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Evangelos Rousopoulos, Carlton Cooke, Giorgos Paradisis, Elias Zacharogiannis, Eleni Patrikia Kouyoufa, Kevin Till
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1078-1084;

The purpose of this study was to present the physiological profile of male soccer players who compete in the professional (Division [D] 1, 2, 3) and semi-professional (D4) Greek soccer leagues, and to compare their physiological profile according to playing division. Using 1,095 players (age: 25.2 ± 4.7 years), twelve anthropometric and physiological characteristics (age, height, body mass, BMI, VO2max, velocity of VO2max velocity at ventilatory threshold, maximum heart rate, maximum lactate, squat jump, 35 m sprint and sprinting fatigue index) were assessed. Factorial analysis of variance revealed a significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced physiological profile amongst the professional, compared to semi-professional players, for 10 of the 12 characteristics assessed between divisions. Regarding aerobic parameters, velocity at maximum oxygen uptake was the variable which discriminated professional, from semi-professional players most. With reference to anaerobic parameters, the 35m sprint was the variable which differentiated players between divisions (i.e. D1/D2 vs. D3/D4). Overall, findings in this study present the physiological profile of soccer players within the specified Greek soccer divisions, with differences identified between professional, and semi-professional divisions. These findings suggest that advanced physiological profiles may contribute to a player’s progression to higher divisions of Greek professional soccer.
Asim Shahzad, Muhammad Farhad Anwar, Abrar Hussain Mian, Abdul Rehman, Matiullah M
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1154-1158;

This study aim was to evaluate the prescribed therapies and to identify various drug-related problems as well as their causes in different TB patients admitted at the Pulmonology Department, Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan. A 5-month retrospective study was conducted in which a total of 525 patients’ medical records were collected using predesigned standard data collection proforma. Among them, 25 patients having incomplete medical records were excluded and the rest of 500 cases were involved and analyzed accordingly. In all these cases, the causative agent was Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall 14 drugs of 133 different therapeutic classes were used in which the most frequently prescribed drugs to these patients were Anti-Tuberculosis drugs (100%), Antibiotic (100%), Multivitamins (78%), GIT drugs (55%) and Antihistamines (55%) followed by other drugs listed in the present study. Out of 500 cases, a total of 179 (35.8%) patients were identified had Drug-related problems, among them 23 (4.6%) cases were in untreated condition, in 12 (2.4%) cases drugs without indication problems were found, in 43 (8.6%) cases there were adverse drug reactions problems noted, in 75 (15%) cases total drug interactions problems were identified, while in 26 (5.2%) cases polypharmacy problems were found. The prescribed pharmacotherapy in all 500 cases meets with the standard pharmacotherapy. However, the discrepancies observed in the present study were due to lack of proper knowledge about the pharmacology of the drugs, overburden on doctors and proper lack of patient counseling. To better understand the proper management and reduction of these problems other health care professionals and proper clinical pharmacists are required to cooperate for the sake of improving the outcomes of the pharmacotherapy.
Wasi Ullah Khan, Saad Qayum, Hafiza Sehrish Kiani
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1136-1136;

Background: The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has brought destructive consequences on the global political, economical, social, financial, and healthcare structures [1]. The pandemic has risen up the level of anxiety, depressive thoughts and psychological stress among students who were studying in china, but now stocked in home country. Approximately 30,000 Pakistani students are being enrolled in M.Phil and PhD in China. The aim of this study is to identify the psychological and physiological impact of COVID-19 on these students.
Roya Momen, Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1067-1073;

The Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3D QSAR) models now have a wide range of applications; however, new methodologies are required due to the complexity in understanding their results. This research presents a generalized version of quantum similarity field and chemical reactivity descriptors within the density functional theory framework. By taking reference compounds, this generalized methodology can be used to understand the biological activity of a molecular set. In this sense, this methodology allows to study of the CoMFA in quantum similarity and chemical reactivity. It is feasible to investigate steric and electrostatic effects on local substitutions using this method. They were considering that how these methodologies could be used when the receptor is known or unknown.
Sadia Parveen, Hanfa Ashfaq, Mehak Shahid, Ambreen Kanwal, Asima Tayyeb
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1111-1116;

Within a tumor, Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) exists and own similar characteristics of a normal stem cell thus contributing towards aggressiveness of cancer by playing crucial role in tumor recurrence and metastasis capability. Various studies have been conducted to therapeutically target CSCs. One of the approaches include is to inhibit cell cycle progression in CSCs. Within last two decades cell cycle and role of various components in its regulation is firmly established. Cell cycle is regulated by Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDK) bound to cyclin. CDK activity can be blocked by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors (CKIs) which can either bind cyclin/CDK complex or CDK alone and thus stops cell cycle. In this review various studies are discussed that have investigated the therapeutic role of CKIs in eradicating CSCs by inhibiting cell cycle. Overall, the analysis suggests that CKIs could be a potential therapeutic option in controlling CSCs populating in a tumor.
Xiaoxiao He, Shiyue Chen, Xiang Mao
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1101-1110;

Among current biological researches, there have a plenty of works related cancer therapy issues by using functional or pure-phased composites in non-invasive strategies. Especially in fabricating anticancer candidates, functional composites are divided into different sorts with different characteristics. Additionally, nanotechnology provides various approaches in utilizing composites’ functionality for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Compared with previous Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), Photo-Thermal Therapy (PTT), chemotherapy and radiotherapy, ultrasound is used to activate sonosensitizer to produce cytotoxic Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) toward target cancer cells. In recent years, the form of Sonodynamic Therapy (SDT) has been making much effort to develop highly efficient metal based Nanomaterials (NMs) as sonosensitizers, which can efficiently generate ROS and has the advantages of deeper tissue penetration. However, the traditional sonosensitizers, such as porphyrins, hypericin, and curcumins suffer from complex synthesis, poor water solubility, and low tumor targeting efficacy. For contrasting this limitation, the metal based inorganic NMs show biocompatibility, controllable physicochemical properties, and ease of achieving multifunctional properties, which greatly expanded their application in SDT. In this review, we systematically summarize the metal based inorganic NMs as carrier of molecular sonosensitizers, and produce ROS under ultrasound. Moreover, the prospects of advanced metal based further materials application are also discussed.
Igor Nesteruk, Oleksii Rodionov
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1141-1147;

A simple statistical analysis of the accumulated and daily numbers of new COVID-19 cases and deaths per capita was performed with the use of recent datasets for European and some other countries and regions in order to find correlations with the testing and vaccination levels. It was shown that vaccination can significantly reduce the likelihood of deaths. However, existing vaccines do not prevent new infections. It looks that vaccinated individuals can spread the infection as intensely as unvaccinated ones and it is too early to lift quarantine restrictions in Europe and most other countries. The constant appearance of new cases due to re-infection increases the likelihood of new coronavirus strains, including very dangerous. As existing vaccines are not able to prevent this, it remains to increase the number of tests per registered case. If the critical value of the tests per case ratio (around 520) is exceeded, one can hope to stop the occurrence of new cases.
Sajjad Haider, Adnan Haider, Bushra Bano, Rawaiz Khan, Nausheen Bukhari, Ali Alrahlah
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1163-1167;

