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Masanori Nonaka, Takeshi Hayashibara
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 297-342; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.297

Abstract:
Investigations were carried out on 22 deep-water octocoral specimens in the family Coralliidae sampled from the Emperor Seamounts during 2009 to 2012. The specimens were collected from 350–1100 m deep, mostly from the southernmost region of the Emperor Seamounts. Colonies were identified by visual and microscopic observation of standard morphological characters (colony size, diameters of colony base and branches, diameter and height of autozooid mound, thickness of coenenchyme and sclerite sizes, etc.) along with supporting information from molecular DNA analysis. Half of the 22 specimens were identified as Pleurocorallium cf. pusillum (Kishinouye, 1903), suggesting that the species called “Mid” that was once harvested dominantly in this area was this species. The remaining 11 specimens were identified as genus Hemicorallium Gray, 1867. These were identified as belonging to the following species: one previously described species [H. laauense (Bayer, 1956)], three similar species [H. cf. abyssale (Bayer, 1956), H. cf. regale (Bayer, 1956), H. cf. sulcatum (Kishinouye, 1903)] and three new species (H. kaiyo sp. nov., H. muzikae sp. nov. and H. tokiyasui sp. nov.).
Kazuya Nagasawa, Masato Hirose
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 289-296; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.289

Abstract:
An ovigerous female of a fish ectoparasite Argulus caecus C. B. Wilson, 1922 was collected from a squid, probably Todarodes pacificus (Steenstrup, 1880), from a fixed net installed in Otsuchi Bay, an inlet of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, Iwate Prefecture, northen Japan. Since the original description of A. caecus was insufficient, this paper reports on the morphology of the species based on a detailed examination of the female. In particular, the first and second antennae, the first and second maxillae, and four pairs of legs, whose features were poorly known, are reported in detail. The specimen of A. caecus is inferred to have detached itself and moved from a fish host, perhaps a coastal puffer, to the squid while these two animals were trapped in the net or when they were removed from the net. Following Argulus scutiformis Thiele, 1900, A. caecus is the second species of Argulus found from northern Japan located in the northern temperate or subarctic region, and its occurrence in this region is likely to be affected by the Tsushima Warm Current and its branch, the Tsugaru Warm Current, both of which flow off the coast of the region.
Taiga Kunishima, Ken Maeda, Ryutei Inui, Yusuke Hibino
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 343-349; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.343

Abstract:
A single specimen of Muraenichthys gymnopterus (Bleeker, 1853) was collected from a sandy intertidal flat having rocks and dead corals in the estuarine area of Nagura Amparu, Ishigaki-jima Island, southern Japan, in October 2020. This specimen collection constitutes the first record of M. gymnopterus from Japanese waters. In this study, the diagnostic characters between M. gymnopterus and M. hattae Jordan and Snyder, 1901 are provided, based on our morphological observations of 37 specimens, including Okinawan specimen, and previous studies, as follows: head length [M. gymnopterus 11.8–15.0% of total length (TL) vs. M. hattae 9.4–11.0%], trunk length (24–25.4% of TL vs. 28–31%), the horizontal distance from the dorsal-fin origin to a vertical line through the anus 73–87% of head length vs. 13–49%), the number of vertebrae (total 129–130 vs. 148–155; predorsal 30 vs. 47–53; preanal 41–44 vs. 51–55), the number of the lateral-line pores before the anus (43–45 vs. 51–55). Additionally, the body depth at the gill opening in TL and the trunk length in TL can also be used to distinguish between these two species (2.8–3.7% of TL vs. 1.4–3.0%). Although M. gymnopterus has previously been reported from tropical to temperate regions, we suspect that the records from temperate regions are based on misidentification of M. hattae.
Kentaro Mochizuki, Yoshiaki Kai, Hiromitsu Endo, Hiroyuki Motomura
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 281-287; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.281

Abstract:
Ocosia spinosa Chen, 1981 (Tetrarogidae) is newly recorded from the Pacific coast of Japan, on the basis of 10 specimens (31.3–78.1 mm standard length), having been previously reported only from Taiwan. A revised diagnosis for the species, based on the Japanese specimens plus a single specimen from Taiwan, is given as follows: XV–XVIII, 7 or 8 dorsal-fin rays; III, 4–6 anal-fin rays; usually 13 (rarely 12) pectoral-fin rays; 12–18 lateral-line pores on body; 6–15 gill rakers; usually 28 (rarely 27) vertebrae; 2nd dorsal-fin spine longest, slightly longer than 3rd spine; interspinous dorsal-fin membranes of middle portion of dorsal fin incised for one-fourth to one-third of each spine length; dorsal profile of snout concave; posterior lacrimal spine directed backward, its length about 2–3 times greater than that of anterior lacrimal spine; small lateral lacrimal spine usually present (absent in larger specimens); small spine usually present at anterior end of suborbital ridge in smaller specimens (absent in larger specimens); weak stubby papillae covering upper lip and anterior half to one-third of lower lip; trunk uniformly brownish-red when fresh, without distinct markings (but with faint brownish small blotch near base of middle portion of dorsal fin in some individuals). Although the presence or absence of small spines on the lateral surface of the lacrimal and anterior end of the suborbital ridge has previously been regarded as an important diagnostic character of O. spinosa, examination of the present specimens showed that the character changes with growth. The present specimens represent the first Japanese records, as well as the northernmost and easternmost records for the species. The new English and Japanese standard names “Red Waspfish” and “Aka-hachiokoze”, respectively, are proposed for O. spinosa.
Tsukasa Waki, Mizuki Sasaki, Hajime Matsubara, Satoshi Shimano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 273-279; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.273

