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Natalia Tsumarieva
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-62-69

Abstract:
The aim of this article is the implementation of theoretical and empirical analysis of the essence of emotionality. Methods of study: analysis, comparison and systematization of the scientific literature concerning the phenomenon of an emotional deprivation, observation, analysis of the documentation, the method of the peer review, a conversation, a testing, a survey for the identification of the consequences of the emotional deprivation. Results. We figured out that emotional deprivation very closely connected with other kinds of deprivation and is part of the mental deprivation. The semantic content of the notion "emotional deprivation" depends on the conceptual and theoretical approaches of the author, studying of the specific conditions of its origin and also the specific of age group. However most scientists continue determine emotional deprivation as a category of mental state of the personality. Emotional deprivation is an instrument of change and transformation in the psychics, affects somatic health, causes psychosomatic disorders and mental disorders. It is generalized that emotional deprivation through negative feelings and emotions affects other mental spheres of personality – volitional, intellectual, motivational, value-oriented, changing them, deforming, complicating, ie affects the psyche in general. Conclu s ion s . Emotional deprivation can't be equated as a mental state, because it is connected indirectly with the mental state of the deprived personality, but it isn't one. To our mind, emotional deprivation is a process of long lasting stay of the personality in conditions of emotionally impoverished environment, conditioned by displeasure of emotional needs, loss, limitation, insufficiency or absence of abilities for installation of close connections, contacts and interaction with a significant person. It causes dysfunction, breaches and disarrays of the mental sphere of a personality.
Volodymyr Shevchenko, Viktoriia Kopach
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-75-80

Abstract:
This article highlights the psychological features of counseling with problem clients of old age and there adiness of future and practicing psychologists for this work. It is determined that the modern world, duetoits complexity, dynamism and contradictions, creates various problems for the elderly and actively in terferesin his personal space. All this has a negative effecton the health of the elderly and onthestate of their mental well-being. This leads to certain changesin the personality of the old person: in creased feelings of in feriority, in security, fluctuationsin self-esteem, increased sensitivity; depressed mood, feelings of loneliness, helplessness, anxiety, reducedefficiency; restructuringofthe motivational-needs system, valueorientations; adjustmentof «I-concept»; in creasing interestin experiencing the past, its revaluation; exacerbation and changesin some traits; decreas edvoliti on alactivity, apathymayoccur. As a result, the number of elderlypeoplein need of psychological helpissig nificantly increasing. At the same time, dueto subjective and objective reasons, they may not always behavea dequately during psychological counseling, preventing specialists from solving their psychological problems. It was fo undthat the problem clients of the psychologists hould include: anxious individuals; individuals who experiencefear and phobias; hostileandaggressiveindividuals; unmotivatedclients; customers with inflatedrequirements; individuals who experienceguilt (loss); payingcustomers; hysterical personalities; obsessive personalities; paranoid personalities; schizophrenic personalities; antisocial personalities; individuals who abusealcohol; individuals in a state of depression and suicidalideation. Counseling for the elderly can be carried out on the following issues: severeloss and acutegrief, lossoffunctionalability, difficulties or conflictsin relationships and communication, understanding and changingliving conditions, adaptation to new life circumstances, needs assessment, work withstress, loss of meaningin life , fear of death, etc.
Inna Chuhueva,
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-70-74