In implant and trauma surgery, implant-related infections are a significant problem. Implant-related infections are becoming more common with the increase in implant procedures. Implantation of implants has become a common and life-saving surgery. The number of hip surgeries performed worldwide is one million per year, and the number of knee surgeries exceeds 250000. More than 30% of hospital patients have one or more vascular catheters that need repair. More than 10% of hospital patients have a fixed urinary catheter. Approximately 2 million nosocomial infections cost over $11 billion each year in the United States. One of the most important risk factors is exposure to intrusive medical devices. Current treatment approaches have serious consequences for individuals and often fail to eradicate the disease. The increased likelihood of infections becoming chronic is due to effective bacterial evasion tactics, with biofilm formation being an important factor in bacterial persistence. The presence of foreign material promotes biofilm formation, contributing to the persistence of infection. Therefore, there is great interest in eradicating the disease in the planktonic phase (free-swimming bacteria) before biofilm transformation occurs and avoiding reinfection after antibiotic or surgical therapy. This mini-review reviews the literature on the implant, associated infections, their mechanism, and strategies used to prevent these infections.
Abdulmageed B Abdullah, Abdulbaki Al-Zaemey, Rasheed Hasan Mudhesh Al-Husami, Mofeed Al-Nowihi
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1132-1135;

The antimicrobial activity about water extract of Acacia etbaica was examined by using agar well diffusion methods against five gram-positive and negative bacteria[Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC653-8), Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC2453, Bacillus cereus (ATCC6633), Escherichia coli MTCC739, and one local isolate (Staphylococcus epidermides)] in addition to Candida albicans (ATCC2019). this results designated that the water extract of Acacia etbaica possess antimicrobial efficacy against all tested microorganisms either (gram-positive and negative bacteria) or fungi (Candida albicans).Whereas the gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, S. epidermides and B. cereus) with inhibition zones (21, 19.5 and 16.5) respectively was more sensitive than gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and E. coli) and C. albicans with inhibition zones 16 and 14.5 respectively. The antimicrobial effect was directly proportional with concentration of water extract where the highest inhibition zone at higher concentration 30% equal 21mm against S.aureus and the lower inhibition zone at lower concentration 5% equal 10mm against C. albicans...
Safir Ullah Khan, Munir Ullah Khan
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1283-1290;

Multicellular organisms have many cell types and are complex, and heterogeneity is common among cells. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing (scRNA-SEQ) is a new technique for studying the transcriptional activity of a single cell that is still in its early stages of development. It generates transcriptional profiles from thousands of parallel cells to reveal the differential expression of individual cell genomes. They reflect the heterogeneity between cells to identify different cell types and form cell maps of tissues or organs, which play an essential role in biology and clinical medicine. Based on the introduction and comparison of the scRNA-SEQ sequencing platform, this paper focuses on the application of scRNA-SEQ in the exploration of cell types in the nervous system and immune system and summarizes the research results of the combination of scRNA-SEQ and spatial transcriptome technology.
Safir Ullah Khan, Munir Ullah Khan
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1216-1228;

Recently, Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins (RIPs) as a class of anticancer medicines have garnered considerable attention due to their novel anticancer mechanism. Although the medications are small, RIPs utilize the Large-Size Effect (LSE) to block the efflux procedure that are regulated through Drug Resistance Transporters (DRTs), and protect host cells from drug transfection. There are many significant challenges for their therapeutic applications that seriously restrict their usefulness, particularly their strategy towards tumor cells. The primary objective of this review is to emphasize Trichosanthin (TCS) along with Gelonin (Gel) and additional types of RIPs, particularly scorpion venom-derived RIPs, to demonstrate that they should be grappling through what kinds of bio-barriers to overcome in cancer therapeutic science. Next, we will emphasize the latest state-of-the-art in providing cancer treatment RIPs.
Hassan A Rudayni
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1246-1252;

Avian diversity of two zones within the main campus of IMSIU University was studied during the period from July 2019 to June 2020. A total number of 1,653 individual birds was recorded across the main campus which falls under fifteen species belonging to thirteen families. Out of this number, 760 individual of them were recorded in Zone-A versus 893 individual in Zone-B. Species richness in Zone-A was 15 while species richness in Zone-B was 13. Census index of the Birds was recorded as follows: 4.6 Birds/ha and 7.9 Birds/ha in both Zones A and B, respectively. Bird species sighted was higher in Zone-B as compared with Zone-A, as indicated by Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H) which accounts for 1.83 in Zone-A and 1.65 in Zone-B. Pigeon (Columba livia), House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Laughing Dove (Spilopelia senegalensis) were among the most frequently sighted. From the current study, it is recommended that Zone-B be pedestrianized for the enrichment and protection of the avian species. Also, new policies should be put forward by the relevant authority within the main campus to maintain avian diversity, such as expanding afforestation and green landscapes, in addition to the establishment of artificial lakes and ponds.
Saddam S, Ghadir Ali, Abdul Rehman, Asim Shahzad
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1231-1237;

The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rate and to identify risk factors of Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma gondii among internally displaced women of District North Waziristan, Pakistan with home obstetric history. A total of 387 blood samples were collected from internally displaced infected women with the help of a comprehensive filled data form. To determine levels of Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma gondii Infection, all blood samples were qualitative and quantitative analyzed using Immune chromatographic and Chemiluminescence Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) technique. Among 387 blood samples, the total numbers of reactive samples observed were 341 (88.11%) and non-reactive samples were 46 (11.88%). Of 341 (88.11%) reactive samples, the highest ratio 168 (49.26%) was reported for the co-infection of Cytomegalovirus and Rubella, followed by 76 (22.28%) for Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma gondii combined. In reactive samples, the highest ratio of IgG was noted in order of CMV 22 (64.70%), Rubella 21 (67.74%) and Toxoplasma gondii 16 (72.72%), followed by IgG+IgM and IgM only. Regarding age-wise distribution, the highest ratio 144 (90.56%) of total reactive samples of Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma gondii was reported in the 25-32 years old group of individuals. Similarly, the highest ratio 53 (48.18%) and 60 (41.66%) of co-infection among reactive samples for Cytomegalovirus, and Rubella was observed in 18-24 and 25-32 years old group. Further, the highest ratio of 100 (40.32%) of risk factors was observed in infected patients who were exposed to a poor hygienic environment and 57 (44.18%) of infected patients had complications of Severe UTI followed by others. Hence, it was revealed that Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma gondii infection was most prevalent in internally displaced women of District North Waziristan, Pakistan. Therefore, an urgent base prophylactic approaches should need to be addressed to reduce the risk of the spread of disease in this locality.
Tadeusz Hryniewicz
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1168-1169;