Abstract:
The feather mite Pseudalloptinus milvulinus (Trouessart, 1884) was collected from feathers of the Black Kite Milvus migrans (Boddaert, 1783) in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2019. The identification of this mite was based on the form and arrangement of setae on the idiosoma and aggenital region. This study is the first report of this mite species and the genus Pseudalloptinus Dubinin, 1956 in Japan.
Yuzo Ota, Hisanori Kohtsuka, Katsuhiko Tanaka
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 207-216; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.207

Abstract:
Adult male and larva of Gnathia capitellum sp. nov. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae) are described. The specimens were laboratory-reared larvae that infested host fishes collected by longline fishing in a coastal bay of Izu Peninsula and adult males found in dredge samples from shallow water (depth: 11–12 m) of Miura Peninsula, central Japan. Adult males of G. capitellum sp. nov. were easily distinguished from the other species of Gnathia Leach, 1814 from around the world by the small oval head and the inner margin of pylopod without plumose setae. Most other Gnathia species have a large rectangular head and plumose setae present on the article 1 of pylopod. Appearance of the adult male resembles the genus Afrignathia Hadfield and Smit, 2008 rather than Gnathia but Afrignathia has maxilla 1 which is absent in all known male gnathiids in the world including G. capitellum sp. nov. Fish parasitic larva of G. capitellum sp. nov. is also described herein. This larva closely resembles larvae of the genus Gnathia, but can be distinguished from the other Gnathia species by the remarkably oval-shaped basis in pereopods 2–4.
Harutaka Hata, Hiroyuki Motomura
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 197-204; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.197

Abstract:
Eighteen specimens of Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) collected from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan represent the first Japanese specimen-based records of the species. All specimens conformed closely to the diagnosis of S. gibbosa, having the caudal fin uniformly pale, a black spot on the dorsal-fin origin, body scales with centrally discontinuous striae, 26−31+50–57=77–88 gill rakers on the first gill arch, and 18 or 19+14 or 15=32–34 keeled scutes along the body ventral surface. In addition, some previous Japanese records of unidentified clupeoid fishes are reviewed.
Ichiro Takeuchi, Momoko Shiraishi, Ryosuke Mimori
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 225-233; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.225

Abstract:
Caprella nojimaensis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae), inhabiting the gorgonian Calcigorgia gracilis Matsumoto, van Ofwegen, and Bayer, 2019, is described based on a specimen from 1497 m depth in the Nojima Submarine Canyon, off Boso Peninsula, central Japan. The species is closely related to C. gracillima Mayer, 1890, but differs from the latter in gnathopod 2 being positioned near the anterior margin of pereonite 2 and in the presence of paired small mid-dorsal projections on pereonites 2 and 5. The body colour of live material is pale pink, with mouth parts and gnathopod 2 fringed with darker pink, revealing protective colouration that matches that of the host gorgonian. The clinging behaviour in situ is “upright” as recorded by the remotely operated vehicle Hyper-Dolphin, and the presence of dense swimming setae on antenna 2 suggests that the caprellid feeds by filtering material suspended in the bathyal zone.
Mizuki Sasaki, Jason Lee Anders, Minoru Nakao
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 255-272; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.255

Abstract:
The cestode fauna of murid and cricetid rodents in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, was evaluated based on our parasite collection and a review of the literature. Adult and larval cestodes collected from Apodemus speciosus (Temminck, 1844), Myodes rufocanus (Sundevall, 1846), and Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) in Hokkaido were identified by both morphological and molecular diagnoses. A total of 10 species from 5 families were confirmed in our collection. Arostrilepis tenuicirrosa Makarikov, Gulyaev, and Kontrimavichus, 2011, Paranoplocephala kalelai (Tenora, Haukisalmi, and Henttonen, 1985), and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) were recorded for the first time from Hokkaido. A comprehensive look at both the present and previous studies revealed that the cestode fauna of rodents in Japan consists of at least 30 species from 6 families. Among them, 23 species occur in Hokkaido. The species composition is strongly affected by the nearby Eurasian continent, suggesting parasite migrations with rodent hosts over land bridges between Hokkaido and Sakhalin and between Hokkaido and Honshu, the main island of Japan. A DNA barcoding system using sequences of nuclear 28S rDNA and mitochondrial cox1 allowed us to identify cestodes at species and genus levels, even in different developmental stages. The integration of morphological and molecular diagnoses is essential in cestode taxonomy to establish a common ground for biogeographical studies worldwide. The standardization of DNA barcoding is particularly of critical importance.
Daisuke Uyeno, Enjoy Rain
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 249-254; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.249

