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Indian Journal of Economics and Development; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21086

Abstract:
Himachal Pradesh has various agro-climatic conditions suitable for producing a wide range of vegetable crops around the year. Sixty vegetable growers were selected from the Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh using a three-stage random sampling method. In the past 30 years, there was a massive reduction in cereals, pulses and oilseeds; it would be due to the introduction of vegetable crops. On average, the total area put under vegetable crops was 0.2974 and 0.3158 hectares during the summer and winter seasons, respectively, on the overall farm situation. The incidence of insect pests & diseases was the significant constraint related to production. Getting a loan from the bank was time-consuming, and lack of extension facilities were the most critical financial and institutional constraints, respectively. Training should be provided to the farmers to be aware of the latest technologies of KVKs and SAUs to overcome production constraints. For financial and institutional constraints, training camps should be held to provide knowledge about new schemes of state and centre government.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21102

Abstract:
In this paper, an attempt was made to analyze two issues relating to the inflow of remittances in the migrant households of rural Punjab. Firstly, the distribution pattern of remittances receiving migrant households as the volume of per household remittances. Secondly, causes of receiving different volumes of remittances by households. The results showed that in short to medium periods, remittances remained a stable and significant source of migrant’s household income. In the long term, as more migrants get legal status in the destination country, or their families join them, build their own houses, or start their businesses, they may revise their portfolio choice. The study also found that the high per capita domestic income of the migrant households back at home and the increased stay of the migrants in the destination countries negatively impact the inflow of households remittances. However, there was a positive relationship between the inflow of per household remittances and the number of family migrants abroad. Similarly, illegal migrants send more remittances than legal migrants. The migrants in developed countries send more remittances than migrants of developing countries. The study also found that altruism predominates as more remittances were received from children and spouses than other relatives. Keywords: Emigrants, illegal migrants, legal migrants, migrant households, remittances. JEL Codes: C32, F24, P16, R23
Indian Journal of Economics and Development; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21200

Abstract:
This study evaluated how factors of the blue economy affect economic growth employing the quantitative method to run a panel regression model, based on data collected from sources from the General Statistics of Vietnam (GSO), the General Department of Vietnam Customs, Vietnam Statistical Yearbook....with a sample of 280 observations from 28 coastal provinces and cities in Vietnam from 2010 to 2019. The contributing factors that measure the blue economy growth are total fishery production, aquaculture production, shipping and port, travel and tourism, labour, capital and export. The results revealed that the blue economy factors played a significant role in Vietnam's economic growth. In addition, the study proposed that it was necessary to build stable politics, clear orientations, reasonable control over investment sources, and national cultural spirit to improve and develop a sustainable blue economy. Keywords: Aquaculturem fishing, blue economy, economic growth, fishing production. JEL Codes: C13, O10, O11.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21188

Abstract:
Micro-finance institutions (MFIs) in most developing countries, including India, are seen as essential tools to eradicate poverty and raise the standard of living of rural poor. Therefore, the sound functioning of MFIs has a huge long-run impact on the outreach of the rural poor. However, the performance of MFIs is often measured in terms of their social impact on the rural poor, while the financial indicators are ignored. In this context, the study analysed the major determinants of the financial performance of the 20 MFIs in India using panel regression. The results of the study revealed that financial indicators such as operating self-sufficiency, return on assets, and size (assets of the MFIs) had a positive impact on increasing the performance of MFIs. Further, the active borrowers increase efficiency, while passive borrowers had a negative impact on the performance of the MFIs. Similarly, a low level of debt to equity ratio, operating expenses to assets ratio, and low percentage of women borrowers could lead to the sound financial performance of MFIs. Keywords: Active borrowers, financial performance, micro-finance, women borrowers. JEL Codes: G21, I 22
Indian Journal of Economics and Development; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21057

Abstract:
The present investigation undertook to study the poverty incidence and income distribution among poor and non-poor in the tribal and non-tribal areas applying headcount index and the Gini index, and Lorenz curve. The headcount index shows the proportion of poor households. It shows that poverty was higher in the tribal area than in non-tribal regions. Incidence of poverty was higher in marginal farm households, followed by landless agricultural labour and small farm households. Income inequalities are depicted by the Gini coefficient and presented in graphical form by the Lorenz curve. It showed that total income was distributed more equally among poor and non-poor people in the tribal area than in non-tribal regions. It also observed that in the tribal district, poor and non-poor households had the same proportion of inequality. It was suggested to focus on creating employment opportunities through programmes like MGNREGA to eliminate poverty in particular tribal areas. Keywords: Gini coefficient, headcount index, income inequality, Lorenz curve, poverty incidence. JEL Codes: D63, I32, I38, O15
Indian Journal of Economics and Development; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20129

Abstract:
The present study was conducted in the Churu district of Rajasthan. Total eighty farmers were selected randomly from two tehsil and four villages from each tehsil. The cost of cultivation per hectare increased during the first year and decreased in the second year and onwards. Net return was lower during the first year and increased during the second year onwards of Ghritkumari cultivation. It is found that the marketing efficiency of Channel-I was (2.66), followed by Channel-II (1.01) and Channel-III (0.60). The study suggested establishing a regulated market and emphasizing the marketing of Ghritkumari crops through the direct channel (Producer ? Processing unit) in the Churu district of Rajasthan. Keywords: Cost, and price, marketing channel efficiency, marketing channel, medicinal plant. JEL Codes: Q13, Q16, Q18.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 598-607; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20294