This work is to reveal and present some contemporary surface treatment methods used in view of improving performance of parts of a variety of metals and alloys. Stainless steels and titanium alloys are with the group of particular focus, important for medical implants in chirurgy and instruments used in dentistry. Improved, anti-corrosion properties and mechanical strength of materials are the primary features for examination.
Konstantinov Si
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1092-1100;

For the first time, the article presents the Quantum Theory of Gravity, covering not only the microcosm of elementary particles, but also the macrocosm of planets, stars and black holes. This relational approach to gravity was consistently presented in Arthur Eddington's monograph “Fundamental Theory”. In the theory of quantum gravity proposes to consider instead of gravity holes in the curved space-time of Einstein's general relativity, gravitational funnels formed by the rotation of planets, stars and galaxies in a dark matter halo. The change in the gravitational potential in the funnels occurs instantly in all areas of the gravitational funnel space in accordance with the pressure gradient described by the Euler-Bernoulli equation for superfluid continuous media. The new cosmological theory represents the evolution of the universe and dark holes without a singularity. The disordered alternation of the processes of contraction and expansion of individual regions of the infinite Universe realizes the circulation of baryonic and dark matter, which allows it to exist indefinitely, bypassing the state of equilibrium. Numerical modeling allows us to assert that the theory of quantum gravity is the most reliable of the three generally accepted theories of gravity.
Waill A Elkhateeb, Ghoson M Daba
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1117-1120;

Background: Emerging of microbial resistance, spread of life-threatening diseases, and biological control of pathogens destroying economically important crops, are serious problems that encourage scientists to search for unusual sources for novel compounds with biological activities. Fungi are promising sources for such compounds due to their ability to produce variety of secondary metabolites that could be, if truly investigated, the solution for currently serious problems. Aim: The aim of this review is to highlight the diversity of compounds produced by endophytic Stemphylium and Ulocladium and represents their ability to produce biologically diverse metabolites. Materials and methods: This was a narrative review. A comprehensive literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using the keywords, Stemphylium; Ulocladium; Secondary metabolites; biological activities. Results: Many studies reported that the endophytic Ulocladium especially, Ulocladium atrum Preuss, showed promising biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea on crops cultivated in the greenhouse and the field. The endophytic fungus Stemphylium especially, Stemphylium globuliferum was isolated from stem tissues of the Moroccan medicinal plant Mentha pulegium. Extracts of the fungus exhibited significant cytotoxicity when tested in vitro against L5178Y cells. Conclusion: Endophytic fungi are a noble and consistent source of unique natural mixtures with a high level of biodiversity and may also yield several compounds of pharmaceutical significance, which is currently attracting scientific surveys worldwide. Every study conducted on Stemphylium and Ulocladium resulted in discovery of new metabolites or pointing to a possible application, which made Stemphylium and Ulocladium species potential source of pharmaceuticals and attracted attention for further investigations of their biological control.
Pallavi Gulati, Aarti Yadav, Jatin Chadha, Sandeepa Singh
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1121-1131;

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging virus responsible for the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite the advent of COVID-19 vaccines, pandemic fatigue is still escalating as new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge and vaccine shortages hit globally. Hence, drug repurposing remains an alternative strategy to combat SARS-CoV-2. For centuries, plants have served as natural reservoirs of pharmacologically active compounds with minimal cytotoxicity and promising antimicrobial and antiviral activities. In this light, the present study was undertaken to virtually screen 33 phytochemicals across various cultivars against the main protease (Mpro) and Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 using ADME analysis. 31 phytochemicals obeying Lipinski’s rules were subjected to molecular docking using AutoDock Vina. Docking scores were determined by selecting the best conformation of the protein-ligand complex that exhibited the highest affinity. The study identified withanone, licoflavone A, and silibinin to interact with the S protein at the hACE2-binding site with high binding energies. Similarly, myricitrin, withanone, naringenin, licoflavone A, and silibinin exhibited high binding affinities with the substrate-binding pocket of Mpro between the domains I and II. Interestingly, licoflavone A, silibinin, and withanone interacted with both Mpro and S proteins in silico. Further, drug-likeness studies indicated withanone to be the most readily bioavailable phytochemicals among the three shortlisted ligands. Therefore, phytochemicals can be regarded as potential leads for developing inhibitors against this mysterious virus. In vitro investigations are further warranted to prove their antiviral efficacy.
Leila Namavar
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1176-1179;

Until a few years ago, the world of Iranian children was often full of movement, mobility, and experience of nature, a real world in which nature and its landmarks, including soil, water, wind, living beings and tangible trees, and not limited to virtual image frames where even the possibility of experiencing and obtaining a simple and lasting memory such as playing soil is impossible and unattainable. Today, however, the vacancy of many childish games and mischievousness can be easily felt in green and open public spaces. Today's children look more strange and alienated in the face of nature than landlords. It is a fact that Iranian children are more familiar with their country's valuable animal and plant species such as gorasay, siberian dorrena, Asian cheetah, emperor salamander and manus boro alum, and animals such as zebras, African lions and elephants, polar bears, penguins and pandas. Who is this negligence from the other side? Why do not children spend as they should and perhaps in nature? Are limited and closed apartment spaces and the preference of computer games to group uplifting physical activities our children's choice? In this paper we review the importance of acquainting children with nature, with a focus on Iran.
Somayeh Taghvaei, Leila Saremi, Majid Motovali-Bashi
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1274-1282;

Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer with 2,206,771 new cases in 2020 in worldwide. MMP9 is a member of matrix metalloproteinase family that is also known as gelatinase B or IV type collagenase (92KD). MMP9 through degrading of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) and releasing of growth factors has fundamental role in the tumorigenesis process. The C -1562 T SNP in the MMP9 promoter increases MMP9 expression and susceptibility to lung cancer. Then, the aim of this present case-control study was to investigate whether genetic variations of the MMP9 gene may constitute markers for lung cancer risk in males and in positive family history people in Iran. Methods: This is a case-control study including 120 lung cancer patients and 100 healthy controls. Polymorphism in the C -1562 T region was genotyped by PCR-RFLP assay. Odds Ratio (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated by chi-square test from comparison of genotypes between lung cancer patients and healthy controls, using SPSS version 26.0. T-test and Image J software was also used. Results: The distribution of C-1562T genotype was significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.06-23.82). The further stratification analyses shown that males and patients with positive family history may increase risk of lung cancer. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the MMP9 C -1562 T polymorphism affects risk of lung cancer. In addition, men with T allele (OR = 3.94, CI = 1.47-10`.55) and patients with TT genotype and family history (OR = 2.18, CI = 1.03-4.59) exposure to higher risk of lung cancer.
Alessandro Scarano, Roberto Luongo, Mario Rampino, Eugenio Pedulla, Calogero Bugea
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1267-1273;

