigma in Georgian population and the obtained results. Most items were developed on the basis of qualitative research conducted with the people holding social vulnerability status. Following an expert assessment, 263 citizens with social vulnerability status participated in the study. After apply- ing the principal component factor analysis to the scale measuring perceived stigma related to social vulnerability status, two factors were identified: enacted stigma (9 items, α =.87) and internalized stigma (8 items, α=.81). The intrascale agreement coefficient turned out to be quite high (17 items, α=.89). Differently from the other scales measuring poverty related perceived stigma, the items on agreement with perceived stereotypes were also included in the scale. The above items fell under the dimension of internalized stigma. Also differently from other theoretical and empirical studies on perceived stigma, the fear of possible future stigmatization fell under the enacted stigma dimension. We believe that the dimension of enacted stigma comprises conceptually past and present stigmatization experiences as well as the anticipated stigmatization. In addition to exploratory factor analysis the confirmatory factor analysis was not applied in the study, which could be considered its certain limitation. 
Tamar Goderidze, Nato Durglishvili, Giorgi Durglishvili, Manana Machitidze, Inga Odzelashvili
Published: 14 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 315-322; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.35

Abstract:
Aim/objective: The aim of the article is to identify the frequency and prevalence of vaginal candida in diabetes patients. Background: Rising blood sugar levels in patients increase the risk of various diseases and increase health problems. Possible long-term effects include damage to the macrovascular and microvascular vessels, which can lead to vascular diseases, including heart attack, stroke, and problems with the kidneys, eyes, gums, legs, and nerves. In addition to vascular damage, diabetes causes bacterial and fungal infections, among which we often find infection caused by Candida. Fungal disease of the genitals is one of the most common pathologies today, the development of which can be facilitated by both external - exogenous and internal - endogenous factors. Design and Methods: The article is based on secondary research and is limited to descriptive analysis. Results and Conclusions: Increased blood sugar levels as a result of diabetes affect the whole body and not just the blood. Elevated blood sugar appears in the mucous membranes of the vagina and vulva, so they are an excellent means of cultivating yeast. Properly managed diabetes is the only correct way to prevent recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Teona Korkotadze, Ketevan Mchedlidze, Giorgi Chabashvili, Vakhtang Mshvildadze, Dali Berashvili
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.003

Abstract:
It has been studied perspective medicinal plant S. sclarea aboveground parts vegetative and generative organs internal features, cultivated on the plot of Iovel Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry. The aboveground parts of the plant are intensively lined with unicellular or multicellular, conical multicellular (2-11-14) and glandular spherical trichomes; Basal layer cells of curved and curved wall epidermal tissue is characteristic feature for leaf. The ventilation system is represented by diacytic type stomata. The leaf is bifacial, amphistomatic in terms of the location of the ventilation system, while the pulp is characterized by a dorsiventral structure.In the internal structure of aboveground part, the mixed type collenchyma, polygonal structure primary parenchyma and secretory pathways are actively represented. The transport system is monocyclic, differentiation of collateral-type vascular bundles reflected in the stem, leaf stalk, and midrib.
Nino Lomtadze, Elene Giorgadze, Shota Janjgava, Tinatin Kacharava
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.010

Abstract:
In clinical practice, patients with metabolic syndrome and thyroid disease are often referred. It is noteworthy that based on the results of various population studies, there has been an increase in both thyroid disease and the incidence of signs of metabolic syndrome in adults. Therefore, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in the study of possible associations between these two pathological conditions. Based on the results of various papers, the close relationship between these two pathological conditions is due on the one hand to the influence of thyroid hormones on carbohydrate, lipid metabolism and on the other hand the zobogenic effect of insulin on thyroid tissue. However, despite many scientific papers and population studies, the relationship between thyroid disease and components of the metabolic syndrome is still a matter of research, but in clinical practice, the results of these studies help to diagnose thyroid disease.
Tamar Sagareishvili, Ketevan Shalashvili, Meri Alania
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.006

