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Zeravan Yahya Ali, Hakim Abdulhakim Zubair
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 32-42; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n4a89

Abstract:
دڤێ ڤەکولینێ دا ئاماژە ب بەلاڤبوونا ناسناڤ وزاراڤ وئیدیەمێن کوردی ل وەلاتێن مسروشامێ دسەردەمێ ئەیوبی ومەمالیکێن دەریایی دا(570-784مش/1174-1382ز)هاتیە کرن . ئەڤ ڤەکولینە لسەر دوو پشکان هاتیە دابەشکرن،پشکا ئێکێ گرێدایە ب ناسناڤێن کوردان ئەوێن ل وەلاتێ مسروشامێ بەلاڤبووین، ئەڤجا هندەک ژوان ناسناڤا گرێداینە ب باژێرودەڤەرو هوزو بنەمالەێن کوردان ڤە.پشکا دووێ گرێدایە ب چەند زاراڤ وپەیڤ وئیدیەمێن کوردی کو ل وان وەلاتان بەلاڤ بووین و هاتینە بکارئینان. دڤێ ڤەکولینێ دا ئەم شیان بگەهینە چەند ئەنجامەکا کو بومە خویادبیت:پشتى کوردان وتایبەت بنەمالا کوردێن ئەیوبی دەستهەلات وەرگرتی هژمارەکا مەزن ژ کەسایەتێن کورد وکو ژ چەند هوزو بنەمالەیا پێک دهات مشتەختی وان وەلاتان بون ودگەل خوە چەندین زاراڤ وپەیڤ وئیدیەمێن کوردی برن کو بەرى دەمێ ڤەکولینێ ئەو زاراڤ وناسناڤ وئیدیەمە هەبونا وان یاکێم ودەگمەن بویە.
Jayson A. Dela Fuente, Angelo P. Alop
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 14-24; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n4a84

Abstract:
Recidivism is an offense committed by a person who at the time of his trial for one crime has been previously convicted by a final judgment of another crime. From this perspective, the researchers are interested to explore the lived experiences and untold stories of repeat offenders. The study focuses on three parts; the informants’ experiences in the pillars of the criminal justice system; the impacts of incarceration on the lives of the offender; and the reasons for reoffending. A qualitative research design using a phenomenological approach was used in the conduct of the study through an in-depth interview with the informants. The sample informants which comprises of ten recidivists and inmates of selected city jails Negros Occidental, Philippines participated in the interview through purposive sampling using the inclusion criteria set by the researchers. The data was collected using audiotaping of interviews. Audiotapes were then transcribed where data from transcriptions were analyzed to describe the richness of the informants’ experiences. Out of the transcribed and analyzed data, six major themes emerged. The Cry of the Suspect, Light within the Darkness, You Reap what you Sow, Blessing in Disguise, Many are Bad Associates But Few are Good Mentors, and Corruption of the Mind. Key findings from the study suggest coordination and cooperation among the pillars of the criminal justice system come up with a very comprehensive and sustainable rehabilitation program with proper and effective implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Thereby, recommendations for change are provided in the emerging themes to address the phenomenon.
Zemar Kh. Hamid, Farhad H. Abosh
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n4a86

Abstract:
د ڤێ ڤه‌كه‌لینێدا به‌حسێ ڕۆلێ كوردا د ئاڤاكرنا دام وده‌زگه‌هێت خێرخازى و زانستیدا ل وه‌لاتێ حیجازێ د چه‌رخێن(6-9مش/12-15ز) ڕۆلێ وان یى گرنگ د چالاكرنا بزاڤا ئاڤاكرنیدا بده‌ینه‌ دیاركرن . ئه‌ف ڤه‌كولینه‌ ژ دوو پشكا پێك دهێت ، پشكا ئیكێ گریداى ڕۆلێ ده‌ستهه‌لاتدارێت كورد ژ سولتان و میر و شاها د ئاڤاكرنا دام و ده‌زگه‌هێت خێرخازى و زانستیدا دڤى ماوه‌یدا هژمره‌كا هه‌را زورا ده‌ستهه‌لادارێت كورد ل جیهانا ئیسلامى ا زور كاریت ئاڤاكرنى ل حیجازێ كرین و ب تایبه‌ت ل حه‌ره‌مێن پیروز. پشكا دووێ، تایبه‌ته‌ ب ڕۆلێ كه‌سانێت نورمال كورد وه‌كو خودان پوست و پله‌ێت بلند ژ مینا وه‌زیر و دادوه‌ر و بازرگان و ئاكنجیت كورد ل حیجازێ د ئاڤاكرنا دام و ده‌زگه‌هێت خیرخازى و زانستیدا . د ڤه‌كولیندا ئه‌م شیان بگه‌هین چه‌ندین ئه‌نجاما ژ گرنگترین وان: ده‌ستهه‌لاتدارێن ئه‌یوبی ژ سولتان و میرو شاها رۆله‌كى مه‌زن دبینن د ئاڤاكرن و نیژه‌نكرنا مزگه‌فت و قوتابخانا و ریباتا و كولان و پاقژ كرنا بیر و كانیت ئاڤێ و چێكرنا جهێن بهێن ڤه‌دانى وه‌كو خانا ل سه‌ر رێكێت حه‌جاجا زێده‌بارى چاككرنا رێكیت حه‌جاجا.
, Rumana Akter, Foyj Ullah Khan, Shakhera Khanom, Anayat Ullah Khan, Ayesha Shiddika Afsana
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 25-31; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n4a74