Despite validated surgical techniques and the development of biomaterials, the procedures aimed at increasing the maxillary bone volume by sinus floor elevation have complications with various degrees of relevance. The perforation of the Schneiderian membrane is one of the most frequent events while performing the detachment of the membrane and it can increase the risk of iatrogenic sinusitis, impairment of functional homeostasis, dispersion of the graft material in the antral cavity as well as its bacterial colonization with a subsequential failure of the procedure. This report presents a case where transcrestal sinus lift was performed using Flusilift (Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare PD), a new instrument that allows fluid dynamic elevation of the sinus floor using saline solution to detach the Schneider’s membrane in an atraumatic way without using a sinus elevator and obtain an adequate alveolar ridge regeneration using hyaluronic acid in gel formulation to support an implant placement. Hyaluronic acid seems to play a key role in wound healing and contributes to a faster bone neoformation in bone regeneration procedures.
Wangjing Ma, Xiao Tc, Liu Bn, Xu Zc, Jin Zq, Gong Qt
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1170-1175;

The accelerated UV visible photocatalytic carbon-carbon double bond isomerization of Linear Alpha Olefins (LAO) with 12-Tungstophosphate Acids (12-TPA) as an efficient, environmentally-friendly and recyclable catalyst was described, which produced the corresponding Linear Internal Olefins (LIO) in general high selectivity and high yields.
Endeshaw Abatneh
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1085-1091;

Genus Streptomyces is gram-positive bacteria that grow in various environments. It has plentiful biotechnological attributes on the area of agricultural, bioremediation, biofuel, clinical, food, industrial, medical, pharmaceutical, and veterinary. The aim of the review is to frontward challenges to explore potent Streptomyces species in the case of Ethiopia. There is lack of the extent and quality of the genetic research regarding to genome sequence, bioactive compound discovery, and genetic manipulation. Their functional and structural diversity is not full studied. To find a new Streptomyces species: Culture media formulation and optimization as wells culture-independent method like Next Generation Sequencing approach should incorporate at national level.
Gulrukh Hamid, Asim Shahzad, Abrar Hussain Mian
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1074-1077;

The present cross sectional study aimed to determine the frequency of gingivitis among 21 to 70 old patients at Periodontal Department of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 133 patients were observed by using Word Health Organization (WHO) sample size calculator with the following assumption, confidence level = 95%, Anticipated absolute precision = 8% and Population proportion = 33.4%. Standard proforma (questionnaire) and non-probability consecutives sampling technique was used for the sample collection with inclusion and exclusion base criteria for the study fulfillment. Results showed that mean age was 60 years with standard deviation + 8.34. 63 (47.36%) of patients were male and 70 (52.63%) were female. Male patients had gingival inflammation affected more 50 (79.36%) as compared to female 17 (24.28%). Total sample prevalence of mild, moderate and sever gingivitis was 43 (64.17%), 20 (29.85%) and 4 (5.97%). Percentage of mild gingivitis in females was less than males (58.82% vs. 66%), moderate gingivitis percentage was also slightly less in females than males (29.41% vs. 30%). However percentage of females having severe gingivitis was found higher than males (11.76% vs. 4%). Out of 133 patients 67 (50.37%) were analyzed as gingivitis while 66 (49.62%) patients were without gingivitis. It was revealed that the incidence rate of gingivitis was estimated 67 (50.37%) among 133 patients. Patients should need awareness of gingivitis through proper education channel as a result to adopt appropriate oral hygiene practices and other preventive measures to reduce the incidence of this disease and other oral health complications in future.
Mojtaba Ehsanifar, Zeinab Montazeri, Mehravar Rafati
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1159-1162;

Many factors play a role in the risk of dementia, including the environment. Widespread and significant worldwide exposure to noise, the severity of related health consequences, and the limited tools available to the public to protect themselves strongly support the WHO's argument that 'noise pollution is not only an environmental nuisance but also a threat to public health'. Exposures to noise from industrial activities, airport noise, or occupational noise are very important. One of the limitations of such studies is the lack of information about lifestyle habits that can play a key role in a person's risk of dementia. This review suggests that people with more exposure to ambient noise are at higher risk of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and dementia than other people and we examined how chronic noise exposure causes neuropathology such as AD and how it relates to ApoE4 activation. Further studies are essential to expanding global knowledge about the harmful health effects and costs of health care due to noise pollution.
Frauke Elbnik, Regina Folster-Holst
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1148-1153;

Cercarial dermatitis is a neglected zoonotic disease with distribution all over the world’s temperate zones. It is caused by cercariae, a larval stage of parasitic blood flukes of the genus Trichobilharzia that is a parasite of waterfowl. When cercariae burry into human skin, they trigger an allergic reaction that leads to severely itching papules. Goal of this research was to get an overview over the distribution of cercariae in the bathing places of Schleswig-Holstein, the most northern state of Germany. Therefore, all public bathing places were visited and searched for fresh water snails that are the potential intermediate hosts of cercariae. Water snails of different families and genera were collected and examined for the presence of cercariae. Water samples were taken and examined for cercariae via a microscope. Additionally slime samples of the water snails were taken to test a new, time saving method of detection. In total 8 different kinds of water snails were collected and examined, of which the families of Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae proved to be the most common hosts of cercariae. In total, the results indicate a spatial distribution of cercariae shedding snails all over Schleswig-Holstein.
Muhammad Akram, Waqas Ahmed, Abolfazl Jafari-Sales, Nilgun Kusculu, Mounir M Bekhit, Prakash Ramakrishnan, El Hadji Seydou Mbaye, Fahad Said Khan, Omer Kilic, Muhammad Amjad Chishti, et al.
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1197-1201;

Background: As the world witnessed the outbreak of coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19), a disorder developed as a result of a novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), increasing genetics with healthcare evidence suggest a corresponding leadership to SARS as well as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Aim: The aim of this review is to highlight Immune response of human body toward COVID-19. Materials and methods: This was a narrative review. A comprehensive literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using the keywords, Immune Response; COVID-19; Vaccination; SARS-Cov-2; ACE2; Coronavirus; MERS. Results: A flow of viral components passes to the body by means of nostrils, mouth and eyes. SARS-CoV-2 is in a position to continue to become unnoticed extended than numerous influenza or coronaviruses. Its proteins can accomplish entry by unlocking the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein in the lung cells; viruses also possess antigens furthermore recognize that these are what cries the immunity into movement via making antibodies. Investigators demonstrate an extensive variety of immune cells respond to COVID-19 along with valuable source retrieval, discovering that might want to notify the manufacturing of a viable vaccination. Conclusion: The body's natural response to a viral infection is a non-invasive intrinsic response in which macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells limit the virus's progression and may even prevent it by multiplying symptoms. This non-invasive solution is accompanied by an elastic response in which the body produces radicals that primarily adjust to the herpes virus.
Mohammadreza Shahidipak
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1322-1324;

