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Yekin Ahmed Ali
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i2.494

Abstract:
Food price inflation affects household welfare and the macroeconomy pervasively. The study estimated Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand system of six food groups to simulate the money costs of food prices inflation on households’ welfare and; predict relative potency of income and price policies to counter the effects in a particular context of South West Ethiopia. It drew on Household Income and Consumption Expenditure Survey data of 519 households collected by the Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia. Rural households respond more to income and prices than do urban dwellers. The welfare losses from food price inflation fall heavily, more on urban households than their rural counterparts. On average, it requires resource allocations as large as percentage increases in prices to keep households’ welfare at pre-price change levels. It is suggested that a sector-specific mix of income and price policies could offset the negative consequences on consumers’ welfare.
Jean Augustin Rubabura Kituta
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i2.517

Abstract:
Ninety-six farmers interviewed in Kabare, east of the DR Congo during 2021 and WHO Hazard Class and health effects (2005) used. Farmers majority were males (79.17%), ranging 30 to 60 years, used different pesticides in vegetable farms and the main solanaceous crops cultivated is tomato. The use of insecticide and fungicide were high, with many different formulations of the difference class types recorded in use, (20%) endocrine disruptors, (40%) cholinesterase inhibitors, (35%) carcinogen and potential carcinogens suspected to be. A lot of out of those pesticides are unregistered for general use. Farmers applied pesticide once a week and did not have specific instructions either from the label or from extension staff regarding these tank mixtures. The skin effects, headaches and dizziness are dominant. They do not have a good system of pesticide packaging management. We propose options to reduce pesticide application based upon integrated pest Management (IPM) and agro ecology. Moreover, IPM increases farmer economy, thus decreasing poverty. We suggest that the Congolese government must create a quarantine, control and surveillance service for phytosanitary products, fruits and vegetables within the DRC country and at these borders.
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3, pp 48-58; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i2.516

Abstract:
Power tiller-driven plow tillage and crop residue exclusionary Traditional Agriculture practices are expensive, labor demanding, soil damaging, and eco-unfriendly. Over the last several years, pursuits of crop production through sustaining the productive capacity of soils, and environmental quality, have raised concern to adopt Conservation Agriculture worldwide. Single tillage combined with herbicides and crop residue retention principles of Conservation Agriculture are being developed. Between 2016–2017 and 2017–2018, a two-year on-farm experiment was done in Bangladesh. We practiced two crop establishment methods; Traditional Agriculture: Plow tillage followed by three manual weeding without residue preservation of previous crop and Conservation Agriculture: Pre-plant herbicide + single tillage + pre-emergence herbicide + post-emergence herbicide; under rice–wheat and rice–wheat–mungbean systems. Data reveal that the Conservation Agriculture was more cost-effective crop establishment technique than Traditional Agriculture in rice, wheat, and mungbean by increasing the ratio of benefit to costs by 24.3%, 35.7% and 48.8%, respectively, with a savings in tillage operations (66.3%, 58.1%, and 57.6%, respectively), weeding expenditures (59.2%, 24.5%, and 42.2%, respectively), and manpower requirements (25.1%, 27.2%, and 31.3%, respectively). This has resulted in an increase of 32% productivity of rice–wheat–mungbean systems with the yield advantage of 16%, 31% and 37% in rice, wheat and mungbean, respectively. When mungbean was added, the rice–wheat system’s productivity rose by 43%. The rice–wheat–mungbean system under Traditional Agriculture had the highest land utilization efficiency (99.45%), followed by Conservation Agriculture (92.05%), which expanded the scope to include additional crops into rice–wheat–mungbean system. Moreover, the Conservation Agriculture had a 59.7% greater production efficiency than Traditional Agriculture, where the rice–wheat–mungbean system having the highest production efficiency (53.00 kg–1 ha–1 day–1), followed by the rice–wheat system (45.57 kg–1 ha–1 day–1).
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3, pp 25-38; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i2.514

Abstract:
The 1991 Indian reforms aimed at economic liberalization, as a part of its economic structural adjustment, and transformed the nation’s economy into a more global market-based and service-oriented system, which revolutionized its agricultural trade facet. The new regime paved the way for the self-reliant Indian agriculture to expand its roots into the spheres of global competitiveness and export orientation. India enjoys competitive advantage in the international market and considering the growth in India’s exports of major agricultural commodities. This study employed Constant Market Share model to analyze the export performance of its various facets such as diversification, instability, elasticity, competitiveness, etc. The findings revealed that India’s growth performance of major agricultural commodities’ exports both in terms of quantity and value was found satisfactory (except wheat and cashew nuts, shelled (quantity)) during 1991-2020. During the recent past decade, i.e., 2011-2020, World Demand Effect (WDE) is the main sources of India’s agricultural export performance (due to general rise/fall in world demand given a constant market share of the India, unlike Market Distribution Effect (MDE), Commodity Composition Effect (CCE) and the Residual Competitiveness Effect (RCE) due to high inconsistency arising out of changes in external environment). Both MDE and RCE with respect to commodity-wise exports and CCE and RCE with respect to country-wise exports are found negative for majority of commodities and countries (markets) respectively. Consistently negative CCE for exports of agricultural products, total and across major export destinations were found more disheartening and this should deserve special attention. So, it is imperative to boost the export competitiveness of agricultural commodities from India and the future prospects of exports depend on how much the latest surge in COVID-19 infections in India affects its agricultural production and global demand conditions.
Cosmas Parwada, Justin Chipomho, Nyamande Mapope, Edmore Masama, Kennedy Simango
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3, pp 39-47; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i2.515

Abstract:
Farmland productivity is low in the semi-arid regions (NR IV and V) of Zimbabwe due to desertification and land degradation. Nevertheless, demand for food is increasing geometrically hence the need to increase output per unit area. Agroforestry (AF) which is an ecologically based and dynamic system that integrates multi-purpose trees on farms can increase productivity and offer resilience to climate change vagaries. However, the role of AF in Zimbabwean smallholder farming systems is still not well investigated. Therefore, this review explores the role of agroforestry on agricultural productivity in the semi-arid regions of Zimbabwe. The aim was to enhance sustainable food security among the rural poor through sustainable agriculture. Incorporating multi-purpose trees on agricultural lands can significantly restore soil productivity and offer soil resilience to erosion by water and wind. If well implemented, the AF can be a viable option in mitigating the impacts of drought on agriculture in these drier and marginalized areas.
Faramarz Abazari, Hossein Jalilifar, Mohammad Ali Riahi
Earth and Planetary Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.36956/eps.v1i1.524

Abstract:
The instability of the wellbore has significant effects on drilling, causing delays in operations, increasing costs, and ultimately may result in the abandonment of wells. Nowadays, it is possible to stabilize a wellbore by changing the drilling mud composition. With the help of rock mechanics and knowledge of the mechanical properties of the formation, the optimal path for the drilling of the well and the window of the mud is determined. Several features of the formation are influential in wellbore design; knowing these features is necessary for designing optimal mud weight to ensure wellbore stability. In practice, analytical methods for the calculation of the optimal mud weight are more convenient than numerical ones because the latter needs information on many samples that are usually unknown at the commencement of the project. This research investigates the wellbore stability in the Kupal carbonate oil field using an analytical method with three rock strength criteria of Mogi-Coulomb, Mohr-Coulomb, and Hoek-Brown failure. We conclude that the Mogi-Coulomb criterion predicts a minimum drilling mud pressure and is more conservative. This is due to the use of its intermediate stress.
Muhammad Jahangir Khan, Syeda Rida Fatima Bokhari, Umair Bin Nisar, Farhad Ali
Earth and Planetary Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.36956/eps.v1i1.520

