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, Charles Nhachi, Thulani Magwali
Published: 30 April 2019
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of traditional medicine used during pregnancy, at labour and for postpartum care by women in rural Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 398 women from two rural districts in Zimbabwe. Data on socio-demography, pregnancy related information as well as traditional medicine use patterns was collected using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Convenient sampling was used to recruit women of childbearing age who were either pregnant at the time of the study, or had previously given birth. The prevalence of traditional medicine used during pregnancy and at labour was 69.9% and only 17.3% used these medicines for postpartum care. During pregnancy, 27.7% used soil from a mole hill, 21.6% used elephant dung, and 13.3% used Fadogia ancylantha. These medicines were mainly used to facilitate labour (43.5%), avoid tears/stitches (19.7%), make delivery easy and safe (18.3%) and to avoid prolonged labour (5%). Only 9% of the participants however reported to have experienced adverse effects from using traditional medicines. The use of traditional remedies in different forms during pregnancy and at labour was very common as confirmed by the high prevalence rate of 69.9%. Some of the women however used more than one type of traditional medicine during pregnancy, labour and for postpartum care. The exact effects of some of these medicines on both the mother and infant however, are not known, and there is therefore a need for them to be studied in greater detail.
Qi N. Cui, Meera S. Ramakrishnan, Harini V. Gudiseva, David W. Collins, Maxwell Pistilli, Roy Lee, Venkata M. Chavali, Amanda Lehman, Victoria M. Addis,
Published: 18 April 2019
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role mitochondrial inheritance plays in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) characteristics in African Americans. POAG cases from the L1c2 and L1b mitochondrial haplogroups were compared in a retrospective case-case study. Twenty-six pairs of self-identified African American POAG cases from L1c2 and L1b mitochondrial haplogroups matched on age (mean [SD] = 71.2 [9.6] and 71.3 [9.6] years, respectively; p = 0.97), sex (21 female and 5 male pairs), and family history of glaucoma (positive in 15/26 [58%] pairs) were included. L1c2 subjects displayed higher vertical cup-to-disc ratio (0.75 [0.12] and 0.67 [0.16], respectively; p = 0.01, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.08), worse pattern standard deviation on visual field (VF) testing (5.5 [3.5] and 3.5 [2.7]; p = 0.005, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.02), and more severe glaucoma based on American Glaucoma Society staging criteria (p = 0.04, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.32) compared to L1b subjects. L1c2 also trended towards worse mean deviation on VF compared to L1b (−8.2 [7.6] and −5.8 [6.8], respectively, p = 0.17). Best corrected visual acuity, central corneal thickness, maximum intraocular pressure (IOP), and cataract severity were comparable between L1c2 and L1b haplogroups (p ≥ 0.49), as was retinal nerve fiber layer thickness on optical coherence tomography (75.1 [14.1] and 75.1 [13.0]; p = 0.99). Results demonstrated worse glaucomatous cupping and more severe VF loss in the L1c2 compared to the L1b haplogroup despite comparable IOP. Findings implicate mitochondrial inheritance as a factor affecting POAG severity and may ultimately contribute to stratifying POAG patients into phenotypically and genotypically distinct subgroups.
Malakooti N, Fowler C, Volitakis I, McLean Ca, Kim Rc, Bush Ai, Rembach A, , ,
Published: 6 March 2019
Abstract:
There is a known relationship between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS), with the latter typically developing AD-like neuropathology in mid-life. In order to further understand this relationship we examined intersectin-1 (ITSN1) and the regulator of calcineurin-1 (RCAN1), proteins involved in endosomal and lysosomal trafficking that are over-expressed in DS. We examined RCAN1 and ITSN1 levels (both long (-L) and short (-S) isoforms) and the level of endogenous metals in White Blood Cells (WBCs) collected from AD patients who were enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle Study on Ageing (AIBL). We also examined RCAN1 and ITSN1-S and -L in post-mortem brain tissue in a separate cohort of patients with AD or other types of dementia including Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and non-Alzheimer’s disease dementia. We found that RCAN1 was significantly elevated in AD and DLB brain compared with controls, but there was no difference in the level of RCAN1 in WBCs of AD patients. There were no differences in the levels of ITSN1-L and −S between AD and the control, nor between other types of dementia and the control. We found that there were no differences in the levels of metals between AD and the control WBCs. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that RCAN1 is differentially regulated between the peripheral and central compartments in AD and should be further investigated to understand its potential role in dementia of AD and DLB.
, Roy Carambula, Daniel H Zimmerman
Published: 31 January 2019
Abstract:
This review examines some of the reasons why we don’t have a vaccine against autoimmune diseases and highlights the progress that has been made. Many autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D), are driven by autoimmune T cell responses. Unlike vaccines for most infectious diseases, which elicit antibody responses, are intended for immuno-naive individuals and considered preventative, a vaccine for an autoimmune disease must be therapeutic and resolve or control the on-going autoimmune response and condition in the diseased host. Despite these differences, many of the same considerations for infectious disease vaccines must also be addressed to develop a therapeutic vaccine for autoimmune diseases. The disease initiator/triggers, antigens and autoantigens, nature of the immunopathogenic and protective/therapeutic immune response will be compared for infectious and autoimmune diseases as will approaches for developing vaccines including formulations, animal models and indicators of success. The rationale for a therapeutic vaccine for RA will be discussed in greater detail with a relatively limited discussion of T1D, MS and other autoimmune diseases.
, Tsolmon D, Suvdaa B, Enkhzul B, Chimegsaihan S, Altangadas D, Naranbat B, Munkhzol M, Bayarmaa E
Journal of Cytology & Histology, Volume 10, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7099.1000529

