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Karima Bouaiss, Ludovic Vigneron
Abstract:
This research study combines the theoretical teachings of revealed preferences, signal theory and weak tie theory to better understand the dynamics at work at the beginning of a campaign and to explain its success. By identifying the revealed preferences of early backers through their common past contributions, we characterize as strong or weak the nature of the complex preference ties between them. We build networks of the contributions made by the individuals identified as early backers to 9,425 campaigns run on the Ulule platform between July 2010 and September 2014. The results of this study underline the importance of the presence of strong preference ties between early backers and other platform users for the success of campaigns. They also corroborate the theory of the strength of weak ties. Later in the campaign, the intervention of backers with less specific preferences, in the position of intermediaries, positively influences the future outcome by accelerating the fundraising speed at the beginning of the campaign.
Odile Paulus
Abstract:
In his book Making: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture, Tim Ingold describes human action after having studied the four fields mentioned in the title. The anthropologist recommends that researchers live with the group of people being studied. He criticizes the hylemorphic approach of human action, according to which human beings are seen to impose a preconceived form from their mind onto matter, or the material. Instead, he proposes a theory of life in society based on so-called lines of correspondence. Drawing on the cases of a prehistoric human being, a medieval craftsperson and an artist, he sees these to be experiencing, with other beings and with objects, lines of correspondence defined by attention and transformation and which are developed in a process.
Fernanda Arreola, Véronique Favre-Bonte, Sébastien Tran
Abstract:
Corporate accelerators are often viewed as a way to capture innovation from startups. In this study, we present a fresh understanding of the specific role of corporate accelerators in accessing a number of strategic resources held by startups other than innovation. This research study explores the ways in which corporations use corporate accelerators to acquire resources held within the strategic factor markets in which startups compete. Using six in-depth case studies of corporate accelerators and 43 interviews with accelerators, corporations, and startups, we investigate the type of strategic resources that can be accessed by firms via corporate accelerators. We also explain the dynamics through which corporations gain access to some of these strategic resources.
Sophie Michel, Karim Ben-Slimane
Abstract:
An organization’s identity, as defined by its members, must be aligned with its collective identity prescribed by institutions. This alignment is broken when an institutional change threatens the collective identity and jeopardizes the existence of a group of organizations. They then undertake to carry out identity work, both internal and external, in order to establish a new alignment. Based on a single case study, this research article explores the interplay between the two forms of identity work: internal and external. The findings of this study reveal that introspective internal identity work feeds the work to repair the collective identity with traditional values that have been rediscovered thanks to a reflexive examination of self by the organization. By internal extrospection identity work, the external identity repair work is fed with new values that the organization internalizes and enacts in its practices. Based on these findings, this article puts forward new theoretical propositions, as well as a model of the interplay between internal and external identity work that aims to realign the organization’s identity with that of the collective.
Hélène Peton, Antoine Blanc
Abstract:
Through the controversial history of asbestos use in France, we study a long deinstitutionalization process marked by alternating phases of acceleration and deceleration. To understand these changes of pace, we reveal interactions over the long term between action profiles that differ in terms of the type of agency (strategic or pragmatic) and the resource mobilization process (leveraging, accumulation, or convening) involved. Analyzing a rich corpus of documentary data triangulated with interviews, we draw up a schema of the complex deinstitutionalization process concerning asbestos in France. We then set out four theoretical propositions about the temporal dynamics of deinstitutionalization: (1) defensive action essentially involves leveraging efforts that promote long phases and help to slow down the pace of deinstitutionalization; (2) disruptive action produces slow, incremental effects through marginal integration of changes into existing institutional schemas. The acceleration phase of deinstitutionalization is temporally bounded by the disruptive actors’ resources; (3) the acceleration and deceleration phases of deinstitutionalization hinge on the perception of urgency, which is a factor of instrumentalization for strategic actors; and (4) convening is a form of mobilization that significantly slows down the pace of deinstitutionalization.
Pensée plurielle, pp 67-76; https://doi.org/10.3917/pp.052.0067

Abstract:
The situation in Québec and that of French-speaking African countries differ in many respects, both demographically and economically. Despite these differences, all of these countries share the same fundamental challenge, namely the need to adjust the supply of health and social services to the demographic transition resulting from their overall ageing population. While Quebec’s demographics are undergoing a near-complete transition, the adjustment of health and social services to the current needs of the population remains work-in-progress. The article will introduce Québec’s demographic situation and then outline the choices that presided over the conceptual and then functional transition of the organization of health and social services in Quebec. In conclusion, this article outlines some important lessons that the African reader may eventually transfer to his context.
Gérard-François Dumont
Les Analyses de Population & Avenir, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.3917/lap.034.0001

