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Nurfika, Jean-Claude Maswana
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 111-128; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i2.113

Abstract:
The relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction, although well established, is heterogeneous. The heterogeneity stems not only from socio-economic factors but also from the structure of output growth. In Indonesia, the secondary sector seems to be less poverty-reducing than other sectors. This study examines the impact of sectoral growth on poverty in Indonesia, with particular attention to the disaggregated secondary sector, and also analyzes the relative sensitivities of poverty reduction to the labor-intensive and non-labor-intensive sectors. The empirical analysis uses provincial panel data on Indonesia for the period 2003–2018 and employs the pooled OLS method. The results show that sectoral growth has little effect on improving the condition of the poor in Indonesia. Nevertheless, this conclusion has a high potential to be inappropriate. Perhaps a better conclusion on the linkage between sectoral growth and poverty can be drawn if the characteristics of mining-driven and nonmining-driven provinces in Indonesia are taken into account. In nonmining-driven provinces, the secondary sector pales in comparison to services in alleviating poverty. Six-sector disaggregation of the economy (with or without controlling for the distributional effect through labor intensity) reveals that, within the secondary sector, the subsectors that significantly reduce poverty in nonmining-driven provinces are mining and construction. Mining-driven provinces, however, do not display a linkage between sectoral growth and poverty. The significant role of labor intensity in determining whether sectoral growth is pro-poor suggests that adopting policies that lean toward discouraging businesses from employing labor is inadvisable.
Yuhelemni
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 176-186; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i2.100

Abstract:
This study analyzed food security and insecurity using FSVA (Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas) mapping approach. The FSVA map presents district distribution based on food security and insecurity indicators. Current issues on food security include a drop in production and productivity due to land conversion, low adoption of technology at the farmer level, price fluctuation and ineffective price management, inefficient commerce system, low quality and quantity of public food consumption, failure to implement Diverse, Nutritious, Balanced and Safe Food Consumption Pattern (B2SA). This study aims to determine the vulnerability level of each district and propose countermeasures to reduce its rate. The results of FSVA mapping show that the 139 districts in Jambi could be grouped into the following categories: vulnerable (4 districts), quite vulnerable (18), sufficiently resistant (34), resistant (61), and very resistant (22). No districts fall under very vulnerable categories. Based on the ratio of per capita normative consumption of cereal production, 36 districts (25.90%) are vulnerable to food. Based on the toddler stunting prevalence, 78 districts (56.12%) are vulnerable to food, while based on the indicators of life expectancy, 48 Districts (34.53%) are food vulnerable.
Andy Fefta Wijaya, Fadel Muhammad, Marta Trifena Patriot, Asti Amelia Novita
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 145-159; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i2.155

Abstract:
Street vendors are one of the informal sectors that often cause problems in urban areas, such as the street vendors in Mojokerto City Square. The presence of street vendors is considered to have disturbed the orderliness and cleanliness of the city environment. Therefore, based on the Local Government Regulation of Mojokerto City No. 5 of 2005 concerning the Arrangement and Development of Street Vendor Activities, the government implemented a policy of street vendor relocation. This paper aims to analyze the implementation of street vendor relocation policy in the area of ​​Mojokerto City square. This research uses a descriptive qualitative approach involving six key informants with interviews and documentation as the data collection method. This study indicates that implementing the street vendors relocation policy in the square area of ​​Mojokerto City is not entirely effective. Four factors influence the implementation of the policy, communication, resources, disposition, and bureaucratic structure.
Wildatul Fitri Tatiara, Toshihiro Kudo
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 160-175; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i2.151

Abstract:
As an investment intervention policy, NIL is present to grant legal certainty to investors and invite more investment. Its existence has possible impacts on investment decisions. However, the studies of its effect are limited, focusing only on specific NIL versions and sectors. To fill this gap, the present paper investigates the impact of NIL introduction on the investment decisions of foreign and domestic investors in Indonesia by utilizing all NIL versions and business field-level data of the planned investment values from 2005 to 2018. The analysis shows, first, the NIL introduction may generate the investment inflows from both FDI and DDI. Second, there was a parallel movement of crowding-in effect between foreign and national firms responding to the investment opportunities open to both parties. This study suggests that more detailed and transparent information should be provided in the NIL to guarantee its effectiveness.
Wiastuti Nurdina
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 129-144; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i2.132

Abstract:
In the economic development field, physical and social infrastructure have been argued to affect income inequality despite the mixed results. This study examines the impact of physical and social infrastructure (education and health) on income inequality in Indonesia using 34 provincial unbalanced panel data during 2009-2017. Infrastructure summary indices are constructed, and the impacts of infrastructure on income inequality are estimated by the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The findings conclude that physical and social (education) infrastructure contributes to income inequality increases in Indonesia though not robustly significant. Regarding health infrastructure, this study cannot definitely infer its nexus with income inequality since only the model of one-step different-GMM is significant. The result implies that the government needs to consider providing better distribution of infrastructure among income groups to improve income distribution.
Cep Kiki Kusumah
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 187-201; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i2.138