Abstract:
Availability of subsurface fresh water in coastal cities of the world is a growing problem due to sea level intrusion and less seepage. We have utilized an integrated data analysis in which conventional geophysical methods was used to collect primary data for the groundwater resources in Karachi and geospatial approaches were used to model the hydrogeological parameters. It was aimed to investigate geological/hydrogeological conditions of any aquifer system in the study area. The geophysical survey was conducted to acquire electrical resistivity data in the outskirts of Karachi. The geophysical survey was carried out at twenty-one stations by adopting vertical electrical sounding technique with schlumberger configuration. The field data was processed in an iterative process to improve the signal to noise ratio and obtain smooth field data curves for delineation of the aquifer. We have interpreted field data to model the geological information and determine the hydrogeophysical parameters of respective layers. These parameters including the number of layers, aquifer resistivity, aquifer lithology, aquifer thickness and depth to the aquifer, are determined at each field station. The acquired dataset of hydrogeophysical parameters was used to build a geospatial database. The multi-criteria analysis and decision-making process were utilized in GIS based program to model spatial distribution models of hydrogeophysical parameters. The results identified aquifer system in the depth ranging from 53.3 meter to 143.9 meter. The aquifer in the area are mostly sandstone having sufficient thickness which varies from northeast to south and southwest due to undulating topography of the area. The maximum potential of the groundwater is identified in the south which is suitable for water exploration because of low resistivity zone, high aquifer thickness, and flow of drainage network.
R. M. A. Ambong
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3, pp 15-24; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i2.513

Abstract:
Agricultural researchers in developing countries were not able to give much attention on the adoption studies of agricultural technologies until the period of Green Revolution. These technologies are disseminated in rural farming community by agricultural extension professionals to boost farm efficiencies and productivity. This paper presents the systematic review of methods employed by previous researchers in studying agricultural technology adoption with special reference to rice. The review focuses on the study of rice technologies adoption in the Philippines and other related studies conducted by a Filipino author in other countries in the Asian Region. From 391 adoption studies identified, 22 papers were selected and included in the review. These papers were retrieved from Scopus database. This review revealed that papers focused on studying the adoption of rice cultivation practices employed quantitative techniques. Institutional factors were found to critically influence the decision-making of the farmers to adopt production technologies.
Francis Temgo Sopie, Victorine Ambassa Bela, Armel Zacharie Ekoa Bessa, Archange Duviol Tsanga, Patrice Roland Liyouck, Théophile Njanko, Gabriel Ngueutchoua
Earth and Planetary Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.36956/eps.v1i1.525

Abstract:
Sandy sediments collected along the southern part of the Cameroonian coast have been analyzed geochemically by ICP MS methods to investigate the distribution characteristics, contamination levels and related ecological risks. In these sediments, the concentration (mg/kg) of selected elements are in order Fe > Mn > Cr > V > Th > Ni > U > Co. Indices of pollution such as index of geoaccumulation, where values of all elements in the sediments were < 0, except Th in the sediments station of Yoyo II, and Cr in sediment of all stations were Igeo > 0. Contamination factor shows that the station of Yoyo II has values of CF < 1, such as Fe, V, Ni and Co. while Uranium, Th and Mn values vary from 1 to 3 and 3 to 6, and for Cr values of CF > 6. However, Kribi and Campo stations show that all the elements have values of CF < 1, except Cr which has values of CF > 6. The degree of contamination values ranges between (9.48 – 37.13) for the station of Yoyo II, (8.84 – 17.62) for Kribi station, and (6.52 – 13.56) for Campo station. The pollution loading index values at all sampling stations are lower than 1. The potential ecological risk (Er and RI), indicates that this coastal area is a low risk region. Pearson correlation, cluster analysis and principal component analysis supported that heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, V, Ni and Co) have common human influences while radionuclides (Th and U) have a natural source. The presence of human activities such as domestic waste, intensive farming and the processing of industrial products could be potential sources of anthropogenic environmental pollution, thereby threatening the environmental concerns of the entire study area.
Anatoly R. Ischuk, Conrad Lindholm, Zuhra G. Ilyasova, Shohruh Murodkulov
Earth and Planetary Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.36956/eps.v1i1.510

Abstract:
In current Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis we analyzed an area and fault models. Shallow crust and deep earthquakes are occurred in the area of Tajikistan, and used two area models for shallow earthquakes and one area model for the deep earthquakes. Additionally, we used so called “Woo’s model” or “point model” which is based on the past seismicity more directly. Six active fault databases for Central Asia and specifically for Tajikistan were used to create the fault model.Software CRISIS2015 and recent Ground Motion Prediction Equations were used in the computation. A grid with 0.1 degree of latitude and 0.1 degree of longitude covered the study area, was created for calculations, and for each 9744 grid points we calculated the spectral accelerations from 0.01 s (PGA) to 3.0s, and for 5 exceedance probabilities in 50 years.For easy application of the results in seismic design, all calculations were made for three values of Vs30, corresponding to 3 categories of the soils in the existing Seismic Design Code in Tajikistan.Special 15 Excel sheets were created for engineers and designers to easy construct the uniform hazard spectra for three types of soil conditions for needed points and exceedance probabilities.
Haidar Salim Anan
Earth and Planetary Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.36956/eps.v1i1.511

Abstract:
Ninety-seven Campanian–Paleogene smaller agglutinated benthic foraminiferal species belong to thirty-five genera from ten countries in the Southern Tethys (Algeria, Egypt, Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, Qatar, UAE, Iran, Pakistan, India) have been studied. The modern taxonomical consideration of the species are used. Eighty-nine of the recorded species were previously noted in the literatures, while eight of them are believed here as new: Haplophragmoides iranica, Pseudogaudryinella iraqensis, Arenobulimina beitjebrinensis, A. jerusalemensis, Textulariella sinaensis, Dorothia iranica, Clavulinoides iranica, and Textularia salahii. Forty species of them are recorded from Egypt (about 41%), twenty seven from Pakistan (~28%), ten from UAE (~10.5%), six from Qatar (~ 6%), four from each of Algeria and Iran (~ 4 %), three from each of Jordan (~ 3%), two from each of Palestine and Iran (~2%), and only one from each of Iraq and India (~1%). Most of the Southern Tethyan recorded species are endemic to their original description, while five of them are also recorded in some Northern Tethyan countries (Spain, France, Italy, Hungary and Slovenia): Bathysiphon saidi, Haplophragmoides desertorum, Spiroplectinella esnaensis, Siphogaudryina africana and Textularia crookshanki. The Southern Tethyan assemblage indicate an open marine environment, which represents middle-outer neritic environment (100-200 m depth), and show s an affinity with Midway-Type Fauna 'MTF'' of the United States Gulf Coastal area.
Selda Oterkus, Bingquan Wang, Erkan Oterkus, Yakubu Kasimu Galadima, Margot Cocard, Stefanos Stefanos, Jami Buckley, Callum McCullough, Dhruv Boruah, Bob Gilchrist
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 4, pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v4i2.505