Abstract:
A copepod, Pseudanthessius chuukensis Uyeno, n. sp. (Cyclopoida: Pseudanthessiidae), is described based on the type specimen obtained from the grouper Epinephelus sp. (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Serranidae) caught in Chuuk Lagoon (North Pacific Ocean), Federated States of Micronesia, North Pacific Ocean. The copepod differs from its congeners in the following female characters: the urosome is 5-segmented; caudal rami are five to six times longer than wide; the distal endopodal segment of leg 1 carries three spines and three setae; leg 4 endopod has two setae, without proximal swellings, and as long as about two-third of that of the exopod. This finding of the copepod is the first record of the family Pseudanthessiidae from the actinopterygian fish.
Takafumi Nakano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 205-206; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.205

Abstract:
The spelling of the specific name monticolus in the scientific name of a spider, Cybaeus monticolus Kobayashi, 2006, does not violate any relevant provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. This spelling is, therefore, the “correct original spelling” of the specific name under Article 32.2 of the Code. Regardless of whether this name is deemed an adjective or a noun in apposition, it should be maintained unaltered when it is combined with the generic name Cybaeus L. Koch, 1868, the gender of which is masculine. The later spelling monticola, as presented in the combination Cybaeus monticola in a recent arachnological treatise and then in an important online taxonomic resource from which its use appears to be spreading, is an “incorrect subsequent spelling” under Article 33.3 of the Code.
Takato Izumi
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 241-247; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.241

Abstract:
Members of the family Haloclavidae, belonging to the order Actiniaria, are characterized by the presence of a large siphonoglyph next to their actinopharynx and an aboral end without a basal disc. Members of the genus Haloclava Verrill, 1899 have been reported primarily from Europe and America, and have not yet been described from Japanese waters based on the collected specimen. In this study, I describe a new species, Haloclava hercules sp. nov., from the Pacific coast of Japan. This new species is chiefly characterized by cudgel-like blunt massive tentacles with knob-like acrospheres in the outer tentacular cycle and gigantic basitrichs over 250 µm in length, which are the largest known from sea anemones.
Ken-Ichi Okumura, Zhe Zhao
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 235-240; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.235

Abstract:
This study describes a new species of the subfamily Coelotinae (Agelenidae) from Kinki district, central Japan, under the name of Coelotes nojimai sp. nov. It resembles C. yodoensis Nishikawa, 1977 and C. nagaraensis Nishikawa, 2009 but is characterized by a male palp with a large and greatly curved conductor and slender spermathecae in the internal genitalia of female specimens. The morphological differences and distribution ranges of these three species have been discussed in detail. In addition, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mt-COI) partial sequences of the new species have been analyzed and documented for future use.
Naoto Sawada, Haruhiko Toyohara, Takafumi Nakano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 217-224; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.217

Abstract:
Sodium hypochlorite has been used for cleaning specimens of freshwater and brackish water snails that are covered with deposits. Our experiments using specimens of two freshwater snail species, Semisulcospira niponica (Smith, 1876) and S. reticulata Kajiyama and Habe, 1961, showed that this traditional method could remove thin deposit layers, including algae, but was not useful for obstinate deposits. We found that a new method using ammonium thioglycolate could be applied to remove obstinate iron-rich deposits. Though ammonium thioglycolate treatment caused loss of gloss inside the aperture, this loss could be prevented by plugging a kneaded eraser into an aperture. Moreover, the new method could clean specimens with little damage of the periostracum. So as to remove deposits with the least damage to shells, 3% w/v sodium hypochlorite was useful for deposits including algae, and 20% w/v ammonium thioglycolate was suitable for cleaning specimens with iron-rich deposits. Degeneration of the microstructure of inner whorls can be avoided by plugged shell apertures with a kneaded eraser in both methods. Shell deposits that are composed of both algae and iron should be treated first with 20% w/v ammonium thioglycolate, and then with 3% w/v sodium hypochlorite to remove the deposits. Appropriate cleaning methods enable accurate examination and long-term preservation of shell specimens.
Shizuma Yanagisawa, Yositaka Sakamaki, Sopark Jantarit, Satoshi Shimano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 191-195; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.191

