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Afsheen Hassan, Namra Ashraf, Husnat Ahmed
Published: 30 September 2022
Journal: sjesr
Abstract:
The aim of this paper was to find out the relationship between semantics and syntax through pragmatic analysis of indexicals used by Ex-Prime Minister Imran Khan in two of his purposively selected speeches; one in Urdu delivered on 23rd December, 2020 on the passing out ceremony of police officers and the other in English delivered on 27th September, 2019 in UNGA. The English speech has been analyzed using antconc software while the analysis of Urdu speech has been done manually. A quantitative analysis of the five kinds of deixes in both the speeches strengthened the research results of  Samosir and Zainuddin (2013) by providing the proof of the fact that person deixis is the most dominant category of English deixes (45.5%) while spatial is the least dominant (5.1%). The analysis of Urdu speech revealed a similar pattern as the person deixis (51.9%) is the most frequent, spatial being the least (3.9%).  The presence of all five kinds of deixes with a similar pattern of relative frequencies in both the languages have provided a useful data for the purpose of Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project (Butt et al., 1999) to find out parallel structures in the grammar of six languages out of which two have been analyzed in this paper.
Rizwana Gul, Nadia Zafar, Shaista Naznin
Abstract:
Media interest on eunuch and their problems has blossomed over the past decade. Stories about eunuchs have been the focus of dozens of books, movies, television dramas, and documentaries. Similarly, eunuchs now has moved from being a relatively obscure topic, Examined in a handful of medical journals, to becoming the central topic of numerous books and articles in a variety of disciplines, including psychology, history, anthropology, and medical ethics. Eunuchs now a day has also become a hot topic in legal circles. In the past ten years, more than a hundred legal articles and books have included a discussion on eunuchs and their problems. Most of these publications do not focus on the issues that have a direct effect on the lives of eunuchs. Understanding how the issues that are critical to people with such condition can be conflated with the issues affecting other people who challenge sex and gender norms requires a basic understanding of the nature of intersexuality. The meaning of the term eunuch has varied and the issue is still a topic of sometimes heated discussion. Although doctors and activists debate exactly what conditions qualify as to be called eunuch I am using the term in its broadest sense to include anyone with a congenital condition whose sex chromosomes, gonads, or internal or external sexual anatomy do not fit clearly into the binary male/female norm. Activists working to enhance the rights of eunuch’s advocate of eliminating harmful practices based on sex and gender stereotypes. In addition, both groups seek to enhance the right to sexual self-determination. The primary focus of each group differs, however. The primary goal of the eunuch’s movement is to eliminate or decrease the number of medically unnecessary genital surgeries being performed on children with an intersex condition. Intersex advocates believe that these medical interventions often result in physical and emotional trauma. Thus, they believe that these surgeries should not be performed on children and should only be undertaken with the informed consent of patient’s parents when they reach an age at which they can fully understand the risks and can decide for themselves whether they want to undergo genital surgery. The eunuch’s activist movement is still in its infancy and is in the process of developing its advocacy strategies. Although scholars in a variety of disciplines, including medical ethics, history, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, have published books on eunuchs, none has examined the role that the law can play in enhancing the lives of people with an intersex condition. The legal frameworks used by social justice movements that have effectively brought challenges to discriminatory practices and explores whether the eunuchs movement can form mutually beneficial alliances with these other movements and use similar legal strategies.
Sajid Ali Yousuf Zai, Fouzia Ajmal, Saira Nudrat
Published: 27 December 2021
Journal: sjesr
Abstract:
An experimental study was conducted to find the impact of interactive teaching methods on science learning. 70 students from seventh grade were selected to participate in this study. A control group with 35 randomly assigned students was taught by the traditional lecture method and an experimental group with another 35 students was taught by an interactive teaching method. A pre-test was conducted before implementing the intervention to measure the baseline score while a post-test was administered to measure the impact of the intervention. An ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance) was used to find the significant difference in science achievement scores of students between the traditional teaching method and interactive teaching method after controlling the effect of pre-test scores. There was a significant difference in students' science achievement scores between students in the traditional teaching group and students in the interactive teaching group, F (2, 67) = 153.47, p <.001 h2 = .82. It was concluded that the interactive teaching method significantly improves student science learning.
Fozia Naseem, Lt. Col. (R) Rooh Ul Amin, Syed Muhammad Najam Ameer Shah
Abstract:
Special persons are a disregarded social and economic underclass often observed by the public as annoying, dependent persons in need of aid and misfortune, which influences on them by preserving their downgraded status. The article relates to the special persons, i.e. disabled blind, physically handicapped, and even hard of hearing persons who deserve special attitude and care not only from social services center but also from the government agencies which are particularly meant to provide all possible help and courage  to such most deserving people of the society. Toward the start of the 21st century, not every single influenced nation give the vital direction to young people, appropriate mindfulness, care and adolescence. This research is comparative analysis of the legal frame work on the rights of the persons with disabilities in Pakistan.  The rights of special persons in Pakistan continued to be violated. Individuals with incapacities likewise confront numerous social, monetary, physical and political handicaps, blocking their opportunity of development in the public arena. These boundaries incorporate shame and misconstruing of the capacities and yearnings of individuals with incapacities. They are the most distraught. Individuals with incapacities confront overpowering boundaries in training, abilities improvement and regular day to day existence there is additionally an absence of clearness of information, standards and controls, recovery focuses, and coordinated administrations and aptitude for individuals with inabilities. The search delves into the position of leadership in a bid to bring out the fact that those in power continue to violate the rights of special persons
Muhammad Yawar Alam Ansari, Muhammad Asim
Published: 27 December 2021
Journal: sjesr
Abstract:
The automotive business today is the most profitable. The critical factors in the high-volume vehicle segments are the rise in disposable income in rural and urban markets and the availability of fast financing. The following research discusses the factors affecting consumer-purchasing behavior in the Karachi Pakistan automotive industry. Close-ended questionnaires having 5 points Likert scale were used to gather data from the targeted population using convenient sampling. A multiple backward regression test was run using SPSS to test the hypothesized statements. The findings of the study suggest that the Delivery, Installation, and Warranty have a strong effect on customers' buying behavior. The study also gives guidelines and opens the door for further studies. The study recommends that similar variables that affect customer loyalty for post-sales services in other related sectors should be recognized in the potential study, such as automobile, construction, and other industries and services.
Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Published: 27 December 2021
Journal: sjesr
Abstract:
The focus of the article is about issues that secondary schools face in terms of the responsibilities of principals and school governing bodies (SGBs) in terms of dispersed leadership rather than one-man role-based leadership. Methods: The study investigates issues of schools surrounding distributed leadership practices using data from research on the connection between the principal and school governing bodies. This research used qualitative and quantitative data collected from secondary school administrators, SGB members, and teachers as part of a design research project. Implications: According to the findings, concentrating on distributed leadership methods may assist overcome some of the drawbacks of providing feedback to a single leader. Findings: In Gauteng secondary schools, opposing ideas and expectations predominate. Where SGBs and principals struggle against one another, ambiguous rules are found. Some principals impose terms on SGBs, while SGBs impose terms on principals. Dysfunctional schools are caused by weak governance and management. In terms of financial problems, there is a lack of transparency in schools. Principals contribute to school problems by refusing or failing to accept their ineptness. They continue to run schools inefficiently; they do not fully engage teachers in school management; they mistreat parents; they impose terms on SGBs; they contribute to dysfunctional schools; school resources are embezzled for purposes not related to the running of schools, and they mix up their work with that of the SGBs. Principals and SGBs should be made aware that cooperation, rather than competition, may be more effective in reducing power struggles in schools.
Sidra, Rizwana Gul, Abdus Samad
Abstract:
Spouses have several obligations over one another. In a marriage, the husband has rights over his wife and the wife has rights over her husband. Among these rights, the right of maintenance of wives is one of the most important. Numerous laws are there to protect the right of maintenance for wives. The Muslim family law ordinance of 1961 is one such law that ensures that women are treated fairly. Moreover, Islam also provides an explanation for the rights of partners in an Islamic marriage. If the terms of marriage declared at the time of Nikah are not satisfied, then the wife has the authority to seek help. Islam even gives women the right to get a divorce, if she is not treated or if her needs and rights are not satisfied. It is the foremost duty of husbands to look after their wives. They are accountable for giving them mental and physical support as well as financial support. Therefore, it is evident how much importance women have in Islam and how important maintenance is for Muslim women.
Aggrey Kayabu Makendano, Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Published: 27 December 2021
Journal: sjesr
Abstract:
The researchers propose that student discipline in schools should be aimed at correcting student behavior rather than punishing them. The freedom of students must not lead to lawlessness in the classroom. Teachers must recognize that teaching and learning, as well as creativity, take place in a structured context. Teachers may contribute to disciplinary issues at school by demonstrating poor classroom management skills, a hostile attitude toward students, a lack of respect for instructional time, and improper behavior both within and outside the school. On the other side, due to their lack of respect for school authority, students may contribute to disciplinary issues.The sample for this study was chosen from three senior secondary schools in Namibia's Zambezi area, with a total of 60 teachers. The sample included four teacher participants from each school.
Shahida Tanveer, Zafar Iqbal (Rtd.), Muhammad Arsalan
Published: 27 December 2021
Journal: sjesr
Abstract:
Professional Development is an integral part of a teacher's professional career and it is a topic most discussed in the teaching profession since the last decade. Lastly, it was called in-service training but now it is known as "Professional Development". The main aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of teachers' professional development on the students' achievement in Elementary teachers' training institutes of Punjab, Pakistan. Government Colleges for Elementary Teachers (GCET) of Punjab was the target population. From 30 colleges of Punjab, data was collected using a self-developed tool from the sample of 70 teachers, and 100 students of the same colleges were used in the study. This study was cross-sectional. The data regarding the professional development of teachers was primary data collected from both teachers and students. The data about achievement scores of students was secondary. The statistical methodology correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the impact. Further to test the significance of correlation and regression results the t-test and ANOVA were applied respectively. Data were analyzed with the help of Statistical software SPSS. Study findings showed that the correlation between 'Professional Development' and 'Students achievement' is high i.e. 0.314 for students and 0.343 for teachers along with significance values 0.004 and 0.001 respectively. The regression results are also significant having an F-statistic of 10.699 for students and 9.070 for teachers along with significant values 0.001 and 0.004 respectively.  Analysis of the results showed that 'Professional Development of teachers have a great positive impact on 'Students achievement'.
Afshan, Sikandar Ali, Anum Saeed
Abstract:
It is a fact that English has become part and parcel of our society. All the fields of our society have been affected by English in the modern epoch. Major important issues pertaining to English language teaching are still unanswered because of lack of strategy for teaching English in our educational institutes. Similarly, pronunciation is one of the major factors, which ruins the image of a speaker, although he or she is good in grammatical and other features of English language. The purpose of instant study is to find out the reasons behind mispronunciation of English language in our society. For this purpose, two types of important professional fields of our society were taken up for experiment, which were bureaucrat and engineer. Similarly, two types of research tools were adopted, first was an Observation Sheet and second was structured open-ended questionnaire. The results show different aspects of both targeted groups. It was revealed by the research that bureaucrats are in favour of going with correct pronunciation, whereas engineers are not as enthusiastic to be corrected in pronunciation as bureaucrats.
Muhammad Avais, Aijaz Wassan, Hamida Narijo
Published: 1 January 1970
Journal: sjesr
Abstract:
Unfortunately, the self-reported health status of female prisoners in Pakistan and especially in Sindh province have not been appropriately explored or documented. No doubt, the health of female prisoners is more vulnerable as compared to male prisoners. However, neither policymakers nor social scientists paid attention to the health-related issues of female prisoners in Pakistan. Therefore, 113 (convicted: 28, under trial: 85) female prisoners in three prisons of Sindh (Karachi, Hyderabad, and Larkana) were interviewed. It was found that there is a positive correlation (p=0.007) between the educational background of female prisoners and satisfaction toward available health care facilities in women prisons of Sindh province. The main objective of on-going research was to reveal the female prisoners' health status and their level of satisfaction toward provided health care facilities in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The research findings suggest that the health status of female prisoners and the impact of imprisonment on their health must be better studied at the National or provincial level for the enhancement of the health-related interventions in prisons.
Muhammad Sadiq, Riffat-Un-Nisa Awan, Ghazanfar Ali
Abstract:
The study intended to examine the effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of students studying business education in different universities. More over the mediating effect of attitudinal factors on the relationship of intended variables was also explored. Six hundred graduate students were surveyed through a questionnaire from three public universities. The findings displayed that entrepreneurship education was significantly affecting entrepreneurial intentions of the students. Attitudinal factors have a strong mediation for entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions of higher education students. It can be concluded that entrepreneurial curricula and instruction along with attitudinal factors can add significantly to advance entrepreneurial intentions of students. It is suggested that the students of higher education, may be exposed towards entrepreneurship knowledge through regular instructional process, seminars and workshops to enhance their entrepreneurial capacities.