Abstract:
Unlike traditional transportation, container transportation is a relatively new logistics transportation mode. Shipping containers lost at sea have raised safety concerns. In this study, finite element analysis of containers subjected to hydrostatic pressure, using commercial software ANSYS APDL was performed. A computer model that can reasonably predict the state of an ISO cargo shipping container was developed. The von Mises stress distribution of the container was determined and the yield strengthwas adopted as the failure criterion. Numerical investigations showed that the conventional ship container cannot withstand hydrostatic pressure in deep water conditions. A strengthened container option was considered for the container to retain its structural integrity in water conditions.
Ashebir Seyoum Feyisa
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i2.501

Abstract:
Ethiopia is one of the most populated countries in Africa. Agriculture employs over 70% of the population. It is dominated by small-scale farmers who practice rain-fed mixed farming by using traditional technology, adopting a low input and low output production system. As a result, it is vulnerable to adverse weather conditions. Cereal crops provide food for majority Ethiopians, so most agricultural transformation plans prioritize increasing cereal crop productivity. However, about five million people experience food insecurity each year and require support. Population growth, environmental degradation, conflict, and climate change are the most serious threats to nation’s food security. In a time when the food supply cannot keep up with population expansion, there is a need for holistic solutions to development-related issues such as food insecurity, malnutrition, and poverty. Despite Ethiopia being a center of origin and diversity for several food crops, the potential benefits of underutilized indigenous crops are yet not exploited. However, they can play a significant part in human nutrition, income, and medicinal value. As a result, crop diversification may be the best choice for achieving household food security. One way to help nation’s food systems diversify is to include more orphan crops. Even though a small portion of the country’s land is dedicated to underused crops, more than 20% of the population relies on them for food. Orphan crops, such as enset, which can feed 100 million people, can help to attain food security in Ethiopia. As a result, promoting and researching these crops is the most sustainable strategy for lowering and managing poverty and food insecurity in Ethiopia.
Ajay Kumar Singh, Sanjeev Kumar, Shah Nawaz Ashraf, Bhim Jyoti
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3, pp 42-57; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i1.498

Abstract:
This study examined the farmer’s perception on climate change and adaptation strategies to mitigate the adverse effect of climate change in the agricultural sector of Gujarat. It used farm level information of 400 farmers who were purposely selected from 8 districts. Thereupon, linear, non-linear and log-linear production function models were used to examine the impact of climate change, farmer’s adaptation strategies and technological change on agricultural production in Gujarat. The descriptive and empirical results specify that adaptation strategies (i.e., change in showing time of crops, mixed cropping pattern, irrigation facilities, application of green and organic fertilizer, hybrid varieties of seeds, dampening of seed before planting, climate tolerate crops, organic farming and technology) have a positive impact on agricultural production. Thus, farmer’s adaptation strategies are useful to mitigate the negative impact of climate change in the agricultural sector. Maximum temperature and minimum temperature, precipitation and rainfall have a negative impact on agricultural production. However, the impact of these factors seemed positive in the agricultural sector when farmers apply aforementioned adaptation strategies in cultivation. Family size, education level of farmers, annual income of farmers, arable land, irrigated area, cost of technology, appropriate technology and financial support from government have a positive contribution to increase agricultural production in Gujarat.
Ikenna Charles Ukwuaba, Zechariahs Benapugha Owutuamor, Stella Nwawulu Chiemela, Chikaosolu Maryqueen Ileka, Ifeyinwa Cynthia Ukwuaba
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3, pp 33-41; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i1.496

Abstract:
Plantain marketing offers great profit-making, yet it is unclear if these have translated to more profits, making it imperative to examine the drivers of plantain marketing. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire in purposive 2-staged random sampling were analyzed using net marketing income, marketing margin, marketing efficiency and multiple linear regression models. Plantain marketing was mainly done by married educated women, averaged 40 years of age, belonging to households averaging 6 persons. Net monthly profit of $63.51 (₦26,050.38), average marketing margin of 30.84% and marketing efficiency of 35.06% were returned. Suggesting plantain marketing is profitable and viable but largely inefficient. Cost of plantain and marketing experience were positively significant (p≤0.05). Plantain marketing faced constraints like seasonality of plantain, inadequate finance, price fluctuations, high transportation costs, bulkiness, spoilage/breakage and high plantain costs. Plantain marketers should form/join cooperatives to obtain low-interest loans, mitigate marketing costs and enjoy economies of scale.
Zeqin Liu, Quan Zhou, Fengzai Ouyang, Yiqiang Liu, Gaojie Su, Xuehao Wang, Zhijie Hou, Tengqi Wang, Yajun Wang, Guoqin Huang
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3, pp 24-32; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i1.484

Abstract:
Border-rows effect is an important research content of intercropping system. Milk vetch-rape intercropping is one of the typical intercropping patterns in southern China. However, research on the border-rows effect is very little, which has affected the application and popularization of the milk vetch-rape intercropping system. In this study, two field experiments were conducted from 2018 to 2020. The effects of monoculture, intercropping and different border-rows on agronomic traits and yield of rape were studied. The results showed that milk vetch had a significant effect on the first border-row of rape. The first border-row of rape diameter of root and secondary effective branch number is significantly higher than second and third border-row, and the rape yield per plant in the first border-row of intercropping milk vetch was 135%, 328%, 257% and 147% higher than that in the second, third, fourth and fifth border-rows respectively. The intercropping with milk vetch enhanced the number of pods per plant in first border-row by increasing the agronomic traits of rape, such as plant height, stem diameter, primary effective branch number and secondary effective branch number. In conclusion, intercropping milk vetch significantly improved the agronomic traits of the first and second border-rows rape, increased the yield of rape. So it is recommended that milk vetch intercropping with two rows rape, which has important guiding significance for the application and promotion of milk vetch-rape intercropping in the future.
Erkan Oterkus, Sangchan Jo
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 4, pp 16-28; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v4i1.476

Abstract:
In offshore structures, hydrocarbon fires cause the structure to loose its rigidity rapidly and this leads to structural integrity and stability problems. The Passive Fire Protection (PFP) system slows the transfer rate of fire heat and helps to prevent the collapse of structures and human losses. The vital design factors are decided in the detailed design stage. The determined design thickness must be accurately applied in the fabrication yard. However, there are many cases that the PFP is overused because of various reasons. This excessive application of the PFP is an unavoidable problem. Several studies have been conducted on the efficient application and optimal design of the PFP. However, the strength of the PFP has not been considered. In addition, research studies on the correlation between the thickness of the PFP and the structural behaviour are not widely available. Therefore, this study attempts to analyse the thermal and mechanical effects of the PFP on the structure when it is applied to the structural member. In particular, it is intended to determine the change in the behaviour of the structural member as the thickness of the PFP increases.
Chungkuk Jin
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v4i2.492

Abstract:
This study investigates the hydro-elastic behaviors of fully submerged horizontal cylinders in different regular waves. Two methods were proposed and compared in this study. The first method was based on potential theory in frequency domain and the discrete-module-beam (DMB) method, which discretizes a floating elastic structure into a sufficient number of rigid bodies while simultaneously representing the elastic behavior from beam elements with Euler-Bernoulli beam and Saint-Venant torsion. Moreover, the Morison method in time domain was employed; this method estimates wave forces from the semi-empirical Morison equation, and the elastic behavior is embodied by massless axial, bending, and torsional springs.Various parametric studies on cylinder diameter, submergence depth, and wave direction were conducted. Wave forces, dry/wet mode shapes/natural frequencies, and dynamic motions are presented and analyzed.
, Yishaki Shitaye
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i1.486