Abstract:
The climate of Mongolia is dry and extreme, with cold seasons during the 5-7 months of year, which is one of the causes of cold-borne disorders occurring in people. In our country, there are cases of women with inflammatory disease of reproductive organ too. Although the researches on ovarian mast cells have been common so far, the researches on mesovarium mast cells, which have good blood and nerve supply, are pretty uncommon. The researches on cold stress induced changes in mesovarium mast cells’ number, size and structure in relation with menstrual cycle hasn’t been done yet in our country. In our study, we have chosen 16 rats in control group and 48 rats in cold stress group, a total of 64 rats. The cold stress group was divided again into 3 groups (16:16:16) and underwent daily cold stress (refrigerator-15°C) from 8:00 am-11:00 am for 7, 14, 21 days in order to generate cold stress model. The number, shape, structural changes, size, perimeter, length and width of the mesovarium mast cell were determined. The determination of estrous cycles was carried out at 8 am on test day by taking a smear from the vagina using Papanicolaou test and the phases of estrous cycle was determined by histological test.
Kinjal Parikh, P. Mundada1,
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 71-81; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000481

Abstract:
Felbamate, an antiepileptic drug is administered multiple times a day to obtain proper restorative action against seizures in childhood onset epilepsy (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome), which usually result in poor therapeutic efficacy because of fluctuating plasma levels and low patient compliance. Hence, controlled release hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrix tablets of felbamate were formulated to overcome these drawbacks. The results of pre-formulation studies such as differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed compatibility of drug with the selected excipients. The formulation variables were optimized using D-optimal design which can elucidate the effect of all variables simultaneously during formulation optimization. In vitro drug release at the end of 2, 8 and 20 h were taken as the response parameters for the optimization study by D-optimal design. The results enabled selection of the formulation with the desired drug release pattern approaching to zero order. The optimized batch was subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits which showed extended release of drug up to 24 h. Thus, the felbamate controlled release tablets optimized by D-optimal design have potential to reduce the dose and dosing frequency, improve therapy and patient compliance.
Dilpreet Singh, , A. K. Tiwary1
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000477