Abstract:
France has five overseas departments, all located thousands of kilometers from metropolitan France : Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, Reunion Island and, finally, Mayotte, a department since 2011. The combination of the historical geography of their populations and their contemporary demographic trends, in the context of territories of widely varying size, highlights significant differences in settlement patterns. As for population dynamics, should we think that they are converging ? To answer this question, it is necessary to analyze the natural movement and the migratory movement. A typology can be derived from this, making it possible to highlight a high probability of very dissimilar future developments.
Aurélia Gaillard
Dix-huitième siècle, pp 407-426; https://doi.org/10.3917/dhs.053.0407

Abstract:
From the premise of an eighteenth-century double reassessment of spectators’ emotions and of sculpture, there follows the question of what their interconnection is. What do emotions do to sculpture and what does sculpture do for the emotions? Sculpture, better than painting and poet-ry or in competition with them, became in eighteenth-century art discourse the one art that made it possible to achieve the desired empathy between spectator and objet d’art. The demonstration uses the privileged example of the Laocoon (from Van Opstal’s lecture at the Academy in 1667 to Lévesque’s article in 1792) but also the example of Pygmalion and it explores the shifts that take place between conceptions of sculpture as an expression of passions, sensitive impression, compassion, empathy or even in being a simulacrum of the living body. Thus, sculpture and emotions tend to merge in the eighteenth-century aesthetic experience: the statue is in turn, and sometimes even simultaneously, an emotional body and a body that arouses emotion.
Lise Andries
Dix-huitième siècle, pp 49-65; https://doi.org/10.3917/dhs.053.0049

Abstract:
Despite the heavy presence of police in towns, French society experienced throughout the eighteenth century and without interruption numerous movements of more or less violent protest. This article studies the various manifestations of popular protest inside Paris, and its surroundings, ranging from insulting words and satiric songs to forms of rebellion identifiable as being against the Ferme générale. Riots caused by hunger, illegal hunting and trading, and the tensions relating to specific sentences will also be examined. Finally, the armed bands led by brigands whose fame was only embellished throughout the eighteenth century, with some of them changing into revolutionary leaders and heroes of the struggles of national independence, will then be studied.
Geneviève Boucher, Camille Noûs
Dix-huitième siècle, pp 143-160; https://doi.org/10.3917/dhs.053.0143

Abstract:
In his urban paintings, Mercier casts an analytical eye on the people of Paris, being keen to convey their mores and describe their conditions of living. Far from being a stable entity, the people feature as a complex matter, full of rifts and ever reconfigured. The Revolution accentuated the divisions in presenting to the eyes of the historian stroller two forms of popular commitment, corresponding to two moments in revolutionary history, two emotional registers and two modes of perception of historical time. On the one hand, the heroic people of 1789 is characterized by its unity, by the spontaneity of its action, by its unmediated commitment and by its confident enthusiasm. On the other hand, the treacherous people of 1793 is the product of internal divisions and of emotional disorder : manipulated by the Jacobins, it was not a fully-fledged agent and expends its energy in the expression of uncontrolled anger which degenerated into fury. Mercier, in this way, makes a call to mistrust the emotive register on which the Terror is founded and promotes a return to reason.
Nouvelle Revue de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence, pp 105-123; https://doi.org/10.3917/nrea.004.0105

Abstract:
Neknomination is a game that emerged on social networks, between 2013 and 2014, involving the fact of filming oneself swallowing a significant amount of alcohol, before broadcasting this video on the Internet and naming in turn several people who will have to do the same in a determined period. This article describes and revisits this adolescent practice as an ephemeral anthropological phenomenon that bears witness to pubertal processes in their encounter with virtual space. Based on interviews conducted with "neknominees", we propose several lines of thought that aim to shed light on the emergence of this practice and the processes that underlie it. Between processes of imitation, identification and commitment, but also the search for limits, Neknomination appears as a "game of challenge" that deploys the adolescent psyche in virtual space. The extimate character of the latter has an influence on pubertal processes, transforming an intimate and ephemeral experience into a potentially lasting inscription. Thus, Neknomination, beyond its manifest character presented as playful and creative, also testifies to depressive affects and experiences of shame that question the latent logics of this practice in the contemporary anthropological space.
Paul Avan
Annales des Mines - Responsabilité et environnement, pp 12-15; https://doi.org/10.3917/re1.103.0012

Abstract:
Among physical agents, waves have the capacity for being propagated while conveying information, and, sometimes too, danger due to their energy or the changes induced. Hearing, which relies on acoustic waves, is a prime sense for intra- and interspecies communication. It is even more important for human beings since it is the very basis of speech and music. One of the major health problems in the coming decades, as the WHO has pointed out, is the nuisance or even danger of audible sound waves, when they interfere, often subtly, with the comfort or health of the people exposed to them. However acoustics is also contributing to progress in the field of health. The use of inaudible hyperfrequencies has served to develop the imaging and high-resolution techniques that, used to examine the body without danger, are not expensive and are, therefore, affordable in less developed countries.
Catherine Viot, Caroline Bayart, Charlote Lecuyer, Agnès Lancini
Gestion 2000, pp 17-40; https://doi.org/10.3917/g2000.382.0017