Abstract:
Background: In Bangladesh, the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) reported the first COVID-19 positive patients in the country on March 8, 2020. The world health organization (WHO) declared a COVID-19 epidemic on March 11, 2020. The aim of this study was related to the situation and relation of tests, infested, recovered and death of people against COVID-19 of Bangladesh. The study was carried out from 8 March 2020 to 30 April 2021 (N=419 days) to observe the status of Bangladesh towards rampant COVID-19. Methods: The data of this research was collected from IEDCR, Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), and cross-checked with different newspapers and online news portals. Correlations were made using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: The total tests, infection, recovered and died were 5357294, 747761, 669995 and 11250; respectively in Bangladesh. The tests of COVID-19 were 1482, 69252, 244064, 460528, 409503, 362113, 397452, 389452, 436862, 454892, 424034, 392403 and 722848 in March to December, 2020 to January to April 2021; respectively in Bangladesh. The infestation of COVID-19 was 49, 7616, 39486, 98330, 92125, 73070, 50457, 44205, 57248, 58948, 21629, 11077 and 128555 in March to December, 2020 to January to April 2021; respectively in Bangladesh. The recovered of COVID-19 was 25, 135, 7904, 34845, 76517, 69452, 71600, 48658, 56099, 70367, 22285, 17140 and 150816 in March to December, 2020 to January to April 2021; respectively in Bangladesh. The death of COVID-19 was 6, 163, 472, 1198, 1264, 1125, 970, 666, 718, 938, 568, 277 and 2237 in March to December, 2020 to January to April 2021; respectively in Bangladesh. The maximum number of people infested and death in April, 2021. The positive correlation found between infested with tests and recovered with tests of April, 2021 by people where (R2= 0.5289, p<0.012 and 0.0000006 p<0.05) and the negative correlation found between tests with date and death with tests (R2= 0.2567, p<0.01 and 0.3614, p<0.01). All the Spearman correlation positive with moderate to strong relation between the variables at the 0.01 level in two-tailed and the total number was n=419. The mean Spearman correlation for tests was 0.31 (range 0.553 to 0.634), for infested was 0.35 (range 0.611 to 0.880), for recovered was 0.796 (range 0.634 to 0.799), for death was 0.808 (range 0.553 to 0.880). March to December 2020 and January to February 2021, not much less than April 2021. Conclusions: More people infested and died in April, 2021 than previous year. This study also indicated that there is moderate to strong relation among tests, infested, recovered and death with COVID-(2020-2021).
Hariwan Yousuf Ibrahim
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 44-61; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a81

Abstract:
شهدت الدول الربية اعقاب الستينات من القرن العشرين حركات و انقلابات و ثورات غيرت مجرى الاوظاع السياسة في المنطقة، حيث قامة بعض الدول بانقلابات على انظمتها الطاغية مثل مصر و سوريا والعراق، حيث كانت هذه الانقلابات لها دوافع سياسية و اجتماعية تمثلة في تغير انظمة حكمها. كما كانت ثورة 1962 في اليمن، كان متغيراً سياسياً حدث ضدة نظام الائمة في اليمن خاصة الامام بدر بن احمد الذي لم يكن سياسة و نهجة حكمه يختلف كثيرا عن سياسة والده و جده الامام يحيى، حيث سعى الى سياسة الاضطهاد والتعسف في ادارت سلطتهم، و استغدام سياسة الجهل والتخلف وانقطاع عن العالم الخارجي، حيث كانت المنطقة تشهد الى الانفتاح و التطور التي سبقتهم اليها دول الغربية. كانت لهذا الثورة مواقف دولية متقلبة بين مؤيد و معارض لها، و كانت هذا المواقف لها تأثير كبير على سلطة الثوار و مدىَ قوة حكمها، لان الدول المعارضة لم تعترف بسلطة الثوار، ولم يكتفوا بذلك بل دعمة الجهات المعارضة لها، كما عملت المملكة العربية السعودية بدعم الموالين للامام بالمال والسلاح من اجل القظاء على سلطة الانقلاب لاعتبارها تهديداً مباشراً لسلطتها في المملكة، بينما تدخلت مصر عسكرياً...
Asaad Khaleel Ibrahim
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 20-28; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a75

Abstract:
The internet has become a vital component of the twenty-first century as technology has advanced. The number of new technologies emerging in tandem with the qualities supplied by the Internet is rapidly increasing. The World Wide Web (WWW), which is commonly referred to as the world's largest information environment, is a vital virtual environment in which internet users may trade, read, and publish information using a Web browser. Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and Web 3.0 technologies have all been seen and are still being observed in this review paper. However, there is no clear definition for Web 4.0, which is a 4th generation web technology, in the literature. Web 4.0 has multiple dimensions, as seen by the first examples that have appeared. Big data, augmented reality, machine-to-machine communication (M2M), cloud computing, and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, as well as smart agents, will be able to integrate in the future years. Web 4.0 is a web technology revolution that includes a new internet of things (IoT) that interacts with a variety of models. The goal of this study is to clarify the notion of Web 4.0, which is viewed as an intelligent and symbiotic (human-machine interaction) network with massive interfaces and linkages, as well as to contribute to the literature by studying its many dimensions and investigating its links with new generation technologies.
Deepika Kulhari
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 14-19; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a73

Abstract:
In the Era of Globalised world, the importance of Fair Corporate Governance policies has been recognized by different countries. From collapse of Wallpaper Group Coloroll in UK, Enron Scandal in US and Satyam Scam in India, all of these countries have witnessed some of the largest Corporate Scams. With the help of good Corporate Governance Policies, a country can protect its economy and investment made therein. It encourages shareholders to invest in capital market and ensure safety of their investment. In India, the corporate governance and its basic pillars on which governance stands i.e. Transparency, Accountability and Fairness, were introduced through Clause 49. This was done only after it was recommended by the Kumar Mangalam Committee. Yet, subsequently the shocking event of Satyam Scam & other Corporate Governance failure continues to hit Indian economic on various occasions. This paper will analyse the past experience of some of the famous scams happened in India specifically in past one decade and the lessons learnt thereby. The paper furthermore discusses the current legal issue and the challenges faced by Corporate Governance practices in India. Keywords - Corporate Governance, Corporate Scam, SEBI.
Kazheen Ismael Taher, Rezgar Hasan Saeed, Rowaida Kh. Ibrahim, Zryan Najat Rashid, Lailan M. Haji, Naaman Omar, Hivi Ismat Dino
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a72