Abstract:
The aim of the present investigation was to develop, validate and compare a spectrophotometric and a high performance liquid chromatography method for estimating canagliflozin in bulk and tablet dosage form. Spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography were carried out using standard instrumental parameters, which were optimized. Both methods were validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness and stability according to the ICH guidelines. The optimized ratio of mobile phase in high performance liquid chromatography under low pressure gradient mode was 50:50 % v/v of acetonitrile:orthophosphoric acid (0.01 M), which provide a sharp peak with a short retention time of 4.732 minutes. In spectrophotometric analysis, methanol as a solvent gave adequate molar absorptivity at a λmax of 280 nm. Results indicated that both spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatography methods were linear, precise, accurate, rugged and robust with RSD values less than 2 % and percent recovery was within the standard limits (90-110 %). Both the methods were found to be statistically non-significant at 95 % confidence intervals (p<0.05) with respect to each other. The proposed methods were found to be highly effective and could be used for quantification of canagliflozin in bulk and tablet formulations for routine analysis.
, M. S. Kahfi1, H. S. Akha2
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000476

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of deaths caused by drug poisoning or intoxication with other substances in Qom province, Iran from 2008 to 2012. The data on poisoning deaths were collected from the autopsy reports and defined cause of death in death certificates. Death profiles and demographic characteristics were analysed. Intoxication death cases were recorded 388 subjects during the five year study period, of which 264 cases (68 %) were male. Results showed that the rate of intoxication deaths was 93 cases per one million populations in 2008, decreasing to 49 cases in 2010 and then increasing to 69 cases in 2012. Opium alkaloids caused the highest mortality rate in male and female cases. Tramadol and tricyclic antidepressants were the second cause of death in males and females, respectively. The majority of cases were in the age range of 21-30 years. Accidental poisoning with opioids was the most reported manner of death. Death cause analysis revealed that opioids contributed to death in the majority of cases. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of regulatory controls on clandestine illicit opioid production, distribution and abuse by heath care authorities.
G. Manuranjan1, P. Lalduhsanga2, H. Lalhlenmawia, K. Bibhuti3, K. Thanzami
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 82-88; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000482

Abstract:
Essential oil was extracted from the fresh and dried peels of Citrus macroptera fruits following hydro-distillation method and fixed oil was isolated using Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The organoleptic characteristics, yield and other physical properties were determined for both the oils. Volatile components of the essential oils were identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antibacterial effects were estimated against different pathogenic strains including Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillis and Escherichia coli. Both preliminary thin layer chromatography method and quantitative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the oils and were compared against the standard ascorbic acid. Percent yield of the essential oil from the fresh and dried peels were 0.113 and 0.201 %, respectively, while the yield of fixed oil was found to be 3.12 %. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry demonstrated that the essential oils from the dried and fresh peels was composed of about 20 volatile components. The IC50 values determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity were 90.56 and 73.010 μg/ml, respectively for essential oils extracted from the fresh and dried peels.
, H. G. Savsani, P. K. Srivastava
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000475

Abstract:
The aim of the present investigation was to develop an inclusion complex-based hydrogel for transdermal delivery of raloxifene hydrochloride. Inclusion complexation was tried using two types of cyclodextrins, β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Kneading, co-precipitation, solvent evaporation and freeze drying were the methods explored for preparing inclusion complexs. The prepared complexes were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and both in vitro and ex vivo drug release studies. Kneading method was found to be the most suitable for preparing the inclusion complexes. Phase solubility studies indicated that β-cyclodextrin gave rise to Bs type of curve while hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin resulted in Ap type of curve. The stability constants (K1:1) obtained for β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin were 1572 and 2960, respectively. Complexation efficiency of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was higher than that of β-cyclodextrin. Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies indicated the superiority of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin for complexing raloxifene hydrochloride. In vitro and ex vivo studies showed that highest drug release occurred from inclusion complex prepared with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with a ratio of 1:2.5. Histopathology studies revealed that the developed hydrogel was non-irritant and micropores were clearly visible for the microporated skin.
K. Veerubhotla,
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 45-56; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000478