Abstract:
Smart Connected Products (SCPs), which can gather, analyze and generate data, are now part of the daily humans’ environment and are widely courted by innovative firms. Despite the accelerating development of SCPs, which become an attractive opportunity for many companies, the key drivers of their adoption by consumers are little-known. The main objective of this research is to give a better understanding of the consumer intention to adopt two main SCPs : “wearables” (e.g. connected watch) and mobility equipment (e.g. SCPs connected to an insurance company). The Theory of Planned Behavior offers a relevant framework to explain the adoption of SCPs, but adding new variable, as gadget love, is necessary to explain the intention to adopt these multi-faceted products. Thanks to an empirical study conducted on a sample of 362 adults, followed by a structural equation modelling, this research shows that the main drivers of intention to adopt SCPs vary according to the type of objects, which is identified as a strong moderator.
David Caumartin
Annales des Mines - Responsabilité et environnement, pp 40-43; https://doi.org/10.3917/re1.103.0040

Abstract:
Founded in 2004, Theraclion is an innovative medium-sized French firm with the ambition of developing a scalable, efficient robotic platform for noninvasive treatments that use ultrasounds, thanks to echotherapy. Theraclion’s history is presented while insisting on the ups and downs of its development, in particular in France, and on its prospects.
Abstract:
This article focuses on interdisciplinary experiments conducted at the interface between archaeological and computational sciences, along a recently finalized research project. Combining the sociology of science and infrastructure studies, we explore the modalities of hybridization and confrontation between these two distinct epistemic traditions, and the way in which artificial intelligence and virtual reality inform and support scientific reasoning in prehistoric archaeology. We draw on an analysis of archival documents, filmed ethnographic observations and semi-structured interviews to trace the history of the project and its successive reconfigurations. This allows us to analyse the heuristic conditions for the importing of computational devices into the archaeological sciences. We also show that this involves a fine adjustment of the distance between the archaeologists and the computer.
Pierre Hurmic, François Euvé
Abstract:
Pierre Hurmic est maire de Bordeaux depuis 2020. Son itinéraire est fortement marqué par la rencontre de Jacques Ellul et sa critique du « système technicien », y compris dans le champ politique. Cela l’a conduit à s’engager dans la mouvance écologiste, tout en gardant sa liberté de parole. S’y ajoute un héritage chrétien, sous l’influence de Charles Péguy et de Simone Weil, où l’ouverture verticale à la transcendance croise l’engagement concret dans le quotidien.
Lotfi Abouda, Yossra Ben Ahmed
Abstract:
Inš’Allah introduces a significant proportion of future tense utterances in Tunisian Arabic. This sequence has a multitude of secularized uses, resulting from the pragmaticalization of its initial religious meaning. The objective of this article is, on the one hand, to identify the origin of the expression and to restitute the pragmaticalization mechanism it has undergone, and, on the other hand, to determine its distributional properties and its main semantic-pragmatic values in context. The identification of the types of use and their classification is based on the exhaustive exploration of an authentic oral corpus of about 450 occurrences. Their study allows the recognition of a multitude of distinct contextual uses. These uses will be described and illustrated, before being linked by a hypothesis of anthropological explanation: the use of this sequence would reflect a conception of the future as a magical time not entirely domesticated.
Bérangère Deschamps, Céline Barrédy
Revue de l’Entrepreneuriat, Volume 20, pp 9-12; https://doi.org/10.3917/entre.201.0009

Management & Avenir, pp 67-89; https://doi.org/10.3917/mav.123.0067

Abstract:
This article uses an analytical framework based on strategic innovation and resource-based view. Innovation is present in the literature on tourism management, but it very rarely appears as a strategic innovation (Hjalager, 2010) and is not mobilized in a crisis management context. We use resource theory to propose the application of an exploration and innovation perspective as a response to a crisis situation in the tourism sector. The analysis is based on the case study technique through interviews and document review (Yin, 1984). The results show four classes that correspond well to the four categories of the blue ocean grid (eliminate, reduce, raise, create). Our results show that it is possible to adopt an exploration approach and to undertake a disruptive reconfiguration of the existing economic model in the case of Reunion Island.
Didier Moreau
Le Télémaque, pp 17-24; https://doi.org/10.3917/tele.059.0017

Abstract:
Contemporary humanity seems to be torn between “iconoclastic barbarians” and “profaning blasphemers”. In this conflict we could find an example of the aporia that Paul Ricœur described between the (weak) hermeneutics of traditions and the (strong) criticism of ideologies. Ricœur offers a way out, which is achieved through a transaction between expectation and memory, where the act of promise is central. This perspective remains metaphysical, and therefore almost theological, and highlights the truth of parousia. After having analyzed this final attempt to understand “a single humanity” that would be at work in the narrative communication, I consider the problem of educational and generational transmission through the category of absence, with the support of a text by François Wahl. It is the idea of educational spectrality that guides the reflection on the ways in which ghosts haunt us, from Comte to Derrida, especially when they cannot be (re) presented.
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