Abstract:
The article summarizes the definition of the term “hikikomori”, analyzes the situation of quarantine restriction: its essence and features of the impact on adolescence. Peculiarities of manifestation of hikikomori markers at adolescence are determined. We consider the studied phenomenon in the system of approaches like a way to meet needs, as a set of manifestations of syndromes of a new era, as a psychological defence mechanism, as a psychological state and process. Depending on the intensity of markers, we divide hikikomori into counter-dependent, poorly adaptable and interdependent, super dependent. The parameters that determine the level of manifestations of hikikomori include antisocial solitude at home, antisocially with leaving the house, selective society. The levels of manifestation of hikikomori include physical, emotional, social. Quarantine restrictions, as unusual living conditions that require forced solitude, selfisolation can be a factor that encourages the emergence of markers of hikikomori in adolescents. Such people have a shift in activity in cyberspace and at night, inseparable stay with the gadget (during meals, in the bathroom, in the toilet, etc.). Neglect of the organization of life (do not clean the bed after sleep, do not clean the room for a long time, do not change clothes during the day and wear night pyjamas around the clock, neglect a healthy diet, eat outside the regime, mostly fast food, etc.). In communication with others, they show irritability with the desire to avoid contact and solitude in their room. Also, at such a person, disorganization of educational activity hastily is observed. It is difficult for them to organize the learning process; they show procrastination (postponement of tasks). If the classes are as videoconferencing, they do not include video and microphone. They are away from contact with the group and the teacher, even if they need contact for feedback, they ignore it. An empirical study of the susceptibility to hikikomori markers in adolescents revealed that about 40% of subjects have a high susceptibility to hikikomori markers, and almost 11% of young men – very high.
Vira Yaroshenko, Vycheslav Nedbai, Anna Sukhorukova
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-81-87

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problems of formation of interethnic tolerance in young people under the influence of socio-psychological factors of modern society. Modern scientific approaches to the study of tolerance as a socio-psychological phenomenon are considered. Interethnic tolerance as a factor of conflict-free existence in society is a necessary and sufficient condition for the formation of social unity, mature social consciousness, the principles of nonviolent solution of social problems and a balanced approach to creating social reality. Tolerance at the individual level is the ability to perceive without aggression thoughts that differ from their own, as well as – the behavior and lifestyle of others. Tolerance of other people's way of life, behavior, customs, feelings, ideas, beliefs is a condition for the stability and unity of societies, especially those that are not homogeneous in religious, ethnic or other social dimensions. The existence of such a phenomenon as ethnic stereotype is fully explained by the desire of human consciousness to facilitate understanding of society, to simplify the perception of knowledge about social reality. In order to determine the impact of ethnic stereotypes on the culture of interethnic interaction in modern multinational society, it is necessary to first formulate their role in society. Ethnic stereotypes are primarily cultural formations that are natural and exist as long as there are peoples and ethnic communities. First of all, it should be noted that ethnic stereotype as a regulatory element of ethnic identity performs three important functions: cognitive, communicative and the function of protecting a positive ethnic identity. A significant contribution to the formation of ethnic tolerance in Ukrainian society belongs to civil society institutions. It is the institutionalization of democratic citizenship that is manifested in the active conscious participation of activists of public organizations in identifying ethnic stereotypes and promoting ethnic tolerance. Since tolerance is based on acceptance, respect and fair understanding of the diversity of ethnic groups and peoples, forms of expression and manifestations of individuality and uniqueness of each person, this should be facilitated by knowledge, communication, lack of censorship, freedom of belief and conscience.
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-38-41

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problem of whole laying as a factor in the formation of the creative lifestyle of the future teacher. Scientific approaches to the study of the phenomenon of whole laying, and its impact on the development of future teachers, the formation of life meanings and style, personality development and the formation of professional self-awareness are considered. Lifestyle is the most general characteristic of the life of a given social group or individual, which highlights specific to this group or individual activities or life values. The time perspective of the future is a projection of the motivational sphere of a person and represents to some extent the hopes, plans, projects, aspirations realized by him, which are connected with the near and future. The formation of these plans takes place throughout childhood almost spontaneously, mainly as an internalization of parents' values, their expectations of a particular child and through the development of motivation. The time perspective of the future formed in this way acquires its own motivating force, which influences the further development of the child's personality. A life plan is not only a prediction of a possible future, but also a certain self-attribution, a definition of the tasks that a person sets for himself and which he must fulfill. From this point of view, the life plan is the most important means of self-education: a person creates the desired image of himself, the ideal self-model. Lifestyle is the most general characteristic of the life activity of a given social group or individual, in which specific for this group or individual activities or life values are highlighted [1, p. 41]. Since the specific features of the activity may be different, the classification of lifestyle may be different. It cannot be assumed that a person always lives life in only one style. There is a mixture of styles, and the transition from one to another. This is due to qualitative changes that occur with a person: the transition of age, social status, change of values. Thus, the development of their own lifestyle for the future teacher is one of the main creative tasks on the path of self-improvement.
, Maryna Stashevska
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-48-52