Abstract:
Indonesia is facing a problem with education outcomes, both in access and quality. To increase education access and participation, the President of Indonesia committed to implementing a 12-years compulsory education policy. As a result, upper secondary education’s completion rate has increased significantly in districts that implement 12-years compulsory education rather than in districts that did not implement it. Strategies attached to the policy also considerably affect the completion rate, except for providing community learning centers. However, in every model, the implementation of 12-years compulsory education always significantly affects upper secondary education’s completion rate. The district government that implemented 12-years compulsory education has achieved this condition because of the innovative effort to reach this target.
Rizka Aulia, Kangkook Lee
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 58-73; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i1.111

Abstract:
The study examines the effect of trade liberalization on poverty reduction across districts in Indonesia during the period from 2000 to 2016 using the fixed effect approach. Tariff exposure is used to measure trade liberalization, which is computed at the district level by combining information on sector composition of the economy in each district and tariff lines by sectors. This study also distinguishes between tariff exposure for output products and intermediate inputs. This produces a measure indicating how changes in exposure to tariff reductions in outputs and inputs vary by region over the period. Due to the available multi-district and 17-year dataset, the study includes a set of fixed effects: the district-fixed effects and the time-fixed effects, which controls for aggregate time trend. The results indicate that the impact of output and input tariff on regional poverty headcount index (P0) is different. Output tariff has a negative correlation with poverty, while input tariff has a positive correlation with poverty. This suggests that trade liberalization in input sectors could reduce poverty in Indonesia. It is also found that GRDP per capita, literacy rates, and road length are negatively associated with poverty. Also, the effect of reducing input tariffs on poverty reduction will be larger if the districts have higher GRDP per capita and higher literacy rates.
Sri Endah Pujiatin
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i1.107

Abstract:
The political rights of Indonesian citizens living abroad have been guaranteed by law since 1953 and implemented by a joint committee between the General Election Commission and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. As a developing country with increasing democracy, Indonesia’s external voting needs to be studied. Using the qualitative analysis of macro data and questionnaire survey in Tokyo, this study addresses the following questions: How is the implementation of external voting by the Indonesian government? How is the voter? How does the registration, administration, voting facilitation, and voting method influence voter participation in home country elections? The findings suggest that the government provides many resources to facilitate external voting. Nevertheless, survey results revealed that some facilitation was inadequate compare to the number of voters. Although highly educated citizens tend to have a high awareness of home country elections, problems in voting facilitation might prevent them from voting.
Tiurma Melissa Rakhel, Parama Tirta Ww Kusuma, Suardi Kadang
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 31-44; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i1.109

Abstract:
This article investigates the trends of scholarly publication in PPP research of R&D sector during the last three decades, including the publication patterns of the researchers' network and institutional structures. This article applies Bibliometric method by using VOSviewer to analyze and visualize scientific themes obtained from keywords ‘PPP and R&D’ through articles published in Scopus indexed journals. In mapping these keywords, this study found out that the most discussed topics include drug development, innovation policy, drug discovery, neglected tropical disease, global health, vaccines, and clinical trials. From these keywords, it could be concluded that the majority of the research areas of this topic focuses on the health sector. Lastly, this paper summarizes some future research directions and gives a recommendation. The recommendation is to make a mechanism for how PPP funding can be carried out in R&D activities. The PPP funding is not only meant for research infrastructure development but also R&D activities.
Mila Soraya
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 15-30; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i1.89

Abstract:
This research addresses the reoccurrence of forest fires and their size with regional-spatial information. This study is attained to the Sustainable Development Goal in the year 2030 (climate action and life on land) and is consistent with the mission of JISDeP. Probit and tobit regression analyses were applied to the regional-spatial panel data from 2015 to 2018 in Indonesia with the observations of forest-fire events, peatland, forest area, and timber concession on an annual basis. Such analyses would characterize the possible determinants for the forest fire reoccurrence together with their sizes. Comparatively, this study tries to fill the gap by examining the reoccurrence of forest fires. This research tries to fill in the gap on studies about land and forest fires by combining quantitative analysis using probit and tobit regression and using spatial approach of peatland, forest and timber concession area. The regression results reveal the following outcomes. The first outcome is whether forest fire reoccurrence positively (negatively) associated with peatland and forest areas (timber concession). Second, forest fires tend to decrease with the repetition of past forest fires but increase with timber concession, peatland, and forest areas. Overall, these results imply that the reoccurrence of forest fires and their sizes is highly concerned with timber concession and types of areas, suggesting that Indonesia should organize the policies regarding forest timber concession and areas to reduce forest fires and the associated damage.
Mas Wedar Haryagung Adji, Santi Yulianti, Syifaa Tresnaningrum, Erna Gustina Norrista
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 86-107; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i1.110