Abstract:
The applicability of a quality by design framework for the development of a sensitive, simple and selective, stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method for the analysis of captopril was investigated. Design of experiments using a central composite design approach was used for method development. Twenty experimental runs were performed with acetonitrile content ranging between 28 and 36 % v/v, pH from 2.8 to 3.6 and temperature between 22° and 32°. The experimental data obtained was used to derive a quadratic model for the retention time of captopril. The optimized method produced sharp peaks with good resolution (>2) for captopril and the internal standard with retention times of 3.1 and 6.2 min, respectively. The experimental data revealed that acetonitrile content in the mobile phase and pH are significant factors that affect the retention time and resolution of captopril. Normal probability plots revealed that the residual and predicted data fall approximately on a straight line, indicating that the experimental error for these studies was evenly distributed suggesting that the model could be used to navigate the design space. This approach is useful to expedite method development and optimization activities in analytical laboratories.
P. Rajak, L. K. Nath, B. Bhuyan
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000474

Abstract:
Liquid crystal systems are attracting significant attention due to their unique microstructures and physicochemical properties. Liquid crystals are becoming the choicest system for R and D professionals in the formulation development sector. Drug delivery to desired biological targets can effectively be achieved using liquid crystals system. Liquid crystalline phases are formed via three routes, the molecular shape, micro-segregation effects and chirality. The objective of the present review was to provide information on different forms of liquid crystal systems along with unique physicochemical properties and possible utilization of the unique physicochemical properties of the systems in pharmaceutical formulation development. This review summarized characterization of liquid crystal mesophases highlighting the multidisciplinary application of liquid crystals in drug delivery with respect to cubic and hexagonal phases.
F. U. Khan, N. Waqas, A. U. Ihsan, P. Khongorzul1, , W. Gang, Y. Mengqi, L. Xiaoqian, L. Han2, Zhou Xiaohui
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 2-10; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000473

Abstract:
Clinical pharmacy, a lifesaving profession that was traditionally related to compounding and dispensing of medicine has now shifted to more patient-centered activities such as pharmaceutical care. A clinical pharmacist could better provide this service as he/she is directly related to patient care. In this review, clinical pharmacists were classified into three stages, learning, applied and creative pharmacist so that he/she can provide better services to the patient. Furthermore, the qualities, which are essential for the clinical pharmacist to be a competent person including strong medical science background, good communication skills, up-to-date knowledge, creativity and innovation, advanced clinical skills, leadership, behavior and social expectations, and intellectual ability were also discussed. The aim of this review is to make the clinical pharmacists aware of their role and responsibilities at each stage, to fulfill these roles effectively rectifying the flaws at each stage by identifying solutions. Moreover, acquiring these qualities specified in this review, it would help clinical pharmacist to transform into a competent health care provider leading to provision of better health care services.
A. H. Chamle, N. L. J. Shane, A. Pai, B. S. Muddukrishna
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 57-62; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000479

Abstract:
Methylcobalamin is a highly photolabile and unstable molecule and hence, studies regarding photodegradation of methylcobalamin were carried out. In order to investigate the stability studies, the drug was subjected to photodegradation by exposing it to different light conditions in the validated photostability chamber as per ICH Q1B guideline. The drug was found to be less degraded in the blue light and was more prone to degradation under fluorescent light. Validated stability indicating liquid chromatography method was used for separating the methylcobalamin and its degradation products. The methylcobalamin peak with a retention time of 2.978 min was observed to decrease with a commensurate increase in a degradant peak at 4 min. The observed degradant peak was suspected to be hydroxocobalamin and was further confirmed by molecular weight determination. The fractions collected from high performance liquid chromatography were later injected into mass detector to determine the mass of the degradation products, which was found to be 665.78 amu.
Y. Bahmani1, T. Bahrami, A. Alabadi
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 63-70; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000480

Abstract:
Compounds containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole nucleus appear to be potential tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Previous reports showed that some 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were designed as probable tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Thiol derivative (2) was obtained from the reaction of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol with 4-fluorophenylacetic acid, ethyldimethyaminopropylcarbodiimide and hydroxybenzotriazole. Subsequent reaction of the obtained thiol derivative with diverse benzyl chlorides afforded the final compounds 3a-3l in a click reaction surprisingly. Derivatives with electron withdrawing moieties (F, Cl) exerted higher yield compared to methoxylated derivatives as electron donating group. Besides, docking studies using ArgusLab 4.0 was done for exploring the probable binding mode and interactions. Investigation of cytotoxicity of target compounds (3a-3l) by MTT assay revealed that these derivatives are more active against the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and most of these were found to be more effective than imatinib as reference drug. Chlorine containing derivatives at ortho and meta positions were the most cytotoxic in these series.
Christiana Asiedu
Journal of Pregnancy and Child Health, Volume 06, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.4172/2376-127x.1000403