Abstract:
Specimens of the genus Eucorydia Hebard, 1929 from Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, were compared with eight closely similar congeners: E. aenea (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), E. dasytoides (Walker, 1868), E. yunnanensis Woo, Guo, and Feng, 1986, E. pilosa Qiu, Che, and Wang, 2017, E. guilinensis Qiu, Che, and Wang, 2017, E. tangi Qiu, Che, and Wang, 2017, E. linglong Qiu, Che, and Wang, 2017, and E. tokaraensis Yanagisawa, Sakamaki, and Shimano, 2020, and turned out to be a different species from eight congeners. This species from Thailand is characterized by the specific male genitalia shape: right phallomere 2 (R2) slightly elongated, the basal left area of R2 forming a triangular protrusion, and the basal half of left phallomere 7 (L7) protruded to the left with long spatulate distal half and with a beak-like apex. This species is also characterized by the tegmina containing three orange markings in the middle, and with a pair of orange markings at its base. Based on the above, this species is described as a new species, Eucorydia asahinai sp. nov.
Satoshi Ichise, Yositaka Sakamaki, Satoshi D. Shimano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 171-186; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.171

Abstract:
Difflugia biwae Kawamura, 1918 has been redescribed. Here, the neotype of D. biwae, which was newly collected from its type locality, Lake Biwa, is designated to the species to clarify its taxonomic status. Morphometric characterization of D. biwae was performed. A statistically significant correlation between body length and shell collar diameter was identified in the population of the Lake Biwa, but this correlation was not significant in the population from the Mulan Lake. The PCA scatterplot indicates that the Mulan Lake population could be a separate taxon identified by shorter protuberance length and body length.
Shinichi Tomiyama, Atsushi Fukui
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 187-190; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.187

Abstract:
A single specimen of Bassozetus mozambiquensis Tomiyama, Takami, and Fukui, 2016, collected off southern Brazil in the western South Atlantic and held in the University of Hamburg ichthyological collection, was re-examined. Because the species was previously known only from the western Indian Ocean, solely on the basis of the holotype, the present specimen represents not only the first Atlantic record of the species, but also a ca. 8300 km westward extension of the distributional range. A detailed description of the Atlantic specimen and an updated diagnosis of the species are provided.
Kensuke Yanagi, Takato Izumi
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 153-163; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.153

Abstract:
The sea anemone Capnea japonica (Carlgren, 1940) was described based on two specimens collected in 1914 off the coast of Misaki, Sagami Bay, Japan. Besides the two syntypes, no further specimens are known to have been collected. The original description of C. japonica is brief, and, therefore it is difficult to identify the species based on the available information. In 2014, we collected a single specimen of Capnea Gosse, 1860 from around the type locality of C. japonica and examined its morphological characters, such as the external features, cnidome, and musculature, and then compared it with the syntypes of C. japonica. The characteristic form of tentacles, size and distribution of cnidae, and very strong sphincter muscle in our specimen were a good match to the original description and to the results of examining the syntypes. Based on the topotype and syntypes, we redescribe C. japonica and show its phylogenetic position with newly obtained DNA sequencing data.
Sue Yeon Lee, Seung Tae Kim
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 165-169; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.165

Abstract:
Yunohamella varietas sp. n., from Ulsan Metropolitan City, Korea is newly described based on the male. The new species is closely related to Yunohamella lyrica (Walckenaer, 1841) and Yunohamella serpatusa (Guan and Zhu in Zhu et al., 1993), but can be distinguished from Y. lyrica and Y. serpatusa by the dorsal pattern of the abdomen, shape of embolus, conductor and median apophysis. The new species was collected with a sweep net in rice fields.
Genki Kobayashi, Shigeaki Kojima
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 131-136; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.131

Abstract:
A new species of the genus Travisia Johnson, 1840, the single genus of the family Travisiidae, is described. Specimens of Travisia sanrikuensis sp. nov. were collected in the Sanriku region, Japan, from the lower bathyal zone (871–1684 m depth) of the northwestern Pacific. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the new species is phylogenetically close to Travisia brevis Moore, 1923, but differs from all congeneric species by the following morphological characters: 25 segments, 20 chaetigers, and 19–20 pairs of cirriform branchiae starting from chaetiger 2.
Shizuma Yanagisawa, Shimpei F. Hiruta, Yositaka Sakamaki, Satoshi Shimano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 145-151; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.145