Abstract:
Indonesia is one of the largest agricultural countries in Southeast Asia, but it is also struggling with food security issues. The government's challenge is to ensure that domestic food needs are fulfilled. The covid-19 pandemic exacerbated this challenge, where countries faced the threat of food shortages due to limited movement of goods. Thus, Indonesia should focus on increasing the production and productivity of strategic food commodities. One of the alternative solutions is through the transmigration program. This research focused on how the transmigration program can contribute to food security. The study was carried out through a descriptive qualitative method. The result shows that transmigration contributes to food security because of its similarity to the food production process. However, this program faces five main challenges to support food security. Therefore, this study shows several pre-conditions that the government needs to fulfill to overcome these challenges.
Nayaka Artha Wicesa, Axellina Muara Setyanti
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 45-57; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i1.94

Abstract:
One of the problems faced by developing countries is income inequality, which is caused by weak and uneven human capital between regions. This research aims to determine the convergence of human capital in absolute and conditional with the explanatory variable of government expenditure in education. The method used is panel data regression with generalized least square and robust standard error. The results showed that provinces in Indonesia experienced human capital convergence in absolute, where inequality of human capital among provinces tended to decline over time and towards equity. The results also showed that provinces in Indonesia experienced human capital convergence in conditional, where government expenditure in education was able to accelerate the convergence process, but not significantly. This study also found that the time needed to equalize human capital in Indonesia is 164 years.
Mabrurotunnisa, Doddy Aditya Iskandar
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 74-85; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i1.96

Abstract:
Indonesian local governments still depend on the state budget to fund infrastructure development. On the other hand, land value capture (LVC) is suitable for developing countries, such as Indonesia, to fund such development. However, there is an absent legal system to explicitly implement LVC in Indonesia. This paper aims to discuss factors affecting LVC implementation in the context of Palembang. Through an in-depth interview with several experts, the study identified existing issues affecting LVC implementation including delays in revising regulation; risk of corruption, collusion, and nepotism; decrease in public participation; and public complaints due to property tax increase. Finally, we proposed strategies that should be fulfilled by the local government for the successful implementation of LVC in Palembang. They include the establishment of an implementing agency with a clear division of role and skillful members, the enactment of specific regulations, and the establishment of a special forum, e-platform, and mass media.
Hanan Nugroho
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 2, pp 108-112; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v2i1.118

Abstract:
Indonesia has developed a plan for its energy sector far into the future, however, the plan might be challenged by several international agreements that the country ratifies. The UN Report suggests several pathways for Indonesia to achieve the SDGs’ goal number 7 (affordable and clean energy). It challenges the current plan for expanding city gas networks, instead, it offers extensive uses of the electric cooking stove. It recommends that Indonesia accelerates its energy conservation efforts and reduce its energy sector’s greenhouse gasses emission by a figure which is higher than the original target. Besides, Indonesia should develop no more new coal-fired power plants and should continue to remove fossil fuel subsidies and encourage the issuance of green financing. This paper supports but also challenges the report by several arguments based on the country’s energy-economy-environment problems.
Arizka Warganegara
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 313-314; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i3.105