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to present the results of theoretical and empirical research of the ratio of indicators of actual fears and qualitative indicators of emotionality. Theoretical analysis of the notion of " fear" is given. Met hod s . "Questionnaire of the hierarchical structure of personality fears" by Yu. Shcherbatykh and E. Ivleva and "Four-modal test-questionnaire of emotionality" by O.P. Sannikova were used for empirical research. Re s ult s . The correlation analysis between the indicators of actual fears and the qualitative indicators of emotionality revealed positive significant connections with the modalities "anger", " fear", "sadness", and with the modality " joy" revealed negative significant connections. Conclu s ion s . Fear is considered as an emotional state that reflects the protective biological response of a person or animal while experiencing a real or imagined danger to their health and well-being. Emotionality is understood as a property of personality and is considered as an established, integral, structural formation, characterized by a certain combination of its different levels of indicators. Emotionality is understood as a property of personality and is considered as an established, integral, structural formation, characterized by a certain combination of its different levels of indicators. This study examines the influence of qualitative characteristics of emotionality, which contain information about modality and a sign of emotional experience, on the manifestations of fear.This study considers the influence of qualitative characteristics of emotionality, which contain information about modality and a sign of emotional experience, on the manifestations of fear. Empirical data were collected using the following psychodiagnostic methods: "Questionnaire of the hierarchical structure of actual fears of the personality" (HSAF) by Yu. Shcherbatykh and E. Ivleva; "Four-modal test-questionnaire of emotionality" by O.P. Sannikova. According to the results of the correlation analysis between the indicators of actual fears and qualitative indicators of emotionality, positive significant connections have been established with the modalities "anger", " fear", "sadness", and negative significant connections have been established with the modality " joy".
Nigora Khazratova,
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-53-61

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the analysis of scientific approaches to studying civic identity as a form of social identity. It has been found that the following aspects are essential in the context of the study of civic identity: understanding it as a phenomenon, which has dynamical and structural nature, is closely related to the continuous processes of personality development and self-determination, induces the inclusion of an individual, the sense of inner unity with others and the importance of individual's existence in society, as well as evokes the identity seeking state (psychoanalytic approach); combination of individualizing and social aspects, the formation of identity in the process of socialization and social interaction through the internalization of roles, social norms, values, typical patterns of behavior (symbolic interactionism); understanding the self-categorization as an essential process in the identity formation, the existence of levels of self-categorization (which are considered as levels of identity at the same time), interpretation of identity as an internal regulator of individual's behavior (cognitive psychology); an ability for political, intellectual, spiritual and other elites to construct identity by influencing society by means of ideology (constructionism). It was reasoned, that the organizational-game approach is the most promising in the context of studying civic identity, as, on the one hand, it to some extent allows to synthesize the basic ideas of the above-mentioned scientific approaches, and, on the other hand, extends them with novel provisions (such as transaction/script analysis and organizational identity concepts), taking into account the essential characteristics of the civic identity of the individual. According to the organizational-game approach, civic identity is considered as a kind of organizational identity (a specific form of social identity), which is selfdetermination in the organizational environment of the state, as well as self-identification with the role of a citizen in the context of game and script interactions with state institutions and fellow citizens, and is additionally the primary psychological regulator of civic behavior.
, Yulia Missuk
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-42-47