In dark days of Europe, which was a barren science, you saw the world through superstitions of alchemy and methods based on ignorance and speculation. A current of science emerged in medieval world that provided a new definition of science. In modern definition of science, it is knowledge of fixed truths of nature, man and society, which you have acquired with the tools of empirical intellect and by observation and induction, and which have been useful for ensuring the welfare and security of human beings. The background of this scientific current is call to reason, realism and philosophy. The intellect is source of knowledge of world, and the dimensions of the universe are based on principles of philosophy and method of realism. Sarton, leader of historiography of science in middle Ages, introduced Muslims as leaders of science in middle Ages. A collection of health, food, medicine and theoretical treatments is attributed to Muhammad, which has been published under the title of Prophetic Medicine. Ibn Khaldu criticized medicine of Prophet eight hundred years ago. he writes that Prophet was not a physician and a specialist in worldly affairs, and that use of Prophet's medicine does not require observance of status of prophethood The hypothesis of the present study is that despite Ibn Khaldun's criticism, the realism of the Prophet's medical works shows that Prophet's medicine needs new reflection and study, and a special type of medicine is based on trust in divine wisdom in creating an intelligent system between disease and medicine in nature. The present study has analyzed and explained realism in Prophet's medical words about fenugreek and has shown and proved it according to modern medical data. The Prophet issued a general decree regarding fenugreek and said; Hundreds of new laboratory and clinical research in medicine, veterinary medicine, agriculture, biology show general effectiveness of fenugreek in maintaining human health, livestock, nature and environment, and fenugreek is at heart of biology research, which Proves realism of comprehensive speech of Prophet.
Chrysanthus Chukwuma Sr
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1298-1303;

Research and publication are relevant from perspectives in the management of local and global health because disease is perspicuously a geopolitical issue ostensibly linked to gain-of-function research where health diplomacy undergirds present and future global functionalities regarding the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases. These have generated vehement reactions with propensity for extreme geopolitics and gain-of-function natural and anthropogenic activities. Geopolitical parameters and gain-of-function issues impact on the social determinants of health and vice versa. The convening and convergence of countries for unprecedented epidemic or pandemic treaty settings or other formulations to confront emerging and reemerging infectious diseases will afford considerable opportunities concerning challenges in action, preparedness and response. Provisions are pertinent for legal instruments, effective and efficient systems to curb future threats and outbreaks of infectious diseases.
Sami Mili, Rim Ennouri, Manel Fatnassi, Tahani Chargui, Hajer Zarrouk, Houcine Laouar
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 945-953;

The current paper aims to diagnose the state of fisheries of three Chinese carp species whish have been introduced in Tunisian reservoirs since 1981: (silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, herbivorous carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis) and seeks to study the benefits and risks associated with their introduction. Chinese carps cannot reproduce naturally in freshwater reservoirs. Eventually, artificial breeding operations and seeding of the dams with farm-produced fry are carried out by the Technical Centre of Aquaculture every year. Statistical analyses have shown a strong correlation between the landed quantity and the number of fries stocked each year. The impact assessment showed that the risks and benefits associated with the introduction of the three species are variable. Regarding their benefits, it was clear that the herbivorous carp has provided effective and sustainable control of the extensive development of aquatic vegetation in the eutrophic reservoirs and canal systems. The value of the other two species, though, remains less obvious, particularly for the bighead carp. The consequences of their introduction on ecosystems and native species seem to be negligible, especially when the densities are low. Eventually, it seems judicious to increase the stocking of the herbivorous carp, silver carp and bighead carp in Tunisian reservoirs.
Tao Hong, Mohammed Aliye Mohammed, Mideksa Adugna Koricho, Gobena Godena
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 890-901;

Objectives: The study was premised on the notion that insecticide-treated mosquito nets are positively related to malaria prevalence, and that knowledge mediates the relationship between insecticide-treated mosquito nets and malaria. Furthermore, household income was hypothesized to have a moderating effect on the direct and indirect relationships (through malaria knowledge) between insecticide-treated mosquito nets and the prevalence of malaria. Methods: The hypothesized relationships were examined using panel data collected from ten regions of Ethiopia during 2011-2015. Structural equation modeling and the random effect model were used to test the hypotheses. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 13.0. Results: The results were consistent with our proposed hypotheses, showing a significant relationship between the research variables. The findings suggest that malaria knowledge contributes to improving the relationship between insecticide-treated mosquito nets and malaria prevalence. A positively significant indirect effect (β = 0.47, p = 0.003) as well as direct effect (β = 0.28, p = 0.001) was revealed in the study. Furthermore, a positive impact of household income in strengthening the relationship between insecticide-treated mosquito nets and malaria through knowledge was reported, with a considerable value (β = 0.13, p = 0.000). The result also reveals differences in the outcome of malaria prevalence at different levels of household income category, where the indirect effect of insecticide-treated mosquito nets on malaria prevalence via malaria knowledge was positive and significant for households under the second-level income category (β = 0.15, p = 0.000). Conversely, the indirect effect of insecticide-treated mosquito nets on malaria prevalence via malaria knowledge was negative for the high level-income category (β = -0.14, p = 0.022). Besides, insignificant and negative relationships were reported for households under low-level income categories (β = 0.024, p = 0.539). Conclusion: The findings are potentially useful for the health sector to ensure success in infectious disease prevention and control, particularly malaria, and to explain how various factors contribute to the relationship.
Khin Phyu Pyar, Khine Khine Su, Kyaw Wunna, Myo Thant, Kaung Myat, Aung Aung, Zar Ni Htet Aung, Nyan Lin Maung, Aung Phyoe Kyaw, Min Lynn Zaw Oo, et al.
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 929-938;