Dharendra Wardhana
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i3.104

Abstract:
The year 2020 will be recorded in world history as one of the most challenging periods. With the benefit of hindsight from previous crises, humanity will eventually (and this time hopefully) prevail. Covid-19 pandemic which has been around for a full calendar year sets a reminder and a call for us to adapt with a new mindset to embrace the new normal in our life. Not many countries can strike a delicate balance between saving lives and protecting livelihoods during this difficult time. Obviously, most developing countries have been struggling to control this seemingly intractable calamity from the first day of the outbreak. Covid-19 pandemic has sent the world one strong message, it is that we are only as safe as the most vulnerable among us. This indicates the central place of solidarity in our life. While we are predicting the emergency-authorized vaccine as the “game-changer”, estimating the outcome in the following years leads us to numerous possibilities and scenarios. Questions surrounding vaccine distribution, efficacy rate, and unintended consequences will still linger. Narrowing down the probabilities will lead us to two contrasting scenarios either growth will be propelled immediately or growth will not be accelerated due to various factors. Echoing previous editorial notes, the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on SDGs targets (also to other global and national development plans) can be mixed. The quintessential question is on how we maintain positive outcomes when the pandemic is over and how to get back on the right track. Apparently, many development targets need to be revised and some if not most of them might not be easy to catch up with. This situation arguably sets a backdrop for “the great reset” where all development strategies need to be restarted, policies have to be scrutinized, and targets must be re-calibrated. Undoubtedly, making predictions these days is not an easy job indeed. Too many variables and events need to be taken into account so as to reflect the complex world we live in. Sophisticated statistical methods and state-of-the-art computation technology do not really guarantee accuracy. It only needs a shock which makes our prediction becomes irrelevant. Many these days acknowledge VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity) as inherent characteristics of modern development. This poses serious challenges for those who work as planners in various contexts. Revising our projection might increase credibility but nobody knows for how long the revised targets will remain in a dynamic setting like nowadays. The year 2020 gives a lesson that we seemingly learn the hard way. One important lesson is on finding the correct perspective in viewing government spending. For many years we have seen the dominant role of government spending in development and it becomes more prominent when the economy stagnates. However, we have also been constantly looking for a better way to increase the quality of spending and more importantly: the way we measure it. Apparently, it seems, current measurement is inextricably linked with rigid public accounting standard which does not allow much flexibility and largely fulfills an administrative purpose. Sadly, it tends to normalize the “gold standard” of government spending: “the more we spend, the better” which unfortunately reveals the downside of such a spending pattern. That explains the acceleration of absorption rate at the end of the fiscal year, anecdotes on a spending frenzy, and whimsical disbursement for the sake of spending. Alternative measurement like efficiency score needs to be introduced immediately as a replacement of current performance indicators which is merely based on the monetary-based absorption rate of the annual budget. A simplistic method of budget absorption rate might still be relevant with tangible projects like infrastructure but it might be barely sensible within the context of intangible activities such as research, studies, advisory, and other knowledge sector-related projects. In order to reduce the Covid-19 contagion, governments opt for mobility restriction which consequently causes almost entirely business activities into the hold. Travelling and MICE industries—which arguably predominates government spending on knowledge-sector as well as one of the most prioritized sectors in the economy—have been hit the hardest during the pandemic. The inefficiency problem has been rising to the surface and this time should attract more attention to policymakers and scholars. This sends an urgent call for those who are competent to develop a correct alternative to measure one’s performance. Indeed, government spending is considered as the prime mover during difficult times and plays a pivotal role to accelerate economic recovery. However, the quality of spending will determine policy effectiveness. Mobility restriction brings a corollary that practices like working from home, digital economy, and assistive technology become a new normal. Numerous companies in developed countries pledged to resume this highly efficient and environment-friendly practice even after the pandemic. Yet, we have to ponder upon this shift into the context of developing countries where the informal economy is still rampant with the labor force population entering its peak. Probably unbeknownst to many, this “inefficiency” and negative externality (air pollution, road congestion, disposed waste) somehow correlates with employment creation and significantly acts as an economic multiplier. Finding the balance between “multiplier” and “efficiency” on government spending is therefore another issue that should be on the problem-solving bucket list. With quality spending, the policy effectiveness will lead to better outcomes which hopefully will bring rapid recovery. Not only have the Covid-19 crisis taken a heavy toll on...
Mayang Wulandari Naro Putri
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 258-266; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i3.87

Abstract:
This research aims to analyze whether people’s perception, living area such as rural/urban, and regional budget proportion for the environment at province level influence open burning behavior of a household in Indonesia. Using household-leveldata in 2017from the National Socioeconomic Survey of Indonesia and adding control factors such as socio-demographic characteristics, a logit regression method is conducted. The result reveals that burning behaviorperception has an important role in open burning thrash decisions and people living in rural areas tend to do open burning trash compared to those who are living in urban areas. Furthermore, provinces with higher proportion budgets for environmental facilities tend to have fewer open burning cases done by households compared to provinces with lower proportion budgets for environment. The findings suggest that government should improve waste policies atregional and municipallevelto reduce open burning trash behavior of households.
Wulan Nurindah Sari, Ichiki Atsushi, Shimizu Toshiyuki, Dewanti
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i3.77

Abstract:
Coastal cities with low elevation and mild slopes tend to be more vulnerable to the threat of floods and inundations. Expansion of impermeable areas caused by land conversion greatly diminishes a city’s ability to cope with the threat. Urban drainage systems play a crucial role in controlling excess surface water and reducing the threat of flood and inundation. To maintain an urban drainage system within an optimumcondition and to reduce inundation risk, various types of drainage maintenance activities have been implemented in Tegal. This research was conducted in five inundationproneareas in Tegal to analyze the impact of those maintenance activities to urban drainage conditions andin reducing inundation. GIS and statistical analysis revealed that fromthe numerousurban drainage maintenance activities that have been performed, drainage sediment cleanuphas the most obvious impact on drainage conditions and in reducing inundation.
Ayu Erlinna, Djoko Santoso Abi Suroso, Kim Dowon
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 267-280; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i3.76