Abstract:
The problem of the relationships of mechanisms of psychological protection with the process of adaptation of students is considered to the educational environment in the university in this article. It is justified the feasibility of the study student period, that places higher demands to the psychological protection of the individual. The description of the theoretical justification of the problem of psychological protection and its features is given on the analysis of the scientific literature. It is presented the picture of the strategies of adaptive behavior of the person. The psychodiagnostic techniques are described such as ( test "Lifestyle Index" К. R. Plutchik – G. Kelermag, the methodology "The indicator of strategies to overcome stress" of D. R. Amirkhan in the adaptation of N.O. Syroty and V.M. Yalta, the multifactor personal questionnaire "The adaptability" of A. G. Maklakova in the adaptation of S. V. Chermyanin, the test of semantic and real orientations of D. O. Leontiev, the methodology of determining the stylistic features of self-regulation of behavior by V. I. Morosanova and E. M. Konoz). All they are used in the research of the features of psychological protection of personality and transformational adaptation. It is given the data of empirical research of features of formation of strategies of adaptive behavior in the course of psychological protection of the personality of the student. The psychological protection and personality development are related with each other, allowing the individual to adapt to difficult living conditions. On the one hand, the psychological protection is a condition for the harmonious development of the student's personality. It allows to provide adaptation through realization of balance of dynamic process of development. On the other hand, the development of personality in adolescence period is one of the conditions of psychological protection, ensuring the process of transformation of the individual and its life. The constructive interaction with the surrounding world is not possible without it. On the one hand, the self-protective efforts of a person are aimed at adaptation to the environment (preservation), and on the other hand, to the transformation of the psychological situation (change).
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-12-20

Abstract:
The article provides a socio-pedagogical analysis of the problem of adolescents' use of psychoactive substances, alcoholic beverages. Psychological and pedagogical measures aimed at preventing the use of psychoactive substances and alcoholic beverages among young people, which are recommended for use by teachers, are generalized. Psychological and pedagogical principles of organizing the pedagogical process aimed at developing a healthy personality that can learn throughout life, think critically, set goals and achieve them, work in a team, communicate in a multicultural environment, develop skills of equal communication, assertive behavior, listen to others, make decisions, defend one's own opinion, develop the ability to resist the pressure of advertising, learn to recognize the advertising strategies of tobacco and alcohol companies and define the conditions for strengthening I mental health in educational institutions. It is noted that the important priorities of the educational process in the New Ukrainian School are the formation of adolescents' practical skills of responsible behavior in relation to their lives and health, as well as the health and life of the environment and the creation of a safe environment in education. It is emphasized that the update of the existing algorithm of professional preventive and developmental activities involves: revision of the methodology of work with participants in the educational process; changing emphasis and priorities from process to result using effective methods of educational psychologist and social pedagogue. Generalized statistical and analytical data on the activities of educational and methodological centers (centers, offices, laboratories) of the psychological service in the education system indicate the provision of educational psychologists and social educators during the 2018-2019 academic years about 29, 5 million different types of psychological and socio-pedagogical assistance children, adolescents and young people invarious fields.
Irina Litvinenko, Yulia Tseplo
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-33-37

Abstract:
The article examines the impact of military action in the east of the country on the trends of future specialists in the field of psychology with younger scholars. This problem is quite relevant today, as a large number of parents with children have been forced to leave the eastern regions of the country. However, there are now areas of work that are currently being mastered by student psychologists. Also, the article presents areas for improving professional skills given the geopolitical situation within the country. Ways to improve the professional training of students are offered. It is no secret that Ukrainian society is experiencing a period of crisis, which is associated with many factors. One of the most important factors is the armed conflict in the east of our country. It is bitter that this action has divided not only society and politicians, but also families. With statistics from the UN, we can say that there are now about 1.198 million migrants from the eastern region of the country. Of these, about 253 thousand children, and how many are left there? How many children do not have the opportunity to see their relatives, play with peers or even go to school? And how many of them know what war is. It is safe to say that they have had a terrible childhood, because the hybrid war has left them no chance for happy years in safety and peace. About 250 children have died in the east since the beginning of 2014. We should not forget that the districts of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts are one of the busiest in terms of the number of explosives and mines in the world. The children who stayed there, and there are more than 220,000 of them, do not even have the opportunity to play quietly on the playgrounds, because they are mined. This is only according to the UN. We can only focus on these figures, not state with confidence. In addition to these data, during the anti-terrorist operation and environmental protection, human rights activists recorded at least a dozen cases when military facilities and facilities of armed groups were located within 500 meters from kindergartens and schools, or directly on their territory. Such circumstances are not psychologically favorable for children, so we wonder how a modern practical psychologist can positively influence and help them achieve a normal life.
Irina Litvinenko, Anastasiya Pshenicina
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-21-25