Abstract:
Though Bench Sheko and Sheka zones have great potential for dairy production in Ethiopia, the majority of dairy producers’ could not get benefit from the sector in a sustainable way due to the low market participation problem. Hence, this study was designed to analyze determinants of market participation by dairy producers’ in Southwestern Ethiopia. Data from 160 sampled dairy producers were employed and analyzed by using the probit model. The model result shows the ownership of crossbreeds, utilization of improved livestock feeds and size of dairy cows’ ownership affect market participation decisions significantly and positively. While the number of children below six years and distance from the market is the significant factors determining the likelihood of dairy market participation negatively in southwestern Ethiopia. Therefore, demonstrations of improved livestock breed through supplying improved bulls and artificial insemination technologies, demonstration of improved livestock forages and concentrates through training, and organizing dairy marketing cooperative and dairy products collection centers are suggested to improve the market participation in the study area.
Qiliang Hu, Binjuan Yang, Na Li, Ning Liu, Shujiang Guo, Guoqin Huang
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3, pp 9-15; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i1.483

Abstract:
In order to explore the effects of Chinese milk vetch and rape mixed sowing on rice yield and soil fertility, and select the best planting mode, five different ratios of Chinese milk vetch and rape mixed sowing were designed to study the effects of different ratios on rice yield, soil physicochemical properties and soil fertility in 0-10 cm, 10- 20 cm and 20-30 cm layers. Grey correlation analysis of soil nutrient and yield was carried out by using grey system theory. The influence of different soil layers on soil chemical properties was greater than physical properties. The effect on shallow soil is greater than that on deep soil. Mixed sowing of Chinese milk vetch and rape improved soil comprehensive fertility in all soil layers, and rice yield was the highest in 2M2R treatment. pH value had the greatest effect on actual rice yield, followed by available potassium. Therefore, mixed sowing of Chinese milk vetch and rape could significantly increase the yield of early rice and soil nutrient content, and the pattern of “1/2 Chinese milk vetch +1/2 rape-early rice-late rice” had the best effect.
Shujian Guo, Shujuan Li, Guoqin Huang
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v3i1.482

Abstract:
In order to develop the suitable planting mode of maize in red soil dryland, improve the related plant and ear characters of maize, promote high quality and high yield, and improve economic benefits. The experiment was conducted in the Science and Technology Park of Jiangxi Agricultural University from May 13, 2020 to October 18, 2020 and from May 5, 2021 to October 7, 2021. Taking maize as the control, three intercropping treatments of maize intercropping soybean, maize intercropping peanut and maize intercropping sweet potato were set up to compare their effects on agronomic characters such as plant height, stem diameter and ear width of maize and yield. The results showed that the plant height and ear height of maize intercropping soybean reached the maximum in two years, with plant height of 208.9 cm and 191.9 cm, ear height of 80.2 cm and 58.4 cm, respectively. The ear length and grain number per row of intercropping treatment were better than that of monoculture treatment. The ear length of maize intercropping and soybean reached the maximum, which were 16.5 cm and 19.0 cm respectively, and the grain number per row was also higher than that of other treatments. The yield of maize intercropping soybean was the highest, 42.1 kg and 43.5 kg respectively in two years. Compared with monoculture, intercropping can improve stem diameter, ear height, ear length, grain number per row and other ear traits, so as to improve corn yield, among which maize intercropping soybean is the best. The results of grey correlation showed that ear length and plant height had a great influence on maize yield. The comprehensive analysis shows that the use of maize intercropping soybean model is conducive to achieve high quality and high yield.
Erkan Oterkus
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 4, pp 13-15; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v4i1.475

Abstract:
Marine environment is a harsh and challenging environment for both operators and analysers due to extreme weather conditions. As a result of these conditions, marine structures are subjected to extreme and/or cyclic loadings. This will then lead to various different damage modes including corrosion and fatigue. Such damage modes are major threats to the reliability and integrity of marine structures which can cause risk on human and environmental safety, and yield financial losses. Moreover, climate change is a major concern which requires urgent attention. In order to minimize the negative effects of climate change, energy transition from utilisation of fossil fuels to greener energy solutions, such as offshore wind, should be adapted. There is currently a rapid progress on investment on green technologies especially offshore wind energy generation. Another emerging area is hydrogen which is considered as the environmentally friendly fuel of the future.
Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Hari S
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 4, pp 35-41; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v4i1.490

Abstract:
Marine structures are exposed to harsh weather conditions, demanding special pre-requisites in design and functional perspectives. Under dynamic loads of larger magnitude, the material-centric design procedure alone is not feasible to ensure the safe disbursement of loads. The compliant offshore structures resist loads primarily by their geometric novelty, and hence their design is form-dominant and no more strength (material) dominant. Large displacements in the rigid body modes in the horizontal plane under lateral loads require their construction material to possess enough ductility to absorb this energy. Steel is one of the most competitive materials for marine structures as it offers good ductility, but corrosion in the marine environment is a major concern. It undergoes strength and functional degradations and therefore requires serious investigation. In the present study, functionally graded material (FGM) is proposed to substitute for steel in marine applications. The method of fabricating FGM and assessing its mechanical and durability properties are discussed. Results show that FGM possesses strength and durability properties at par with the conventionally used X52 steel for marine risers. The presented study will be a major initiative towards future research in exploring competent materials which will be strong and sustainable in the marine environment.
Vugutsa J. E., Mosi R. O., Wambui C. C.
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.424

Abstract:
The study sought to assess the level of knowledge on the utilization of termites, harvesting methods and characterise local edible termite species. Focus group discussion with key informants was used to collect data that was analysed using SPSS Version 21.0 to generate descriptive statistics. Results indicated different levels of termites’ utilisation where 45% of farmers use alates as food, 35% as feed for chicks and quails, while 20% use the queen to fatten young bulls. Majority of farmers (40%) prefer the use of termites as feed because it is readily available, followed with 20% that use it because of nutritive value,10% relate its use with better taste of poultry products, 5 % associate termite use in enhancing early maturity weight while 5% said it improves growth and strength of bulls. On harvesting, three methods are commonly used with most farmers (45%) using underground trapping method, (35%) use above ground trapping method but 20% use mound excavation. Varied plant materials are used as attractants and the effect is more when combined with dry cow dung. Farmers further characterised species based on time of emergence of alates and habitat’s physical features. Most respondents (45%) associated: big mounds with Macrotermes bellicosus (Mafendete); small mount to Macrotermes subhyalinus (Kitunda); presence of open big tunnels with Coptotermes millitaris (Riamke) while seasonal gallaries and small tunnels was a confirmatory feature of either Pseudocanthotermes militaris (Chiisiisi) and Pseudocanthotermes spiniger (Maburi). The study demonstrates the richness in indigenous knowledge on techniques of termite production and utilization.
Ude Kingsley D., Ogonna Olive Osuafor, Ofoha Donaldson C.
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.472