Abstract:
The primary purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of fiscal deficit on the economic growth of the Indian economy and find out the causality between fiscal deficit and economic growth from 1981-82 to 2019-20. To analyse the long-run relationship between the variables Johansen Co-integration test was used; after verifying the existence of long-run relationship among variables, the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) was used, and the Granger Causality test was also used for investigating the direction of causality between pair of variables. The findings of the study supported the ideology of classical economists in which they neglected the government intervention for the growth and development of an economy. The results showed that in long run, fiscal deficit had a significant negative impact on economic growth as one percent increase in fiscal deficit demoted the GDP growth rate by 0.075 percent, whereas in the short run, the impact was also found negative, but it was significant only one lag. Simultaneously, there was unidirectional causality found from fiscal deficit to GDP growth.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 710-715; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21075

Abstract:
Sericulture is a financially viable production and has enormous potential for employment opportunities. The present study attempted to investigate the profitability of the sericulture business in the Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu. A proportionate random sampling approach was used to select 80 sample sericulture farmers. The results revealed that the total cost of producing silk cocoons was ?98,805.1 , with a net profit of ? 1,17,194.84. The benefit-cost ratio and break-even output estimated 6 were 2.19:1 and 140.72 kg of the silk cocoon. It depicted that the farmers were operating in the profit zone, as the average yield of sample farmers was substantially higher. Labour scarcity, pest and disease incidence, and income loss owing to COVID 19 pandemic were major constraints faced by sericulture farmers. Sericulture enterprise provided immense opportunity by means of profitable income and more employment opportunities. The young unemployed rural entrepreneurs and women SHGs of this region if appropriately trained and provided financial support to initiate this enterprise would lead to the development of the silk cluster and indeed top position in the Indian silk industry.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 576-583; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21058

Abstract:
The paper presents the socio-economic profile of agricultural households in the sub-mountainous region of Punjab. There are six districts in the sub-mountainous region from which the Gurdaspur district was selected randomly. Four villages and 80 farm households were selected using multistage random sampling technique two blocks. The data on various socio-economic parameters were collected for 2019-20. Most of the farmers (71percent) were in the age group of 40-60 years in the district. The literacy rate was reasonably good as only five percent of heads of the farm households were illiterate in the region. Most agricultural households lived as nuclear families (79.00percent) with an average family size of 4.81 members. The average size of the operational holdings was around 8.0 acres. The main crops grown in the region were wheat (38.23percent), paddy permal (21.95percent), paddy basmati(16.46percent), and sugarcane (13.79percent). The average income of the agricultural household in the Gurdaspur district was around six lakhs per annum. The main source of income of the agricultural households was crop cultivation (61.65percent), followed by income from off-farm sources (22.82percent) and livestock income (15.53percent). Across different farm-size categories, off-farm income was the major source of income among marginal farmers. For the rest of the farm-size categories, income from crops was the main source of household income. Average consumption expenditure was worked out to be 3.55 lakh per annum. In total consumption expenditure, the share of food expenditure was 23.62 percent, non-food expenditure was 63.41, and social ceremonies was 21.12 percent. The share of food expenditure in total expenditure decreased with an increase across different farm-size categories, while the share of non-food expenditure increased with an increase in farm size. Total consumption expenditure was around three times higher for large farm-size households than marginal households.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 474-479; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20138

Abstract:
The present study attempted to examine the recent effects of FDI on India's economic growth in the Make in India initiative (MII) launched by the government. The trends of FDI inflows in India showed that when the CAGR of FDI inflows was -2.78 percent from 2008 to 2014 (pre-Make in India), the CAGR of FDI inflows was 8.54 percent between 2014 to 2020 (Post-Make in India). Further, the OLS results showed that the variables such as FDI inflows, trade openness, and exchange rate significantly impact India's economic growth. The dummy variable that stood for the Make in India initiative had a statistically significant impact on growth. The predictions about FDI inflows showed an upward trajectory since 2021-2022, which suggested that India may have further scope to attract more FDI into the country if they continue to do reforms like before and enhance competitiveness, and FDI may have a long-term impact on GDP.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 237-244; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20310

Abstract:
The study was carried out by collecting information from 80 milk producers-cum-consumers and 50 consumers from the rural and urban areas, respectively, to assess the production and utilization pattern of milk and milk products at the household level. The selected 80 producer households were further post stratified into three categories, namely, 42 small (1-2 milch animals), 26 medium (3-4 milch animals), and 12 large (5 and above milch animals) herd size categories. The analysis revealed that indigenous cattle were dominating the bovine composition among the various species. However, buffaloes contributed the largest quantity of milk (35.79 percent), followed by indigenous cattle and crossbred cows with 34.57 and 29.64 percent, respectively. Across the various herd size categories, medium category households were contributing the highest milk (38.93 percent), followed by small (30.54 percent) and large herd size category households (30.52 percent). It was found that overall per capita milk availability and milk consumptions were 1.49 and 0.37 litres/day, respectively, in the study area. The utilization pattern show that rural consumers ed consumed 53.78 percent of their retained milk as liquid milk, whereas urban consumers consumed 46.54 percent. Overall, 49.69 percent of the total milk was utilized for intake in liquid form, while 50.31 percent was utilized for making milk products. Overall, among milk products, a nearly equal proportion of milk was utilized for making curd (22.57 percent) and ghee (22.41 percent). The proportion of milk consumed in the form of khoa (3.8 percent) and paneer (1.39 percent) was very less.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 454-461; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20197