Abstract:
There was carried out preliminary phytochemical analyse of 20 plants, introduced in the National botanical garden of Georgia for the content of flavonoides, coumarines, triterpenic and steroidal saponines. There were revealed some perspective species of plants, which are recommended for more deep study with perspective usage in medicinal practice in the future. For the deep study for the content of flavonoides present interest following plants: Meratia praecox Rehd. et Wils., Aucuba japónica Thunb., Ginkgo biloba L., Parotia persica C.A. Mey, Caesalpinia gilliesii Wall. ex Hook., Cercis сanadensis L., Wisteria sinensis Sweet., Buddleia davidii Franch., Hibiscus syriacus L., Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) LHerit.; On the content of coumarines: Nandina domestica Thunb., Buxus balearica Lam., Ginkgo biloba L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Caesalpinia gilliesii Wall. ex Hook., Hibiscuss yriacus L., Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) LHerit., Fraxinus ornus L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Osmanthus fragrans (Thunb.) Lour. Steroidal saponines were discovered in the species of plants: Buxus balearica Lam., Meratia praecox Rehd. et Wils., Parotiapersica C.A. Mey, Hibiscus syriacus L. In the point of view of the terpenic compounds is interesting Caryopteris incana Thumb. Mig.
Maia Matoshvili, Nino Adamia, Ia Pantsulaia, Dimitri Abelashvili, David Topuria, Daredjan Khachapuridze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.011

Abstract:
The aim of our study was an investigation of epidemiological peculiarities of allergic dermatitis in children and adolescents (distribution of atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, urticaria and angioedema, psoriasis) in the population of Georgia.
Tinatin Kacharava, Elene Giorgadze, Shota Janjgava, Nino Lomtadze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.009

Abstract:
Vitamin B12 is distinguished by its unique beneficial properties that play a major role in the proper functioning of the body. Interest in vitamin B12 began 2 centuries ago and it is still relevant to study its role. Vitamin B12 plays a special role in the proper functioning of the immune system. With increasing statistics in the autoimmune disease registry around the world (including the most common thyroid autoimmune disease), the interest in medicine is to determine the correlation between vitamin B12 and autoimmune diseases. Various studies have shown a correlation between them, although there is a little evidence for a link between vitamin B12 and autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland.
Tamar Sharashenidze, Maia Enukidze, Marine Machavariani, Nino Otarishvili, Tea Gabunia, Tamar Sanikidze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.002

Abstract:
Our research aimed to establish the effectiveness of various β-adrenergic receptor blockers in the regulation of T cell proliferation in the model system of the Jurkat cells.Material and Methods. The research was conducted on the human leukemic mature T cells (Jurkat cells) (DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (Germany)) activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Viability and proliferative activity of intact and PHA-stimulated Jurkat cells under the influence of Nebilet, Egilok, Betalok Zok, and Propranolol were studied with the MTT test. Results. Study results show that β-adrenergic receptors blockers selectively influence the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases, and therefore viability in both intact and mitogen-stimulated Jurkat cells. In particular, Nebilet, Betalok Zok, and Propranolol induced a statistically significant decrease of intact Jurkat cells viability by 63%, 20%, and 32%, respectively; Egilok and Betalok Zok (25mg) didn’t statistically significantly affect the PHA- activated Jurkat cells viability. Nebilet, Betalok Zok (50 mg), and Propranolol decreased the viability of the mitogen (PHA) activated Jurkat cells (for PHA dose 20μg/ml) and didn’t affect at a PHA dose of 50μg/ml.
Lali Kintsurashvili, Ketevan Mchedlidze
Published: 6 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 305-314; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.34

Abstract:
The genus Delphinium L. is rich in diterpene alkaloids, which exhibit a pronounced curare-like, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidote and insecticidal action. The content of diterpene alkaloids in the aboveground and unde-ground vegetative organs of Delphinium flexuosum Bieb., a promising medicinal plant of the flora of Georgia, and diagnostic features of the internal structure were studied in order to determine the identity of the experimental raw material.GC/MS analysis revealed that the dominant alkaloid obtained from the vegetative organs of the plant is the pharmacologically active methyllicaconitine. Other alkaloids have been identified as anthranoillocytonine, delcosine, lycotonine. As well, the underground organs contain also zongorine, delectine and norzongoramine. A set of diagnostic features of the internal structure of D. flexuosum was determined using the methods adopted in microtechnics. The leaf of D. flexuosum is bifacial, hypostomatic and has dorsoventral structure. It is very rarely covered with long conical trichomes, the underlying cells of the lower and upper epidermis of the leaf are non-wrinkled and curved. The differential stomatal apparatus in leaf-covering tissue is anomocytic. Stomata are lenticular, and structure of the stomata is chaotic, in terms of the reciprocal location of the locking cells. The leaf pulp is differentiated into open, reverse-collateral conductive cones. The aboveground organs of D. flexuosum are characterized by an orderly aligned structural elements of the epidermal tissue, with linear and straight-walled stem cells and orderly arranged anomocytic stomata. Collenchymal and fibrous cells of the mechanical type and open-collateral type conducting cones with a thickening of the spiral and reticular membrane are actively reflected in the organs of the plant axis. The conductive tissue of the root system of D. flexuosum contains a number of polar rays of the wood with differentiated stepwise, spiral and ring-shaped tracheal elements.
Nino Sanodze, Nano Shvangiradze, Tinatin Ovsephian
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.008