Riffat-Un-Nisa Awan, Muhammad Nadeem Anwar, Samreen Farooq
Abstract:
Emotional intelligence is an accumulation of many emotional intelligence competencies and these competencies are generally found in people with different variations. Emotionally strong teachers impact teaching learning process in schools positively. The present study was conducted to find out the effects of emotional intelligence (EI) competencies of teachers on student-teacher relationship and student’s motivation at elementary level. Twenty five competencies of teachers were explored under five major domains i.e. emotional self-awareness, motivation, self-regulation, social-skills and social-awareness. Goleman’s Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis & Goleman, 2002) was used as a tool for data collection. Two questionnaires were developed by the researchers after review of related literature for measuring the student’s motivation and student-teacher relationship. For assuring the reliability of instrument, Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was calculated, which ranged from 0.73 to 0.86. One hundred and sixty elementary school teachers (EST) and senior elementary school educators (SESE) were selected as the sample of the study from two tehsils of Sargodha district. The data of one hundred and fifty one respondents were analyzed through t-test, one way ANOVA and regression analysis. The findings discovered that teacher’s EI competencies had significant effect on students’ motivation and student-teacher relationship in elementary schools. There was no gender difference in emotional competencies of teachers. It was concluded that age had significant effect on teacher’s EI competencies as younger ones scored higher on ECI. It was recommended that training programs may be organized to enhance teachers’ emotional intelligence competencies.
Humera Naz, Shelina Bhamani
Abstract:
In Pakistan, various teacher development and professional competency model exist and have been presented. However, there is a lack of a competency model for teachers of early childhood care and education (ECCE). This research study was an attempt in initiating a formal discourse regarding how school leaders perceive ECCE teacher competency (TC). The study approached an exploratory qualitative study with the intent to understand the perspective of educational leaders from the public and private sector pertinent to ECCE-TC. Four school leaders, two from each sector respectively were approached to share their perceptions regarding the same. The researchers used an in-depth qualitative interview with a help semi-structured interview topic guide. The findings reveal that ECCE is a specialized field and that there is a need for ample work to be done to recognize this field. The data also revealed that there are discrepancies concerning recruitment criteria, teacher appraisal and credits for continuous professional development. More so, there is a need for national level agenda to address the gaps of competency and licensing framework. We present a policy recommendation as closure of this paper for Pakistan to have a task force on ECCE with the relevant field experts who could contribute with their pragmatic experience and align Pakistan ECCE landscape with global standards
Preeta Hinduja, Altaf Hussain, Shahnaz Noor
Abstract:
This theoretical paper discusses the salient features of new trends in Teacher Education and their implications for teachers’ learning in 21st century. With this, the paper represents Social Justice Approach, Master-Apprentice Approach, Teacher Identity Approach, Reflective practices Approach, Competence Approach and, Applied knowledge Approaches. In addition, the paper presents seven elements of effective Professional Development required being a 21st century teacher as suggested by Darling-Hammond et al., (2017). Besides, the paper describes ‘How teachers learn’ suggested by Jones and Dexter (2014). It further discusses the questions and concerns that have been raised about these new trends. In addition, it highlights the issues faced by Pakistani teacher education program. Finally, the paper recommends what trend(s) Pakistani teacher Education should adapt that help teachers becoming prepare for 21st century.
Sikander Ali, Muhammad Ashraf
Abstract:
The study investigates the pragmatic knowledge; pragmatic competence level as well as speech act strategies used by Pakistani EFL learners. It reveals that Master level English language learners are unable to produce and comprehend the intended meanings in the target language. As a result, pragmatic failure and misunderstanding occurred. Pragmatic comprehension and production is essential for effective communication especially for EFL learners in this modern age where people have to communicate cross-culturally as English is being used as lingua franca internationally. The study explores the problems faced by EFL learners in comprehending and producing the correct speech acts in English. The study used two data collection tools: a WDCT in which speech acts of refusal and apology are used to find out pragmatic competence level and difficulties faced by Pakistani EFL learners. A Likert Scale questionnaire is used to know about the views and suggestions of the Pakistani EFL learners about the teaching and learning environment regarding the pragmatics. The data of speech acts of refusal is analyzed qualitatively according to the taxonomy of Beebe, keeping in view frequency, shift and content of semantic formulas. While the data of speech acts of apology is analyzed according to the speech act strategies of Cohen. Data collected through the Likert scale questionnaire is analyzed quantitatively. The study finds out that pragmatic competence level of Pakistani EFL learners is very low as well as they have to face many difficulties which result in pragmatic failure. Findings of the study show that Pakistani EFL learners lack knowledge of pragmatics in the target language. EFL learners acknowledged that pragmatic knowledge is very important for effective communication and it should be an integral part of syllabus and classroom activities.
Shahid Abbas, Ijaz Asghar, Qamar Hussain
Abstract:
The paper aims at investigating the critical opinions about Bernard Shaw’s ambivalent relation to feminism. In this regard, the researchers highlight the emerging role of postfeminism and its overlapping elements with the Islamic portrayal of womanhood. Shaw differs from his predecessors drastically – he portrays independent female characters as compared to the invisible and submissive females of the past. Thus, one of the striking features of Shaw’s drama is the depiction of liberated women. The Shavian women do not consider men folk as their rivals. There is a shift from powerless to empowered women in academia. The researchers find out that there is an ideological conflict between feminism and Islam but as far as postfeminism is concerned, there is none. Rather, postfeminism propagates and supports the Islamic concept of womanhood thoroughly. It is also worth noting that feminist ideas and ideology have greatly dented the social and political fabric of mankind and human civilization in general. Whereas, postfeminism propagates in favor of maintaining a balanced position for womanhood in life which is a balance between social and individual life, and a balance between professional and family life. The purpose of this article is to promote a better understanding of the status of women in Islam and its overlapping and common areas with postfeminism, that is, God has equated female folk at par with their male folk. The research is significant as it challenges the western notion of women in Islam and dispels the erroneous notions of suppression of women in Islam. The prime finding of this research is that postfeminism proclaims equal footing for men and women in life, as enshrined in the Holy Quran. Further, the researchers lament that just because of myopic-minded people, the world is not making any progress intellectually. The researchers recommend that there is a dire need to promote liberal intellectuals like Shaw who harbor no bias against Islam and Muslims to maintain peace and order in the world.