Abstract:
A new species from the cockroach genus Eucorydia Hebard, 1929 from Miyako-jima Island of the Nansei Islands in Southwest Japan was compared to six closely related congeners; E. yasumatsui Asahina, 1971; E. donanensis Yanagisawa, Sakamaki, and Shimano, 2020; E. tokaraensis Yanagisawa, Sakamaki, and Shimano, 2020; E. dasytoides (Walker, 1868); E. guilinensis Qiu, Che, and Wang, 2017; and E. pilosa Qiu, Che, and Wang, 2017. The new species Eucorydia miyakoensis Yanagisawa, Sakamaki, and Shimano, sp. nov. from Miyako-jima Island was characterized by a small overall male body length of 12.5–13.0 mm and tegmina with an uninterrupted orange transversal band in the middle, and a pair of orange pubescent patches at the base. Eucorydia yasumatsui, E. donanensis, E. tokaraensis, the zonata population of E. dasytoides, and E. miyakoensis were divided into five lineages in a maximum likelihood tree generated from a dataset concatenated from five molecular markers (two nuclear: 28SrRNA and histone H3, and three mitochondrial: COII, 12SrRNA, and 16SrRNA). We recognized E. miyakoensis as a distinct species, which was also supported by the pairwise genetic distances (3.4%–6.7%, K2P) of the COI sequences to the other Japanese Eucorydia species.
Kazuya Nagasawa
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 137-143; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.137

Abstract:
Specimens of two species of lernaeopodid copepods, Salmincola edwardsii (Olsson, 1869) and Salmincola markewitschi Shedko and Shedko, 2002, were collected from chars (Salvelinus spp.) reared in exhibition tanks of the Sapporo Salmon Museum, Hokkaido, Japan. Descriptions of these copepods are provided using the specimens. In 1988, adult females of S. edwardsii were found on the gills of southern Asian Dolly Varden, Salvelinus malma krascheninnikova Taranetz, 1933, and those of S. markewitschi in the buccal cavity of whitespotted char, Salvelinus leucomaenis (Pallas, 1814), Nikko char, Salvelinus leucomaenis pluvius (Hilgendorf, 1876), and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814). These copepods are considered to have been introduced to the museum in the late 1980s along with wild chars transported live from natural waters of Hokkaido. Adult copepods have been manually removed using forceps once or twice a year from reared chars, but such infrequent practices have not been effective to eliminate S. markewitschi, which was thus collected again in 2020. In contrast, S. edwardsii was completely eliminated by stopping rearing an infected population of southern Asian Dolly Varden, to which this parasite is host-specific.
Osami Nakamura
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 111-125; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.111

Abstract:
Three new proturan species, Eosentomon villare sp. nov., Pseudanisentomon nasuense sp. nov., and P. villaticum sp. nov., collected from the Nasu Imperial Villa, Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan are described. Eosentomon villare sp. nov. is characterized by the absence of foretarsal sensillum b′1, a long empodium on the hind tarsus, four pairs of anterior setae on abdominal tergite VII (A1, 2, 4, and 5), two anterior and seven posterior setae on sternite VIII, and six setae on sternites IX–X. Both P. nasuense sp. nov. and P. villaticum sp. nov. also lack foretarsal sensillum b′1. Pseudanisentomon nasuense sp. nov. has long empodia on the middle and hind tarsus and five pairs of anterior setae on abdominal tergite IV. Pseudanisentomon villaticum sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by the number of anterior setae on abdominal tergite VII (three pairs: A2, 4, and 5), the absence of foretarsal sensillum c′ and seta x, and rudimentary setae 1 and 2 on tergite XI. In addition to descriptions of these new species, an updated key to species of Pseudanisentomon Zhang and Yin, 1984 is provided.
Daisuke Shimada, Atsushi C. Suzuki, Megumu Tsujimoto, Satoshi Imura, Keiichi Kakui
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 49-63; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.49

Abstract:
Two new species of free-living marine nematodes, Odontophora odontophoroides sp. nov. and Parabathylaimus jare sp. nov., are described from the coastal sand of Langhovde, Lützow-Holm Bay, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Odontophora odontophoroides sp. nov. is the only species in Odontophora Bütschli, 1874 that has bicuspidate odontia. Odontophora odontophoroides sp. nov. is similar to species in Odontophoroides Boucher and Helléouët, 1977 and Synodontium Cobb, 1920 in having bicuspidate odontia, but differs in having a didelphic reproductive system in females. Parabathylaimus jare sp. nov. differs from congeners in the unjointed inner labial and cephalic sensilla, the outer labial sensilla three-jointed in males and two-jointed in females, the position of the amphids, the shorter spicules, and the conical tail without long subterminal setae. Modified generic diagnoses and keys to species are included for Odontophora and Parabathylaimus De Coninck and Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1933. A new combination, Parabathylaimus arthropappus (Wieser and Hopper, 1967) comb. nov., is established.
Hiroshi Ogawa, Yoshitake Takada, Kay Sakuma
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 65-78; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.65