Abstract:
The occurrence of 7.5M earthquake and tsunami in Central Sulawesi in September 2018 resulted in2,045 fatalities and 67,310 damaged houses. In line with RIPBand SDGSs 11, the government has established a masterplan for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Central Sulawesi by adopting the build back better concept. This research triesto analyze the implementation of BBB framework which focuseson reducingthe risk ofhousing reconstruction in Duyu urban village, using the scale and index method. The result shows that the implementation of risk reduction fallsinto a moderate level although some indicators are still in the poor category. In accordance with SDGs, at least four key factorsrelated to disaster mitigation, specificallySDGs 11 –makingcities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable -havebeen successfully achieved,which are: 11.5; 11.b1; 11.b2; and 11.c1. This result indicates that the Duyu housing reconstruction has gone through analysis and consideration ofrisk reduction practicesinvolvingfive variables by adopting the BBB framework in creating community resilience while achieving SDGs in Indonesia.
Taishi Yazawa, Yoshihisa Shimizu
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 281-294; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i1.75

Abstract:
This paper aims to investigate the feasibility offlood management based onthe concept of Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) via a literature review and field surveys. The investigationfocused on the primary industry of oil palm plantations in Malaysia. Although the country is promoting the palm oil industry, the impact of oil palm plantations on the local environment has been relatively disregarded because of the benefits and opportunities, such as subsidies, jobs, and amenities,which the local companies/people can obtain. Effective flood management inoil palm plantations entails the local peoples’ understanding and participation in the management activities, such as removing fallen leaves and weeding an area. Theflood management strategiessuggested inthis research provide new insights into local flood management, which usually focuses on the hydrologic aspects, by promoting the integration of the actual-local environment and local people’s actions for their environment within the framework of IWM.
Dimas Abi Aufan
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 295-306; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i3.88

Abstract:
This research analyzes whether electricity subsidy as an external factor and pro-environmental intention and acts as internal factors have any relationship on households' electricity-saving behaviors in Indonesia. To this end, Indonesia's household data from the National Socioeconomic Survey of Indonesia (SUSENAS) in 2017 is empirically analyzed. Using logit regression with control factors such as dwellings and sociodemographic characteristics, the statistical analysis reveals that subsidized households areless likely to save electricity in their daily lives. Furthermore, families with higher pro-environmental intentions are not necessarily likely to save electricity, while households who are accustomed to pro-environmental routines are likely to do so. These demonstrate the existence ofinternal gaps between their pro-environmental intention and the acts, suggesting that electricity subsidies reform and program should be considered along with the way how intention-act gaps can be mitigated at household levels for energy saving.
Tegar Rismanuar Nuryitmawan
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i3.84

Abstract:
This study aims to answer whether or notfinancial distribution can play a role in development and poverty alleviation in Indonesia. Households who receive credit are treated as the analysis level and research object. Credit is an instrument to help households escaping from poverty. Some opinions believe that by being given credit, households will be able to boost their economic capacity both in terms of purchasing power or business development capacity. However, to prove this opinion as well as to answer the question, using panel data from the Indonesian Family Live Survey (IFLS) in 2007 and 2014 will attempt to estimate the effect of the probability of households receiving credit on their poverty status. The probability of a credit recipient householdwill be calculated using Propensity Score Matching so that a similarity score of household characteristics will be obtained between those who get credit and those who do not. Using Double Differences, this study will address the description of changes in household poverty status after receiving credit from financial institutions. The PSM calculations results show that there are four variables as credit recipient household’s characteristics, namely collateral ownership, the status of property ownership, history of natural disasters, and gender. Meanwhile, the estimation results on poverty status indicate that credit recipient households have a greater probability of escaping poverty than those who do not receive credit. Therefore, the anti-poverty policy through the transmission of financial institutions is relevant to be prepared. The anti-poverty policy is related to low credit interest rates through government subsidies, public fund placement with low cost of fund, increasing financial literacyand knowledge of the society, and adjusting credit approval based on regional economic conditions.
Devanto Shasta Pratomo, Wildan Syafitri, Clarissa Sekar Anindya
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 307-312; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i3.103

Abstract:
The Indonesian economy has been one of the promising economies, with an average annual economic growth of about 5% in the last decade. With income per capita US$ 4050 as of 2019, Indonesia is now moving to attain upper-middle-income country status. Indonesia escaped from the lower-middle-income trap that the country has faced since 1985 by improving its human capital through increased attention to education and reduction in poverty. Alongside a significant poverty reduction, the middle class or middle-income population has been significantly growing. According to the National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS), the middle-class household grew from only 9% in 1993 to more than 20% in 2019. The middle class also works as an engine for growth, supporting nearly half of total national consumption. They are more likely of having better human capital, work as white-collar workers, and mostly living in urban areas. Due to the greater education and skills most of those in the middle class, have greater access to working in the formal sector jobs, and some are increasingly running productive business or entrepreneur which drives growth and creating jobs for others (World Bank, 2019).
Nurarifin, Sedwivia Ridena
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 113-124; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i2.19