Shabiha Anjum, Farah Latif Naz, Abdul Quddus
Abstract:
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact on Mental Health and Motivation levels of university students because of nCOV-19. This study analyzed the perception of students’ mental health and Motivation level due to nCOV-19. The population comprised 25000 students of the University of Education Multan, Baha Uddin Zakariya University Multan, and MNS University of Agriculture Multan. They selected a sample of 250 students through the cluster and stratified sampling technique. A survey was conducted for the quantitative components of the study amongst students using a self-made questionnaire based on the factors of mental health and motivation level. Three factors of mental health are stress, anxiety, and depression. The researcher distributed and administered the questionnaires himself. The study reviewed relevant literature regarding nCOV-19, character and higher educational institutions, and other factors influencing these variables. The received information was broken down using illustrative and inferential measurements. Descriptive statistics included mean, median, mode, and standard deviation. The results show that students receive a high level of data collected about the motivational level of students. Both anxiety and depression at a low level, and stress at moderate level amongst university students during the nCOV-19 Pandemic. Inferential statistics included t-test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression. The commonness of stress and depression in females is greater than males with a minimum margin, which shows females face a slightly higher level of stress and depression than males. But the commonness of anxiety in females is greater than males with a moderate margin, which shows females face a higher level of anxiety than males. Pearson coefficient correlation indicates a negative low degree of correlation between the impact of motivational levels and students' academic achievement.
Huda Tufail, Mamona Yasmin Khan, Uzma Qureshi
Abstract:
The massive spread of Coronavirus has badly affected the entire globe and lives of the people irrespective of age or gender. Children in this regard are no exemption. They are affected not only physically but also emotionally and mentally due to the virus and quarantine period. This study aims to provide a semiotic analysis of the visual representations of Covid-19 in the children’s book covers selected on a global level. These covers are new emerging literature and serve to narrate a global discourse related to COVID-19. The researchers have followed the qualitative approach and the data have been collected using purposive sampling technique to provide a holistic interpretation of the selected covers. Framework, selected for the study, is ‘Semiotic Analysis’ by Kress and van Leeuwen (2006). The findings revealed that the participants’ actions and overall circumstances in these covers are highly meaningful. The action narrative and colorful illustrations aim to motivate the young audience in a positive manner. Furthermore, they communicate a message of hope and urge them to fight against the virus. The visuals in these covers are therefore quite significant in their meanings and interpretations.
Abdul Ghafar, Zulfiqar Ali Lashari, Saima Kalwar
Abstract:
The spatial and economic growth of cities and regions is heavily influenced by transportation. A better knowledge of public transportation will help to clarify the positions of the public and private sectors, as well as recognize the critical government position. To study the problems and issues of the public transportation system, Qasimabad, Hyderabad is selected as a study area due to some serious issues of public transportation. Personal observations and questionnaires were used to gather data from the research area. And for analyzing the data SPSS and MS Excel are used. The results reveal that the existing public transportation system is not meeting the needs of residents. Hence use of private transportation is high and causing environmental and traffic jam problems. As 68% of respondents use a motorbike for recreational purposes, 64% of respondents are not using public transport due to safety factors. In general, 54% of respondents were not satisfied with the service of public transport. As people are willing to use public transport but due to some factors such as safety, they are not using public transport so it is suggested that both vehicles and roads must be safe for users. This study aims to study the existing scenario of public transportation in terms of services and facilities, and people’s perception about public transportation. So it is concluded that people are tending to use public transport but under some certain conditions (factors preventing the use of public transport), if these concerns are solved then public transport system will become more efficient.
Tahseen Akbar, Mumtaz Akhtar
Abstract:
The study was conducted to find out the effect of cooperative learning strategies on students’ skill of interpretation and analysis at the higher secondary level. The research was quantitative. A pre-test post-test control group design was adopted for the study. One female public sector higher secondary school of district Sargodha was the population of the study. 60 students of grade XI were selected as a sample by using a simple random sampling technique. Two groups were formed: experimental and control comprising thirty students each. The experimental group was taught by applying cooperative learning strategies; jigsaw and scripted cooperation, while the conventional method was used to teach the control group. The period of intervention was sixteen weeks and English book I for grade XI was selected as content for intervention. A self-made test was used to assess the skills of interpretation and analysis as pretest and posttest. Data of pretest and posttest were analyzed by applying paired sample t-test. Analysis of the data showed a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group. On the other hand, there was no significant improvement seen in the control group. Teachers were recommended to use cooperative learning strategies to develop the critical thinking skills of the students.
Sadia Rasheed, Mumtaz Akhtar
Abstract:
The study aimed at finding out the effect of students' self-regulated learning on their academic achievement in the subject of English. The study was conducted at the secondary level in the province of Punjab. It was quantitative in nature and employed a true experimental design (pre-test post-test control group). It was significant for teachers, curriculum stakeholders, training bodies, and policymakers. For the study sampling, a simple random sampling technique was used. Students' achievement test was developed for pre-test and post-test. The study sample consisted of sixty students of grade IX and they were divided into two groups; experimental and control. A pre-test was conducted on both groups to measure their current status of academic achievement. After the pre-test, the subject of English was taught to the experimental group by using self-regulated learning strategies while the traditional method (dominantly lecture method) was adopted to teach the control group. A post-test was conducted after an intervention of 16 weeks. The results of the test were compared by using a t-test. For data analysis, SPSS was used and results were interpreted accordingly. The study results revealed a significant difference between the test score results of the students. The study recommended appropriate teachers' training to use self-regulated learning strategies effectively at the secondary level. Textbook contents were also recommended to be devised supportive to gauge self-regulated learning.
Moneeba Iftikhar,
Abstract:
Owing to the emerging challenge of smog and the controversies over its causes and solution, the current study seeks to find out the influence of media messages on health-related behavior and the mediating role of the threat perception and perceived benefits towards health-related behaviors in Pakistan. A cross-sectional research design vis-à-vis survey method was used to investigate the influence of media, perceived threat, and perceived benefits on the health-related behaviors of the public. For this purpose, a survey was conducted in Lahore (including urban, peri-urban areas) using a close-ended questionnaire. A sample of 232 respondents was obtained. Data were analyzed Smart with PLS software to examine the media influence on smog-related health behavior. The findings indicated that media positively influence the smog-related health behavior of the public. It was found that the relationship between media and smog-related health behavior is interceded by perceived benefits and perceived threats. Furthermore, perceived threats were found to be a stronger predictor in determining the media and smog-related health behaviors. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Saira Siddiqui, Nabeela Farah, Syed Kazam Hussain Shah
Abstract:
Violence against women is a severe violation of human rights and ranging from domestic and intimate partner violence to sexual harassment and assault. It is widely recognized as a serious human rights abuse. Violence has substantial consequences on women’s health. To evaluate the effects of domestic abuse and violence on the physical and mental health of women a study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. Data were drawn from 222 women. Sampling was carried out using the multi-stage process of random sampling. Survey method was used for data collection and Statistical methods such as chi-square, correlation, linear and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data in this study. The findings showed a significant relationship between the physical and mental health of women due to domestic violence. This study emphasizes the need for justified women empowerment and a multidisciplinary approach to develop health measures, which will effectively address the problem of domestic violence.