Abstract:
Semantic web and cloud technology systems have been critical components in creating and deploying applications in various fields. Although they are self-contained, they can be combined in various ways to create solutions, which has recently been discussed in depth. We have shown a dramatic increase in new cloud providers, applications, facilities, management systems, data, and so on in recent years, reaching a level of complexity that indicates the need for new technology to address such tremendous, shared, and heterogeneous services and resources. As a result, issues with portability, interoperability, security, selection, negotiation, discovery, and definition of cloud services and resources may arise. Semantic Technologies, which has enormous potential for cloud computing, is a vital way of re-examining these issues. This paper explores and examines the role of Semantic-Web Technology in the Cloud from a variety of sources. In addition, a "cloud-driven" mode of interaction illustrates how we can construct the semantic web and provide automated semantical annotations to web applications on a large scale by leveraging Cloud computing properties and advantages.
Ayad Abdulrahman
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a79

Abstract:
Due to the daily expansion of the web, the amount of information has increased significantly. Thus, the need for retrieving relevant information has also increased. In order to explore the internet, users depend on various search engines. Search engines face a significant challenge in returning the most relevant results for a user's query. The search engine's performance is determined by the algorithm used to rank web pages, which prioritizes the pages with the most relevancy to appear at the top of the result page. In this paper, various web page ranking algorithms such as Page Rank, Time Rank, EigenRumor, Distance Rank, SimRank, etc. are analyzed and compared based on some parameters, including the mining technique to which the algorithm belongs (for instance, Web Content Mining, Web Structure Mining, and Web Usage Mining), the methodology used for ranking web pages, time complexity (amount of time to run an algorithm), input parameters (parameters utilized in the ranking process such as InLink, OutLink, Tag name, Keyword, etc.), and the result relevancy to the user query.
Anand Kumar Singh
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 10-13; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a71

Abstract:
Export of medical instruments in midst of life-threatening pandemic crisis has increased significantly. However, the urgent supply of medical products faces the challenge of unprecedented protectionist restrictions introduced by several developed nations. These restrictions, introduced to avoid shortage of medical products in domestic market of such exporting countries, threaten the lives and livelihood of million others in immediate and urgent need of goods. The article examines the legality and effect of these restrictions under the extant WTO framework. Lastly, the article also highlights the necessity of international cooperation between nations to overcome partisan policies of self-interest and the imporatnce of collective efforts in this fight against a common threat.
Mohammed H. Ramadhan
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n3a78

Abstract:
—Service composition is gaining popularity because a composite service can perform functions that an individual service cannot. There are multiple web services available on the web for different tasks. The semantic web is an advanced form of the current web in which all contents have well-defined meanings due to nature, allowing machines to process web contents automatically. A web service composition is a collection of web services that collaborate to achieve a common goal. They reveal the established methods for web service composition in both syntactic and semantic environments. In this study Initially, we identify the existing techniques used for the composition. We classified these approaches according to the processing of the service descriptions, which can be syntactic or semantic-based service processes. We have reviewed more than 14 articles in this domain and concluded the merits of the methodologies applied for the implementation of web service composition.
Dastan Hussen Maulud, Subhi R. M. Zeebaree, Karwan Jacksi, Mohammed Mohammed Sadeeq, Karzan Hussein Sharif
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 21-28; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a40

Abstract:
Semantic analysis is an essential feature of the NLP approach. It indicates, in the appropriate format, the context of a sentence or paragraph. Semantics is about language significance study. The vocabulary used conveys the importance of the subject because of the interrelationship between linguistic classes. In this article, semantic interpretation is carried out in the area of Natural Language Processing. The findings suggest that the best-achieved accuracy of checked papers and those who relied on the Sentiment Analysis approach and the prediction error is minimal.
Abdulmajeed Adil Yazdeen, Subhi R. M. Zeebaree, Mohammed Mohammed Sadeeq, Shakir Fattah Kak, Omar M. Ahmed, Rizgar R. Zebari
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 8-16; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a38

Abstract:
In recent days, increasing numbers of Internet and wireless network users have helped accelerate the need for encryption mechanisms and devices to protect user data sharing across an unsecured network. Data security, integrity, and verification may be used due to these features. In internet traffic encryption, symmetrical block chips play an essential role. Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) ensure privacy encryption underlying data protection standards. The DES and the AES provide information security. DES and AES have the distinction of being introduced in both hardware and applications. DES and AES hardware implementation has many advantages, such as increased performance and improved safety. This paper provides an exhaustive study of the implementation by DES and AES of field programming gate arrays (FPGAs) using both DES and AES. Since FPGAs can be defined as just one mission, computers are superior to them.
Renas Rajab Asaad, Revink Masoud Abdulhakim
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 17-20; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a43

Abstract:
Recent days, the concept of data mining and the need for it, its objectives and its uses in various fields, explain its procedures and tools, the type of data that is mined, and the structural structure of that data while simplifying the concept of databases, relational databases and the query language. Explain the benefits and uses of mining or mining data stored in specialized databases in various vital areas of society. Also, it is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and discovering imbalances, patterns and correlations in data sets that are insightful and useful for predicting results that help you make a good decision. Let's bring back our mining example, when you plan to prospect for gold or any valuable minerals you first have to determine where you think the gold is to start digging. In the process of data mining we have the same concept. To mine data, you must first collect data from various sources, prepare it, and store it in one place, as nothing from data mining is related to the process of searching for the data itself. Currently, the company is storing data in what is called a Datawarehouse which we will talk about in a later stage in detail.
Hindreen Rashid Abdulqadir, Subhi R. M. Zeebaree, Hanan M. Shukur, Mohammed Mohammed Sadeeq, Baraa Wasfi Salim, Azar Abid Salih, Shakir Fattah Kak
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 60-70; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a49