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problem of development of empathic abilities of officers of the Armed Forces. An officer of the modern Armed Forces must be a holistic personality, capable of constant self-development and selfimprovement, with a certain set of moral qualities; his personality should be leadership-oriented, which includes the skills to lead subordinates, take responsibility for them and have a sufficient level of empathic abilities, manifested in empathy, interest in improving the moral and psychological condition of subordinate personnel and each subordinate individually. The concepts of personality, leadership and empathy as a communicative and organizational component of leadership qualities are covered. The level of empathy ability among the officers of a unit of a separate military unit is analyzed and recommendations for its increase are given. Regarding the problem of developing empathic abilities among officers of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, we can say that this topic is unfairly underestimated. This is due to the specifics of military-professional activities, which are clearly regulated by the statutory relationship. "Living by statute" implies the mandatory fulfillment of all its requirements, and does not provide any recommendations for the establishment of interpersonal relations in the military. However, as the experience of recent years has shown, the Armed Forces of Ukraine needed an immediate increase in mobilization resources, which led to conscription of Ukrainian troops, with different motivational factors, different levels of life experience, different age groups. Empathy is one of the important communicative and organizational components of leadership. The chief officer must have an average level of empathic abilities, which allows you to create the most comfortable psychological climate in the subordinate department, without violating military discipline. Analyzing the level of empathy on the example of one of the military units, we saw that not all officers have formed it enough, so it was suggested training exercises to improve it. We also stressed the importance of awareness of the participants about empathy, as well as its development in terms of its various components.
Irina Litvinenko, Olga Tribuhina
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences pp 26-31; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-26-32

Abstract:
Attitude of students-psychologists to the phenomenon of «death».The article discusses the attitude of students- psychologists to social phenomenon «death». The views of prominent personalities on this phenomenon are analyzed, it is emphasized that this event has a purely individual impact on the picture of the world, the life of any person.The importance of the attitude to death as an inevitable event in the training of future psychologists is emphasized. The effectiveness of the psychologist, in this particular type of work – psychological assistance to those who have experienced the loss-death of a loved one, depends not only on his knowledge, practical skills, competence, but also, perhaps primarily on his psychological readiness for this type of work, his attitude to the phenomenon of «death». Unfortunately, practice shows that among practicing psychologists, there is a group that refuses to work with clients who have survived the death of loved ones and offer to see another psychologist or their psychological help is not effective, but they are well versed in the appropriate amount of knowledge, practical skills on this issue. The reason is the topic of «death» for the psychologist itself, which is traumatic, and the term itself is too stressful. From this follows a clear mismatch between the huge demands of clients for this type of psychological care and the psychological readiness of the psychologist for this type of work. This problem is urgent, relevant, has great practical significance, its solution will provide better training of psychologists in providing quality psychological assistance to those who have experienced a crisis of loss – the death of a loved one, to meet the demand for this type of psychological services. It is this problem has become in our field of vision and led to the choice of research topic. We set a goal to investigate the attitude of student psychologists to the social phenomenon of «death» (personal aspect). In the course of the study we conducted: psychodiagnostic techniques that showed a negative attitude towards death and fear of it. Which involves systematic, individual work and the formation of the most favorable for the individual attitude to the rubbish to its inevitability.
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2021-21-2-5-11

Abstract:
The study found out the dependence of the manifestation of symptoms of chronic non-communicable diseases of the digestive system on the duration of a person’s own unit of time. It was identified that individual age points of exacerbations of chronic non-communicable diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are consistent with the duration of the individual’s own biological cycle. Method. In each patient examined by the chronometric test method the “ τ type” was determined, for which the classical method of reproducing intervals with a duration of tQ = 2, 3, 4, 5 c was used, which were set by the experimenter and reproduced by the surveyed using an electronic chronoscope with an accuracy of 0.001 c. Results. It was identified that individual age points of exacerbations of chronic non-communicable diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are consistent with the duration of the individual’s own biological cycle.
Olena Sakharova
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Pedagogical Sciences, Volume 65; https://doi.org/10.33310/2518-7813-2019-65-2-378-382