Abstract:
Nations across the globe are struggling with the sudden occurrence of the novel coronavirus. In the more challenging times of havoc caused by the pandemic COVID-19, the Indian government has taken several steps to ensure the country's growth and has raised India's willpower to survive economically and socially. There are many alarming situations like mobility, migration of workers, unemployment, and health-hazardous that have arisen primarily due to the pandemic in the country, which led to the birth of the conceptualization of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. The narrative of Atmanirbhar Bharat has pitched the rhythm of five key pillars, namely: Economy, infrastructure, system, demography, and demand. In this pursuit, this study analyzed the relationship between India's skillsets for entrepreneurship encompassing the self-dependent concept of Atmanirbhar Bharat. The article has tried emphasizing each pillar of Atmanirbhar Bharat, fostering skill development and entrepreneurship in the nation. The study assessed that the economy as the prime pillar of a nation required significant and well-versed investment in R & D. The nation required investment in the development of individual skills, dependence on regional resources, capital, and laborers. In terms of Infrastructure as the second pillar, it was assessed that strengthening of skill and entrepreneurial hubs serves as a valuable investment in infrastructure to support skill development and entrepreneurship. However, the cooperative efforts of key national actors jointly will set convenient conditions for mainstreaming and diffusion of the technology-driven system as the third pillar. The study assessed that India having vibrant demography with a young population serves as the crucial factor that can anticipate demand with supply forecasting. It will ultimately stimulate and lead the nation toward India's initiative self-reliant.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 369-375; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20214

Abstract:
This study analyzed the economic impact of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP) on women labourers in rural Tamil Nadu. MGNREGP benefits the rural poor by providing equal wages to both men and women, guarantees 100 days of employment, and provides worksite facilities. This study was conducted in the newly established Tirupattur District of Tamil Nadu in 2018-2019. Tirupattur is one of the 20 blocks in the Vellore District. In Tamil Nadu, MGNREGP was implemented in three phases. In the Vellore district, MGNREGP was implemented under the third phase. A multistage random sampling technique was employed to collect the data from 99 sample households in Karupanur village panchayat. The findings revealed that all women labourers participated in the programme irrespective of their age groups, and the majority of them belonged to the economically weaker sections of society. The study showed that generally, the married women participated in the programme since their husbands could not manage the home with their little earnings. The majority of them, around 93.94 percent, were unaware of the worksite facilities like drinking water, rest shed, first aid box, and creche for their children. The sampled women labourers were unaware of compensation for injuries at the worksite and ex-gratia payment for death and disability. The majority of the scheduled caste women labourers spent their income on children's education. The Chi-square test revealed that women labourers found MGNREGP was very useful irrespective of their communities.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 339-349; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20279

Abstract:
The objective of this study was two-fold, firstly, it analysed industrial development trends and deceleration across major Indian states since 1980-81 and, investigated industrial development in Punjab, a mineral resources deprived and a land-locked state. It was important as the policy changed at the national level in 1991 and removed various benefits for industrial development in mineralresources deprived regions and economically backward regions. To analyse the objective, both primary as well as secondary information was used. Findings of the study highlighted that industrial restructuring took place across major states in India during 1980-81 to 2017-18. In general, economically poor states and mineral resources deprived states witnessed the deceleration of the industrial sector. The position of the industrial sector in Punjab declined as compared to other states and compared to its past. The discussions with various stakeholders, including sampled industrial units, representatives of industrial associations, etc., highlighted various economic and non-economic factors behind the ongoing industrial deceleration in Punjab.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 305-313; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20068

Abstract:
The study was undertaken to find the importance of dairy farming for landless households in rural Punjab. The primary data were collected from the 126 landless households from the two selected districts of Punjab, i.e., Ludhiana and Bathinda, for the year 2017- 18. The study concluded that the majority of the population belonged to the working-age group and more than one-fourth of the population was illiterate. About 59 percent were milch animals out of the total animal, and buffaloes proved to be the most important livestock among the milch animals. The net returns based on per litre of milk production were found to be ? 1.34 for buffalo and ? 0.93 for cow milk production, respectively. In the case of buffalo's and cow's milk production, the variable cost was the major component. Dairying, on average, employed 208 man-days per annum and contributed about 14 percent share in the total income of these households. Inadequate sheds for animals, non-availability of land for fodder cultivation, high cost of feed and fodder, exploitation by a middleman, lack of knowledge about scientific feeding practices were the major constraints for all the sampled households. Dairying could be an important source for providing employment opportunities and supplementing the income of the landless households if the government assured them of the utilization of the village's common land, adequate financial assistance, extension services, and basic infrastructure facilities.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 298-304; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21021

Abstract:
The study examined the impact of minor irrigation on agricultural production and evaluated the gap between IPC and IPU in the Keonjhar district of Odisha. For this rationale, data were collected from 210 farm households through the primary survey. In support of the analysis, the Cobb Douglas model and factor analysis were used. The results revealed that the input use efficiency had a positive and significant impact on paddy production the most in all the MIPs regions compared to the other crops. However, the study indicated that insufficient water availability was the major cause behind the gap between irrigation potential created and utilised. Thus, minor irrigation played a crucial role in enhancing agricultural production in hilly regions. With the enthusiastic participation of planners, effective working of Pani Panchayats, canals, and upstream control, NGOs' involvement can achieve selfsufficiency in agricultural production by encouraging minor irrigation projects in the hilly province.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 273-281; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21063

Abstract:
The present paper aimed to explore the farmer's perception regarding on-farm water conservation in Punjab agriculture and outline the critical factors affecting the knowledge and adoption of on-farm water conservation techniques. The study was conducted in Moga, Rupnagar and Sri Muktsar Sahib districts selected randomly representing three agro-climatic zones of Punjab. The study revealed that most of the respondents were literate with farming experience of more than 15 years. The regression analysis applied on the knowledge index, and adoption index concluded that by enhancing the education level, mass media exposure, extension contacts, participation in extension activities, and farming experience, the knowledge level regarding the new technologies may improve, resulted in the effective adoption of that particular technology. It will also help to reduce future constraints in the adoption of the technologies and for increasing the income level of the farmers by decreasing the cost of production.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 376-382; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21049