Abstract:
The study analyzed awareness, attitude and behavioural intentions of medium and large scale poultry producers to poultry waste management practices in Lagos State with reference to problems of poor on-farm harness of excessive poultry waste, retrogression/unmet global environmental and economic waste management standards, exorbitant waste management charges imposed by LAWMA. Purposive and simple random sampling (using the lottery draw approach) was used in the selection of sixty (60) medium scale poultry farmers and forty (40) large scale poultry farmers, making a grand total of one hundred (100) medium and large scale poultry farmers interviewed in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the selected medium and large scale poultry farmers with the aid of a list provided by the Poultry Association of Nigeria (PAN), Lagos chapter. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to analyse the data. In the principal component analysis for medium scale poultry farmers, the key component named was that LAWMA should offer special service for isolated dead bird collection (V75); and for large scale poultry farmers, the key component was that the disposal of poultry waste in an environmentally friendly way is LAWMA’s duty (V76). The study recommended that the government makes provisions to offer awareness campaigns in order to improve environmental knowledge and encourage environmental enthusiasm amongst society.
Ntabakirabose Gaspard, Harold Ogwal, Jean Baptiste Habinshuti, Musoni Protais, Jeanne Pauline Munganyinka, David Mwehia Mburu, Maniriho Festus
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.464

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Environmental protection is one of the most important measures to achieve the long run and sustainability of living organisms in the world. The study was conducted in Burera and Gicumbi districts with the main aim of assessing the impact of environment protection in Rwanda. A case study of Rugezi Marchland. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 20 and STATA statistical software vision 13. Off-farm income, occupation, educational level, age, and farm size, showed a positive relationship with Rugezi marchland protection. Variables such as value of product distance to Rugezi marchland, gender, and family size had a negative influence on Rugezi marchland protection. The study also indicated that factors such as water management, increase of grass species, increase of wild animals and birds, modern house construction, zero grazing keeping revealing a positive relationship with Rugezi marchland protection. Two most serious problems encountered are the lack of occupation and low level of education.
Sharew Mekonnen, Belete Kuraz, Mulugeta Tesfaye
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.391

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The aim of this study was to assess the overall management practice and comparison of reproductive and productive performance between beneficiaries and none beneficiaries of oestrus synchronization and mass insemination (OSMI) of dairy cattle in north shewa zone of dairy cattle. Data were obtained by interviewing 270 estrus synchronization and mass insemination beneficiaries and 135 none beneficiaries’ dairy farmers. Data were analyzed using Statistical Packaging for social science (SPSS) version 20. Natural pasture and crop residue were the most common feed resources in the study areas. River water was the major source of water for their cattle and well water was used when river water is not available. In their order of importance; FMD, mastitis, and abortion were the major diseases of cattle in the study area. The reproductive performance of dairy cows in OSMI beneficiaries were age at first service (30.81±7.6), calving interval (6.9±5.2), lactation length (8.95±2.46), day open (5.3±3.18) and number of service per conception (1.5±0.38) whereas in none beneficiary age at first service (32.88±6.64), calving interval (18.18±5.8), lactation length (9.6±0.54), day open (5.17±3.43) and number of service per conception (1.22±0.54) months. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference in milk yield between beneficiaries and none beneficiaries in HFC, HHFC and JERC dairy cows per day per cow.The major factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows are management, nutritional status, genotype, and disease. Therefor the productive and reproductive performance of the dairy cows reared by the participants were better than those of the nonparticipants.
Jagvir Dixit, Naiem Jan Rawat
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.471

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In the present study, self-propelled cabbage/cauliflower harvester was designed, developed and evaluated. The machine consisted of different components like engine, frame, shearing (cutting) unit and power transmission unit. The power transmission unit consisted of main clutch, shearing blade operating clutch, belt drive unit, chain and sprocket drive, universal joint and cutter blade assembly. The main working principle of harvester is based on shearing of crop stem against high-speed rotating blade. The power from the engine is transmitted by belt-pulley drive unit to transmission shaft on which chain and sprocket is mounted on one side and then power is transmitted to shearing blade coupling with the help of a stationary pulley and fixed socket. Average mean head diameter of the selected cabbage and cauliflower was 89.5 ± 15.24 mm and 107.5 ± 15.24 mm, respectively. Average mean stem (plant) diameter of the selected cabbage and cauliflower was 18 ± 4.85 mm and 21.5 ± 3.08 mm, respectively. The shearing force increased with increase in diameter of stem. The optimum performance of the machine was achieved when it was operated at 1.5 km/h forward speed and the shearing blade moving at speed of 147 rpm. The mean field capacity for developed prototype was observed as 0.063 ha/h and 0.053 in case of cabbage and cauliflower, respectively with field efficiency of 91.97 and 90.48 %. The average head damage was negligible (0.15 %) for both the crops. The average untrimmed percentage with developed harvester was 3.2 and 3.0% in case of cabbage and cauliflower crop, respectively. The developed machine helps to increase the field capacity in cabbage/cauliflower harvesting due to 7-times more capacity and 50% cheaper compared to traditional method of cabbage/cauliflower harvesting. At the operating condition of forward speed (1.5 km/h) and shearing blade speed (147 rpm), the machine could harvest 0.5 ha of cabbage and 0.42 ha of cauliflower farm per day of 8-h. This same task would have required between 15 labour per day if entirely done manually.
Jean Augustin Rubabura Kituta, Jean Berkmans Muhigwa Bahananga
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.457

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This study assessing the infestation rate of fruit fly species on Solanum aethiopicum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Capsicum spp, using incubation method, was conducted in Agricultural entomology laboratory of Research Centre in Natural Sciences (CRSN) Lwiro, at Kabare in The South Kivu Province in eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Five species of Tephritidae flies observed, i.e. Bactrocera dorsalis, B. latifrons, Dacus bivitatus, Ceratitis capitata, and Zeugodacus Cucurbitae. The highest infestation rate was observed on B. dorsalis and following C. capitata in those solanaceous chilli pepper (C. frutescens), eggplant (S. aethiopicum) and tomato (S. lycopersicum) than Z. cucurbitae, B. latifrons and D. bivittatus. However, the localities Kamakombe, Buhandahanda, Lwiro, Bishibiru have predominant in the majority of hosts in chilli pepper, eggplant and tomato.
Alao F., Alatise M. O., Olanrewaju O.O., Oloruntade A. J.
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.455

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Shortage of freshwater is becoming a growing problem in both dry and semi-dry regions of the world, hence the need to make use of other source of water for agricultural production. The study was conducted to examine the performance of common reed in a constructed wetland for greywater treatment in Akure, Nigeria. Raw greywater was collected from Jadesola Hostel, Federal University of Technology, Akure, and pretreated through a combination of gravel of diameters < 32 mm, 24 mm and 16 mm with fine sand of diameter 0.2 mm arranged accordingly. The filtered water was thereafter released to a plastic constructed wetland (CW) which also consisted of same combination of layers of gravel and sand with common reed planted on it for complete treatment. The raw and treated greywater were analyzed for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), and heavy metals. It was discovered that CW planted with common reed was effective in the treatment of greywater with reduction in BOD by 91.4%, COD by 91.5% and TDS by 38.7%. CW had appreciable removal effect on heavy metals with reduction in: manganese (Mn) from 0.100 ppm to 0.012 ppm, iron (Fe) from 0.014 ppm to 0.002 ppm, lead (Pb) from 0.05 ppm to 0.001 ppm and zinc (Zn) from 0.154 ppm to 0.148 ppm. Therefore, the use of common reed in constructed wetland for greywater treatment is recommended for farmers involved in irrigation with greywater, especially during dry seasons, and most importantly under the rising global water scarcity due to climate change.
Aman Gudeto, Tesfaye Alemu Aredo, Tadele Mirkena, Sandip Banerjee
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v4i1.429