Background: In COVID-19 pandemic, the diagnosis and treatment must be as early as possible to save the life of each patient. Moreover, screening of asymptomatic carriers, close contacts or healthy subjects must not be delay to prevent transmission to publics. For confirmation of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, nasopharyngeal swab must be tested either by real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) tests or Rapid Antigen Test (RAT). RAT is faster, easier and cheaper; thus, it is suitable for health service in developing country. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of Roche SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) in diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Hospital based exploratory study was done in out-patient department and fever clinic, and molecular laboratory of No. (1) Defence Services General Hospital. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken, and the Roche SARS- CoV-2 RAT was conducted in parallel with RT-PCR test (reference standard). Results: Among the 932 patients/subjects recruited, RT-PCR was positive in 468 individuals, corresponding to a prevalence of 50.2%. The RAT was positive in 363 patients (60.4%), false positive in 120 patients; it was negative in 569 individuals (39.6%), false negative in 225 patients. The overall sensitivity of the RAT was 51.9% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 47.29-56.53) and, the specificity was 74.1% (95% CI 69.9-78.07); positive predictive value was 66.9% and negative predictive value was 60.5%. The sensitivity varied with Ct value; 78% in clinical samples with Ct values < 20, 57.5% in those with Ct values between 21 and 25, 41.8% in samples with Ct values between 26 and 30, and, 36.4% in samples with Ct value > 30. Conclusion: The accuracy of the SARS-CoV-2 Roche RAT in diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infections was inferior to RT-PCR and manufacturer’s data. The sensitivity was with low Cycle threshold values < 20 which were inversely related to the viral load. RAT test should be used in association with clinical impression of physicians. In hospital setting especially in emergency department, the role of RAT should be reconsidered in those patients presenting with anosmia and some cases of dyspnoea, late symptoms in the course of disease, as the RAT results would be false negative. Other errors may arise if the operator for RAT has to handle more than recommended tests per hour especially in the peak of epidemics.
Mojtaba Ehsanifar, Banihashemian Ss, Masoud Ehsanifar
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 964-976;

Urban air pollutants exposure is known as a source of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress that causes the Central Nervous System (CNS) and neuropathology disease. Transition metals, Particulate Matter (PM), including PM 2.5 (PM <2.5 μm) and PM 0.1 (PM <0.1μm), nitrogen oxides and ozone are of potent or oxidant capable of producing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Redox-sensitive pathways can be caused by oxidative stress, leading to various biological processes, including inflammation and cell death. The incidence of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) and stroke are associated with exposure to air pollution. Some recent findings suggest that urban air pollutants reach the brain in addition to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and affect the CNS health too. While the underlying CNS pathology mechanisms induced air pollutants exposure are not well understood, recent studies show that changes in Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) and microglial activation are key components. In this work, we reviewed the new evidence of the mechanisms by which ambient air pollution reach the brain and activate innate immune response as a source of oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory factors.
Sotiria Moza, Georgios M. Hadjigeorgiou, Nikolaos Scarmeas, Efthimios Dardiotis, Mary Yannakoulia, Mary H. Kosmidis
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 905-914;

Background: Poor pesticide handling practices are recorded on a regular basis in Greece, where the average farmer is elderly. This raises concerns regarding their compliance with pesticide regulations and the associated health implications. Our purpose in undertaking the present study was to examine elderly farmers’ attitudes regarding pesticide handling and safety issues, as well as, the potential link between pesticide exposure and daily functioning capacity. Methods: Participants were 1443 elderly individuals, 276 of whom reported long-term, direct exposure to pesticides (spraying in gardens, open fields, and/or a greenhouse). Several aspects of pesticide handling were gleaned via a self-report questionnaire. Ability to perform everyday tasks was assessed with the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale. Results: On average, participants were not consistent with respect to safety practices. Half could not recall the specific brand names of the pesticides they used and 47.5% reported using chemical cocktails, often exceeding the maximum recommended frequency of applications per year. In many cases, they reported application of banned pesticides, such as DDT, and more than half reported applying pesticides without protective equipment. Analyses showed that exposure to pesticides was associated with impaired everyday functioning (OR = 1.16; 95%, CI = 1.04-1.28) and specifically, with an inability to interpret surroundings and recall recent events, a tendency to dwell on the past and changes in bladder-sphincter control. Conclusion: We found poor awareness and adherence to safety practices regarding pesticide use among elderly farmers, as well as an association between pesticide use and everyday functioning. Relevant health and environmental implications are discussed.
Rocco Galimi
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 902-904;

The author reports the case of C. canimorsus meningitis consecutive to Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection in a 51-year-old man. Human infection is rare but can lead to devastating outcomes. In patients in whom shortly after a dog or cat bite symptoms of meningitis occurred, C. canimorsus infection should be considered. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of C. canimorsus among physicians when faced with a patient presenting with meningitis, who has been exposed to dogs or cats. Clinicians should adopt a higher clinical suspicion in the absence of classical risk factors. Although mortality is relatively low, survivors often have neurological sequelae. This case report highlights the importance of thorough history taking to assess risk of underlying C. canimorsus infection, even in immunocompetent hosts.
Shanti Lal Choubisa, Anurag Choubisa
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 920-925;

Fluorosis in man and animals is the resultant of chronic exposure of Fluoride (F) for prolonged period through F contaminated drinking water and foods and industrial F pollution. However, fluoridated water and industrial F emissions are the major sources of F exposure for humans and domestic animals. Chronic F exposure not only deteriorate the health of human beings and animals but also causes diverse adverse toxic effects on hard (teeth and bones) and soft (organs) tissues. Various F induced pathological changes in teeth and bones are known as dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. However, skeletal fluorosis is more dangerous and highly significant since it diminishes the mobility at a very early age and develops crippling or lameness bone deformity. Thousands of people and domestic animals are suffering with fluorosis worldwide. Dental fluorosis is rampant and the commonest form of chronic F toxicosis and appears in subjects of almost all age groups. However, children and bovine calves are relatively more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the earliest clinical sign of chronic F poisoning in the form of dental fluorosis. Hence, these are ideal bio-indicators for chronic F intoxication or fluorosis. Nevertheless, the magnitude or severity of fluorosis is much more depending on the density and rate of bio-accumulation of F. Biological samples, milk, urine, blood serum, teeth, nails, etc. are better bio-markers for F intoxication. However, urine F concentration is the best bio-marker for endemic of F and fluorosis. In this communication, ideal bio-indicators and bio-markers for endemic of F and fluorosis and diverse potential determinants influencing the severity of F toxicity (fluorosis) are considered and briefly and critically reviewed. Findings of this review are useful in making and implementation of health policy and the commencement of mitigation and control of fluorosis programme in F endemic areas where it is problematic for human and animal health.
Sudikshya Acharya, Basant Pant, Avinash Chandra, Ayush Chandra
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1015-1017;

The Foville’s Syndrome is a rare clinical feature of stroke or brain hemorrhage. This is very rare brain stem syndrome and only few cases have been reported worldwide. A case of Foville's syndrome secondary to infarction at the left paramedian pontine region, which was diagnosed and treated at Annapurna Neurological institute and allied Science, Kathmandu, Nepal. A 62 years old gentleman presented with acute headache with sudden onset of vertigo, tinnitus, slurred speech, difficulty while swallowing and numbness and hemiparesis on the right side of the body. The aim of this study was to report a rare case of Foville's syndrome with the infarction at the left paramedian pontine region. The clinical manifestations were well correlated with anatomical involvement. The CT-scan of head, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), MR-Angiogram (MRA) sequence of cerebral and carotid, etc. helped in the diagnosis of the case along with the other lab investigations.
Nabil H Elsayed, Ghada M. Taha, Ola A. Mohamed
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1035-1043;