Abstract:
Patients with acute vomiting, typically for hours to a few days, most often present to an emergency department, whereas patients with chronic symptoms are more often initially evaluated in outpatient office settings. Emergency department clinicians should expeditiously exclude life-threatening disorders such as bowel obstruction, diabetic ketoacidosis, adrenal crisis, toxic ingestion, or increased intracranial pressure (ICP). In both urgent care and routine outpatient settings, the following three steps should generally be undertaken in patients with nausea and vomiting:
Ruslan Bolkvadze, Kakhaber Kashibadze, Zurab Chomakhashvili, Tamar Mkhatvari
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.004

Abstract:
The authors studied how COVID-19 is administered to liver transplant patients and found out that a mechanism to reduce virus virulence in infected liver transplant patients involves the use of immunosuppressant medications, to reduce the cytotoxic strain of the virus during this period. However, in the 21 patients we studied, it was clear that this contingent was constantly receiving immunosuppressive drugs, so they easily went through a period of COVID-19 infection.
Irina Andronikashvili, Gaiane Simonia, Diana Labartkava, Nato Pantsulaia
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.007

Abstract:
It has been known that metabolic syndrome (MS) is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease. Data on gender related differences in MS is relatively scarce. The underlying mechanism of increased salt-sensitivity among individuals with the metabolic syndrome is not fully understood. There are some studies that prove that female sex is a major risk factor for salt-sensitive hypertension. The study aimed to assess an association between salt-sensitive hypertension and MS, to investigate potential role of gender in these disorders. Results of our study showed that in Georgia hypertensive subjects consume high amount of sodium. Prevalence of salt-sensitivity in Georgian middle-aged individuals exceeds average values and is more common in females. As a main finding, this study showed high prevalence of MS and a positive significant association of this syndrome with female gender and salt-sensitive hypertension. Early detection and knowledge of gender differences in MS and salt-sensitivity can help design gender specific preventative and therapeutic strategies that will have a positive impact on overall population health.
Irakli Chkhikvishvili, David Chkhikvishvili, Nunu Gogia, Maya Enukidze, Marine Machavariani, Nana Kipiani, Eka Shekhiladze, Tamar Sanikidze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.015

Abstract:
Cancer plays a leading role in increased morbidity and mortality in the world. In recent years, special attention has been paid to the use of natural medicines among the new effective methods of cancer treatment. Paclitaxel can be isolated from the hazelnut’s (Corylus avellana L.) shells and leaves. Taxane-polyphenols synergism is known to enhance the efficacy and selectivity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Therefore, screening of taxane-polyphenol combinations is needed to select a highly effective complex. The aim of the study was to study the effectiveness of different polyphenol substitute fractions obtained from hazelnut residue extraction on tumor cell viability in Jurkat cell model systems. Studies were performed on human leukemia transformed mature T-cells (Jurkat cells) (DSMZ-Deutshe Sammulung von Mikroorganismen und Zell kulturen (Germany)). Extraction of compounds from the nut residue (hard shell) was carried out using solvents, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol (Sigma-Aldrich). Chromatographic separation was performed on a high-pressure liquid chromatograph Agilent 1260 Infinity (USA).Based on the analysis of the research results, we can conclude that the ethanol extract of hazelnut shells which is characterized by a small content of paclitaxel, but a high content of polyphenols, is characterized by most high cytotoxicity against Jurkat cells.
Irine Korinteli, Mzia Khalvashi, Eliso Turkadze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.026

Abstract:
In recent years, the pandemic situation had an impact on scientific works, and the main focus had been shifted to the modern problem – COVID-19. Many medical issues have fallen into the shadows, such as evidence-based medicine. The aim of this work is to review articles about evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence, clinical expertise, patient values. The concept of evidence-based medicine includes five main steps: Formulation of answerable clinical questions, Searching for evidence, Critical appraisal, Applicability of evidence, Evaluation of performance.Today the evidence-based medicine is the main rule to use the best decision for medical services for individual patients.
Khatuna Kudava, Rusudan Latsabidze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.017