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Structural measurements are indicators of animal performance, productivity and carcass characteristics. This study was conducted with the objectives of assessing structural measurements, developing body weight prediction and structural indices for cows of Arsi breed. The cows were purchased from highland and lowland agro-ecologies of Arsi and East Shoa zones of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia and kept in Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center (ATARC) for the breed development purpose. Totally 222 cows were included in the structural traits measurement. Thirty four young heifers were also considered in the study. Twenty two structural traits were considered during observational survey. The structural index was calculated from the phenotypically correlated linear measurements. Structural traits were analyzed by T-test of SPSS version twenty four. The observed average values of height at wither, chest depth, heart girth, body length, pelvic width, cannon bone circumferences of the cows were 107, 55.62, 141.06, 117.82, 31.41 and 13.58cm, respectively. Heart girth (0.82), flank girth (0.73), hook circumferences (0.67), chest depth (0.65) and height at rump (0.64) were highly correlated (P< 0.01) to body weight of the cows. Regression analysis indicated that hearth girth had the highest coefficient of determination for body weight of the cows and heifers. Accordingly, the simple linear equations were developed to predict the body weight of cows and heifers. Body weight of Arsi cow (y) = -221.005 + 3.1(heart girth) and Body weight of Arsi heifer (y) = -188.452 + 2.75 (heart girth). Based on this, the measuring chart tape can be developed to estimate the body weight of Arsi cows and heifers at field condition where there is no access to weighing scales.
Liang-Cheng Liu, Ge Wang, Jun-Yi Song, Bi-Ru Hu
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 4, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v4i1.438

Abstract:
Resolving the contradiction between Marine economic development and Marine ecological environment protection has become an unavoidable and sharp problem. The uncontrolled use of Marine antifouling technology will bring uncontrollable and even irreversible damage to the Marine biosphere, which will lead to ecological disaster and threaten the survival of human beings. Therefore, it is an urgent task to find antifouling technology with lower environmental toxicity under the premise of considering economy. More attention should be paid to the long-term impact of mature and new technologies on the Marine ecological environment. This paper introduces the development status of antifouling technology, its influence on Marine ecological environment and puts forward the design strategy of comprehensive biological fouling prevention and control technology.
Zhang ChunLing, Zhang Meng-Li, Wang Zhen-Feng, Hu Song, Wang Dan-Yang, Yang Sheng-Long
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 4, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v4i1.474

Abstract:
Argo has become an important constituent of the global ocean observation system. However, due to the lack of sea surface measurements from most Argo profiles, the application of Argo data is still limited. In this study, a thermocline model was constructed based on three key thermocline parameters, i.e, thermocline upper depth, the thermocline bottom depth, and thermocline temperature gradient. Following the model, we estimated the sea surface temperature of Argo profiles by providing the relationship between sea surface and subsurface temperature. We tested the effectiveness of our proposed model using statistical analysis and by comparing the sea surface temperature with the results obtained from traditional methods and in situ observations in the Pacific Ocean. The root mean square errors of results obtained from thermocline model were found to be significantly reduced compared to the extrapolation results and satellite retrieved temperature results. The correlation coefficient between the estimation result and in situ observation was 0.967. Argo surface temperature, estimated by the thermocline model, has been theoretically proved to be reliable. Thus, our model generates theoretically feasible data present the mesoscale phenomenon in more detail. Overall, this study compensates for the lack surface observation of Argo, and provides a new tool to establish complete Argo data sets.
O.A. Adeboyejo, E.O. Clarke, A.M. Hammed, O.O. Whenu, J.P. Abayomi, O.M. Olarewaju
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v3i2.434

Abstract:
A study on seasonal abundance, morphometric and meristic data, growth pattern, condition factor, sex ratio and gonadosomatic index of Liza falcipinnis (Valenciennes, 1836) from the Ojo axis of Badagry creek, Nigeria was conducted from May 2019 to March 2020. A total of 1012 species were randomly selected, having 499 females and 513 males. The length frequency analysis and length-weight relationships (LWR) were determined. Sex ratio was determined by Chi-square analysis. The results showed that morphometric data are: 0.5 - 2.5 mm for ED, 2.1 - 12 mm for HL, 1.7 - 8.1 mm for HD, 2.5 - 11.7 for BD, 2.6 - 233.3 mm for TL and 9.23 - 1006 g for BW for the combined sexes. The slope (b) shows an allometric growth pattern. The intercept ‘a’ and slope ‘b’ of the LWR (LogW = a + bLogL) were Log W=15.39+ 0.34 LogL (r= 0.54) for combined sexes, Log W= 12.49+ 0.02 log L (r= 0.38) for males and Log W= 18.23+ 0.01 log L (r=0.16) for females.The length frequency distribution indicated that species were dominated by two year classes (Ages 1 and 2). Condition factors were generally low. The values ranged between 0.68 - 0.85 for combined sexes. The gonadosomatic index for female was highest in August, 2019 (17.77%) with Mean±SD of 2.88±0.75; which indicated the peak of spawning period in the study area.Sex ratio difference was significant (P<0.05). Sexual differences were significant; the females are phenotypically larger than the male.
B. K. Chakraborty, Verma A. K., S. Muniya
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v3i2.436

Abstract:
Bangladesh is very rich in aquatic fauna with a biodiversity. The present study, conducted during 2015 to 2019, recorded a total number of 131 spe cies (104 fish, 09 prawn, 01 snail, 04 crabs, and 13 turtles) belonging to 26 families were identified from the Mogra River and its flood plain. About ten types of fishing gears, different crafts, hook and line were found oper ative in the river. Increasing rates of using current jal (16.0-26.40%) and Kapuri jal (11.0-16.70%) were identified as detrimental gears destroyingdifferent species. The fish productivity was decreased dramatically from 170.63±10.81mt to 134.75±8.02 mt with a decreasing percentage of 6.26 to 21.03% within five years. Three important aquatic species turtiles (Cyclemys oldhami, Melanocheelys trjuuga and Morenia petersi) became rare and 17 commercially important aquatic species were at the edge of extinction (critically endangered, CR). From the study, 67 species were recorded inthe endangered (EN) category, 20 species vulnerable status (VU), 11 species lower risk (LR), 07 species Least concern (LC) and 04 Data deficient (DF). To save the existing aquatic species in the studied riverine ecosystem and ensure better livelihood of the fishes, a team of local management committee, similar to the Hilsa fisheries management technology is needed.
Abdelaziz Mounir, Mohammed Znari, Hayat Elmghazl, Hassan Alahyane, Noreddine Chouikh, Nawal Hichami
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v3i2.433

Abstract:
This article summarizes the state of stocks of sardine, sardina pilchardus in Moroccan waters at the end of 2016 and 2018. These stocks varies according to the region,They are now in a sustainable exploitation situation:Atlantic sardine, but also stocks that have reached or are still in over-exploitation levels: Mediterranean sardine. The fi shing pressure exerted on the sardine stock exceeds the optimal level by 40%. Due to the degradation of the fragile marine environment of the Mediterranean region, generated by pollution of various origins, the overexploitation of juveniles in the coastal strip, non-responsible practices and the use of non-fi shing gearselective, it is imperative to take the necessary measures to protect the marine environment and ensure rational and sustainable exploitation of the resource. (High commission plan 2006 report).
Hongfeng Sun, Hongwei Luan, Xiping Chen, Guoquan Jiang, Yulin Peng, Cheng Sun
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i4.448