A step towards minimizing the environmental pollution of leather tanning , leather chrome shavings wastes were treated with Li2CO3 to extract technical or industrial gelatin as an added value material. Isolation and characterization of gelatin obtained from chrome-tanned shavings were done. The alkali hydrolysis products obtained, showed good physical and chemical properties in terms of gel strength, swelling and thermal stability. The optimum hydrolysis conditions using Li2CO3 were found to be 5 hr. extraction at 80°C, swelling time of one day and pH 9.5. The yield was over one third of the original starting waste material.
Lorena Pantaleon, Andre Rinaldi Fukushima, Leonardo Ribeiro de Paula, Guilherme Mendes Ribeiro, Beatriz Do Prado Pacca, Juliana Weckx Pena Munoz, Helenice De Souza Spinosa, Esther Lopes Ricci
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1044-1058;

Herbicides represent the largest portion of pesticides used both worldwide and in Brazil. Many of these compounds are applied on a large scale in native forests and in urban and industrial water environments, including atrazine. Due to its low cost, ability to remain active in the soil for long periods and potential effect on weed removal, atrazine ranks 5th in the ranking of most used pesticide in Brazil. Although the use of pesticides increases agricultural production, their intensive use can often cause negative effects on fauna and flora. Studies have shown that exposure to atrazine can cause various harmful effects in mammals, of both sexes, such as structural, neuroendocrine and/or behavioral changes. Considering the seriousness of the situation and the possible toxicological and pathological implications that atrazine can generate in the animal organism, the objective of this work was to carry out an integrative literature review in order to verify the scientific panorama on issues related to atrazine exposure and its impacts, mainly with regard to its toxicity on the central nervous system. To carry out this article, a bibliographic survey of scientific material obtained in the following databases was carried out: US National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health (PubMed), Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences - LILACS), Science Direct and Google® Academic, in the last 25 years. The MeSH Terms used in the search were: “Parkinson's disease”, “atrazine”, “herbicide” and “endocrine disruptor”. The following were found in the Science Direct indexers: 115 records, PubMed 52 records, in LILACS no articles were found, and 1330 records were found in Google® Academic.
Osuntokun Ot, Azuh Vo, Adejoro Bf, Akele Eo
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1018-1034;

The aim of this study is to comparative study between conventional and molecular assay of isolation, identification and characterization of non-leguminous endophytic bacteria and fungi in the leguminous root samples. The plant root samples, Helianthus annuus, Carica papaya and Lycoperesicum solanum (Sunflower root and stem, pawpaw root and stem, and tomato root and stem from Adekunle Ajasin University School farm, Akungba Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria. The isolation of endophytic bacteria were performed using the conventional method of isolation (biochemical test) and characterization were done using both the conventional and molecular method of bacteria characterization. The antibiotic susceptibility test (Antibiogram) was observed using disc diffusion. The four bacteria identified were Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter sp. Actnomycoses sp. and Aeromonas sp. for conventional method and Fusarium solani, Fusarium vortecelium and Bacillus thuringiensis for molecular method as confirmatory point of view. In this study, all isolated organisms tends to be Gram positive using the gram staining technique. Antibiogram shows the zones of inhibition with diameter ranging from 0-20 mm, Enterobacter sp. were more sensitive to the various antibiotics used. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer was also used to determine the growth dynamic as well as the death rate of the isolates, the addition of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin) to the isolates at the 24th hour speed up the death rate of the isolates from non-leguminous endophytic bacteria. After the preliminary identification of the bacteria isolates and the confirmatory identification of both bacteria and fungi isolates of the non-leguminous endophytic microorganism, it was noted that the preliminary identification was only able to achieve the genus level of taxonomic characterization, While the molecular method confirm the molecular sub level identification of isolates depletes the absolute taxonomic identification and characterization to the sub-species level. The results of this study validates the use of molecular sequencing for the assay identification and characterization of non-leguminous endophytic bacteria and fungi as the easy and best mode of identification of both bacteria and fungi isolates as a veritable tools for research purposes.
Mojtaba Ehsanifar, Banihashemian Ss, Farzaneh Farokhmanesh
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 954-958;

Stroke is one of the main causes of death attributed to air pollution. Significant research has now shown that urban air pollutants exposure has been established as a source of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress that causes Central Nervous System (CNS) disease. Transition metals, Particulate Matter (PM) including fine particles (PM ≤ 2.5 μm, PM 2.5) and ultra-fine particles (UFPs, PM <0.1 μm, PM 0.1), nitrogen oxide, and ozone are potent or oxidant that capable of producing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) can reach the brain and affect CNS health. Numerous biological mechanisms are responsible that are not well understood. Recent studies suggest that changes in the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) and or leakage and transmission along the olfactory nerve into the Olfactory Bulb (OB) and microglial activation are the key factors of CNS damage following exposure to air pollution. This preliminary review cites evidence that ambient PM exposure is one of the causes of stroke.
Victor V Apollonov
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 939-942;

Chinese President Xi Jinping, at a meeting with delegates of the People's Liberation Army of China (PLA) during the last session of the National People's Congress (NPC), demanded the introduction of scientific discoveries and innovative technologies in the army. Xi Jinping noted that new technologies are the key to modernizing the Armed Forces. The Chinese leader discussed with the military how to achieve the goals set in the field of national defense and army development and the implementation of the 13th five-year plan for the development of the armed forces. It is safe to say that Laser Weapons (LW) are on the agenda of China/1/
Ricardo Oses Rodriguez, Claudia Oses Llanes, Rigoberto Fimia Duarte
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1059-1066;

In this work, 8 weather variables were modeled at the Yabu meteorological station, Cuba, a daily database from the Yabu meteorological station, Cuba, of extreme temperatures, extreme humidity and their average value, precipitation, was used. The force of the wind and the cloudiness corresponding to the period from 1977 to 2021, a linear mathematical model is obtained through the methodology of Regressive Objective Regression (ROR) for each variable that explains their behavior, depending on these 15, 13, 10 and 8 years in advance. It is concluded that these models allow the long-term forecast of the weather, opening a new possibility for the forecast, concluding that the chaos in time can be overcome if this way of predicting is used, the calculation of the mean error regarding the forecast of persistence in temperatures, wind force and cloud cover, while the persistence model is better in humidity, this allows to have valuable information in the long term of the weather in a locality, which results in a better decision making in the different aspects of the economy and society that are impacted by the weather forecast. It is the first time that an ROR model has been applied to the weather forecast processes for a specific day 8, 10, 13 and 15 years in advance.
Divya Chauhan, Mohammad Ashfaq, Neetu Talreja, Ramalinga Viswanathan Managalraja
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 977-984;