Abstract:
The article reveals the importance of innovative pedagogical technologies and their implementation in the process of young preschoolers’ physical education; the views of both teachers of the past and modern scientists on the use of innovative methods of working with children have been analyzed. Attention is paid to the role of interactive techniques and innovative technologies in preschool education, their impact on the preschool children’s mental development and the enrichment of the younger preschoolers’ vocabulary in the process of physical education. The author has defined the essence of such concepts as «innovation», «technology», «pedagogical technology», «innovative pedagogical technology», and «innovative activity». The article reveals scientists’ different views on the concept of «pedagogical technology»; three groups of creative teachers engaged in the innovative activity have been defined. Innovative methods and techniques of applying interactive learning elements, which were used in a pedagogical experiment to enrich children's vocabulary in the process of physical education in the preschool institution educational process, have been stated. An example of the younger preschoolers’ vocabulary enrichment in the process of awakening gymnastics, which series are conducted in a playful way and accompanied by poems, has been given. The method of fairy tale therapy, due to which the educator will help the child to overcome fear, learn to jump over a cord and activate the child's vocabulary with such words as «jump», «rope», «both legs», «half-bent knees», «stick», «fear», «witchcraft», etc., has been offered. The solution of vocabulary tasks with younger preschoolers can be seen with the help of acupressure, which will enrich, activate and consolidate new and familiar words in children's vocabulary, and with the help of Fitball gymnastics, which is done while working both individually with children and in sports activities, children’s independent motor activity.
Natalia Gargaun
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Pedagogical Sciences, Volume 65; https://doi.org/10.33310/2518-7813-2019-65-383-391

Abstract:
The article describes the organization and analysis of the results of the pedagogical experiment on the formation of economic culture of junior specialists-electricians (MSTE), which gives grounds to conclude on the effectiveness of the constructed model and implementation of a set of pedagogical conditions for the formation of economic culture of MSTE in professional training. The ascertaining stage of the experiment included the collection of data required for pedagogical research; development of criteria, indicators and levels of formation of economic culture of MSTE; mass research of students of vocational and professional higher education institutions (technical schools and colleges). To achieve this, interviews and testing were conducted with students of research institutions of professional and professional higher education (technical schools and colleges). It has been proven that a significant number of respondents approve of the prospect of mastering economic culture but know little about it. The research carried out at the observational stage of the experiment showed that the initial level of formation of the economic culture of future MSTE in the experimental and control groups is approximately equally low for all components. At the formative stage of the pedagogical experiment, a study of the level of formation of the economic culture of MSTE in the process of professional training in relation to the selected criteria: motivational-value, oriented-cognitive, creative, activity-practical. Consideration of the results of the experiment allowed to state that the use of the proposed set of pedagogical conditions in the education of students in institutions of professional and professional higher education (technical schools and colleges) has a positive effect on the formation of economic culture MSTE in the process of professional training. In the experimental group there was an increase in the number of students with a high and medium level of formation of economic culture MSTE, which confirms the hypothesis. Key words: economic culture, future junior specialists of electricians, professional training, pedagogical conditions of formation of economic culture of junior specialists of electricians, pedagogical experiment.
Inna Chuhueva, Viktoriia Sakovska
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-60-65

Abstract:
The article summarizes the theoretical aspects of the phenomenon of bullying, reveals the components of the work of a psychologist with the problem of bullying in the New Ukrainian school, analyzes the scope of psychologists working with bullying in the school environment, highlights the problem of determining and justifying the content and structure of psychological training, the components of psychological readiness of future psychologists to work with the problem of bullying and their criteria and typical difficulties in the formation of components of psychological readiness of future psychologists to work with the problem of bullying are determined. Bullying among school children is one of the most acute problems in modern educational psychology. For its effective solution, high-quality training of psychologists with psychological preparation trained to work with this phenomenon in the school setting is required. This readiness is a psychological formation, the structure of which includes cognitive, motivational, operational, emotional and personal components that develop unevenly in the process of personal and professional growth. As the results of theoretical research have shown, psychological training depends on the quality of the formation of these components. The author's questionnaire “Self-analysis of psychological readiness to work with the problem of a bully” was used in the study. The results of the survey show that the vast majority of students assess their psychological readiness to work with the problem of bullying at an average level, but are interested in this phenomenon (some have a high level of motivation for future work with this phenomenon), they are positive about preparing for work. With it, in the future present themselves as effective. The main difficulties that arise during the formation of components of psychological readiness of students of psychology to work with the problem of bullying are related to problems in mastering the methods and techniques of psychological and pedagogical impact on the student body, insufficient mastery of methodological tools to work with problem people.
Ihor Shpachinskyi
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-77-82