Abstract:
Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 play an essential role in the diagnosis and assessment of the course of the disease. The conducted studies provide important information about skin rashes in patients of different ages suffering from coronavirus. Some studies describe the appearance of an erythema multiforme-like rash in patients with COVID-19. We consider the link between COVID-19 and erythema multiforme in a clinical context. We present two interesting cases. The first case refers to a 19-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic recurrent multiform erythema, with periodic exacerbations. The second patient of interest to us was a 22-year-old 14-week pregnant woman. The patient had a history of atopic dermatitis. In the first case, the Covid-19 infection was not found to be a provoking factor for the exacerbation of erythema multiforme. The patient's skin showed a common pathology associated with this infection, acral purpuric lesions. In the second case, COVID-19 was the reason for infection and development of an erythema multiforme-like rash. Consideration in a clinical context of Covid-19 infection and erythema multiforme is important and requires further detailed study.
Natia Chkheidze, Niko Uridia, Elene Giorgadze, Marina Nikolaishvili, Ana Malazonia, Tamar Zerekidze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.012

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of the research was to identify the plasma ghrelin concentration in humans with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and obesity and to investigate a statistically significant relation between plasma ghrelin levels and other important metabolic factors in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and obesity pathogenesis.
Ivane Javakhishvili, Konstantine Mardaleishvili, David Metreveli, Sofo Turabekidze-Robakidze, Giorgi Burjanadze, Tamar Sanikidze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.019

Abstract:
The identification of early diagnostic markers of tumour pathology of the thyroid gland plays an important role. Our study aimed to determine changes in NO metabolism in various benign and malignant thyroid pathologies. The content of NO in the blood serum of healthy individuals and patients (with thyrotoxicosis, benign thyroid tumour and thyroid cancer) was studied. In patients with thyrotoxicosis, the content of NO in the blood serum increases statistically significantly by 33%, and in benign tumour pathology - by 22% compared with control indicators; In patients with thyroid cancer, the content of NO in the blood serum did not statistically significantly different from the level of control parameters.The present study has the potential to present elevated levels of NO in the blood of patients, compared with controls, as a marker to rule out thyroid cancer. Further clinical studies are needed to obtain comprehensive results and elucidate the relationship between NO metabolism and thyroid pathologies.
Emir Bayandurov, Zurab Orjonikidze, Thea Gabunia, Tamar Sanikidze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.032

Abstract:
The stability of the implant depends significantly on the process of osseointegration between the bone and the implant. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of the osseointegration process have not yet been fully established and require further research in this direction.The aim of the study was to study the markers of the processes of osteointegration after dental implantation. The study was conducted on 31 patients who underwent implantation at the base of "Unident" and "A1" clinics.We collected gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and peri-implant sulcus fluid (PISF) from patients before implantation and 1 month after implantation. In PISF and GCF fluids, bone markers (osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OPN), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP)) were determined by the immunoenzymatic method.The PISF and GCF were collected using standardized paper strips (Periopaper, no.593525), which were placed at the entrance of the grooves of the implant and/or healthy teeth at a standardized depth of 1 mm for 30 seconds. The content of the OPG, OC and bALP in the PISF fluid 1 month after implantation does not change statistically significantly compared to the initial values in the GCF fluid (p=0.74; p=0.44; p=0.69). 1 month after the implantation, the content of OPN in PISF fluid increased by 133% compared to its content in GCF fluid before implantation (p<0.001).According to the study results, the OPN content in the PISF fluid increases sharply 1 month after the implantation. This parameter can be used as a marker of implant integration with living bone and bone wound healing.
Ketevan Sanikidze, Irma Mamatsashvili, Shalva Petriashvili
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.021