Abstract:
The exponential growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology poses various challenges to the classic centralized cloud computing paradigm, including high latency, limited capacity, and network failure. Cloud computing and Fog computing carry the cloud closer to IoT computers in order to overcome these problems. Cloud and Fog provide IoT processing and storage of IoT items locally instead of sending them to the cloud. Cloud and Fog provide quicker reactions and better efficiency in conjunction with the cloud. Cloud and fog computing should also be viewed as the safest approach to ensure that IoT delivers reliable and stable resources to multiple IoT customers. This article discusses the latest in cloud and Fog computing and their convergence with IoT by stressing deployment's advantages and complexities. It also concentrates on cloud and Fog design and new IoT technologies, enhanced by utilizing the cloud and Fog model. Finally, transparent topics are addressed, along with potential testing recommendations for cloud storage and Fog computing, and IoT.
Saman M. Almufti, Ridwan B. Marqas, Zakiya A. Nayef, Tamara S. Mohamed
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 39-46; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a47

Abstract:
The rise of COVID-19 pandemic has had a lasting impact in many countries worldwide since 2019. Face-mask detection had been significant progress in the Image processing and deep learning fields studies. Many face detection models have been designed using different algorithms and techniques. The proposed approach in this paper developed to avoid mask-less people from entering to a desired places (i.e. Mall, University, Office, …etc.) by detecting face mask using deep learning, TensorFlow, Keras, and OpenCV and sending a signal to Arduino device that connected to the gate to be open. it detect a face in a real-time and identifies whether the person wear mask or not. The method attains accuracy up to 97.80%. The dataset provided in this paper, was collected from various sources.
Zainab Salih Ageed, Subhi R. M. Zeebaree, Mohammed Mohammed Sadeeq, Shakir Fattah Kak, Hazha Saeed Yahia, Mayyadah R. Mahmood, Ibrahim Mahmood Ibrahim
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 29-38; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a46

Abstract:
Cloud computing, data mining, and big online data are discussed in this paper as hybridization possibilities. The method of analyzing and visualizing vast volumes of data is known as the visualization of data mining. The effect of computing conventions and algorithms on detailed storage and data communication requirements has been studied. When researching these approaches to data storage in big data, the data analytical viewpoint is often explored. These terminology and aspects have been used to address methodological development as well as problem statements. This will assist in the investigation of computational capacity as well as new knowledge in this area. The patterns of using big data were compared in about fifteen articles. In this paper, we research Big Data Mining Approaches in Cloud Systems and address cloud-compatible problems and computing techniques to promote Big Data Mining in Cloud Systems.
Zainab Salih Ageed, Subhi R. M. Zeebaree, Mohammed Mohammed Sadeeq, Shakir Fattah Kak, Zryan Najat Rashid, Azar Abid Salih, Wafaa M. Abdullah
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 91-99; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a52

Abstract:
Many policymakers envisage using a community model and Big Data technology to achieve the sustainability demanded by intelligent city components and raise living standards. Smart cities use different technology to make their residents more successful in their health, housing, electricity, learning, and water supplies. This involves reducing prices and the utilization of resources and communicating more effectively and creatively for our employees. Extensive data analysis is a comparatively modern technology that is capable of expanding intelligent urban facilities. Digital extraction has resulted in the processing of large volumes of data that can be used in several valuable areas since digitalization is an essential part of daily life. In many businesses and utility domains, including the intelligent urban domain, successful exploitation and multiple data use is critical. This paper examines how big data can be used for more innovative societies. It explores the possibilities, challenges, and benefits of applying big data systems in intelligent cities and compares and contrasts different intelligent cities and big data ideas. It also seeks to define criteria for the creation of big data applications for innovative city services.
Bahzad Taha Chicho, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez, Diyar Qader Zeebaree, Dilovan Assad Zebari
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 106-118; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a48

Abstract:
Classification is the most widely applied machine learning problem today, with implementations in face recognition, flower classification, clustering, and other fields. The goal of this paper is to organize and identify a set of data objects. The study employs K-nearest neighbors, decision tree (j48), and random forest algorithms, and then compares their performance using the IRIS dataset. The results of the comparison analysis showed that the K-nearest neighbors outperformed the other classifiers. Also, the random forest classifier worked better than the decision tree (j48). Finally, the best result obtained by this study is 100% and there is no error rate for the classifier that was obtained.
Dakhaz Mustafa Abdullah, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 81-90; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a50

Abstract:
Extending technologies and data development culminated in the need for quicker and more reliable processing of massive data sets. Machine Learning techniques are used excessively. This paper, therefore, attempts to deal with data processing, using a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm in different fields since it is a reliable, efficient classification method in the area of machine learning. Accordingly, many works have been explored in this paper to cover the use of SVM classifier. Classification based on SVM has been used in many fields like face recognition, diseases diagnostics, text recognition, sentiment analysis, plant disease identification and intrusion detection system for network security application. Based on this study, it can be concluded that SVM classifier has obtained high accuracy results in most of the applications, specifically, for face recognition and diseases identification applications.
Dastan Hussen Maulud, Subhi R. M. Zeebaree, Karwan Jacksi, Mohammed A. Mohammed Sadeeq, Karzan Hussein Sharif
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a44

Abstract:
Semantic analysis is an essential feature of the NLP approach. It indicates, in the appropriate format, the context of a sentence or paragraph. Semantics is about language significance study. The vocabulary used conveys the importance of the subject because of the interrelationship between linguistic classes. In this article, semantic interpretation is carried out in the area of Natural Language Processing. The findings suggest that the best-achieved accuracy of checked papers and those who relied on the Sentiment Analysis approach and the prediction error is minimal.
Lozan M. Abdulrahman, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez, Dathar A. Hasan
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 134-140; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a59