Abstract:
This article aims to provide evidence that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and human development play an important role in pursuing a demographic dividend and accelerating economic welfare in Indonesia by exploiting provincial data from 2012 to 2017. The empirical evidence implemented in this research is Two-Stage Least Squares and dynamic system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques. The results show that a 1%-point rise in ICT development growth potentially leads to an approximately 0.24%-point increase in economic welfare growth, whereas an in life expectancy may decrease GDP per capita. The analysis also finds that a 1%-point increase in the ratio of the participation rate will promote a nearly 0.16%-point rise in per capita output. Meanwhile, a 1%-point increase in the share of the working-age population will generate roughly 0.19%-point rise in per capita income. A recent paper suggests that policymakers have to promote more supportive ICT and human development policies to pursue a demographic dividend since even though they have a positive impact on per capita income, the magnitude remains relatively low.
Moristanto Moristanto, Guntur Tri Setiandanu
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 209-216; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i2.71

Abstract:
This paper describes the sustainable development of energy supply planning for productive economy in border, small, and isolated island using case study in the region of Sitaro Island, North Sulawesi. This paper describes that energy supply planning must be sufficient, secure, reliable, and affordable for users by using local potency of energy resources that are renewable and unlimited. The paper identifies local energy potential demand of energy, current productive economy, current system of electricity, and infrastructure of energy. It finds that the local potential of energy resources is photovoltaic. The demand of energy of Islands is primary for lighting, ironing, and entertainment. The existing economy of islands is dominated by fisheries, agriculture, and tourism. The total of electricity generated is about 6.000 kW that is all supplied using PLTD. The infrastructure of energy is covered by PLN using 4 system of distributions that are System of Siau, System of Makalehi, System of Tagulandang dan System of Biaro. The local government is concerning to build up industrial cluster of fisheries for domestic and abroad markets and also to create the exotics tourism. With a serious commitment and high awareness among government, industries, and society, it is possible to increase the economy and social welfare because they have enough energy potential, abundant fish in the sea, and good tourism prospect in the future. It concludes that the energy supply should meet the demand sufficiently, securely, reliably, and affordably. In terms of productive economy, the energy should create the value added in society and increase the welfare. It recommends that in the border, small, and isolated island, the abundant and renewable of energy resources, photovoltaic, can be substituted to PLTD. Since it is only available in daylight. In order to make it useful in midnight, we need a power storage as a back up of energy resources.
Alfian Rosadi
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 140-159; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i2.59

Abstract:
Leading economic sector on Tulungagung Regency determined by sector contribution on GRDP. These sectors expected can be a booster to economic growth. But Economic Growth in Tulungagung Regency was still slower than East Java Province. This Study aims to determined Leading economic sector not only by its contribution. SLQ and DLQ analysis, average contribution, growth rate and shift share analysis have been done to observe contribution, competiveness and progresive growth of economic sector. Based on the assesment by scoring of the criteria, leading economic sector was determined and found that education service sector lead the rank followed by information and communication sector.
Yovi Dzulhijjah Rahmawati
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 177-192; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i2.56

Abstract:
As an area with an open economic access, Kulon Progo Regency has many valuable points in the development of its agriculture, manufacturing, trade and services sectors. However, low level of the district public welfare becomes an internal strategic issues that affects its planning process. In the meantime, Kulon Progo District has its own leadership potential with good regional coordination and clear communication with its regional leaders. This potential can be a key element of its regional development as to reduce its internal issues. This leadership type owns by the regional leaders, along with the effective bureaucracy, is a manifestation of the capacity of its regional jurisdiction. This capacity of the Kulon Progo regency government within the framework to achieve self-sustaining economic can be obtained with the following efforts: (1) efforts to mobilize stakeholders in achieving self-sustaining economic by local leaders, (2) determination of local-pro economic policy and priorities program, and (3) implementation of a performance-based planning and budgeting process in an effort to boost the local economy. In practice, the leadership innovation is not strong enough to change the planning and budgeting system that has been institutionalized bureaucratically. Contextual conditions do have great affect to the success of leadership, policy making, and planning and budgeting aspects. Therefore, this study aims to examine the Kulon Progo District Government capacity in encouraging the self-sustaining economy.
Harry Patria, Abdul Azeez Erumban
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 125-139; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i2.58

Abstract:
This study investigates the relationship between ICT adoption ratio and income inequality. While the majority studies explain the impact of ICT on income inequality via labor market, this study offers a different perspective on this relationship. The fast-growing ICT has influenced, not only the employment income, but also the household income, such as property income, consumer surplus, etc. Thus, this study seeks to show the impact of ICT on income inequality via household income channel. The large internet economy and the remarkable internet adoption increase in Indonesia demonstrate the considerable impact of ICT on the lives and income of people in Indonesia. By using panel data regression, this paper shows an inverted U-shape relationship between ICT adoption and income inequality. Low ICT adoption increased income inequality until a certain turning point, whereby higher ICT adoption reduced income inequality in society. The turning point relating to average adoption ratio of mobile phone, computer, and internet was 25%; while there was an average adoption ratio of 17% for computer and internet.
Reza Mahdi
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 160-176; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i2.62