Recently 2D materials are booming in the field of energy, environment, and biomedical application. Incorporation of metal/non-metal within 2D materials significantly influences the physical and chemical properties, making them intriguing materials for various applications. The advancement of 2D material requires strategic modification by manipulating the electronic structure, which remains a challenge. Herein, we describe 2D materials for the environment, energy, and biomedical application. A predominant aim of this short communication is to summarize the literature on the advanced environment, energy, and biomedical application (especially COVID-19).
Emmanuel Kwateng Drokow, Clement Yaw Effah, Clement Agboyibor, Gloria Selorm Akpabla, Kai Sun
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 985-998;

Cervical cancer if not detected and treated promptly can be lethal to females. In several advanced nations, the relevance of coordinated screening services has been implemented. Nevertheless, most developing nations have not implemented a nationwide screening and vaccination programme accessible to all women owing to inadequate screening and vaccination services coupled with vaccine scepticism, misconception concerning vaccination, and lack of awareness are causing an upsurge in Africa's cervical cancer cases. Cervical cancer could be greatly reduced if comprehensive screening services and HPV vaccination are implemented. In this review, we discussed the cervical cancer incidence in Africa, factors influencing the high rate of cervical cancer in Africa, screening and HPV vaccination programs and the potential intervention and recommendations to reduce the incident and mortality rates of cervical cancer in Africa. Also, we highlighted the disadvantages and advantages of widely accessible screening tests in Africa.
David Cabello Garrido, Guillaume Buiret
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 915-919;

Aim: To evaluate the impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) on posturographic parameters. Objective: The primary objective was to evaluate whether the mean gain of the Visually Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex VVOR), the parameter most likely to be modified in case of central damage, decreased in patients diagnosed with OSAHS. The secondary objective was to verify if the other parameters of videonystagmography and posturography varied according to the presence or not of OSAHS. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of posturographic parameters of patients previously tested by polygraphy (whether or not they had OSAHS). Results: In the 66 patients included, the mean VVOR gains did not differ significantly between the "no OSAHS" vs. "OSAHS" groups (respectively 0.88 vs. 0.71, p = 0.1224). None of the other parameters measured, such as the mean caloric deficits, the mean weights of vestibular, visual and somesthetic afferents measured by posturography, the mean gains of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, and the frequency of falls on the posturograph, had a statistically different distribution according to the presence or absence of OSAHS. Conclusion: We did not show any significant difference in posturographic parameters according to the presence or absence of OSAHS, in particular the absence of vestibular and/or central involvement.
Steward Mudenda
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 999-1004;

Background: Increased acceptance and uptake of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines is very essential in containing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccine hesitancy is a threat to public health containment of infectious diseases. Aim: The main aim of this study was to review published articles regarding COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and hesitancy across all populations in Africa. Materials and methods: This was a narrative review. A comprehensive literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using the keywords vaccine acceptability, vaccine hesitancy, COVID-19 vaccine, COVID-19 pandemic, H1N1 vaccine, swine flu, swine flu vaccine, Africa, and the Boolean word AND. The cited literature was published between March 2001 and June 2021. Results: The few studies were done in Africa so far are among healthcare workers and medical students. Acceptance of vaccination against COVID-19 in Africa ranged from 15.4% to 55.9%. This shows increased hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccines in African countries. Many people were concerned about the potential adverse effects and ineffectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. Misinformation about the COVID-19 vaccines has contributed to the hesitancy reported from different studies. Moreover, sociodemographic characteristics were also predictors of the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines. Conclusion: Low acceptability rates reported in Africa indicates increased hesitancy to vaccination against COVID-19. The low acceptance of vaccines in Africa can hinder the required 60-70% vaccinations to achieve herd immunity. Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies that will address hesitancy against the COVID-19 vaccines across countries and populations in Africa and the entire globe.
Steward Mudenda, Mutinta Hankombo, Zikria Saleem, Mohammad Jaffar Sadiq, Michelo Banda, Derick Munkombwe, Chiluba Mwila, Maisa Kasanga, Annie Chibwe Zulu, Jimmy Mapenzi Hangoma, et al.
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1005-1014;

Background: Antimicrobial/Antibiotic Resistance (AMR) is among the major threats to global health. Due to limited information on the subject matter in Zambia, we assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices of community pharmacists on AMR and Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS). Materials and Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study among 144 randomly selected community pharmacists through a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22 at a 95% confidence level. The Fisher’s exact test was used to determine the relationship between sociodemographic factors of community pharmacists and their knowledge, attitude, and practices on antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial stewardship. Results: A response rate of 91% (n = 144) was achieved. Interestingly, 93.8% had good knowledge while 67% had positive attitudes regarding AMR and AMS. Conversely, 75% of the community pharmacists demonstrated poor practices towards AMR and AMS. The majority of the CPs 69.4% agreed that antibiotic resistance is a public health problem. The majority of the CPs 57.6% agreed that the appropriate use of antibiotics improves patient care and outcome. Of concern, (32.6%) of CPs rarely collaborated with other healthcare workers in activities that promote infection control and AMS. Also, the majority of the CPs did not take part in antibiotic awareness campaigns nor educate the public on antibiotic use and over 80% of CPs regularly issued antibiotics without a prescription. Conclusions: Even though community pharmacists had good knowledge and positive attitudes, they demonstrated poor practices that require quick educational interventions. As most CPs issue antibiotics without a prescription, this should be highlighted as a major policy issue on AMR and should be addressed by the Government. There is a need to promote AMS sensitization programmes among community pharmacists.
Janjua Nb, Birmani Sa, Maeve White, Sarah Siu, Asish Das
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 926-928;

Presentation: A 35 year old woman, gravida 7 para 7, all vaginal deliveries, presented with labour pains at 39 weeks’ gestation with intact membranes. Cardiotocograph (CTG) was reassuring. Diagnosis: Breech presentation was confirmed by an ultrasound. Treatment: The patient was offered options of External Cephalic Version (ECV) versus (vs) Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS). She opted for ECV which was successful, followed by controlled artificial rupture of membranes. She delivered a healthy baby girl vaginally and was discharged home on day 1 postpartum. Conclusion: Although intrapartum ECV is not recommended routinely, there is a place for its judicious use in selective cases. The prerequisites include an experienced obstetrician, reassuring CTG, previous vaginal delivery, no obstetric indication for performing LSCS, adequate amniotic fluid volume with intact membranes, early labour, and informed maternal consent. We recommend keeping theatre on standby while performing ECV in case an obstetric complication arises.
Iribar Dieguez Ik, Lucas Cabornero J, Lopetegui Cano M
Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, pp 777-778;

We present the electrocardiogram (Figure 1) of a 14-year-old man in which, without related pathology, and incidentally in the context of a consultation for another reason, a U wave was detected in precordial leads V3 and V4. Does that U wave have pathological significance?
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