Abstract:
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, now named SARS-CoV-2, caused a series of acute atypical respiratory diseases in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. It triggered several acute atypical respiratory diseases. COVID-19 was the name given to the virus's disease. The infection is human-to-human transmissible, and it has triggered a global pandemic. Vaccines against COVID-19 are an essential global intervention to control the current pandemic situation and in a fairly short time, several vaccines have been developed to try to control the situation but have also led to consequences in the form of adverse reactions. Clustering algorithms have been used in computational intelligence and digital analysis, which is one of the areas that has taken this into account. Clustering can be described as a method of grouping similar data into one population or cluster and separating unrelated data into another. For clustering COVID-19 vaccine adverse reactions datasets, a variety of clustering algorithms are used. The objective of this paper is to use the clustering algorithms used in the case of COVID-19 Vaccine Adverse Reactions datasets, demonstrating how these algorithms help to provide accuracy for clustering the COVID-19 Vaccine Adverse Reactions. This study compared four clustering algorithms using the WEKA tool. Furthermore, it details the datasets in terms of different variables of precision, cluster case, number of iterations, time, and present the findings of these papers, and which clustering algorithms used and the accuracy of these algorithms. It is found that the clustering algorithm k-means is used widely in different types of the COVID-19 vaccine adverse reactions datasets with high accuracy.
Hindreen Rashid Abdulqadir, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez, Dilovan Assad Zebari
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 125-133; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a55

Abstract:
Diabetes may be predicted and prevented by exploring critical diabetes characteristics by computational data extraction methods. This study proposed a system biology approach to the pathogenic process to identify essential biomarkers as drug targets. The fact that disease recognition and investigation require many details, data mining plays a critical role in healthcare. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of the methods used that are based on classification. Besides, the researchers have highlighted the most widely employed techniques and the strategies with the best precision. Many analyses include multiple Machine Learning algorithms for various disease assessments and predictions to improve overall issues. The detection and prediction of diseases is an aspect of classification and prediction. This paper estimates diabetes by its key features and also categorizes the relations between conflicting elements. The recursive random forest removal function provided a significant feature range. Random Forest Classifier investigated the diabetes estimate. RF offers 75,7813 greater precisions than Support Vector Machine (SVM).and may assist medical professionals in making care decisions.
Marlyn D. Lucas, Hernando L. Bernal Jr, Mark P. Lucas
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 150-155; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a61

Abstract:
Teaching Practical Research in the Senior High School was a challenge but at the same time a room for exploration. This study investigated the key areas in the interconnected teaching strategies employed to grade 12 students of which are most and least helpful in coming up with a good research output and what suggestions can be given to improve areas that are least useful. It is qualitative in nature and used phenomenological design. Reflection worksheets and interview schedule were the main sources of data. Results reveal that students come up with a good research output because of the following key areas: ‘guidance from someone who is passionate with research’ as represented by their research critique, research teacher, resource speaker from the seminar conducted, and group mates; ‘guidance from something or activities conducted’ like the sample researches in the library visitation, worksheets answered, and the research defenses; and ‘teamwork’ among the members of the group. On the other hand, key areas which are least useful are: ‘clash of ideas and unequal effort’ among the members; ‘time consuming for some of the written works’; and ‘no review of related literature’ during the library hopping. Suggestions given where: to choose your own group mates of which each member should have the same field of interest, to remove worksheets not needed in the research paper; and to check online regarding availability of literature in the library. Further suggestions are to rearranged the sequence of the interconnected strategies which are as follows: grouping of students, having a research critique, seminar in conducting research, library visitation/work activity, proposal defense, final defense and the worksheet activities be given throughout the semester. Furthermore, there should be a culminating activity for students to share their outputs. Teaching research is a wholesome process. By then, the researcher recommends to organize a group orientation for the teacher-coaches/mentors on the creation of school research council or school mentoring committee for peer reviewing on the students research output. Further, student research presentation (oral, poster, gallery type, etc.), student research conference/colloquium, student research journal, etc. be organized to further nourish the culture of research in the part of the students, teachers and staffs involve.
Basna Mohammed Salih, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez, Omer Mohammed Salih Hassan
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 156-163; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a63

Abstract:
Biometric authentication is one of the most quickly increasing innovations in today's world; this promising technology has seen widespread use in a variety of fields, including surveillance services, safe financial transfers, credit-card authentication. in biometric verification processes such as gender, age, ethnicity is iris recognition technology is considered the most accurate compared to other vital features such as face, hand geometry, and fingerprints. Because the irises in the same person are not similar. In this work, the study of gender classification using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based on iris recognition. The eye image data were collected from the IIT Delhi IRIS Database. All datasets of images were processed using various image processing techniques using the neural network. The results obtained showed high performance in training and got good results in testing. ANN's training and testing process gave a maximum performance at 96.4% and 97% respectively.
Dakhaz Mustafa Abdullah, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez, Amira Bibo Sallow
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 141-149; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a58

Abstract:
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in every country, affecting both men and women. Lung cancer has a low prognosis, resulting in a high death rate. The computing sector is fully automating it, and the medical industry is also automating itself with the aid of image recognition and data analytics. This paper endeavors to inspect accuracy ratio of three classifiers which is Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN)and, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that classify lung cancer in early stage so that many lives can be saving. Basically, the informational indexes utilized as a part of this examination are taken from UCI datasets for patients affected by lung cancer. The principle point of this paper is to the execution investigation of the classification algorithms accuracy by WEKA Tool. The experimental results show that SVM gives the best result with 95.56%, then CNN with CNN 92.11% and KNN with 88.40%.
Halbast Rashid Ismael, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez, Dathar A. Hasan
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 19-24; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a54

Abstract:
The agriculture importance is not restricted to our daily life; it is also an effective field that enhances the economic growth in any country. Therefore, developing the quality of the crop yields using recent technologies is a crucial procedure to obtain competitive crops. Nowadays, data mining is an emerging research field in agriculture especially in the predicting and analysis of crop yield. This paper focuses on utilizing various data mining classification algorithms to predict the impact of various parameters such as area, season and production on the crop yield quality. The performance of the decision tree, naive Bayes, random forest, support vector machine and K-nearest neighbour is measured and compared to each other. The comparison involves measuring the error values and accuracy. The SVM algorithm achieved the highest accuracy value with 76.82%. while the lowest is achieved by the KNN algorithm with 35.76%. The highest error value was 111.8855 for KNN. Also, the prediction help farmer to increased and improved the income level.
Kawar Badie Mahmood, Farsat Ali Shaaban, Rebar Mohammed Sleman
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 47-54; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a42