Muhammad Ramzan, Shah Faisalullah, Abdul Karim Khan
Abstract:
Javed Ihsas is a prominent contemporary Pashto poet, critic, and columnist. He writes poetry with the new spirit and style of the modern critical theories of literature and philosophy. In his verses, we can observe the elements of Modernism and Post-modernism as well. In this study, we explored the post-modernist elements in his poetry, especially in his Pashto poetic collection titled Ayina. The word 'Ayina' is a Pashto word that means 'The Mirror'. The very title of the collection gives a symbolic representation in the sense that it depicts a realistic picture of society. This study is an attempt to examine the Post-modernist elements in his poetry by using a post-modernist approach.The poet touches on the elements of post-modernism in his poetry such as the element of social construction; the notion that ideas, politics, and language are socially constructed, consumerism, postponement, etc. This study explores the post-modernist elements in Javed Ihsas’ poetry which are will prove a beacon light for the young poets.
Najia Shaikh, Ashique Jhatial, Muneerudin Soomro
Abstract:
Research in the field of the nursing profession has attained its heights, especially in the developed countries. Most of the research in this field has addressed nursing empowerment, work attitude, and organizational outcomes. This study aims to extend understanding of whether structural and psychological empowerment drive work outcomes. Thus, this study has attempted to develop and customize a scale for primary data collection. Researchers highlighted various steps of questionnaire development, data collection procedure, and establishing reliability and validity at the pilot level. These steps help researchers to ground data collection tools in extant literature. Initial findings from pilot study data are reported. Data for this study was collected through a closed-ended questionnaire by employing a convenience sampling technique from registered nurses from public-private sector hospitals in Hyderabad, Sindh. Cronbach’s alpha, mean, and corrected total-item correlation for all items are well above the threshold values. Findings of EFA shown that there are seven factors in the model. The CFA identified that every factor arises as a single factor and loads onto its construct with significant levels of indices.
Muhammad Abid Malik, Bulent Akkaya
Abstract:
Distance and online education are becoming increasingly common in the current era. Along with many purely online and distance education universities, many conventional universities are also offering programs through distance education. Students studying in distance education programs have a different environment, culture, study habits, and other factors that may influence them and their motivation level. This study compares academic motivation levels between conventional and distance education students studying in a Turkish university program. Data were collected from 218 students through the Academic Motivation Scale. Independent T-test and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data with the help of the SPSS program. The results show that the academic motivation level of the students in a conventional program is statistically significantly higher than those studying through a distance program. Moreover, while there were differences based on all three demographical variables (age, gender, and grade), statistically significant differences were found only based on age and grade. The study suggests that there is a need to add motivational materials and strategies for distance education students. This especially becomes important for those conventional education students who have been forced to learn through distance/ online education during Covid-19.
Sadia Mushtaq, Erum Aslam Khan, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal
Abstract:
Instructional and assessment methods are varied and preferred by their teachers at higher-level institutions. A teacher guides their students with detail information and instructions to achieve their educational targets. Students share views regarding their faculty norms and standards that influence the adoption of their study methods. The major focus of this study was to find out the faculty-based differences of learners' views of assessment and its relationship with achievement at the university level. The study was correlational and the survey was conducted to investigate the research problem. All the public sector universities of Punjab were considered as a population of the study and only seven (07) public sector universities were taken as a sample. A questionnaire, students' perception of assessment (Waldrip et al., 2008) was adapted to collect the data from the respondents. Using the mean scores, standard deviation, t-test, and regression the collected data were analyzed. The findings of the study showed students have not the same perception about the assessment and the study concluded a significant relationship between students' perception of assessment and academic outcomes. Based on the study results, it was recommended that each faculty should well inform the students about the assessment methods and strategies for their outcomes improvement.
Nazir Haider Shah, Muhammad Naqeeb Ul Khalil Shaheen, Sadaf Zamir Ahmed
Abstract:
Inclusive education represents the concern of the entire school and is committed to providing quality education to all students in the most effective way, so that special education and general education are consistent. The study aimed to analyze inclusive education in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The study was descriptive in nature and a cross-sectional survey was applied to collect the data. All 538 secondary school teachers and headteachers of District Pooch were the population of the study. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The researcher selected 185 secondary school teachers and 45 head teachers through a proportionate stratified random sampling technique as a sample. A questionnaire for teachers and headteachers was used as a research instrument in this study. Data were collected through personal visits and postal service. Data were analyzed through mean scores and standard deviation. Based on analysis it was found that inclusive education provides an opportunity for the enjoyment and implementation of full human rights without any discrimination because inclusive education allows understanding individual differences. It is recommended that the school Education Department of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) may introduce inclusive education at the district and tehsil level. Further, they need to plan for all teachers and headteachers to provide awareness about inclusive education.
Hafiz Muhammad Ibrar Ullah, Hashmat Begum, Samina Begum
Abstract:
Hazrat Abu Dharr Ghaffari (RA) is a glorious Companion, and in fact, the Companions are the people whom Allah has chosen to accompany His Messenger (SAW). He took up permanent residence in a village in Syria and then moved to Damascus during the caliphate of Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) and continued his sermons۔ He spent the last days of his life in the suburbs of Madinah, The tribe belonged to the Bani Ghiffar. After accepting Islam, they fell in love with the Holy Prophet, He did not like to accumulate wealth in the world. He used to avoid meeting people unnecessarily ۔ He was not afraid of anyone when he spoke the truth, while he endured all kinds of hardships for the sake of Islam. You used to say that people are born to die. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gave him the title of “Masih al-Islam”. After him, he became detached from the world. Hazrat Umar (RA) considered him equal to Abdullah bin Masood in knowledge.