Abstract:
A new species of the sand-burrowing dogielinotid amphipod genus Haustorioides Oldevig, 1958, Haustorioides furotai Ogawa, sp. nov., is described from Banzu tidal flat, east coast of Tokyo Bay, Japan. The new species is mainly characterized by a slender and triangular outer plate of the maxilliped, poorly setose antennae and pereopods, straightly acute posterodistal corner of epimeral plates 2 and 3, and an uncleft and ridged telson. Analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences verified that H. furotai belongs to the monophyletic clade consisting of the other Haustorioides species. Additionally, Eohaustorioides Bousfield and Tzvetkova, 1982, and Parhaustorioides Ren, 2006 are synonymized with Haustorioides based on morphological analysis. An identification key to the species of the genus Haustorioides is also provided.
Alexandr N. Mironov, Toshihiko Fujita
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 101-110; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.101

Abstract:
Hirsutocrinus duplex, a new genus and new species of the Bathycrinidae, collected from Okinawa, Japan at a depth of 596–606 m, is described. The main diagnostic characters of the new genus are the presence of side plates in pinnules and of knobby processes on Brs 1–2. Knobby processes on secundibrachials are found for the first time. Monachocrinus A. H. Clark, 1913 shares side plates with Hirsutocrinus. It differs from the new genus in having knobby processes on IBrs 1, parallel ridges on the articular surface of knobby processes, proximal and distal arm pattern a b+c d+e f, saccules, in lacking knobby processes on IBrs 2 and Brs 1–2, pinnule on every second Br, x-shaped tube-feet plates, needle-like spines on external surface of IBrs and Brs. The cover and side plates are similar to each other in Monachocrinus, and quite different in Hirsutocrinus. Hirsutocrinus duplex is the shallowest species in the abyssal family Bathycrinidae usually known from 1100 to 9735 m. Other than H. duplex, only three among 25 nominal bathycrinid species are known from depths less than 1000 m.
Hiroyuki Ariyama
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 79-91; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.79

Abstract:
Two species of the paracalliopiid Amphipoda are recorded from the Ryukyu Archipelago in Japan, one of which is Mucrocalliope ryukyuensis sp. nov., the second species of the genus. This new species is very similar to the type species, M. shimantoensis Ariyama and Azuma, 2011 from the Shimanto estuary, western Japan; however, M. ryukyuensis can be distinguished from M. shimantoensis by the longer peduncular article 4 of the male antenna 2 and the basis of the male pereopod 5 with a posteromedial plumose seta. The other species is Paracalliope dichotomus Morino, 1991; its morphology in female and the coloration are firstly described.
Tobias Pfingstl, Shimpei F. Hiruta, Takamasa Nemoto, Wataru Hagino, Satoshi Shimano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 93-99; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.93

Abstract:
We describe a new species of marine associated oribatid mite, Ameronothrus twitter Pfingstl and Shimano, sp. nov., from a wharf of fishing port (Choshi Outer Fishing Port), Chiba, Honshu, Japan. This species was spotted for the first time ever on photographs posted on Twitter. Ameronothrus twitter Pfingstl and Shimano, sp. nov. is characterized by a specific cuticular notogastral pattern consisting of distinct nodules that are fused to irregular ridges in the median anterior and the median posterior region. Additionally, it features a unique combination of fused lamellar keels, presence of primilateral setae on tarsus I, presence of dorsal companion setae on genu I, II, III and all tibiae and tarsal distal setae ending with a small nodule. Ameronothrus twitter Pfingstl and Shimano, sp. nov. is the second species of this genus found on Japanese islands, which represents the southernmost occurrences of this taxon in the Asian Pacific region.
Nozomi Hanahara, Kei Miyamoto, Shin-Ichiro Oka
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 43-47; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.43

Abstract:
A single specimen of surgeonfish (116.1 mm standard length) was collected from Minamidaitojima Island, southern Japan, and identified as Acanthurus nigros Günther, 1861 on the basis of morphological and genetic analyses. This specimen represents the northernmost and westernmost record of the species, about 1500 km from the nearest island (Pagan Island, Northern Mariana Islands) with previously confirmed record for this species. The new standard Japanese name “Nangoku-kurohagi” is proposed herein.
Tomohiro Kita, Kazuki Matsushige, Shunsuke Endo, Noritaka Mochioka, Katsunori Tachihara
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 31-36; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.31

Abstract:
Six specimens of Anguilla luzonensis Watanabe, Aoyama, and Tsukamoto, 2009 were collected from Okinawa-jima Island, Okinawa Prefecture, southern Japan. This species was previously known from Luzon Island, Mindanao Island and Taiwan. Therefore, the present specimens represent the first records of A. luzonensis from Japan and extend the northern distribution limit of the species. A new standard Japanese name, “Uguma-unagi”, is proposed for the species.
Taiga Kunishima, Ryosuke Tanaka, Kentarou Hirashima, Ken Maeda
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 37-41; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.37