Abstract:
Hyperuricemia (HU) is important and common comorbidity that often coexist in patients with heart failure (HF). High values of serum uric acid are associated to severe heart failure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a UA-lowering and prognostic effects of allopurinol in patients with chronic HF and hyperuricemia.We studied 75 patients (50 men and 25 women) with HF and increased UA levels, who have been admitted to hospital since September 2019; All patients aged 18 years and older were eligible, provided a left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or less was documented on echocardiography during the enrolment visit and signs and symptoms of chronic heart failure were present. Patient baseline assessment included a standardized HF history regarding HF aetiology (classified as ischemic or non-ischemic) and co-morbidities. All patients underwent a standardized clinical evaluation, including physical examination, determination of NYHA class, determination of body weight. Blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein in the morning for the assessment of a full blood count and clinical chemistry. Echocardiographic parameters included interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular dimension, left ventricular diastolic function, posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass index, LVEF. Hyperuricemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria as uric acid level >5.7 mg/dl in women and >7 mg/dl in men. Patients were divided into two groups: 50 patients (group 1) received allopurinol. The initial dose of in most patients was 200 mg/day and it was reduced according to their renal function or UA level. 25 patients (group 2) – controlled group. Treatment duration was 6 and 12 months.Repeated studies after 12 months showed the following results: Uric acid treatment improved the echocardiographic parameters LVEF (38.5± 3.7 and 43.4± 2.4) LV mass index, IVS, PW, stroke volume), reduced NT-proBNP, improved renal function, Improved NYHA functional class; We studied the frequency of cardiovascular events 24-30 months after the start of treatment. Of the 50 patients treated with allopurinol, 11 patients (22%) required rehospitalisation and 9 patients (36%) in the control group;
Tea Janjalashvili, Manana Iverieli
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.027

Abstract:
Periodontitis is one of the most common dental diseases in the world. The main reason for the development of inflammatory processes of periodontal tissues is the etiological factor of an infectious nature. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of periodontitis treatment methods: vector system, diode laser, vector system and diode laser combined treatment, based on the complex picture data of clinical and laboratory examinations. Depending on the treatment methods, patients diagnosed with different stages and levels of periodontitis were divided into three groups. The research and data processing of periodontal markers in the periodontal pocket in all three groups: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomit, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola allowed us to establish a reliable relationship between the values ​​obtained before treatment and as a result of treatment. Where the data obtained after the vector system and the combined vector system and diode laser treatment were found to be reliable for the target parameters and the effectiveness of the treatment was established (p<0.05). Which is not confirmed in the case of diode laser treatment.
Nikoloz Vachadze, Ramaz Khetsuriani, Marina Pailodze, Manana Arabuli-Tchlikadze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.020

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to evaluate the volume of the left atrium by ultrasonography after dosed, moderate-intense treadmill exercise for 10 weeks in healthy rats aged 10-11 weeks. In general, physical exercise is a well-known preventive method for reducing the risk-factors of cardiovascular diseases. Within the frame of our study, we subjected 10-11-week-old healthy male rats to moderate-intensity physical exercise on treadmill for 10 weeks and then studied functional parameters of heart by echocardiography to assess the effect of physical exercise on the volume of left atrium of healthy heart. Rats were divided into 2 groups: 1) control group, which did not receive any exercise (n=6); 2) the investigational group performed 6 complete rotations on treadmill per day with a 2-minute active break in between, 5 days a week (treadmill speed 12m/min, incline 200) – n=6.The functional parameters of heart were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography twice (at the beginning of the study and after 10 weeks). In the rats of the investigational group, the volume of the left atrium was increased compared to the data of untrained rats of the same sex and age. The mentioned study can be considered as another step forward in the study of compensative changes developed amid physical exercise with moderate intensity.
Nino Orjonikidze, Tinatin Mikadze, Ia Pantsulaia, Irine Kvachadze, Tinatin Chikovani
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.028

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of treatment with standard ligating brackets on salivary/oral fluid cortisol levels and to evaluate their correlation with salivary calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and pH.
Ketevan Ediberidze, Zurab Kakabadze, David Chakhunashvili, Irakli Amiranashvili
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.030

Abstract:
Wound healing process is dynamic and complex, which depends on the synergic effect of a different cells, enzymes, cytokines and growth factors. Deregulation in the healing process can result in the development of non-healing chronic ulcer. Together with the technological advancement, over 3,000 types of wound healing produces have been developed for the treatment of various types of wounds. All currently existing wound treatment materials have their respective advantages and limitations and in order to achieve fast wound healing, it is necessary to select the appropriate method. In this article, we examine the effects of different types of wound dressing materials on the wound healing process.
Ketevan Kakabadze, Irakli Megreladze, Nino Kipiani, Tamar Sanikidze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.013