Abstract:
Ensuring food security, increasing farmers’ income and improving people’s living standards are the focus of attention of all countries in the world today. “Centrey Tianwang” biological organic fertilizer has been upgraded to multi-functional biological organic fertilizer innovation, accepted as a new invention patent. “Centrey Tianwang” multifunctional biological organic fertilizer is a long-term natural biological organic fertilizer with high concentration. It is a new kind of slow-release fertilizer, with both quick and long-term effects. It can both fully meet the nutrient requirements of the crop, and maintain water and fertilizer, improve soil and prevent disease. It can not only control agriculture pollution, improve the crop quality and promote the yield of various crops, but also have special effects on the improvement of saline-alkali land, restoration of polluted cultivated land and degradation of agricultural residues. It is a kind of slow-release, long-acting bio-organic fertilizer that does not need any other fertilizer to be used with field crops and does not need topdressing during the whole growing period of crops. “Centrey Tianwang” multi-functional bio-organic fertilizer collects the essences of various medicinal plants, natural minerals, nano organic compounds and aerospace microbial agents, through special process, refined and processed, non-toxic, harmless, without side effects.
Dessalegn Ayana
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i3.423

Abstract:
Despite the conducting much number of maize researches in different centers a little change on production and productivity in Ethiopia. Hence this review aimed to indicate how a maize production and productivity have been developed and used to inform that food security concern body of the country. I researched for different papers reporting maize production achievements, databases of peer review journal articles, scholar Google and other web sites. A total of 70 papers were reviewed from which 20 papers are included and from this 51.2% describe about maize production, 34.6% describe about productivity of a crop per area and 14.2% describe about deficiency of agricultural input utilization by local farmers. The use of new crop variety and artificial fertilizers is relatively a wide spread throughout the country. However, practical application on small holder’s field has less technical support and comparatively traditional way of crop managements have been involved. Most of the research findings, particularly those from agronomic practices, indicated that Maize has wide flexibility that is suitable for production.
F. O. Aminu, I. A. Ayinde
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i3.420

Abstract:
The study analysed the technical efficiency and technology gap ratio in cocoa production in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 390 cocoa farmers from three zones where cocoa is commercially grown in Nigeria. Separate stochastic frontier models were estimated for farmers in Kwara, Edo and Ondo States, along with a metafrontier model to obtain alternative estimates for the technical efficiencies of farmers in the different states. Subsequently, a Tobit model was used to access the factors influencing cocoa production in the study area. Results revealed that, the average technical efficiency level was 0.685 for the pooled sample, 0.506, 0.837 and 0.713 for Kwara, Edo and Ondo States respectively, suggesting that there is substantial scope to improve cocoa production in Nigeria. The mean MTR values of 0.506, 0.837 and 0.712 for Kwara, Edo and Ondo States respectively, implied that Edo State was more technically efficient than other states in the study area. The mean technology gap ratio (TGR) value of 84.3% indicated that, on the average, the cocoa farmers in the study areas would have to close a gap of about 15.7% in order for them to be technically efficient. The study recommended that cocoa farmers in Edo and Ondo States could improve their technical efficiency through a better management using the available technologies and resources while intervention to raise technology that will help close the gap between the regional frontier curve and the global frontier curve through raising and distributing disease resistant and high yielding cocoa seedlings to the farmers should be adopted in Kwara State.
Dessalegn Ayana Deressa
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i4.450

Abstract:
The imbalance between the crop production and population growth is currently the major issue in Ethiopia. To feed the growing population, increasing the production of food through growing more crop types in the same field as an intercropping is the right strategy. The study was aimed at evaluating the profitability of sorghum-legume intercropping on yield of sorghum. Intercropping sorghum with legumes crops increases the land productivity as its Land Equivalent Ratio is greater than one. In these cases, the land equivalent ratio is greater than one indicating the benefits of intercropping. In general, legume crops contributed to the yield of sorghum either intercropped with legume or grown up using residual contribution of legumes after a year. Therefore, for maximum sorghum production, farmers should plant either as intercrop or after residual effect of legumes crops. In addition to agronomic parameters used to compare the advantages of any cropping system in small scale farming conditions, total gross monetary value is also used to evaluate economic advantages of intercropping system.
Lijian Zhang
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i3.428

Abstract:
China is a big agricultural country with a long history, and has created a brilliant agricultural civilization. Agriculture has always been an important foundation of China's national economy and has made great achievements. At present, promoting sustainable agricultural development has become an important part of the strategic adjustment of China's economic development mode, and it is of great significance to explore and strive to blaze a path of sustainable agricultural development with Chinese characteristics.
Olalekan Morufu Raimi, Abiola Ilesanmi, Ogah Alima, Dodeye E. Omini
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i3.426

Abstract:
All around us today there is a clear evidence proof suggesting an observable influence by human on biogeochemical cycles which are likely to cause serious consequences for humanity. Activities of human affects the biogeochemical cycles, both directly as well as indirectly. If scholars were able to make clear the degree of how specific human actions is affecting the biogeochemical cycles, they (researchers) would be able to come up with ideas on how to better position toward suggesting strategies aimed at mitigating against disturbances that are worst. This paper aims at exploring how human activities affect the balance of biogeochemical cycles in relation to the Carbon, Nitrogen and Hydrologic Cycles. A literature analysis attempts to use a diversity of search engines such as Scopus, Researchgate, PubMed, Google Scholar, Summon, Hinari, CAB Abstract, OARE Abstract, Academia, Dimension, Mendeley, SSRN search strategy toward retrieving research publications, “grey literature” as well as expert reports from working group. This paper review some of the work done on this topic as well as locate the converging results of interest in all the studies as well as proffered solutions toward this menace with the purpose of forestalling future occurrence. Due to the actions of numerous human activities, the characteristics/features of several components of biogeochemical cycles are experiencing changes which are most likely led to long-term changes. It is essential to forecast the magnitude as well as degree of these changes so that the needed ameliorative actions could be originated well in time.
Defang Cao, Xiuju Zhang, Shengyuan Mo, Guihua Luo, Zhengfang Qin, Hanfeng Qin
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i4.449

Abstract:
Berry tea is a perennial vine. Its scientific name is ampelopsis grossedentata. It belongs to vitaceae and is widely spread in the Tujia people of Xiangxi, Hunan Province. By adopting appropriate agricultural planting technology, rational use of organic selenium fertilizer and nutritional conditioner, we can produce high-quality berry tea with more healthy and even medicinal value and high selenium content, and realize double protection of human health with high selenium content and high flavonoids. Under the existing planting system, through the supplement of breeding links, constructing ecological recycling agricultural system combining planting and raising, not only can greatly enrich the supply of table agricultural products, but also can effectively ensure the high quality and high safety of agricultural products, and can effectively enrich the local agricultural industrial structure.Key words: berry tea; selenium-enriched; ecological agriculture; industrial revitalization and economic development
Bangxing Ye, Keping Jiang, Haijun Hou, Jiaqing Wang
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i3.427