Abstract:
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on use of Skilled Delivery Services (SDS) at health facilities by pregnant women in the central region of Ghana.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to conduct the study. A stratified sampling technique was used to select a sample of 1100 pregnant women. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data and analyzed using frequencies, percentages and binary logistic regression where missing values were imputed using multiple imputation by chained equations.Results: The sociodemographic factors that determine the use of SDS were religion (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.11-2.58, p=0.015) and person in authority who takes decision on where a person should deliver (OR=2.60, 95% CI=1.61-4.39, p=0.0004) and having valid national health insurance (OR=1.78, 95% CI=1, 06-3.00, p=0.030).Conclusion: In conclusion, more need to be done to address the issue of minority Muslim communities in the Central Region by providing cost effective and easy access to health facility within those communities, place more emphasis on facility delivery education, and counselling. Women need to be empowered to be independent in taking decision regarding health facility delivery.
, Atif Alsahari, Falih A. AlQahtani, Jassim M. Abdulhamed
Published: 23 January 2019
Interventional Cardiology, Volume 11, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.4172/interventional-cardiology.1000620

Abstract:
Iatrogenic aortopulmonary (AP) fistula is an unusual complication after balloon pulmonary artery (PA) angioplasty or branch pulmonary arteries (PAs) stent dilation. The majority of the cases were reported after transcatheter interventions on the PAs or right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), in patients with transposition of great arteries (TGA) who underwent PA angioplasty following arterial switch operation (ASO) or after transcutaneous pulmonary valve replacement in patients who had undergone a Ross procedure. We present a case of iatrogenic AP fistula in a 4-year-old patient with a history of repaired truncus arteriosus type 1 followed by bilateral PAs stent placement and balloon dilation,17 months later redilation of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) stent resulted in a AP fistula with significant left to right shunt which was successfully closed with a covered stent. This case demonstrates a previously unreported complication of transcatheter RPA stent reintervention after truncus arteriosus repair.
Kristy Lorraine Dykshoorn, Damien C Cormier
Published: 16 January 2019
Autism-Open Access, Volume 09, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2165-7890.1000235

Abstract:
Many individuals with ASD, as well as their families, face significant stressors and challenges, but they can also experience strength and resilience. The investigation of positive experiences could be used to support and encourage families as they confront adversities and can increase these families’ life satisfaction. ASD research, to date, has been largely focused on the identification and remediation of deficits. The purpose of this paper is to describe the existing gap related to the absence of positive psychology within ASD research and suggest actions and directions to be taken by the research community to address this gap. This can be achieved by integrating positive psychology into ASD research with the goal of creating a balanced view of people and their experiences. For example, research into the role of positive emotions in resources-building and resilience-promotion is needed. Additionally, on-going investigation into the experience of life satisfaction by individuals with ASD and their families will help to inform professional intervention and support of these families. An argument for a shift in theoretical framework will be made and implications for future research will be discussed.
Al-Daoude A, Al-Shehadah E, Shoaib A, Jawhar M, Arabi Mie
Journal of Plant Biochemistry & Physiology, Volume 07, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-9029.1000228

Abstract:
Spot blotch (SB), caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus, is an important disease of barley globally. Following transcriptional changes of salicylic acid (SA)-interacting/binding proteins during C. sativus infection may greatly advance understanding the defense crucial signaling pathways. In this study, changes of four known categories of defense; phosphorylation, ROS, PR proteins and nucleotide-binding sites encoded by genes involved in SA–mediated defense signaling networks were studied in compatible/incompatible barley-SB interactions. The functional categories showed significant differential accumulations when compared to the noninoculated controls, and they were primarily upregulated during fungal infection in the resistant cultivar compared with the susceptible one. However, SA profiling of resistant and susceptible cultivars indicated a reduction in its levels 72 hours post inoculation; therefore, we hypothesized that this signaling pathways may facilitate SB resistance. Furthermore, the expression of selected categories was induced earlier in resistant barley plants as in susceptible ones, supporting the hypothesis that a delayed defense response may occur in the C. sativus susceptible interaction.
Published: 14 January 2019
Imaging in Medicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.14303/imaging-medicine.1000128