Abstract:
The aetiology and relationship between the NO content and the mechanisms of development of hypertension, whether dysfunction of the endothelium and a decrease in NO production have occurred before or after the development of hypertension, remains unclear. Arterial hypertension was induced in male Wistar rats (weighing 200-220 grams) by intraperitoneal administration of L-NAME (SIGMA-ALDRICH) for 4 and 7 weeks. During the last 3 weeks, to a separate group of animals simultaneously with L-NAME, L-arginine (SIGMA-ALDRICH) and different antihypertensive drugs (Nebilet+ (Nebivolol (beta-blocker) + hydrochlorothiazide), Lozap + (Specific antagonist of angiotensin II receptors), Hydrochlorothiazide (diuretic medication) and a combination of Norvasc (calcium channel blocker) + Hydrochlorothiazide) were administered. The animals were monitored for systolic and diastolic pressure. The level of NO in blood samples was determined spectrophotometrically using a Griess Reagent. The results of the study show that hypertension pathogenesis is very complex and includes a series of factors, additionally to the lack of vasodilatation compounds. Therefore, the effects of antihypertensive drugs are related to various mechanisms and require the presence of not only an additional substrate necessary for the synthesis of NO. Studying these mechanisms will help us to develop effective methods of treating hypertension.
Tinatin Gorgiladze, Ekaterine Mujiri
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.029

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to conduct a clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of combination products containing topical corticosteroids for the treatment of reversible forms of pulpitis by biological method.
Malvina Javakhadze, Irma G. Korinteli, Lali Khutsishvili, Rusudan Kobakhidze, Aza Revishvili
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.025

Abstract:
Aim of our study was to detect epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings in asymptomatic, mind and moderate COVID-19 cases in children. Due to the epidemiological situation in Georgia, it was possible to monitor all confirmed cases, including asymptomatic patients.
Nino Gegeshidze, Khatuna Chaava, Mikheil Shavdia, Nanuli Ninashvili, Tamar Shervashidze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.014

Abstract:
In modern palliative medicine adequate and rapid pain assessment in nonverbal elderly patients with severe dementia is one of the key issues. With increasing severity of dementia patient-surrounding communication becomes more challenging and verbal assessment of the pain - less accurate. In patients with severe dementia, it is necessary to find different approach, like observational and surrogate assessment methods. There are multiple observational methods of assessment, which are based on nonverbal behavior (facial expression, paralinguistic sounds, tension, anxiety, changes in social behavior, sleep habit changes, aggressiveness, change in psycho-motor activation etc.) Article shows pain assessment scales used more frequently in clinical practice. Pain management in patient with dementia depends on the proper assessment of pain intensity. Pain assessment scales available for us, gives us ability to adequately and in a timely manner assess presence of the pain and its intensity.
Anzor Gogiberidze, Ramaz Khetsuriani, Ramaz Chikhladze, Marina Phailodze, Manana Arabuli-Chlikadze, Elene Shvangiradze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.023

Abstract:
The volume of the extracellular matrix rises along with the age increase. The presence of intercellular junctions and the exchange processes of electrical impulses and ion currents carried out via them is a critical component in the functioning of cardiomyocytes (both primary and secondary). The intercalated discs may engage in compensatory-adaptive responses resulting from age-related involutional processes, as evidenced by an increase in their quantity in the hearts of older rats. The structural integrity of the intercalated discs in young and middle-aged rats may be directly correlated with the highly functional capabilities of the heart muscle. It would be interesting to conduct a more in-depth study of the intercalated discs using immunohistochemical techniques and a comparative analysis of disc histological structure in rats of various ages by extrapolating the findings on the functional capabilities of cardiomyocytes.
Marina Pailodze, Mindia Iobashvili, Kakha Tatunashvili, Teimuraz Jorbenadze, Irma Jikia, Sergo Matitashvili, Anzor Gogiberidze, Manana Makharadze
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.031