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine the statistical proportions of traffic accidents in Dohuk province during the period (2011-2020). The importance of this study comes through clarifying the extent of the increase or decrease in those ratios so that the Directorate and the relevant authorities are aware of these results to benefit from them as statistical indicators that may contribute to strengthening their future plans, and the problem of the study lies in the existence of mortality caused by traffic accidents in Dohuk province, and the lack of details as statistical percentages. Based on data recorded in the Traffic Directorate in Duhok province mainly to find statistical ratios using simple statistical methods and based on (Excel, 2016) program. The study adopted hypotheses showing that there was an increase in the number of accidents, injuries, and deaths duration of the study. The study came to a series of conclusions, the most important of which is that Speed in driving was one of the most important reasons that led to the increase in these accidents. Finally, the study suggested Directorate in Duhok province look for appropriate mechanisms that limit the speed of cars and place them within the permitted speed range allowed everywhere.
Nasiba M. Abdulkareem, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez, Diyar Qader Zeebaree, Dathar A. Hasan
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 100-105; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a53

Abstract:
In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 caused coronavirus disease (COVID-19) distributed to all countries, infecting thousands of people and causing deaths. COVID-19 induces mild sickness in most cases, although it may render some people very ill. Therefore, vaccines are in various phases of clinical progress, and some of them being approved for national use. The current state reveals that there is a critical need for a quick and timely solution to the Covid-19 vaccine development. Non-clinical methods such as data mining and machine learning techniques may help do this. This study will focus on the COVID-19 World Vaccination Progress using Machine learning classification Algorithms. The findings of the paper show which algorithm is better for a given dataset. Weka is used to run tests on real-world data, and four output classification algorithms (Decision Tree, K-nearest neighbors, Random Tree, and Naive Bayes) are used to analyze and draw conclusions. The comparison is based on accuracy and performance period, and it was discovered that the Decision Tree outperforms other algorithms in terms of time and accuracy.
Hewa Majeed Zangana
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 55-59; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a39

Abstract:
When the world economy suffered a new financial economic crisis, it uncovered to the world that there were major failures within the Industrial financial system and it was caused by a number of issues including the practice of interest and the terrible effect it has on the financial crisis events. Issues that will be discussed in this paper are Riba, Gambling, Uncertainty, Derivatives, Saucerization, Sell of debt, Creation of Money, and the Private “Personal” interests. However, the paper will focus on the Islamic financial system and the financial instruments which are based and designed in compliance with Shariah Rules and Regulations, whether if practicing Islamic banking would cause such a crisis to accrue. The Sukuk, of the Islamic mortgage-Backed securities (MBS), and Islamic future contract will be discussed in order to prove why using the Islamic Financial system is better to assure that this kind of global crisis doesn’t come to pass again.
Revella E. A. Armya Armya, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 71-80; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a51

Abstract:
Medical image segmentation plays an essential role in computer-aided diagnostic systems in various applications. Therefore, researchers are attracted to apply new algorithms for medical image processing because it is a massive investment in developing medical imaging methods such as dermatoscopy, X-rays, microscopy, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), So segmentation of medical images is considered one of the most important medical imaging processes because it extracts the field of interest from the Return on investment (ROI) through an automatic or semi-automatic process. The medical image is divided into regions based on the specific descriptions, such as tissue/organ division in medical applications for border detection, tumor detection/segmentation, and comprehensive and accurate detection. Several methods of segmentation have been proposed in the literature, but their efficacy is difficult to compare. To better address, this issue, a variety of measurement standards have been suggested to decide the consistency of the segmentation outcome. Unsupervised ranking criteria use some of the statistics in the hash score based on the original picture. The key aim of this paper is to study some literature on unsupervised algorithms (K-mean, K-medoids) and to compare the working efficiency of unsupervised algorithms with different types of medical images.
Mohammed Mohammed Sadeeq, Nasiba M. Abdulkareem, Subhi R. M. Zeebaree, Dindar Mikaeel Ahmed, Ahmed Saifullah Sami, Rizgar R. Zebari
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a36

Abstract:
With the exponential growth of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), multiple outlets are constantly producing a vast volume of data. It is unwise to locally store all the raw data in the IIoT devices since the energy and storage spaces of the end devices are strictly constrained. self-organization and short-range Internet of Things (IoT) networking also support outsourced data and cloud computing, independent of the distinctive resource constraint properties. For the remainder of the findings, there is a sequence of unfamiliar safeguards for IoT and cloud integration problems. The delivery of cloud computing is highly efficient, storage is becoming more and more current, and some groups are now altering their data from in house records Cloud Computing Vendors' hubs. Intensive IoT applications for workloads and data are subject to challenges while utilizing cloud computing tools. In this report, we research IoT and cloud computing and address cloud-compatible problems and computing techniques to promote the stable transition of IoT programs to the cloud.
Şakir Işleyen
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 40-47; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a41

Abstract:
In this paper, the complexity on dominating sets of the graph is suppose the G = (V, E) is a subset D of V each head not in D is adjacent to one member on the dominating number γ (G) is the number of vertices in the smallest dominant sets of G. The dominant sets problem by testing whether γ (G) ≤ K of a given graph is G and K input; It is an electronic card NP machines decision problem in computational complexity theory. Infographics, powerful infographics plus graphic mapping. In each example, each white head is adjacent to at least one red cape, and the white cap is said to be dominated by the red cape. The graph in graph is 2: The histogram is an example that illustrates the histogram.Keywords— Boundary Value Problem, Convergence of the Method, Cubic Order, Finite Difference Method, Non-uniform Step Length.
Alaa Shawqi Abdulbari, Noor N. O. Al-Saadi
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 48-51; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a28