Abstract:
Carcinoma of tongue in xeroderma pigmentosum a medical image, Smile Kajal & Ankit Agrawal
Yochai Levy, Ronit Anbar, Avraham Weiss, Tamar Koren Hakim, Yulia Bugaevsky, Adaya Nissenholtz, Lisa Cooper, Zecharia Madar, Pierre Singer, Yichayaou Beloosesky
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Volume 09, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000747

Abstract:
Background: Adipokines such as ghrelin, leptin, resistin and adiponectin have been proposed as being involved in energetic balance and bone turnover. There is scarce knowledge as to adipokine activity in hip fractured elderly patients in acute settings. We evaluated whether active nutritional support may reflect on adipokines levels and affect outcomes.Methods: A randomized controlled study measuring adipokine (ghrelin, leptin, resistin and adiponectin) levels in hip fractured geriatric patients receiving active nutritional support was conducted in the Ortho-Geriatric Unit Rabin Medical Center, Israel. The intervention group’s energy goal was calculated by repeated resting energy requirements whereas the control group received only standard nutritional support. Measurements were taken pre-operation, 48 h post-operative and on day 7 post-op.Results: Ghrelin and adiponectin levels showed significant changes in both study groups with no significant change between groups. Ghrelin levels were also significantly higher on day 7 in patients without complications (p=0.035). Leptin levels differed between groups (p=0.038). In the intervention group, leptin levels decreased initially, then sharply increased, whereas the control group’s levels consistently decreased in all 3 measurements. Resistin levels did not change significantly over time.Conclusion: Ghrelin and adiponectin may play a role in hip fractured patients irrespective of nutritional status whereas, ghrelin levels may also indicate post-operative complications. Leptin may be affected by energetic balance.
, Monago-Ighorodje Cc, Chuku Lc, Agbawo Eo
Published: 4 January 2019
Molecular Biology, Volume 08, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.4172/2168-9547.1000228

Abstract:
The study on liver function status of high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) induced NIDDM in Wistar rats placed on antioxidant supplementation was monitored in vitro. Some antioxidant rich substances which include some minerals and vitamins, α-lipoic acid, cinnamon powder, curcumin (Meriva®), cordyceps, resveratrol, quercetin, D-ribose-L-cysteine were assembled together in appropriate (RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance)) proportions into corn oil and stored 4oC for use. Liver and kidney function test were assayed using standard analytical grade reagents and kits as well as good equipment’s. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0 and significant level was set at p ≤ 0.05. A total of five groups were created and used for this study. After induction of diabetes, the treatment lasted for a total of 12 weeks, with analysis carried out at the 4th, 8th and 12th week intervals respectively. Results obtained from assay of the functional status of the hepatocyte indicate that there was significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in enzyme activities of all groups with the exception of diabetic control group. Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) activities of the treated groups, as well as normal control group where reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with the diabetic control group which increased constantly within the duration (4th to the 12th week) of treatment. However, significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity and serum total protein level was observed in the treated groups as the duration increase with the 8th week having the highest significant value. The results of direct and total serum bilirubin and albumin levels showed no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) in all groups. Hence, the results obtained suggest that the antioxidant supplement might aid in the restoration of liver function status by reducing free radical generation and activity via increased antioxidant presence.
Jui-Chiung Sun
Clinics in Mother and Child Health, Volume 16, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.4172/2090-7214.1000311

Abstract:
-Care of the Stillborn Body from the Perspective of Parents
, Mekdes Kondale, Gemechu Kejela
Clinics in Mother and Child Health, Volume 16, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.4172/2090-7214.1000312