Abstract:
Leiomyoma of the body of uterus is a tumor of unknown etiology, the frequency of which ranges from 5.4% to 77.0% and 80.0% of patients suffer from this problem during their lifetime. Despite the researches conducted up to date, the etiology of leiomyoma is still largely unknown and treatment strategy is limited due to the lack of information on the pathogenesis of this disease. Objectives and methods: 1. Ultrasonographic examination of leiomyoma nodes with color doppler mapping and resistance index detection. 2. Staining of preparations with hematoxylin and eosin to determine histostructure. 3. Staining of preparations with Masson Trichrome for detection of extracellular matrix. The percentage rate of fibrotic changes in the node was evaluated using the ImageJ program by processing the preparations stained with MASSON TRICHROME through a special algorithm. 4. Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis using CD34 marker. Morphometric analysis of blood vessels was performed with the special algorithm of CellProfiler program. The obtained results were processed by the computer program package of mathematical statistics - SPSS-21. Pearson x2 was used to check the confidence. Conclusions: 1. In the period before the nodes of uterine leiomyoma, a reshaped vascular collector is formed with sharp vascularization, which is a cover; and creates an ideal environment in the process of growth and development of leiomyoma; The growth of nodes up to 1 cm proceeds by diffusion from the adjacent muscle within the collector, as an independent autonomous unit, in conditions of scarcity of internal angiogenesis in the nodes (angiogenesis 45%, RI-0.48). 2. In nodes of proliferative leiomyoma with the size of up to 2 cm, there is an increase in internal (intranodal) vascularization, which confirms the active role of angiogenesis in the process of growth and development of leiomyoma; 3. Along with the growth of leiomyomas up to 3 cm, both in the muscle adjacent to the nodes (RI-0.61) and in the internal tissue of the nodes, there is a decrease in angiogenesis up to 25.6%, (RI-0.63); and in nodules up to 4 cm, a dramatic decrease in angiogenesis in the adjacent muscle (RI-0.53) and intranodal tissue up to 15.8% (RI-0.42). The mentioned fact confirms the complete exhaustion of the resources of remodeled blood vessels formed during the growth and development of leiomyoma within the collector by forming a hypoxic condition in the nodes. 4. In the proliferative, small growing leiomyomas, the proliferative activity of fibroblasts with the formation of extracellular matrix and the reproduction of fibrotic tissue is directly proportional to the age of the patient - with their decrease up to 30 years, and with increasing of age, the volume increases. 5. Immunohistochemically (with the expression of SD 34), a high rate of the number and area of ​​blood vessels detected in nodes at a young age, and a large diameter of blood vessels in patients at the age of 41-49, confirms the activation of angiogenesis at a young age with the formation of predominantly small-caliber arteries (arterioles) and capillaries, which is the basis for the active growth of nodes at a young age, in contrast to patients at the age of 41-49 with a high index of the average diameter of blood vessels; 6. The presence of small-diameter blood vessels indicates the maximum ability of the thinnest capillaries to reproduce and the possibilities to form anastomoses. Capillaries, as the thinnest tubes, represented by only one layer of endothelium, contribute to the activation of oxygen and metabolism in tissues and represent an important link in the molecular mechanisms of leiomyoma growth and development. 7. In line with the increase in the size of proliferative leiomyomas, the increase in the volume of the extracellular matrix with the decrease of angiogenesis and the development of hypoxia leads to create an obstacle for growth and development in the node with the onset of a remission period. 8. The high potential of self-renewal, differentiation, regeneration of blood vessels and constant active changes in the body of the uterus and within the node should be taken into consideration, as a hormone-dependent process in terms of the formation of new remodeled blood vessels, which is an important factor in the development of relapse. In addition, the active involvement of intranodal hypoxia and extracellular matrix in the process of remodeling blood vessels cannot be excluded.
Tamar Metreveli, Manana Iverieli, Tinatin Mikadze, Nino Abashidze, Khatia Gogishvili
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.024

Abstract:
The aim of our research was to determine gingival phenotype and frequency of recession in patients with different types of malocclusion. For this purpose, 174 patients from 20 to 46 years of age were investigated. During our research of gingival phenotype in patients with malocclusion most often thin scalloped biotype was observed - 122 patients (70%), medium thickness – 47 (27,1%), rarely, thick - 4 patients (3,2%) and thick flat - 1 patient (0,6%). According to our data, among investigated patients (174), 75 (43,09%) of them had different type of recession. Whereas RT1 had 43 patients (24,71%), RT2 – 27 patients (15,51%), RT3 only 5 patients (2,87%).In conclusion, it is not rare when gingival phenotypes and recession are combined. Therefore, we should pay more attention during orthodontic treatment of the patients with periodontal disease.
Nana Chelidze, Salome Glonti, David Baratashvili
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.016

Abstract:
Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are among the most widespread diseases in the world. Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland include Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Bazedov's disease. The purpose of the research was to investigate the autoimmune thyroiditis’ spread characteristics in Georgia, particularly in Adjara. The patient's blood was used as the research material and immunoassay method was used as the general method. By the Researches was established the existence of some correlation in relation to gender and age. As a result of the conducted research, among the patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, there were more females than males. However, the disease was more often detected in the reproductive age. We researched patients from 18 to 70 years ages. In a total amount there were - 1104 patients investigated and the percentage of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis is 31%.
Maya Kostava
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.018