Ikram Badshah, Zakiya Rubab Mohsin, Jan Alam
Abstract:
Birthing is a critical moment in the life of a mother. The biomedical practice of the Caesarian Section (C-section) does not exist in a vacuum but is under the influence of the sociocultural environment. However, deciding between methods of birth and the perception about the C-section shows a gap and dearth in the present literature. This paper aims at understanding what social and cultural factors construct the perceptions and experiences of the Caesarian Section among post-C-section- women belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Moreover, it explores how these factors influence Pakistani women’s decision-making regarding childbirth methods. The paper uses a qualitative yet multi-sited locale approach, employing semi-structured interviews from 20 post-C-section women mainly from Islamabad and Rawalpindi region; 10 women belong to lower socio-economic status whereas, 10 to the upper one. Different themes from data were identified and obtained for analysis. The perception and experience of the C-section fluctuate with social, economic, and cultural factors. The influence of biomedical and intra-household politics on the decision of C-section is much conspicuous and evident. Affluent families practice C-sections under dominant power dynamics without any reasoning. For those who can afford C-section, is perceived as a luxury and artificial motherhood in the eyes of ‘’the others’’ whereas, normal birthing was true and natural motherhood. The social construction of the C-section suggests that social and cultural forces play a decisive role. C-section is only acceptable if there is an emergency otherwise natural birth is the most suitable method of childbirth. Along with advocating C-sections in critical medical conditions, an awareness campaign against C-sections is also imperative for it has severe consequences.
Mohammad Javed, Syed Manzoor Hussain Shah, Habib Elahi
Abstract:
This descriptive study was carried out in six different districts of KP province of Pakistan and they were Mansehra, Malakand, Kohat, Dera Ismail Khan, Charsadda, and Bannu. There was the common objection that the quality of education has declined at various stages of education. This study focused on the analysis of the main causes of deterioration of quality at the Secondary School Level in the province of KP, Pakistan. These major causes of deterioration of excellence in education were revealed by a review of the study. Some key factors, considered to be the foundation of quality education, were highlighted. The methodology of the study was properly described. The researcher himself visited the sampled institutions and administered the questionnaire to the respondents to collect the data. Out of six different districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 440 Principals of Government Boys' Secondary Schools were selected as the population of this study. The sample contained 132 principals (30%). The tool of the study included a structured interview containing six open-ended items. Both qualitative and quantitative treatment was given to the analysis of data and presented in graphical and tabular forms. The study uncovered major causes of deterioration about quality at the secondary level, which is an ineffective system of monitoring and accountability, flawed examination system, insufficient infrastructural facilities, congested classrooms, lack of competent and trained teaching faculty, un-warranted political involvement, outdated teaching methods, and inadequate latest teaching facilities. The study also suggested various teaching strategies, which are suitable for various types of learners and could be applied in classrooms.
Samina Begum, Hafiz Muhammad Ibrar Ullah, Hashmat Begum
Abstract:
The contemplation of God’s creation is one of the greatest forms of worship in Islam every human being, when he observes the different scenes of this universe of colors and smells, enjoys seeing some of them so much that he longs to repeat this pleasure۔ It is not amazing, therefore, that countless Quranic verses give confidence this action and do so using a range of methods to appeal to every temperament and religious state. The mean is to switch people away from their dulled senses, awful habits, and monotonous familiarity, and encourage them to observe the signs of their Lord in the world with insight and vulnerable hearts. True Islamic contemplation can only spring from a mind that believes in God and a mind that submits to Him and His glorious Attributes. This is the unwavering faith of oneness (tawhÏd), which is to bear witness that the Almighty is the One and only God Who created, governs, and maintain the universe. Any other form of contemplation of the attractiveness and brilliance of the heavens and the earth would be measured atheism or polytheism (shirk) because the contemplator would not be distinguished, let alone admiring and express thanks to the Creator. In all religions, after beliefs, the highest importance is given to worship. Worship and contemplation are inseparable.
Saima Malik, Muhammad Zaheer Asghar, Laila Khalid
Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigate the perspectives of headteachers, teachers, caregivers, and parents about the prevailing Early Childhood Education (ECE) program in public schools of Punjab. Participants of the study were selected through a convenient sampling technique. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 headteachers, 6 teachers, 3 caregivers, and 3 parents. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the collected data.  All data related to eighteen participants were coded. Clustering similar codes helped in identifying sub-categories from data. Several assertions were developed by comparing and contrasting various categories and sub-categories. The findings of this research highlighted the missing facilities of ECE in public schools i.e. separate ECE rooms, trained ECE teachers, absence of caregivers, unavailability of a separate budget for ECE, provision of ECE kit, well-equipped playgrounds, reluctant behavior of teachers as well as parents dissatisfaction with teachers’ performance.  The results of the study are useful for policymakers, administration of the Quaid-e-Azam Academy for Educational Development (QAED) to develop the program.
Imran Ahmed Moriani, Naveed Ahmad Taseer, Amjad Ali Rind
Abstract:
The current study aims at understanding the perceptions of teachers about curriculum ideologies in the context of Sindh, Pakistan. A quantitative approach was employed within it the descriptive design was used. The data was collected through an adopted questionnaire developed by Schiro 2008. The sample of the study was a hundred teachers and the convenience sampling technique was adopted in this study. The data were analyzed through SPSS (SPSS) version 23.0 and percentages were calculated to know the perceptions of teachers regarding four curriculum ideologies namely scholar academic ideology, social efficiency ideology, learner-centered ideology, and social reconstruction ideology. The results revealed that learner-centered ideology was the most preferred curriculum ideology among the teachers of Five Sukkur IBA Community colleges whereas the Scholar Academic ideology has been the least favorable for them. However, Scholar Academy ideology was the most preferred, and social reconstruction ideology was the least preferred among Teachers of Public Schools of Shikarpur City.
Uzma Khalil, Amjad Saleem
Abstract:
Swear words make an important aspect of any language despite their taboo nature. Taking this feature of language into account, this paper investigates how the language attitude of Pashtu non-native speakers of English towards Pashtu and English languages might impact the use of swear words in these languages in different situations. Data from30 male undergraduate university students were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis revealed that Pashtu non-native speakers of English had a positive attitude towards English and Pashtu languages owing to instrumental and integrative motivation, respectively. Swearing in Pashtu and English was shown to be determined by the speakers’ perceptions of the degree of offensiveness of swear words in the languages, social status of the users of the language in the society, and the setting and context in which those words were used. It was concluded that the positive attitude of Pashtu non-native speakers towards English and Pashtu resulted in their swearing-in English and Pashtu for different reasons: swearing-in English was controlled by the high status of the language in the society, whereas swearing-in Pashtu was used as a marker of solidarity and covert prestige.