Abstract:
The present study was conducted to assess the livelihood security of farm households. The study was conducted in the rural areas of Fatehgarh Sahib and Ludhiana districts of Punjab. A total of 88 small and marginal farm households selected from eight villages of four blocks in selected districts were interviewed through a stratified random selection technique. The analyses of data showed that the number of nuclear families was almost double to joint families. Only 6.81 percent of the households had an income of more than five lakhs per annum. The majority of the households had medium to low levels of household livelihood security. The districts were characterized by a low level of educational and economic security. More than half of the households were in favour of a joint family system for better livelihood security. The study suggested that livelihood security could be improved by providing skill-based education in rural schools and off-farm employment opportunities.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 383-392; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20223

Abstract:
Considering the increasing consumer demand and increasing pressure for having more and more money to fulfill that desire for consumption of material goods, the present study explored materialism and money attitude on consumer well-being. A selfadministered questionnaire survey was used to collect primary data. A step-wise linear regression model was used to test materialism and money attitude on consumer well-being. Materialism negatively affected consumer well-being; dimensions of money attitude were not significantly affecting consumer well-being. Materialism and money attitude together determined the consumer well-being.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 393-400; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20162

Abstract:
The present paper looks into the growth, instability, and sources of growth and instability of coir products export from India. Total coir export was found to have significant increase over the years. A drastic shift from finished products like handloom mats, coir yarn, and handloom mattings to products like coir fibre and coir pith in the composition of total coir products export from India was evident. Coir fibre showed the highest growth in export quantity, followed by coir curled. Export quantity was highest for coir other sorts, followed by power loom mats, power loom matting, and coir rugs. Change in mean quantity accounted for more than 80 percent changes in total coir export value. The change followed it in the mean unit value. Change in export quantity-export unit value covariance and change in mean export quantity were the major contributors to variance of export value.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 361-368; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20116

Abstract:
Massive rural out-migration is a common phenomenon, especially in the developing countries of the world. A substantial part of such migration takes place within the country. It involves the migration of the working-age population from the rural areas and agriculture to the urban non-farm sector and is motivated by a complex set of forces. This study examined the relevance of major strands of migration theory to the empirics of internal rural to urban migration of workforce from a coastal region of Odisha state, India. Micro-level evidence revealed that out-migration of the rural labour force was essentially selective, mainly determined by labour market conditions obtaining in the sending rural and receiving urban areas and motivated broadly on economic forces. Age, marital status, educational attainment, household size, ownership of agricultural land, income level of the migrants, migration networks, and contacts with previous migrants were crucial in influencing migration. The findings were suggested that migration was influenced by both “push” and “pull” factors, but “pull” factors were more pronounced and prominent than the “push” factor. Quite surprisingly and contrary to received wisdom, migration from the study area was not a survival strategy out of poverty for many of the migrants.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 420-431; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20241

Abstract:
The Covid-19 situation has thrown lights for a reality check about managing personal finance among the households. The research was designed in the context of the pandemic affecting the personal finance of millions of households. It stressed the need for financial literacy by explaining the various aspects – understanding the concept, identifying the benefits out of acquiring knowledge and skills in financial literacy, establishing the relationship of financial literacy with financial wellbeing, mapping the global situation in financial literacy, suggesting the remedial measures in ensuring financial wellness in the Covid-19 pandemic situation. The methodology of the study was to review the existing literature on financial literacy and education. The approaches and practices of financial education followed by countries interpreted by researchers in this field were reviewed and documented. The study contributes to the existing literature by summarizing the findings of the researchers in terms of knowledge one possesses in financial products and processes, the ability to make appropriate decisions to invest, borrow and secure, to understand the importance of savings and investment for retired life, etc. The global scenario versus India in financial literacy was brought out, throwing the light that India needs to travel further in the financial literacy landscape. It concludes by prescribing a series of financial wellness measures to make people resilient and reach financial well-being. The policy options suggested by the authors to start the learning of financial literacy from school education onwards, introduce financial education at the workplace, and implement financial education for the elderly and women invite the attention of policymakers and practitioners. The study can influence policymakers and practitioners to design target-specific financial education measures.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 432-443; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20311

Abstract:
The study aimed to analyse the studies pertaining to market conditions around public issues with a deep concentration on the hot and cold issue market. It provides an insight into the Indian IPO market in the last two decades from 2001 to 2020. The review of literature consists of four major sections concentrating on contemporary market conditions, hot and cold issue markets, and postissue performance. It attempts to synchronize the literature over the hot and cold market with reference to post-issue performance and group affiliation of the issuers. The study revealed the strong influence of market conditions (hot and cold markets) in various parts of the world. It was also observed that along with other factors, hot and cold market issues also lead to the variation in their post-issue performance. Group affiliation as an essential company characteristic was also found to influence post-issue performance substantially.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 410-419; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21036

Abstract:
The deadly coronavirus has affected not only the lives of the people but also the economies of all states of the world. Mainly the lockdown to control the spread of the virus has affected economies. The primary objective of this study was to explore the impacts of novel coronavirus pneumonia on the economy of Pakistan and the government response to it. It has also severely affected the already vulnerable economy of Pakistan by limiting the economic activities, a lot of industrial units and small and medium-sized enterprises either stopped or limited their productions, foreign trade decreased by 40.74 percent, affected the services sector, reduced the tax collection volume, 2.06 million people lost their jobs, increased poverty ratio, tourism industry ruined, and GDP recorded negative for the first time in the history (0.38 percent). The pandemic not only affected the economy of the state but also severely affected the individual economies. The government of Pakistan released some relief packages for industries and poor people but could not control the impacts of a pandemic on the economy. Pakistan is required to formulate and implement comprehensive microeconomic policies to reduce economic losses.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 468-473; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20230