Abstract:
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses proven to affect both respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in varied animal and human organisms. More than 100 million people worldwide are currently believed to have been infected and more than two million people have died and induced clinical syndrome of coronavirus disease in 2019.It's (COVID-19). The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether multiple biochemical test derangements are a common feature in patients with reported COVID-19 infection, to determine the relationship between the deranged liver test and lipoprotein with COVID-19 outcome or severity, and to determine whether liver failure or dyslipidemia is a common feature of COVID-19. This review was conducted using the Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus databases. English case-series and cross-sectional papers were considered, describing the currently offered findings on the relationship between certain biomedical tests and COVID-19 infections. To summarize, COVID-19 may have a severe tendency in older patients biochemical indexes (decrease albumin, decrease LDL-c, HDL-c, and TC, increased CRP, increased AST, increased LDH and CK) could be used as indicators to predict the severity of the disease.
Ei Phyu Sin Win
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 57-61; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a29

Abstract:
The primary point of this research is to design a road extraction algorithm for processing National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite pictures. Roadway network detection is one of the important appointments for calamity emergency response, smart shipping structures, and real-time modify roadway network. Everyone is trying to detect road; this system is useful for urban or rural developing schedule. The development of a town / village depends not only on the building and population density of the town or village, but also in the systematic development of roads. The research focused on finding ways to use morphological image processing primarily. As an application area, we use National Aeronautics and Space Administration imagery obtained from 2009-2020 in Monywa, Upper Myanmar to find out how the roads have been developed and how the city has been developed. Extraction road from planet pictures is hard matter with many realistic application programs. The primary points in the model are the advancement of the picture, the segmentation of that picture, the application of the morphological operators, and finally the detection of the roadway network. Use Google Earth Pro to get the necessary data photos and search for road improvements. After collecting images from different seasons and years, we can find precise answers by combining them with precise algorithms. In addition to significant, benefits of Google Earth Pro, this research demonstrates the ability to make good use of satellite imagery and to integrate it with outside experts to save money, save time, and provide accurate answers. It is simulated with MATLAB programming language.
Renas Rajab Asaad
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a25

Abstract:
Recently, we humans integrate into the world of our smart phones and our portable electronic devices to the point that that world can numb us in one way or another and separate us from the real world, so that we and the generations that come after us are fully adapted to dealing with huge amounts of digital information, so they are ready to be absorbed faster And ready to deal with it more efficiently than previous generations, but during this process of rapid adaptation and adapting to the digital age gradually begins to lose one thing, this thing is what the machine has not given it yet and it is human emotions. A key step in the humanization of robotics is the ability to classify the emotion of the human operator. In this paper we present the design of an artificially intelligent system capable of emotion recognition trough facial expressions. Three Promising neural network architectures are customized, trained. and subjected to various classification tasks, after which the best performing network is further optimized. The applicability of the final model is portrayed in a live video application that can instantaneously return the emotion of the user. Technology experts have found that we can create empathy through technology as well, which will consequently lead to what is known as “emotional intelligence.” Instead of seeking about digital communication that is losing us to real communication, experts have found that we can employ technology in favor of that type of communication to restore Soul for social and emotional relationships that technology has lost its advantages for many years.
Pramod Pandey
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 18-23; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a19

Abstract:
In this article, we have presented a variable step finite difference method for solving second order boundary value problems in ordinary differential equations. We have discussed the convergence and established that proposed has at least cubic order of accuracy. The proposed method tested on several model problems for the numerical solution. The numerical results obtained for these model problems with known / constructed exact solution confirm the theoretical conclusions of the proposed method. The computational results obtained for these model problems suggest that method is efficient and accurate.
Reynaldo Moral
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a24

Abstract:
The presence of research in one’s life is recognized to be important for fostering education and well-being. Through research, the quality of man’s life has improved from conventional to modern; hence, life becomes not only meaningful but enriching as well. Passion and commitment is revealed through language and narrative, which necessitates a qualitative, interpretive approach to its study. Qualitative research has supplied rich data about the passion and commitment in teaching research for various cultures, populations, and activities, but to-date, there has not been a systematic review to identify if general patterns of passion and commitment exist in teaching research. Following a framework synthesis approach to qualitative meta-synthesis, the current exploratory study examined subjective experiences associated with teaching research to uncover elements of the passion and commitment of research. Four higher-order themes were discovered; research methods teaching in general, research empowerment, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Complex interconnections between themes also arose and are discussed. Keywords: attitudes, commitment, empowerment, passion, self-efficacy, & teaching
Shivan H. M. Mohammed, Ahmet Çinar
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 33-39; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a33

Abstract:
One of the most common malignant tumors in the world today is lung cancer, and it is the primary cause of death from cancer. With the continuous advancement of urbanization and industrialization, the problem of air pollution has become more and more serious. The best treatment period for lung cancer is the early stage. However, the early stage of lung cancer often does not have any clinical symptoms and is difficult to be found. In this paper, lung nodule classification has been performed; the data have used of CT image is SPIE AAPM-Lung. In recent years, deep learning (DL) was a popular approach to the classification process. One of the DL approaches that have used is Transfer Learning (TL) to eliminate training costs from scratch and to train for deep learning with small training data. Nowadays, researchers have been trying various deep learning techniques to improve the efficiency of CAD (computer-aided system) with computed tomography in lung cancer screening. In this work, we implemented pre-trained CNN include: AlexNet, ResNet18, Googlenet, and ResNet50 models. These networks are used for training the network and CT image classification. CNN and TL are used to achieve high performance resulting and specify lung cancer detection on CT images. The evaluation of models is calculated by some matrices such as confusion matrix, precision, recall, specificity, and f1-score.
Sajid Ali Khan, Sayyad Khurshid, Tooba Akhtar, Kashmala Khurshid
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a22

Abstract:
In this research we discusses to Ordinary Least Squares and Generalized Least Squares techniques and estimate with First Order Autoregressive scheme from different correlation levels by using simple linear regression model. A comparison has been made between these two methods on the basis of variances results. For the purpose of comparison, we use simulation of Monte Carlo study and the experiment is repeated 5000 times. We use sample sizes 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500, and observe the influence of different sample sizes on the estimators. By comparing variances of OLS and GLS at different values of sample sizes and correlation levels with , we found that variance of ( ) at sample size 500, OLS and GLS gives similar results but at sample size 50 variance of GLS ( ) has minimum values as compared to OLS. So it is clear that variance of GLS ( ) is best. Similarly variance of ( ) from OLS and GLS at sample size 500 and correlation -0.05 with , GLS give minimum value as compared to all other sample sizes and correlations. By comparing overall results of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Generalized Least Squares (GLS), we conclude that in large samples both are gives similar results but small samples GLS is best fitted as compared to OLS.
Maqsood Hussain
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a20