Abstract:
Background: Client satisfaction is considered as one of the factors that influence the use of family planning and other reproductive health services. It is very important to improve utilization of the service. Despite this importance, satisfaction still has been ignored by health care managers. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the level of client satisfaction with family planning service in public health centers and identify factors associated with client satisfaction in Kucha district, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: Facility based cross -sectional study was conducted from July 1-21, 2017 with 538 family planning service users. Respondents were selected by using systematic random sampling from four randomly selected rural health centers in the district. Data was collected by using pre-tested structured questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Four diploma nurses collected the data and two B.Sc nurses supervised the data collection process. Logistic regression analyses were conducted and statistically significant association was declared at P value <0.05. Result: About 68.4% of the clients were satisfied with the service they received. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that respondents with age 35 and above years [AOR (95% CI)=3.006 (1.308,6.911)], respondents who attended secondary cycle (5-8) [AOR (95% CI)=2.716 (1.377,7.817)], those for whom privacy was ensured [AOR (95% CI)=1.771 (0.738, 4.252 )], clients who received respect and friendly approach from other clinic staffs [AOR (95% CI)=6.871 (3.344,14.116)], those who reported convenient clinic opening hour [AOR (95% CI)=6.288 (2.865,13.801)] and those who got adequate information [AOR (95% CI)=5.043 (2.362,10.767)] shows significant association with the outcome variable. Conclusions and recommendations: In this study, client satisfaction is slightly high. Predictors of clients’ satisfaction with family planning service in this study were age, educational level, adequacy of information to clients, convenience of clinic opening hours, respect and friendly approaches from other clinical staffs and maintenance of privacy. Appropriate Information, education and communication is needed to solve the problem.
Journal of Childhood & Developmental Disorders, Volume 05; https://doi.org/10.4172/2472-1786.100080

Abstract:
Needs, Habits and Children’s Wellbeing, Falih Köksal*
, Ali Asghar Hemmati, Katayoon Katayoon Hafezi & Esrafil Mansouri, Esrafil Mansouri
Published: 1 January 2019
Imaging in Medicine, Volume 11, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.14303/imaging-medicine.1000129

Abstract:
Background: Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, is commonly used against methicillin-resistant Gram-positive cocci. However, the nephrotoxic side-effects of Vancomycin results in dose restriction and reduces the duration of administration. Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of aqueous saffron (Crocus sativus) extract on vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and methods: In this study 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 8 rats; (i) control (ii) saffron (80 mg/kg, I.P.), (iii) vancomycin (200 mg/kg/BD, I.P.) and (iv) vancomycin plus saffron. The saffron treatment began 24 hours before the administration of the vancomycin therapy and lasted 8 days, while the duration of the vancomycin therapy was 7 days. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and histopathological changes of renal tissue were analyzed. Results: Administration of vancomycin caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, BUN and renal MDA levels, whereas, SOD activity was decreased, when compared to the control group. Aqueous saffron extract, on the other hand, decreased serum creatinine, BUN concentration and renal MDA levels but increased the level of renal SOD activity. Substantial histopathological alterations including destruction of kidney tubules, interstitial edema, epithelia vacuolization and epithelial desquamation, were observed with the vancomycin-only treatment group. However, the administration of saffron extract resulted in a significant reduction of damage to the kidneys. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that oxidative stress plays an important role in vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity and saffron extract has a potent renoprotective effect against vancomycin induced lipid peroxidation and nephrotoxicity.
Soni Thakur1, R. Koundal1, D. Kumar2, A. K. Maurya1, , B. Lal, B. Lal3 And V. K. Agnihotri1
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 167-172; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000494

Abstract:
The composition of the essential oil of Crassocephalum crepidioides was characterized using retention indices, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Twenty seven components were identified, representing 91.2 % of the total oil. The essential oil of C. crepidioides was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (80.9 %) with β-myrcene (65.9 %), β-phellandrene (8.8 %), α-pinene (3.1 %) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (4.8 %) with α-copaene (1.5 %), and α-humulene (1.5 %). Promising essential oil yield with β-myrcene as major component, suggests that crop could be considered for commercial cultivation. The obtained essential oil was tested against human cervical cancer SiHa, human oral epidermal carcinoma KB and human adenocarcinoma Colo-205 cell lines at 48 h, which showed significant results against all cell lines (59.8±3.7, 67.9±0.5 and 84.5±3.6, respectively at 100 µg/ml).
Mallikarjuna Rao Talluri, , G. R. Battu, K. N. Killari
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 81, pp 138-145; https://doi.org/10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000489