Abstract:
One female specimen of Stiphodon multisquamus Wu and Ni, 1986 was collected from Arida-gawa River, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, in November 2018. As the previously known range of this species was from the South China Sea, including Malaysia, Vietnam, and China, to the Ryukyu Archipelago in Japan, this specimen was reported as the first record from the Japanese mainland and the northernmost record of this species. Stiphodon multisquamus is an amphidromous fish of which pelagic larvae develop in marine habitats. It was believed that this specimen was transported from the southern region by ocean currents during the pelagic larval phase and recruited into the river in Wakayama Prefecture.
Teruaki Nishikawa, Hiroshi Namikawa
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.1

Abstract:
Overlooked since its establishment, Ascidia sydneiensis protecta Van Name, 1945, originally described as having mantle musculature comprising short parallel fibers restricted to the dorsal margin, compared with musculature along the entire margin (except for a central muscle-free area) found in the so-called “A. sydneiensis group”, is treated as a full species, Ascidia protecta. A detailed examination of the type and non-type specimens of the latter, all collected from the Gulf of California, confirmed the mantle musculature arrangement in the species, as well as revealing several new features (particularly in the alimentary tract), although not supporting a protective function of the anterior tunic to retracted siphons, as suggested in the original description. A comparison of A. protecta was made with congeneric species with similar musculature.
Mikihito Arai, Toshihiko Fujita
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 7-21; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.7

Abstract:
Five species of sea stars of the families Ophidiasteridae and Goniasteridae including two new species, Bathyferdina caelator sp. nov. and Fromia labeosa sp. nov., were collected by dredging from the mesophotic zone of the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Bathyferdina caelator is distinguished from B. aireyae Mah, 2017 by the presence of glassy bosses (crystal bodies) on actinal and adambulacral plates and the absence of them on marginal plates. Fromia labeosa has large, elliptical pedicellariae on the actinal plate and is further distinguished from its congeners based on characters of the abactinal and superomarginal plates, granules, actinal papulae, furrow spines, and the subambulacral spines. We also provide descriptions for three mesophotic species, Fromia eusticha Fisher, 1913, Ogmaster capella (Müller and Troschel, 1842), and Tamaria tenella (Fisher, 1906), which are poorly studied in Japanese waters.
Kenta Murasaki, Yoshiaki Kai, Hiromitsu Endo, Atsushi Fukui
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 23-29; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.23

Abstract:
The rare Japanese deep-sea snailfish Careproctus rhodomelas Gilbert and Burke, 1912 is redescribed based on the holotype and 10 newly-collected specimens (30.0–131.4 mm standard length), with notes on morphological variations in pelvic disk size and body coloration caused by ontogenetic development. An updated distribution of the species is also provided, including the first voucher-supported records off eastern Miyakejima Island and the Hatoma Knoll in the southern part of the Okinawa Trough.
Benjamin W. Frable, Duane E. Stevenson
Species Diversity, Volume 25, pp 377-380; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.25.377

Abstract:
While examining specimens identified as Paracaristius maderensis (Maul, 1949) at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Marine Vertebrate Collection, we encountered an individual of the genus Platyberyx Zugmayer, 1911. This specimen was collected in the Central Pacific Ocean, 900 km east of Wake Atoll during the Naga Expedition 1959–1961. We identified the specimen as Platyberyx rhyton Stevenson and Kenaley, 2013, and it represents the first record of this species outside of Japanese waters. This is a range extension of around 3400 km east for this species, as well as the first record of a juvenile individual and the fourth record of the species overall. We provide a morphological description and comparisons to the three previously known adult specimens.
Kyoji Fujiwara, Kiyoshi Hagiwara, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Hiroyuki Motomura
Species Diversity, Volume 25, pp 355-359; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.25.355

Takuma Fujii, Yuko F Kitano, Hiroyuki Tachikawa
Species Diversity, Volume 25, pp 275-282; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.25.275

Abstract:
Three species of the family Euphylliidae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Scleractinia) have been formally recorded for the first time from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, based on specimens. Their unique polyp morphology, such as the combination of extended tentacle, are considered to be useful for taxonomy at the species level in genus Fimbriaphyllia Veron and Pichon, 1980 and Euphyllia Dana, 1846. One reason that their distribution might have been overlooked is the insufficiency of environmental surveys, including turbid, sheltered, and upper mesophotic environments.
Masanori Okanishi, Takuma Fujii
Species Diversity, Volume 25, pp 283-294; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.25.283

Abstract:
Two specimens of Ophiopsila cf. polyacantha H. L. Clark, 1915 are described from approximately 15 m water depth at Kakeromajima island, Amami Islands in southwestern Japan. The species occurs on sandy bottoms with the disc buried and the arms extended above the substratum. Bioluminescence and burrowing behavior are described. The specimens are clearly morphologically different from the two species of Ophiopsila Forbes, 1843 previously recorded from Japan. The new Japanese name “Kin-habu-toranoo-kumohitode” is proposed.
Hiroshi Kajihara
Species Diversity, Volume 25, pp 251-273; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.25.251