Abstract:
The present study, dealing with the inequality in consumption of the rural households across the different regions, is based upon the primary data of the Punjab state. The analysis showed that Malwa excelled other two regions in the per capita consumption. The highest average propensity to consume was observed for Doaba, and it was the lowest for Malwa. All the rural households except large farm of all the three regions and medium farm households of Malwa and Majha were in deficit. Considering all households together, the inequality of household consumption expenditure was relatively high in all three regions, with the same being highest in Majha, followed by Malwa and Doaba. The concentration of consumption expenditure among the land-owning households was greater than the landless households.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 314-320; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20219

Abstract:
Considering the significance of trade relation between India and ASEAN, the present study was conducted to analyze the determinants of India-ASEAN trade in agricultural products. This study incorporated HS 2-digit codes from 01 to 24 chapters, which constituted 85 percent of the total chapter falling under agricultural products. To perceive the significance of ASEAN as a major trading partner, shares of India's trade with ASEAN relative to the world was computed via trade intensity approach. Furthermore, the gravity model was employed to witness the determinants of agriculture trade between the two trading partners. The study found that the GDP of ASEAN and India, the common border between the two trading blocs, was positive and significant. The variable distance and landlocked was observed to be negative and significant, which confirmed that trade would decrease if distance increases and if the country was landlocked, respectively. Interestingly, variables like FTA, GDP of India, common language, and common colony showed no significant effect on the bilateral trade.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 245-255; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/21003

Abstract:
Punjab's agrarian economy witnessed structural transformations under the influence of various policies and practices followed after that. The study attempted to bring out temporal changes in cropping patterns over a period of time and identify various factors responsible for the change. The study brought out that the cropping pattern had mainly shifted in favour of wheat and paddy crops, although the productivity of crops such as maize, cotton, and pulses increased over a period of time. The decline in crop diversification was primarily influenced by the increasing contribution of area and yield effects of land to the total production of crops, especially for wheat and rice crops. The study concluded that diversification could only be brought in the state
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 321-330; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20095

Abstract:
In 2011, two of Asia's largest economies signed free trade agreement called Indo-Japan CEPA. From the signing of the agreement, based on trade value, India will abolish tariffs on items covering about 90 percent of its imports from Japan by 2021, whereas Japan will eliminate tariffs on items covering about 97 percent of its imports from India in the same year. Trade-in goods' agreement proposes to gradually reduce tariffs for over 4500 tariff lines or products at the six-digit level by 2021 on both sides. The study aimed to identify the list of potential agricultural products in which India will gain from increased exports and a list of commodities where India needs to adopt a defensive strategy in trading with Japan. It covered ten years from 2007-08 to 2017-18, and the same was divided into two sub-periods: the pre-FTA period (2007-08 to 2010-11) and the post-FTA period (2011-12 to 2017-18). Seventeen agricultural products such as chickpeas, frozen pacific salmon, ground-nut oil-cake, cottonseed oil-cake, frozen livers and roes, fennel seeds, opium sap, wheat, and meslin were identified as potential products in which India can gain from increasing its exports to Japan. Eight agricultural products were identified as sensitive products; out of these five were kept under the Exclusion category by India under IJCEPA. Therefore, India cautiously defended these products, but three products, such as soups and broths, pasta, and yeasts subjected to a gradual reduction in tariffs (i.e., duty-free by 2021). Technical and financial assistance to the traders and producers of these products will help them to match the requirements imposed by Japan of SPS and TBT measures and increase their exports. Government should also provide clear directives and necessary assistance to the domestic producers or processors to counter the competition from Japanese exporters
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 289-297; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20229

Abstract:
The present study attempted to determine the determinants of the water conservation practices in rainfed agriculture, especially in the watershed program Keonjhar district of Odisha state in the eastern part of India. Primary data were collected by a multi-stage random sampling method. The sample size was 125 households, and information was collected by canvassing a pre-designed schedule to the head of the households through door-to-door interviews. Focus group discussions were conducted to get qualitative information. A probit binary model was applied for analysis. The factors like awareness of the farmers, participation, the share of agriculture income to the total income of the household, the slope of agricultural land, access to information were positively influenced the water conservation practice. In contrast, the caste of SC / ST household and distance of agricultural land negatively influences soil water conservation practices. The results revealed that better awareness with the active participation of people in the government program could neutralize the influence of socio-economic factors in the adoption of soil water conservation practices.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 237-244; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20130

Abstract:
The study was carried out by collecting information from 80 milk producers-cum-consumers and 50 consumers from the rural and urban areas, respectively, to assess the production and utilization pattern of milk and milk products at the household level. The selected 80 producer households were further post stratified into three categories, namely, 42 small (1-2 milch animals), 26 medium (3-4 milch animals), and 12 large (5 and above milch animals) herd size categories. The analysis revealed that indigenous cattle were dominating the bovine composition among the various species. However, buffaloes contributed the largest quantity of milk (35.79 percent), followed by indigenous cattle and crossbred cows with 34.57 and 29.64 percent, respectively. Across the various herd size categories, medium category households were contributing the highest milk (38.93 percent), followed by small (30.54 percent) and large herd size category households (30.52 percent). It was found that overall per capita milk availability and milk consumptions were 1.49 and 0.37 litres/day, respectively, in the study area. The utilization pattern show that rural consumers ed consumed 53.78 percent of their retained milk as liquid milk, whereas urban consumers consumed 46.54 percent. Overall, 49.69 percent of the total milk was utilized for intake in liquid form, while 50.31 percent was utilized for making milk products. Overall, among milk products, a nearly equal proportion of milk was utilized for making curd (22.57 percent) and ghee (22.41 percent). The proportion of milk consumed in the form of khoa (3.8 percent) and paneer (1.39 percent) was very less.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 480-485; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20286