Fareeha Zaheer
Abstract:
This study is an attempt to trace the impacts of socio-political conditions in the formation and evolution of drama and theatre traditions in Pakistan. It provides the genesis of theatre and drama in Pakistan intertwining it with the past and present situations of this genre of literature. It also ventures at the inert position of drama and theatre in English in Pakistan. Qualitative textual analysis is conducted to analyze and highlight the major available critical acumen in the genre of Pakistani drama and theatre. The methodology adopted is interpretive of the theatrical performances by major theatre groups, and the contributions of key playwrights in cementing the foundation of drama and theatre traditions. The major findings are related to the socio-political situations prevalent since the inception of Pakistan and their significance in shaping both dramas in writing and drama in performance. It also examines the role of pioneer theatrical groups and their projects that carved a niche in the theatrical landscape of Pakistan. As compared to fiction theatre and drama remained sporadic and lackluster affair in Pakistan, it is vital to have a deeper understanding and clarity of the socio-political issues that shaped resistance &political theatres and later commercial theatre groups.
Hina Afzal, Saadia Abid
Abstract:
This study aims to investigate and highlight the factors significant in cultivating satisfaction regarding jobs among the employees of a leading public sector university in Islamabad (termed PSU henceforth). For this purpose salary, stress /burnout, and relationship with supervisors have been taken as key factors to gauge the contentment level of employees and how they can be motivated to complete their tasks effectively and efficiently. Based on quantitative research methods, the data was primarily collected through a self-administered adapted survey questionnaire. The target population included teachers of the Social Science Department of PSU. Stratified sampling was done randomly to collect data from seven departments of the faculty of Social Sciences. Fifty questionnaires were distributed among these seven Social Science departments. SPSS and Cronbach’s alpha was used to analyze the data while the latter was utilized to infer the results too. The findings of the current study provide valuable insight into the factors that lead to job satisfaction. Moreover, results show a positive influence on job satisfaction concerning higher management. Regarding stress, the findings reveal that employees were somewhat not happy with the work stress and the same results were deduced for salary. The results postulate salary, stress, and relationship with higher management as intertwined and as having a significant impact on job satisfaction. This article may benefit society and organizations in creating awareness about the importance of productive employees. The research suggests that a satisfied employee is motivated to achieve the organizational goals and objectives, thus, contributes positively to the productivity of the organization.
Bakht Jamal, Syed Asad Abbas Rizvi
Abstract:
Assigning homework to students make they are learning more effective and they comprehend the assigned task in depth by applying drill and practice activities. The current study examines the effects of assigning homework on the achievement of students at the primary level. The population of the study was 100 boys’ primary schools. The sample respondents of the study were students of class 5th consist of a total of sixty students and each group such as experimental, comparison, and control group was twenty students. The experimental, comparison and control groups of the students were selected by the flipping of the coin as to which will be experimental, comparison, and the control group. The researcher adopted a simple random sampling technique. The data were collected through pre and post-standardized achievement tests based on mixed items (mix tests) developed by the researcher. The researcher developed fourteen lesson plans to teach the fourteen lessons. The pre and post standardized achievement tests were conducted, collected, and evaluated under the supervision of the researcher. Data were analyzed in the form of one-way ANOVA to find out the significant difference in f-value and p-value of the experimental, comparison, and control group regarding the 14 selected topics taught. The research concluded that there was no statistically significant difference in p-value and f-value in the achievement of the students in experimental, comparison, and control group from the lessons 1-6 due to repetition and diffusion in lessons and there was a statistically significant difference in p-value and f-value in experimental, comparison and control group from the lessons 7-14 taught. The data were presented in the form of tables.
Muhammad Gulfraz Abbasi, Zafar Iqbal Khattak, Yasir Arafat
Abstract:
Pahari language spoken in Murree and its suburbs is in contact with Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. It is also in contact with Punjabi and English. The present study explores the views and attitudes of the Pahari speaking community regarding the Pahari identity and culture vis-à-vis languages like Pahari, Punjabi, Urdu, and English. The study is ethnographic and is based on detailed observation and in-depth interviews of a sample of 91 people belonging to three generations. The study concludes that Pahari speaking community especially the Abbasi tribe, on the whole, claims to protect their culture and identity but gradually each new generation is hesitant in continuing Pahari as the symbol of their identity. As a result, language is, to a great extent, shifting towards Urdu. On a minor level, its shift to English and Punjabi cannot be ignored. The paper also explores certain reasons latent behind this kind of attitude.
Maria Saeed, Amber Ferdoos, Aysha Jawaid
Abstract:
Natural resource degradation in developing countries is more likely to generate eventual threats of exhaustion. Major changes in weather patterns, seasonal cycles, and crop failure due to heavy rainfall have affected both men and women in rural areas of Pakistan. However, since women in rural areas of Pakistan are actively engaged in natural resource management, they are more likely to bear the brunt of the burden due to their traditional roles of washing, food preparation, water collection, and family care. Under a qualitative research design, the current research paper has focused specifically on how natural resource degradation affects the health of rural women. The research was conducted using thematic analysis, through an in-depth study of the day-to-day activities of rural women and the pressure experienced by them. To do so, sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with rural women by using interview and observation protocol. The findings revealed that rural women were dedicated to their work despite natural resource degradation they are bound to their household responsibilities, leading to mental and physical stress, as a result, overburdening and unhealthy lifestyles.
Shamshad Rasool, Raza- E Mustafa, Zahoor Hussain
Abstract:
Partitioning of the subcontinent into Pakistan and India is a mega event in the history of South Asia that haunts the minds of the inhabitants because of the untold destruction and the atrocities inflicted on the migrants. The later generations come to know of the havocs carved on women's bodies mostly through stories of the victims or who witnessed molestation of women. In this connection, this article aims to critically analyze the novel Ice-Candy Man by Sidhwa which delineates the defilement of women at the periphery. The views of different feminist critics constitute the theoretical framework while Fairclough’s social discourse model serves as a methodological framework. For analysis, the technique of Content Analysis has been employed. The findings reveal that Sidhwa has caricatured the predicament of the women whose bodies became sites for male aggression as icons of the ethnic groups during the communal strives. They undergo physical and sexual furiousness of men before, during, and after the partition. Men dehumanized them to disgrace the opponents/the other. The novel may, further, be studied from psychoanalytical, cultural, and Marxist perspectives.
Sajid Ali, Haji Karim Khan
Abstract:
Reflective practice is considered a key element of teacher learning. The teaching and learning process are considered incomplete without reflective practice. Therefore, teachers are seen as reflective practitioners and researchers. This paper emerges from a qualitative study carried out in private sector schools in remote Pakistan. We collected data from ten teachers in two private schools through interviews, classroom observations, and document reviews. Data analysis was carried out through qualitative methods. Findings showed that teachers regarded reflections and reflective practice very high for their learning as teachers. Teachers used different approaches for reflective practice including reflective journals, students test results, peer observations, and feedback from parents and communities. Findings have important implications for teaching and learning.