Abstract:
The present study was carried out to identify phytochemical compounds and to study the hepatoprotective activity of Zanthoxylum armatum rhizome. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard procedures to quantify total alkaloid and phenolic contents. Hepatoprotective activity was determined using paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Zanthoxylum armatum extracts showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, oils, tannins and carbohydrates. The methanol extract has more phenolic and alkaloid contents than other extracts. The methanol extract at 500 mg/kg showed greater hepatoprotective activity with 66.87, 64.84, 67.95, 60.76 and 65.85 % protection on aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein enzyme levels of the liver, respectively. The results of the present study and previous reports indicated that phytochemical constituents variety in Zanthoxylum armatum and its' extracts possessed antioxidant, antibacterial and hepatoprotective activity.
Eman M Alissa
Journal of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Volume 05; https://doi.org/10.4172/2472-1921-c1-006

Abstract:
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Ibrahim Mohamed Zeid, Fatma Abd El Lateef Gharib, Safia Mohamed Ghazi, Eman Zakaria Ahmed
Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-955x.1000193

Abstract:
This study aimed to improve cowpea seed germination and seedling growth by using some antioxidant compounds naturally produced or up taken by plants. The effect of soaking cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) for 2 h in aerated solution of different antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AsA) and gallic acid (GA), each at 0.0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm, sodium selenate (NaSeO4) and nanoselenium (SeNPs ≈ 33.4 nm) chemically prepared, each at 0.0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μM on seedling length and activities of some hydrolytic enzymes were tested. Seeds of treated and untreated cowpea were germinated at 25°C ± 0.5 under dark controlled conditions for 4 days. Results showed that AsA, GA, NaSeO4 and SeNPs at low concentrations significantly improved plumule and radicale lengths compared with their corresponding controls. Moreover, AsA and GA up to 150 ppm, NaSeO4 and SeNPs up to 25 μM significantly increased the activities of α-amylase, β-amylase and protease enzymes as well as the contents of total soluble sugars and total soluble proteins. The results indicate the successful use of ascorbic acid and gallic acid up to 150 ppm as well as sodium selenate and nanoselenium up to 25 μM in enhancing seedling growth and hydrolytic enzymatic activity in cowpea germinated seeds.Further promising results on the effect of these compounds on vegetative growth and yield can be concluded from the previous results on germination and seedling growth.
Caroline Figueiredo Da Silva, Caroline Louise Machado, Heloisa Da Silva Schafaschek, Andre Possamai, Michael Ricardo Lang, Julio Cesar De Aguiar Junior, Marcus Vinicius Magno Goncalves
Journal of Spine & Neurosurgery, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.4172/2325-9701.1000315

Simone Pacini
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7013-c2-051

Abstract:
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Soo Kyoung Choi
Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2332-0877-c2-062

Abstract:
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Sherin K, Achuthsankar S. Nair
Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics, Volume 12, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.4172/0974-276x.1000493

Abstract:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the gene regulatory molecules that bind to microRNA response elements (MREs) in the 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs. The repressive activity of miRNA is counteracted by “miRNA sponges” or “competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs)” termed because of its competing nature of sequestering miRNA’s effect. The ceRNAs with multiple MREs for a miRNA interact more, resulting in a regulatory gene network layer. The perturbation of ceRNA network causes various diseases including cancer. This discovery has increased the analysis of ceRNA interactions, networks and dynamics. Currently, a number of ceRNA-ceRNA interaction analysis and prediction tools are available online. This review focuses on computational prediction of mRNA-mRNA pairs acting as ceRNAs and its significance in RNA therapeutics. The computational prediction tools are compared with respect to the input data retrieved, features considered and the prediction method.
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