Abstract:
The coronavirus pandemic showed not only an increase in levels of excess morbidity and mortality in the acute phase of an infection, but also the presence of persisting symptoms four weeks after the onset of the disease. A review of the international studies on the prevalence and diversity of the manifestation of the post-covid syndrome is presented. The data on such manifestations of post-covid syndrome as postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is being accumulated.In the trial, there were observed 27 patients with post-covid postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. All of them were treated by Ivabradine (Coraxan) in dose of 5 mg twice a day per os - during 8 weeks. The results of Holter monitoring in these patients showed a significant decrease of heart rate during the treatment with Coraxan. Functional indicators of the left ventricle contractility (such as EF, EDV and ESV) also were improved. There were revealed clinical improvements including the reduction of heart palpitation, increase of the quality of life and perfection of mood.The author puts forward the future prospects of using Ivabradine (Coraxan) in treatment of post-covid postural orthostatic tachycardia on the basis of literature data and her own clinical experience.
Dodo Magradze, Ilona Sakvarelidze, Sophio Kraveishvili, Nato Abuladze, Nino Abaishvili
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.022

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to compare efficiency of different type of denture disinfection tablets According to microbiological data.
Tamar Korinteli, Nana Gorgaslidze, Aliosha Bakuridze, Liana Nadirashvili, Giorgi Erkomaishvili
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.001

Abstract:
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most pressing medical issues we face today, due to the modern, sedentary lifestyle of humankind. Because of the serious side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, searching for other remedies and selecting the best medicinal form of the drug still remains one of the major challenges in medicine.The aim of this research was the development of a gel for the treatment of Musculoskeletal pathologies. The proteolytic enzyme bromelain from the stems of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was selected as the main active substance, due to its strong anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Its chemical modification with dextran aldehyde was performed to reduce its allergic effect and to increase stability. Statistical characteristics of the method for determining the proteolytic activity of bromelain were processed. A mixture of polyethylene glycol-1500 and polyethylene glycol-4000 was selected as the base of the gel. Stem bromelain and modified bromelain gels were prepared. The proteolytic activities of the developed gels were determined for 6 months every 3 months. The results demonstrated that proteolytic activities were maintained over the studied period of time, indicating that the gels are stable.
Ruslan Bolkvadze, Kakhaber Kashibadze, Alexander Tsalugelashvili, Zurab Chomakhashvili
Published: 6 September 2022
EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL MEDICINE GEORGIA; https://doi.org/10.52340/jecm.2022.06.005

Abstract:
Authors studied the connective tissue on the basis of the obtained results. In the transverse sulcus of the liver and the left sagittal sulcus. They concluded that separation of the portal plate (along with the right and left portal equity portal complexes) and the liver parenchyma by the blunt method, does not have the risk of damage for the small portal tracts, portal plate and the liver parenchyma.
Giorgi Jgerenaia, Ketevan Mchedlidze, Michel Frederich, Lasha Mskhiladze
Published: 5 September 2022
GEORGIAN SCIENTISTS, Volume 4, pp 293-304; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.33

Abstract:
The microstructural characteristics of the vegetative and generating organs of the medicinal plant Allium saxatile Bieb. has been studied, using Carl Zeiss, Jeneval light microscope and Omax stereoscopic microscope. The leaves of A. saxatile are bare and have toothed edge. Mesophyll of the leave is characterized with an isolateral structure. leaf-covering tissue is sharply cutinized, the cell membrane of the single-rowed epidermal tissue is strongly thickened. Stem is bare, the protective tissue is actively cutinized, the epidermis is in a single layer, its cells are characterized by a square shape and have a strong thickening of the outer periclinary walls. The vascular bundle is represented with a group layout of lumens of large and small-caliber conductive vessels of an oval and weakly angular shape. The thickening of the shell of the vascular bundle is predominantly spiral. Inflorescence is round, with a frequent flower umbrella. The perianth is egg-bellish, its cover is free, elongated, pointed shape, pale pink in color. Filaments are longer than flowers of the perianth. Bulb is free, surrounded by an elongated-conical shape, brownish coloring, dried, leathery shell. The root of have shape of sphere, covering tissue of root – exoderm have double row of cells and is represented with thin-skinned smaller size and large, square-shaped cells.
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