Abstract:
The Novel Corona Virus, 2019 (Covid-19) may prove a watershed moment in the history of international relations. As the Covid-19 rages, the USA and China are embroiled in deep political and strategic conflict. The paper argues that the long-standing tussle over control of global order will intensify and result in its major metamorphosis. It is further argued that changed geopolitical order will see a significant rise of China and the relative decline of the USA which will have far-reaching implications for the multilateral institutions and regimes, one of the special areas of focus of this paper. Though the relative balance of power will potentially shift in favor of China feeding the narrative of counter-hegemonic balancing, yet it would be misleading to conclude the demise of the US-led global order in the foreseeable future. I further argue that the potential and capability of China to dislodge the US from the superpower status and assume the leadership of global order is beset with tremendous roadblocks. The paper concludes with some policy insights for the US foreign policy as to how the rise of China can be tamed and accommodated in the existing order without involving the use of coercion or risking a great-power war.
Hogir Saadi
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 52-56; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a35

Abstract:
Gene therapy can be described broadly as the transfer of genetic material to control a disease or at least to enhance a patient's clinical status. The transformation of viruses into genetic shuttles is one of the core principles of gene therapy, which will introduce the gene of interest into the target tissue and cells. To do this, safe strategies have been invented, using many viral and non-viral vector delivery. Two major methods have emerged: modification in vivo and modification ex vivo. For gene therapeutic approaches which are focused on lifelong expression of the therapeutic gene, retrovirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated viruses are acceptable. Non-viral vectors are much less successful than viral vectors, but because of their low immune responses and their broad therapeutic DNA ability, they have advantages. The addition of viral functions such as receptor-mediated uptake and nuclear translocation of DNA may eventually lead to the development of an artificial virus in order to improve the role of non-viral vectors. For human use in genetic conditions, cancers and acquired illnesses, gene transfer techniques have been allowed. The ideal delivery vehicle has not been identified, although the accessible vector systems are capable of transporting genes in vivo into cells. Therefore, only with great caution can the present viral vectors be used in human beings and further progress in the production of vectors is required. Current progresses in our understanding of gene therapy approaches and their delivery technology, as well as the victors used to deliver therapeutic genes, are the primary goals of this review. For that reason, a literature search on PubMed and Google Scholar was carried out using different keywords.
Renas M Redwan
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 29-43; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a11

Abstract:
Back propagation neural networks are known for computing the problems that cannot easily be computed (huge datasets analysis or training) in artificial neural networks. The main idea of this paper is to implement XOR logic gate by ANNs using back propagation neural networks for back propagation of errors, and sigmoid activation function. This neural networks to map non-linear threshold gate. The non-linear used to classify binary inputs ( ) and passing it through hidden layer for computing and ( ), after computing errors by ( ) the weights and thetas ( ) are changing according to errors. Sigmoid activation function is = and Derivation of sigmoid is = . The sig(x) and Dsig(x) is between 1 to 0.
Ahmed R. Ridwan
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 46-60; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n2a12

Abstract:
This paper, presents a new swarm-based metaheuristic search algorithm, known as Elephant Herding Optimization (EHO), which is proposed for solving various daily real-life problems such as benchmark problems, Service Selection in QoS-Aware Web Service Composition, Energy-Based Localization, PID controller tuning, Appliance Scheduling in Smart Grid identification and other problems. The EHO method is inspired by the herding behavior of elephant group. In nature, elephants live in clans under the leadership of a matriarch (female elephant), while the male elephants separate from their family when they grow up. These two behaviors are used by EHO as two operators: clan updating operator and separating operator, which will be used in the optimizing process. Elephant Herding Optimization (EHO) is used to solve NP-Hard problems.
Nazrin Hasanova
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 33-45; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a7

Abstract:
This paper provides an introduction and a comparison of two widely used evolutionary computation algorithms: Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based on the previous studies and researches. It describes Genetic Algorithm basic functionalities including various steps such as selection, crossover, and mutation.
Sam M. Alman
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 46-63; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a8

Abstract:
This paper provides uses a new Ant Colony based algorithms called U-Turning Ant colony optimization (U-TACO) for solving one of NP-Hard problems which is widely used in computer science field called Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). U-Turning Ant colony Optimization based on making partial tour as an initial state for the basic Ant Colony algorithm. This paper provides tables and charts for the results obtained by U-Turning Ant colony Optimization for various TSP problems from the TSPLIB95.
Asaad A. Hani
Qubahan Academic Journal, Volume 1, pp 11-22; https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v1n1a4

Abstract:
There is a great research in the field of data security these days. Storing information digitally in the cloud and transferring it over the internet proposes risks of disclosure and unauthorized access; thus, users, organizations, and businesses are adapting new technology and methods to protect their data from breaches. In this paper, we introduce a method to provide higher security for data transferred over the internet, or information based in the cloud. The introduced method for the most part depends on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm, which is currently the standard for secret key encryption. A standardized version of the algorithm was used by The Federal Information Processing Standard 197 called Rijndael for the AES. The AES algorithm processes data through a combination of exclusive-OR operations (XOR), octet substitution with an S-box, row and column rotations, and MixColumn operations. The fact that the algorithm could be easily implemented and run on a regular computer in a reasonable amount of time made it highly favorable and successful. In this paper, the proposed method provides a new dimension of security to the AES algorithm by securing the key itself such that even when the key is disclosed; the text cannot be deciphered. This is done by enciphering the key using Output Feedback Block Mode Operation. This introduces a new level of security to the key in a way, in which deciphering the data requires prior knowledge of the key and the algorithm used to encipher the key for the purpose of deciphering the transferred text.
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