Abstract:
Three species of nemerteans, Balionemertes cf. australiensis Sundberg, Gibson, and Olsson, 2003 (Palaeonemertea), Prosadenoporus olympiae sp. nov. (Hoplonemertea: Eumonostilifera), and Coella gloriae sp. nov. (Hoplonemertea: Polystilifera: Reptantia), are reported based on material collected intertidally at a rocky shore in Cebu Island, Republic of the Philippines. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode sequences of these species have earlier been published elsewhere. The Cebu specimen that is herein identified tentatively as Balionemertes cf. australiensis posseses i) small black dots on the ventral body surface, ii) a neurochord in the lateral nerve, iii) serial rhynchocoelic septa, and iv) nephrostomes, characters that were not mentioned in the original description of the species from Australia; the exact species identification requires barcode sequences from topotypes. Prosadenoporus olympiae can be differentiated morphologically from other congeners by having three accessory-stylet pouches; when alive, worms of this species showed negative hydrotaxis. Coella gloriae differs from all the reptantic polystiliferans by having i) four rows of the eyes, ii) the cephalic furrows, iii) no dorsal marking, iv) separate mouth and proboscis openings, v) blind-ending extracerebral vessels, vi) non-forked fibre core in the dorsal ganglia, vii) the subdorsal nerves, and viii) the cerebral organs partly overlapping the brain.
Masayuki Osawa, Yuzo Ota
Species Diversity, Volume 25, pp 295-307; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.25.295

Abstract:
Six decapod crustacean species, including one gebiidean and five anomurans, are reported as new to the marine fauna in the Sea of Japan based on material collected from the coast of Tottori Prefecture, western Japan. Among them, the munidid squat lobster Paramunida tricarinata (Alcock, 1894) is new to the Japanese fauna. In addition to the six species, the occurrence of the diogenid hermit crab Paguristes versus Komai, 2001 in the Sea of Japan is confirmed on the basis of specimens newly obtained from Tottori Prefecture. The current knowledge on the fauna of Gebiidea and Anomura in the western Japanese coast of the Sea of Japan is also briefly summarized.
Shinji Arakawa
Species Diversity, Volume 25, pp 219-225; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.25.219

Abstract:
Monoporella projecta sp. nov. from the continental shelf and slope east of the Boso Peninsula, Japan adds to the bryozoan fauna along the northwestern Pacific coast, where more than 10 species of this genus have been recorded. Colonies of this species are uniserial encrusting in growth form, and autozooids are large and much inflated with a projecting orificial rim. These colony and zooidal characteristics may be related to the deep-water environment.
Yuki Oya, Aoi Tsuyuki, Hiroshi Kajihara
Species Diversity, Volume 25, pp 189-196; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.25.189

Abstract:
We describe a new species of ilyplanid polyclad, Zygantroides serpulidicola sp. nov., from Amakusa, Kumamoto, Japan. This is the third member of Zygantroides Faubel, 1983 and the first record of the genus from the Pacific Ocean. Zygantroides serpulidicola sp. nov. is characterized by i) the mouth opening near the common gonopore, ii) the sperm ducts separately entering a pear-shaped seminal vesicle, iii) an elongated Lang’s-vesicle duct, and iv) the horseshoe-shaped Lang’s vesicle located posterior to the common gonopore. We provide a partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (712 bp) as a DNA barcode for the species. Our phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated sequences of the 16S, 18S, and 28S ribosomal DNA and COI indicate that Z. serpulidicola sp. nov. is nested in a clade comprised of Discocelidae and Ilyplanidae; the latter does not appear to be monophyletic.
, Keiichi Kakui
Species Diversity, Volume 25, pp 205-211; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.25.205

Abstract:
A new species of free-living marine nematode, Proplatycoma tsukubae sp. nov. (Enoplida: Leptosomatidae: Platycominae), is described from Japan. The specimens were obtained from sea-floor sediments collected at a depth of 117–202 m off the coast of Shimoda, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Proplatycoma tsukubae sp. nov. is similar to P. africana (Gerlach, 1959) in the unilobed amphidial flaps. However, it differs from P. africana based on the much shorter amphidial flaps just reaching the anterior edge of the amphidial aperture, the accessory structure of the spicules being constricted at the middle and tapering toward both ends, the longer apophyses of the gubernaculum, and the blunt tip of the tail. The partial nucleotide sequences for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the 18S rRNA regions in P. tsukubae sp. nov. are also presented for future applications in DNA barcoding or phylogenetic studies. Updated taxonomic keys to genera in the subfamily Platycominae and species in Proplatycoma are provided.
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