Abstract:
The term literacy continues to evolve from time to time according to the conditions of a society. At first, UNESCO in 1997 concluded that literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, communicate, and count using printed or other materials, but the meaning of literacy is much more than that, which in the end a literate community can produce something that is beneficial to individuals or society. Therefore, the prosperity of a society can be seen from the number of literate people. National Library of Indonesia has recorded it in the concept of literacy for prosperity in the Social Inclusion-Based Library Transformation program. One of the programs carried out is for the prosperity of the literacy-based economic community that also aims to support SDGs. Until now, the National Library of Indonesia has succeeded in bringing about a positive impact on the community's economy with the concept of as well as support for SDGs. In the future, there are still many things that must be researched by the National Library of the Republic of Indonesia regarding literacy for inclusive prosperity.
Firre An Suprapto, Agus Manshur
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 193-208; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i2.72

Abstract:
Based on the Surabaya Madura Regional Development Agency Master Plan 2010-2024, Madura Island has a strategic position as part of the Gerbangkertosusila Urban National Strategy. There is still, however, a development disparity between Madura Island and East Java. This can be seen from the economic performance of Madura Island which is quite low compared to other districts or cities in East Java Province. Madura Human Development Index (HDI) is below the East Java on average, and the percentage of poor people in Madura is the highest in East Java. Therefore, the development of Surabaya-Madura (Suramadu) must be integrated through regional development, such as development of connectivity systems. The research used descriptive analysis to assess the characteristics of a program and to adjust the characteristics with sustainable development theory that consists of three components, namely: environmental, economic, and social developments. These can ultimately be used to sharpen the development target to be achieved in the next 5 (five) years. Data were collected using secondary survey instruments through existing literature studies and policy reviews, such as National Medium-Term Development Plan 2020-2024 and Regional Medium-Term Development Plan of East Java Province.
B. Setiawan, Tri Mulyani Sunarharum
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 217-224; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i2.80

Abstract:
Of the many important events that occurred in the two decades of the 21st century, the process of accelerating urbanization—especially in third-world countries—became something quite phenomenal. It's never even happened before. In the early 2000s, only about 45 percent of the population in the third world lived in urban areas, by 2020 the number had reached about 55 percent. Between now and 2035 the percentage of the population living in urban areas will reach about 85 percent in developed countries. Meanwhile, in developing countries will reach about 65 percent. By 2035, it is also projected that about 80 percent of the world's urban population will live in developing countries' cities.
Fx Andy Sutrisno
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 20-30; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i1.28

Abstract:
Social media becomes a very important and strategic tool for terrorists to do propaganda, recruitment, funding, and facilitation of other terrorist activities. Both international level and national level, no regulation explicitly regulates the use of social media for terrorism. Since many incidents of terrorism using social media in Indonesia, the more vigorous terrorists’ propaganda and recruitment through social media, and considering opened terrorist access to pursue their targets, especially the youth generation, it is vital to specifically regulate social media and terrorism. Although social media and terrorism issues need to be addressed by the increasing of local government’s role in combating terrorism and the strengthening parental supervision in the use of social media by children, the need for social media and terrorism regulation is an urgent matter to do first, as a guide to tackling the social media use in the vortex of terrorism.
Chrisna T. Permana, Budi Harsanto
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 67-82; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i1.32

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to explore sustainable city planning concepts and practices in emerging economies. Using a systematic review, peer-reviewed articles in an academic database were systematically searched and reviewed. The process included selecting appropriate keywords to assist in screening relevant articles, allowing more comprehensive and integrated findings of the concepts and practices of sustainable city planning in emerging economies, assisted by the NVivo 12 qualitative software package and Microsoft Excel. This paper also developed a framework comprised of key elements to measure the sustainability of city planning. The findings showed that, by reviewing more than 30 peer- reviewed articles, it was understood that Western sustainable city planning concepts have been directly adopted into the policy agendas of emerging countries without significant changes. However, such concepts were interpreted into a number of different practices dealing with the local socio-cultural and political characteristics of the adopting countries. Lastly, during the systematic review, this paper offers a comprehensive evaluation of the overall mapping of literature in the framework of sustainable city planning in emerging countries, indicating a number of areas that have been explored by existing studies as well as certain areas that are still lacking and could be potentially explored by future studies.
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 31-44; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i1.12

Abstract:
This study was performed to determine the awareness level of University of Malaya students towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A set of survey questionnaires based on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) was distributed among all the students of University of Malaya and 382 responses were obtained to analyze the awareness level (95% confidence level with ±5% margin of error). Data analysis was performed SPSS Statistics version 20. Descriptive statistics showed that the respondents have high knowledge with a positive attitude towards SDGs. Spearman’s rho coefficient correlation was applied to determine the relationships between variables (knowledge with practice and attitude with practice). The results revealed a weak negative correlation between the knowledge and practice towards SDGs (r = -.264, N = 382, p = .00). However, there is a strong positive correlation between the attitude and practice towards SDGs (r = .440, n = 382, p =. 00).
Lilin Budiati
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 83-104; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i1.41