Abstract:
This study analyzed the economic impact of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP) on women labourers in rural Tamil Nadu. MGNREGP benefits the rural poor by providing equal wages to both men and women, guarantees 100 days of employment, and provides worksite facilities. This study was conducted in the newly established Tirupattur District of Tamil Nadu in 2018-2019. Tirupattur is one of the 20 blocks in the Vellore District. In Tamil Nadu, MGNREGP was implemented in three phases. In the Vellore district, MGNREGP was implemented under the third phase. A multistage random sampling technique was employed to collect the data from 99 sample households in Karupanur village panchayat. The findings revealed that all women labourers participated in the programme irrespective of their age groups, and the majority of them belonged to the economically weaker sections of society. The study showed that generally, the married women participated in the programme since their husbands could not manage the home with their little earnings. The majority of them, around 93.94 percent, were unaware of the worksite facilities like drinking water, rest shed, first aid box, and creche for their children. The sampled women labourers were unaware of compensation for injuries at the worksite and ex-gratia payment for death and disability. The majority of the scheduled caste women labourers spent their income on children's education. The Chi-square test revealed that women labourers found MGNREGP was very useful irrespective of their communities.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 266-272; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20110

Abstract:
The present study was conducted in the Sonepat, Karnal, and Hisar districts of Haryana, and the selection was based on the predominance of vegetable cultivation under protected structures. This study was based on both primary and secondary data. The study revealed that the total area under different types of protected structures in Haryana during 2017-18 was 756.99 ha, in which the highest area under a naturally ventilated polyhouse (403.84 ha) followed the net house (353.15 ha). The area under walk-in-tunnels (0.81 ha) was very less. It was concluded that major production constraints were nematode infestation, high cost of polyhouse material, a higher infestation of insect pest and diseases, short life of polysheet, higher cost of water-soluble fertilizer, fear of failure of technology, high cost of plant protection chemicals, higher seed cost and lack of latest package practice knowledge and application of pesticides. Marketing constraints in Haryana state were lack of minimum support price and fluctuation in produce prices was major marketing constraints followed by unorganized marketing and lack of scientific storage while lack of guidance for proper marketing place, suitable packaging material, and transportation facility were least problematic.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 282-288; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20307

Abstract:
The results revealed that cost concepts of soybean were increased at highly significant growth rates. Net income was positive, and the B.C. ratio was more than one in the base year, which indicated that soybean was profitable in the base year only. The differential yield of soybean was positive, which denoted that farmers managed to produce above the break-even level (profit zone). The difference between the cost of production and minimum support price was positive, indicating that MSP fixed by the government was less than the cost of production (Cost C ), indicating no assurance of profit if the market prices also tumble below the cost of 2 production.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 331-338; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20215

Abstract:
Covid-19 has had a very massive impact on the lives of the people and the economy. This study attempted to look at the vegetable markets in Punjab for 14 weeks, from the first week of March to the second week of June . The data were 2020 collected for four main vegetables of the Rabi crop, namely capsicum, bottle gourd, brinjal, and potato, for which the data was taken from the agmarknet website. A total of 115 mandis were covered, and the data for arrivals and prices were taken for this period. The results showed that leaving bottle gourd, the output for all the other three crops went down. In the case of bottle guard, the arrival went up by 10.6 percent, whereas for brinjal, it went down by 30.1 percent, capsicum by 16.5 percent, and potato by 44.4 percent. The weighted average for the price was taken to calculate the loss from the sales. It was noticed that in absolute terms, the loss was to the tune of 23.8 crores than the previous year. A look at the total traded volume for this period, and the loss came out to be around 23.5 percent of the losses have just come from these four crops.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 256-265; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20278

Abstract:
The performance of wavelet-based hybrid models using different combinations of wavelet filters was compared to that of other conventional models to model volatility in the onion prices and arrivals at the Lasalgaon market of Maharashtra, which is known to be one of the largest markets in terms of arrivals. Monthly data of more than twenty-three years from 1996 onwards were taken into account. The results of hybrid models were compared to that of the ARIMA model. A normality test was conducted for both data series, and both of them were found to be non-normal. Therefore, a suitable nonparametric approach, namely wavelet decomposition of the data, was called for. For the price data, too, the wavelet- GARCH model with LA8 filter at five-level decomposition performed best for single value forecast, whereas the ARIMA performed well at expanded horizons. For the arrivals data, the Wavelet-GARCH model with LA8 filter at four level decomposition outperformed all models for single value forecasts. However, the wavelet-ANN model was able to perform better as the horizon expanded to twelve months. The study concluded that the wavelet hybrid models do pretty well for single value forecast, but as the horizon expands, the accuracy of the models decreases.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 401-409; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20024

Abstract:
The present study was conducted to compare the marketing strategies of knitwear exporters of Ludhiana (Punjab) and Tirupur (Tamil Nadu). An exploratory study was conducted in which thirty knitwear export units each from Ludhiana and Tirupur were selected, and information was collected using a questionnaire. In Tirupur, only 3 percent of the units had their brand, while in Ludhiana, 60.00 percent of the units had their brand. Out of the knitwear units in Ludhiana, which did not own a brand, 91.67 percent worked with buyer's brand or other private labels, while in Tirupur, 58.63 percent of the units were not interested in owning a brand. The first rank was given to seminars, workshops, and international trade shows, which were used as a source to get information by knitwear export units at both places (Ludhiana and Tirupur). One-third of the units in Ludhiana acquired ISO14000 certification, while in Tirupur, about two-thirds of the units got OekoTex Standard-100. It was also found that 46.67 percent of the units in Ludhiana spent less than 5 lakh rupees, and in Tirupur, 30 percent of the units spent more than 15 lakh as promotional ? budget. Nearly half (53.33 percent) of the units in Ludhiana and 36.67 percent of the knitwear export units in Tirupur spent 3-9 percent of total export sales on marketing research.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 462-467; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20282