Abstract:
Taoyuan County is a large grain and rapeseed production county. Taking advantage of the resource advantage of soil rich in selenium in Taoyuan County [1], it promotes high-yield cultivation and assembly technology of selenium-rich rice and rapeseed rotation in one-season rice area, optimizing the aggregate structure of the soil, improving the soil ecology and reducing the content of heavy metals in the soil [2], laying the foundation for the continuous increase in agricultural efficiency and farmers' income. Through rice and rapeseed rotation, the overwintering base of rice field borers are reduced, and the incidence of pests and diseases in the coming year is effectively reduced [3]. The implementation of supporting technologies for rice-rapeseed rotation cropping and the widespread promotion of high-quality varieties and planting techniques have improved the level of farmers’ planting. After one season of rice harvesting, most of the farmland is left unused. Using winter fallow fields to develop selenium-enriched rapeseed industry can actually increase the income of farmers.
C. A. Agida, D. N. Onunkwo, B. N. Ezenyilimba, E. M. Afam-Ibezim, A. B. Ukonu, U. E. John, C. I. Adje
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i3.425

Abstract:
A 56-day study was carried out to evaluate the carcass characteristics and organ proportions of broiler chickens fed sorghum-based diets with varying plant protein. A total of 120 day-old broiler chickens from a reputable and disease free farm were used for this study. There were four treatments, each having thirty broiler birds replicated thrice with ten broiler birds per replicate using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The broiler birds were offered feed and water ad libitum. The growth parameters were taken on weekly basis. Carcass evaluation was carried out at the end of the trial. One bird per replicate was randomly selected, fasted over-night and slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. After scalding in warm water for about a minute, the feathers were manually plucked, each bird was cut into parts for carcass evaluation. The relative weights of the cut parts were as a percentage of dressed weight. The internal organs, such as heart, kidney, gizzard/proventriculus were all weighed separately and recorded using electric micrometer (3000g weighing gauge). The findings from this study showed that all the carcass parameters considered showed significant differences (p<0.05). Birds fed diet 3 gave the best live weight, slaughtered weight, defeathered weight, dressed weight and commensurate cut-parts. Soybean (whether cake or full-fat) demonstrate superiority over groundnut cake and cashew nut cake. Birds fed diet 3 gave the highest value of thigh, breast -cut, drumstick and wings, while birds fed diets 2, 1 and 4 gave less. The organ proportions of broiler chickens fed different dietary plant sources have all the parameters significantly difference (p<0.05), except the lungs though without any definite pattern. Average weight gain and feed conversion ratio were better (p<0.05) among birds fed diet 2, and 3. Cost benefits analysis per kilogram in naira terms for birds fed different plant protein sources in a sorghum-based diets were significant (p<0.05) among treatment levels. Least cost per kg feed was obtained in diet 1 (p<0.05). Cost of weight gained was (p<0.05) low in T1. Cost of feed consumed was low for diet T1 and T3. Revenue, gross margin and cost benefit ratio estimated were found to high (p<0.05) among T2 and T3. Broiler chickens fed diet 3 gave the best parameters. The actual contributions of the experiment, is to alternatively replace corn with sorghum completely at least cost with optimum performance.
M. Alhassan, M. Suleiman, A. A. Isah, A. G. Abdulrashid, Y. Nasiru, A. Bello
Research on World Agricultural Economy, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i4.444

Abstract:
Colour removal from dye-bearing effluent is a serious challenge due to the difficulty in treating such wastewater by conventional treatment methods. The present investigation explores the decolourization of contaminated wastewater using saw dust as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of waste water samples labelled A, B and C viz average temperature; pH; electrical conductivity; and total dissolved solids were 302.63; 6.1; 284.47 µS/cm; 35116.66 mg/L respectively. Colour removal efficiency of the adsorbent was studied under variable conditions (contact time, rate of agitation, loading). Experimental results demonstrated that the sawdust adsorbent has a significant capacity for colour removal from tannery effluent. There was significant variation in the absorbance of the treated samples. Adsorbent dose, stirring rate and contact time showed significant effects in colour removal.
Luis Felipe Avilés-Ramírez, Joanna M. Ortiz-Alcantara, Ma. Leticia Arena-Ortiz
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v3i2.432

Abstract:
Plastic pollution has become an urgent issue, since its invasion to every ecosystem has led to multiple impacts on the environment and human populations. Certain microbial strains and genera had shown the ability to biodegrade plastic sources under laboratory conditions. In this minireview, we collect and analyze scientific papers and reports of this microbial activity as we contextualize this information on the global plastic pollution problem, to provide an updated state of the art of plastic biodegradation with microbial agents. Along with a broad understanding of the general process of plastic biodegradation hosted by microorganisms. The contributions of this minireview come from the identification of research gaps, as well as proposals for new approaches. One of the main proposals focuses on coastal environments and in particular coastal wetlands as a great microbiome source with potential for plastic biodegradation, whether reported or undiscovered. Our final proposal consists of the application of this knowledge into technologic tools and strategies that have a remarkable impact on the battle against the plastic pollution problem.
Liana De Figueiredo Mendes, Patrícia Pinheiro Beck Eichler, Tatiana Leite, Ana Beatriz Alves Bennemann, Clara De Souza Melo, Andressa Lima Ferreira, Khalil Bow Ltaif Garcia, Luzia Liniane Do Nascimento Silva, Christofer Paul Barker, Helenice Vital, et al.
Sustainable Marine Structures, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36956/sms.v3i2.431

Abstract:
In 2019, an oil spill in Brazil, of unknown origin, severely impacted coastal environs with the worst environmental disaster ever recorded in any tropical coastal region globally severely damaging South Pirangi Reef area in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN). Here we discuss acute and chronic impacts including chemical contamination and economic consequences all over the world and show some evidence of the oil spill in this biodiverse area. Moreover, the lapse between the moment of the disaster, and the action to manage it, was hampered by a political agenda coinciding with local and global tragedies that redirected public attention. Meanwhile almost 2 years have passed still without the offending party identification or culpability; and poor communities may continue to absorb its deleterious impacts for decades without consideration or compensation. This disaster occurred during the Brazilian government’s current issues involving extensive environmental mismanagement, resulting in a slow response from an inept system. It is with urgent necessity to spotlight this tragedy in this unique and sensitive reef habitat experiencing the ongoing damaging effects that include socio-economic losses not yet addressed.
Abdela Edao, Abdurahman Meribo
NASS Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.36956/njas.v3i2.375

Abstract:
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the major causes of calf morbidity and mortality in smallholder dairy farms and associated potential risk factors in Shashemene. A total of 187 calves from 46 farms were included in the present study. The overall crude morbidity and crude mortality rates were 27.8% and 6.4%, respectively. The most frequent disease syndrome was diarrhea with incidence rate of 28(15%) followed by pneumonia 8(4.3%), Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorder 8(4.3%) and septicemia 5(2.7%). In addition skin lesion, navel ill and unidentified cases were encountered. The main causes of death were diarrhea 6(3.2%), Septicemia 2(1.1%), GIT disorder 2(1.1%), pneumonia 1(0.5%) and others 1(0.5%). The most important risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality were housing hygiene, floor condition and calf size in farm. Out of 187 calves examined for GIT parasites; 63(33.3%) were positive for nematode eggs. Prevalence of helminthes parasite increased with increasing age, showing higher prevalence (P<0.05) in calves above 2 months than in calves below 2 months of age. Besides, majority of the calves, 48(25.7%) were found positive for coccidian oocyst. In general; diarrhea, pneumonia and septicemia were the major causes of calf morbidity and mortality. Interms of risk factors housing hygiene, floor condition, calf size in the farms, age and breed were identified major role players. Therefore, identifying major causes and improving management practices and breed should be given to emphasis by advisory of smallholder dairy farms.
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