Abstract:
Planning in the broadest sense covers definition and selection of needs to evaluation and audit phase. Planning and planners have unique and strategic positions, roles, and functions, because they bring together two sides of interests: public sector interests and private sector interests. This uniqueness causes the field of planning and planners to have a political role and bargaining position in the development planning process. This political role can cause the presence of two sides, which are the bright side as the planner with integrity, who can design internal control systems and risk management for prevention and detection of corruption, and the dark side as the conspirator with public officials and the contractor or business corporation to bring corruption together. The dark side of planning becomes the entry point for corruption and/or fraud. The bright side of planning can be used to build the integrity of community and society, through the application of internal control systems and risk management that are based on specific corruption indicators such as Government Institution Risk Indicator (GIRI), Contractor Risk Indicator (CRI), and Political Connection Indicator (PCI).
Andi Setyo Pambudi
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 57-66; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i1.11

Abstract:
The phenomenon of sustainable forest management failure in Indonesia faces the reality of incompatible economic, social, and environmental approaches. Conventional forest management always assumes that good forests are only managed by the government through concession permit policies to large capital owners that are top-down and accompanied by a minimum condition of community involvement, which should be a key factor. Learning from the experience, Indonesia began to see the concept of social forestry as one of the efforts in the progress of a more sustainable development. Social forestry positions that the party that feels the greatest success or failure from forest management is the community around the forest itself. Communities must obtain the greatest access and incentives to manage forestry businesses as a source of life while preventing damage. In recent years, the agrarian reform program through social forestry is a breakthrough government program that is becoming increasingly demanded by communities. The rights to manage their surrounding lands in accordance with ancestral local wisdom are expected to be able to answer economic and ecological challenges. This paper specifically presents the development of social forestry and its issues and recommendations in the context of national development in Indonesia. The ecological harmony between humans and nature is a consideration of the importance of social forestry as a program to be continuously supported by the government, as well as to prioritize economic aspects in the principle of sustainable development.
Satya Laksana, Fityan Aonillah, Rubi Azhara
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 45-56; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i1.9

Abstract:
The sixth of nine Indonesian national development agendas under the President Joko Widodo administration is to increase productivity and competitiveness, one of which is by the establishment of Techno Parks. The projects will be terminated in 2019; however, exit strategies that contribute to sustainable development have been rarely considered throughout the history of development studies and practice. This paper examines the concept of exit strategies within the context of a case study of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)-assisted project of the Tasikmalaya Techno Park (TP) from 2015-2019. It addresses two questions: (1) How has LIPI executed the TP project in Tasikmalaya throughout the period? (2) What is the recommended exit strategy for regional policymakers after project termination? To overview the implementation of TP activities, an internal- external analysis was conducted, and to formulate exit strategies, SWOT and QSPM were employed. Data were collected from July-September 2018, consisting of primary data collected from competent respondents by semi-structured and in-depth interviews selected by the purposive sampling method as well as secondary data compiled from relevant institutions. The conclusion is that the Tasikmalaya TP has five core businesses and its mission is to become a center for dissemination, technology transfer, and agribusiness incubator. The TP was present in quadrant I, meaning that aggressive strategies were recommended. There were four future management options and independent management was considered as the most appropriate. Its role should be more supported by middle- to long-term strategies and a well prepared legal system. Policy implications are discussed.
Dadang Jainal Mutaqin, Koichi Usami
The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, Volume 1, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i1.20

Abstract:
The Indonesian government have implemented agricultural production cost insurance since 2015 called Asuransi Usaha Tani Padi (AUTP). It is an issue that the rate of farmer participation in the insurance is still low. As a challenge to increase participation, it becomes important to be aware of motivation, behavior, and perception that influence the practical risk management of farmers. This study investigated the relationship between cropping pattern diversification (as risk management) and factors such as motivation, behavior, and perception. Based on a field survey of 240 smallholder farmers in Garut District, West Java Province, these were the characteristics of farmers who practiced cropping pattern diversification: (1) high-risk perception (impact and probability); (2) risk-averse; and (3) economic motivation. The study revealed that approximately one-third of farmers had risk-neutral and low-risk perceptions of whom approximately 70.7 percent practiced single cropping patterns. They may not adopt any risk- coping strategies unless they are aware of the risks that they face. Improving awareness about the negative impacts of risks on income from farming might encourage them to adopt risk-coping strategies for both on-farm risk coping (such as cropping pattern diversification) and off-farm risk-coping (such as agricultural insurance).
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