Roza Jamal, Wajeeha Komal, Sarfraz Ahmad
Abstract:
The most common physical deformity includes upper and lowers limbs deformity that could be acquired or congenital. Such deformity produces difficulty in daily life activities including reaching, walking, lifting, and carrying things. The present study aimed to explore life satisfaction and attitude towards disability between congenital and acquired physical disabilities. A sample of eighty (N=80) participants was included in the study out of which (n=40) were congenital and (n=40) were acquired physical disables. The sample was collected from different rehabilitation and paraplegic centers as well as institutions through the purposive sampling technique. Satisfaction with life scale and attitude toward disabled person scales were included. It was hypothesized that there will be a significant difference in terms of life satisfaction between congenital and acquired physical disables. The second hypothesis was the attitude towards disability will be positive among the congenital group than the acquired one. An independent sample t-test (IBM SPSS statistics version 20) was applied to analyze the difference between congenital and acquired physical disables. Results of the study indicated that congenital physical disabled were found with highly satisfied from their life (α=.000) and possess a positive attitude towards disability (α=.000) than the acquired physical disables.
Azmat Ali, Farooq Hussain, Muhammad Shah
Abstract:
University is a critical stage of life in which students are more likely to engage in unhealthy health behaviors such as physical inactivity, stress, and bad dietary habits. Health-promoting behaviors are an important component of a healthy lifestyle and have been reported as a key factor in sustaining and improving one's health. This study aimed to determine the healthy and unhealthy lifestyles of students in KPK universities by gender and location. In total, 384 university students took part in the study, with 200 authentic and fully completed questionnaires used to determine the overall sample. Data was gathered from six universities in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Males made up the majority of participants (109, 54.2 percent), while females made up the rest (91, 45.3 percent). The findings revealed that the causes had a significant effect on the health of university students. Adherence to guidelines for physical activity and healthy eating habits was found to be insufficient among students.
Haji Karim Khan, Farah Deeba, Zunaira Fatima Syeda
Abstract:
In this paper, I[1], as a teacher educator and researcher, present the findings of my action research with two teachers in facilitating them carrying out their action research projects in classrooms in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. The data for the study came from reflective journals, semi-structured interviews, field notes, lesson observations, and reports. The findings of the study show that action research is one of the most effective strategies for the professional development of teacher educators and teachers yet it is a challenging process. Field reality and dynamics make an action research project challenging yet responsive to the needs. A three stage-model surfaced from the project in the context of planning and executing action research in schools. The paper concludes with certain implications and questions for policymakers, schools, and teacher educators to use action research as a strategy in pre-and in-service teacher education programs in Pakistan or elsewhere in a similar context.
Bilal Bin Liaqat, Ghulam Mustafa, Adnan Nawaz
Abstract:
In International politics, human security is a new phenomenon, which deals with the issues of governance and human rights. In political terms, the recent transformation of attention from traditional security to Non-traditional security is a matter of distress for the international community. The linkage between national security and infectious diseases as a non-traditional security imperative is comparatively a new phenomenon in Pakistan. Infectious diseases have become a fact of life in Pakistan, which poses a serious threat to national security. In the preceding years, Pakistan has suffered from different contagious diseases like Dengue, Congo fever, Polio, and recently Coronavirus. To overcome this non-traditional security threat requires an integrated and coordinated approach from the governmental and non-governmental institutions to address the health security issues holistically. The paper examines the effects of the outbreaks of these infectious diseases in Pakistan as a non-traditional security issue that poses a serious threat to its national security.
Muhammad Din, Riaz Hussain, Sana Tahir
Abstract:
A good thinker distinguishes his interpretations from evidence, considers alternative interpretations, and reconsiders them under following the changed conditions and new evidence. Critical thinking enables and helps students to evaluate, judge, and make choices regarding everyday information so that they may obtain, believe and use the information to take action accordingly. This quantitative study aims to know EFL learners’ attitude towards critical thinking skills of interpreting information and the effect of EFL learners’ critical thinking on their skill of interpreting information with specific reference to their critical writing. The present study also aims to explore how m and universities any universities foreign language learners reflect critical thinking ability in writing skills while interpreting information. The researcher has used three research tools to this end. These research tools include critical thinking inventory (CTI), Watson-Glazer’s (2002) critical thinking test for interpreting information (CTII), and critical writing test (CWT). The subjects of the present study are the B.Sc. (Bachelor Level) students from different colleges. The results of this study demonstrate that university students have a very positive attitude towards critical thinking skills interpreting information but their performance in reflecting critical thinking in the critical writing test does not match with the attitude towards critical thinking skills of interpreting information. This study also makes some academic implications for the development of EFL learners’ critical thinking particularly in the context of Pakistan.
Sarwat Javed, Qamar Hussain, Asima Abdul-Rehman
Abstract:
This research paper seeks to study the juxtaposition of antithetical forces in the text The Fault in Our Stars penned down by John Green. The research centers on the characters' quest for finding an answer to the meaninglessness, attempts for filling the void, facticity, existential angst, and ultimate despair in the framework of the philosophy of 'Existentialism' posited by Jean-Paul Sartre. All the major characters in the novel are cancer patients, living a dismal and distressing life under the looming shadow of death. In an existential vein, the protagonists set out on a journey of self-exploration and choose to eke out a momentary optimism from their pessimistic situations. While battling with the terminal disease, Hazel Grace Lancaster and Augustus Waters engage in an emotional liaison that becomes a redeeming force in their traumatized existence. This research will study how love becomes a life force, an antithetical force juxtaposed with death and devastation. The transience becomes an impetus of change from despair to fulfillment as the protagonists experience infinity in an ephemeral togetherness and find a meaning of life in empathy and love.
Syed Murad Ali, Saadia Abid
Abstract:
The article elaborates on people’s perception regarding the importance of education. In doing so, it explores the role of schools and teachers, opinions about schooling system and the comparison between private and public schools. A total of 28 indepth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders students, parents and teachers. While in general parents and students value education but they showed little hope in the system. A comparison between private and public schools seemed inevitable and formed a major part of all the discussions. Blame attribution emerged as a prominent dimension; the children and parents blame schools and teachers over low quality of education while teachers view parents’ lack of interest as a hindrance to effective education. To conclude, education is realized as a collective benefit for which collective effort is required.
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