Abstract:
The study explores the trends in the export of major fruits, namely, apple, banana, grapes, and mangoes from India during 1999- 2000 to 2017-18. The secondary data on area, production, export quantity, and export value were collected from APEDA and NHB to achieve the objectives of the study. The data were analysed using the tools such as percentages, compound growth rates, and Cuddy- Della Valle instability index. The results indicated that selected fruits form 62.79 percent share of the total world fruit area and 72.41 percent share of total fruit production of the World. Although India has a vast production base yet, it exports less than one percent share of the production of major fruits like apple, banana, and grapes. However, the share of export in mango production is quite promising. The growth rates in the production of selected fruits were positive and higher than the growth rate of production of the world. Interestingly, the fruits with high production growth, such as bananas and grapes, had stable exports, whereas apple and mango showed moderate production growth and high volatility in exports.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 444-453; https://doi.org/10.35716/10.35716/ijed/20244

Abstract:
The study found that the history of the farmers market as an alternative marketing channel paved its way long back in history and gradually spread across the world. India got its first farmers market in 1987. The study highlighted that farmers' markets in India and other nations are significantly different; therefore, the Indian farmers market calls attention. However, past studies cited various benefits of the farmers' market to producers, consumers, and producers and consumers' benefits. However, less emphasis was laid on its role as a development tool; therefore, this section deserves more attention. Further, expanding such a market with adequate and robust infrastructure will help make the agriculture sector strong and successful. The study reflected how the establishment, growth, and success of farmers market across globe and nations has benefited it stakeholders and how it reacts in the different business environment.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20211

Abstract:
The study assessed the impacts of ownership structure on construction enterprises' technical efficiency in Vietnam using a stochastic frontier approach. The results showed that the construction industry's technical efficiency in 2012-2017 was 55.73 percent on average. The study also showed that the ownership structure had an inverse relationship to technical efficiency. It indicated that the more equity an enterprise uses, the less efficient its operation was. Also, the private enterprise and foreigninvested enterprise sectors were less efficient than the state-owned enterprise sector; initial capital per worker had an inverse impact on technical efficiency, which may be because enterprises had applied for scientific and technological advances but had not yet used that technology effectively, leading the unexpected results. The study proposed several solutions to improve construction enterprises' performance in the future.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 128-135; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20198

Abstract:
The measurement of regional development plays a crucial role in improving the quality of life of local communities. However, the process of analyzing the regional progress was challenging as regional development was presented as a multidimensional concept. Nonetheless, the study's primary objective was to understand the indicators that genuinely reflect the development process's various dimensions in the northernmost district of West Bengal, Darjeeling Himalayas. Seven dimensions of development, namely psychological well-being, health, education, governance, safety and crime, energy and environment and standard of living were identified for analyzing the socio-economic development of the Darjeeling Himalaya. A questionnaire was framed and circulated in the region for the collection of data. By applying Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CATPCA), the data collected was aggregated into the above mentioned seven dimensions of development and analyzed the relationship between these development indicators through the Ordinal Logistic Regression model (OLR). The results showed that education and governance indicators had a significant impact on the psychological wellbeing. Governance was affected by psychological wellbeing, while standard of living was affected by psychological wellbeing and health indicators in the region.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 164-169; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20141

Abstract:
In this study, an attempt was made to measure the farm profitability of KVK adopted and non-adopted farmers in the Janjgir district of Chhattisgarh. From Janjgir Krishi Vigyan Kendra, a list of 45 adopted farmers was obtained, and equal numbers of non-adopted farmers were selected using a proportionate random sampling method. The study was based on primary data collected from various sample respondents. Primary data were collected using pretested interview schedule and personal interview of selected respondents by survey method. The study revealed that the majority of adopted farmers belonged to the young aged category while more than half of the respondents were illiterate. The majority of farmers belonged to the OBC category. The cost and return in rice production showed that rice production was profitable. Adopted farmer made gross income 101641 ha and non-adopted farmer 99496.6 ha -1 -1 while the cost of production per hectare was 822.04 and 893.72 of adopted and non-adopted farmers, respectively.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 45-54; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20075

Abstract:
The results revealed that all the development indicators are abysmally low for the Scheduled Tribes, particularly for the PVTGs, that is, these groups in Kerala were excluded during the human development lopsided growth period. When growth started picking up during the last two decades, the human development status of the Scheduled Tribes did not see any perceptible improvement. The major reasons for Kerala's human development lopsided state, including historical factors, struggle for social reforms, land reforms, and spread of education, particularly female education, did not influence the tribal population in Kerala. Urbanization and welfare programmes triggered the virtuous cycle of growth in Kerala, and migration and resulting remittances led to growth reinstated by human development. However, the Scheduled Tribes in Kerala were not part of the growth triggers and human development triggers which kept them in a low state of human development in the virtuous cycle phase too.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 136-142; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20020

Abstract:
There is an urgent need to diversify agriculture in Punjab, emphasising integrated farm principles, implementation of sustainable practices, organic farming, green farming and environmentally friendly techniques. It entailed using a holistic approach using ecofarming and agro-ecological principles based on local agro-climatic conditions. There must be changes in cropping patterns to include planting vegetables, fruits, herbs, mushrooms, fibre crops, oilseeds and fodder crops. Others are medicinal and spice crops. These will provide rural employment through village-based agro-industries. Besides, there has to be adequate harvesting, postharvest handling, processing, storage, quality control and assured marketing. To protect the soil erosion and conserve water which measures need to be implemented. Others include planting crops that use less water and better irrigation techniques such as rainwater harvesting, micro-irrigation techniques and drip irrigation. There is also an urgent need for a change in government policies to overcome environmental degradation in Punjab. These include removing subsidies for fertilizers and electricity, the reform of commodity prices, and improving agricultural marketing and distribution.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 222-226; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20193

Abstract:
The results revealed that the total cost incurred in the crop cultivation under polyhouse conditions was higher than open field conditions for all three crops. The share of the total variable cost was more than 65 percent for the three crops in each condition and was slightly higher under open field conditions, while the share of fixed costs was higher in the total cost of cultivation for the crops grown under polyhouse. On the other hand, returns obtained from polyhouse cultivation were observed more than the returns obtained from open field conditions. For all the crops, net returns were more than double when grown in polyhouses, which suggested a profitable situation for the crops grower under polyhouse. Returns per rupee were again higher for the cucumber, tomato, and chilli grown under polyhouse conditions with values 2.17, 2.12, and 2.21, respectively, than in open field conditions amounting to 2.11, 1.96, and 1.82 correspondingly. To reap these benefits associated with polyhouse cultivation, marginal and small farmers can go for cooperative farming. Regular training and extension services areto be made available to the young entrepreneurs and farmers to impart information about the technical know-how of the growing crops under protective technologies
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 170-175; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20218

Abstract:
Maize is one of the most suitable replacements of paddy in Punjab. The primary data for 2015-16 of paddy, maize, and wheat crop from five Punjab districts (Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Rupnagar, SAS Nagar and SBS Nagar) was collected from 300 sample farm households. The binary logistic model was constructed, and among the six most relevant explanatory variables availability of hired labour was found to be negative and significant statistically, whereas the educational level of decision maker was statistically nonsignificant. The participation in block-level camp/Kisan Mela/lecture attended by the decision maker was positive and significant statistically, and water availability on the diversified farm was negative and significant. Like the assured market and experience of the decision maker, the other variables were positive but non-significant. The farmers' non-diversification was found to be price instability, the menace of animals, lack of awareness regarding government programmes, non-availability of mechanisation for dehusking of the kernels.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 182-188; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20195

Abstract:
The study's primary objective is to understand the evolution of foreign direct investment theories (FDI) and identify the application theories in bank FDI from the literature. Based on the pattern of investment, FDI can be classified as greenfield and brownfield investment. Both types of investments yield profits, so the study attempted to answer why greenfield FDI, i.e., foreign banks invest by opening their branches and offices in the host economy. The study reviewed literature focused on bank FDI determinants in host economies and discussed it in the Indian context. The study found that primary reasons for greenfield FDI are India's locational advantages, such as profit opportunity and already present home clients in India.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 112-119; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20269

Abstract:
Income diversification is an important strategy to augments income among small and marginal farmers. This study evaluated the income diversification among farm households in the Ariyalur district. A multi-stage sampling technique was used, and 115 rural households were selected by applying Arkin and Colton formula. The data collected were analyzed using the Herfindahl index and Gini-coefficient. The results showed that the average number of income sources accessed by all marginal farmers is about 1.81, and small farmers are about 1.90, and small farmers had an income diversification range of 0.64 to 0.65, which is a medium diversification category. When the non-farm and off income were considered together with agricultural income, the overall income inequality dropped. The results suggested that the local government should take serious steps to create employment avenues for smallholders outside agriculture that provide credit, training, and necessary inputs to rural households and recommended for public investment in rural infrastructures, such as roads and bridges, telecommunications, education, energy, and water.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 25-34; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20190

Abstract:
The present study attempted to configure an ARDL model depicting the short and long-run effectiveness of foreign aid from the World Bank on India's growth and development. Analyzing the annual time series data of 27 years (1991 to 2017), the study indicated the effectiveness of foreign aid for economic growth in short-run and economic development in the long-run. However, with domestic savings in the country, foreign assistance only played a supportive role. Therefore, a self-reliant country like India favoured foreign assistance. The study suggested that India's Government focuses on making out policies and providing proper implementation and assistance from foreign financial assistance. Policy guidelines must be aimed at setting up a committee to review the proper utilization of foreign aid periodically. It would embark the effectiveness of foreign in the economic growth and development of the country.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 86-94; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20171

Abstract:
In the present study, the majority of casual workers perform multiple seasonal working activities in Punjab. In rural areas, most casual workers were occupied in non-agriculture sectors, while in the urban areas, the majority were occupied in non-manufacturing sectors. If the casual workers found work in rural and urban areas, they had to work long hours. They did not find regular work due to the lack of skill. Besides, due to lack of employment opportunities in rural areas. Workers had to go to the city for work. The study found that casual workers received higher wage rates in urban areas than their rural counterparts, especially in the manufacturing sector. The highest share in rural and urban areas received the wages on a daily basis.
Indian Journal of Economics and Development pp 157-163; https://doi.org/10.35716/ijed/20290

Abstract:
The present study was undertaken to analyse the impact of WTO on the trade specialisation pattern of Indian agriculture. Twentyfive major agricultural commodities were selected at four-digit data based on HS 1988/92 classification, which were India's top agricultural export items. The study used three RCA indices such as Balassa Index, Symmetric RCA index and Normalised RCA index in an econometric framework by applying Galtonian Regression. It was found that WTO led to a convergence in the trade specialisation pattern of Indian agriculture. The commodities with initial comparative disadvantage improved their position, and those with initial comparative advantage had fallen back. This study contributed to the existing literature as Galtonian Regression's application filled up a major research gap on the trade specialisation pattern of Indian agriculture.
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