Abstract:
The article reflects some approaches of methodological and psychological nature to the teaching of philosophy in institutions of both high and general secondary education. The question of the introduction of effective methods of teaching philosophy was examined. It is actually from the point of persuasion of a modern complicated cultural situation in Ukraine and the world. This is equally important for the formation of spiritually developed personality, which is characterized by dialectical, systemic, strategic thought, the desire to create and develop oneself. The analysis of modern distance learning methods and the possibility of their application in the teaching process with the justification of the criterion of maximum usefulness and appropriate practical application, considering the skills required of a highly professional modern specialist. Among the latter, in particular, emphasis is placed on the development of some that are considered key and are a direct subject of reflection in the field of philosophy, such as "critical thinking" and "analytical thinking and innovation." The expediency of using such a type of work as an essay is considered and proposed as the most effective development of these qualities. There is a separate opinion that philosophy can be called with some caution a discipline, the study of which sometimes goes hand in hand with both psychological problems and serious mental illnesses, as well as the mental health of the individual. On the basis of the author's experience of teaching philosophical disciplines, future specialists of the relevant specialty-teachers of secondary education institutions are invited to show the beauty of a harmonious (dialectical) combination of opposites on examples from the field of their profile. Thus, in particular, the beauty of the construction of the oxymoron - philologists, the fight against Aikido - specialists in physical education, "psychological Aikido" - psychologists, so-called techniques. "TOSIP" (theories of solving inventive problems) - students of natural sciences, etc. The conclusions, in particular, state that teaching will thus be able to develop the above-mentioned certain qualities in future teachers of general secondary education, and they, in turn, will be able to develop them in their students.
Volodymyr Shevchenko, Viktoriia Yaremchuk
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-71-76

Abstract:
This article highlights the problem of bullying among teens. It is determined that the age characteristics that cause an increase in the level of aggression in adolescents include exacerbation of character accentuations, as well as increasing physical activity, which can be manifested in bullying, property damage and more. It is also worth noting the active desire of children of this age for the attention, understanding and trust of adults. Teenagers are trying to play a certain social role not only with peers, but also with adults, to show a social activity that adults do not always support. Therefore, when they are exposed to psychological barriers, without finding mutual understanding with others and their families, they try to overcome them by aggressive behavior. It was found that closer to mid-teens; aggressive behavior tends to decline because of the increase in social skills for self-regulation. However, despite the high coefficients of stability of aggressive behavior in the transition from childhood to adolescence, attention should be paid to individual variability in aggressive behavior. Psychologists identify several main reasons: low self-esteem, home atmosphere and group atmosphere. The results of the study of bullying among students of 9-11 grades of the Higher Vocational School № 21 in Mykolayiv are presented. The sample consisted of 75 persons, of whom 54 were boys and 21 were girls. It was obtained that the psychological characteristics of the individual that may contribute to the emergence of bullying among students are at an average level, the indicators do not exceed the norm, respectively; pronounced characteristics of high school students in their propensity for bullying in the study group were not identified. Given all the circumstances and factors involved in the formation of aggressive behavior in adolescents, you can prevent or limit the manifestation of aggressive behavior. Today, there are numerous anti-bullying and prevention programs developed by a variety of institutions, including the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, but each needs well-trained specialists for effective implementation, and the training of qualified psychologists is an effective tool to fight bullying.
Inna Chuhueva
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-66-70

Abstract:
The article presents the results of a study of the gender identity of female athletes engaged in "male" sports. The components of gender identity, factors of its manifestation in the categories of femininity and masculinity are shown. It is pointed out that gender identity acts as a coherence of consciousness and the behavior of a person as a representative of a certain sex, the connection of cognitive and conative components of personality identity. The gender role requirement is the guideline for this coordination. There are three components to gender identity: structural, dynamic and functional. Gender identity is also presented as a fundamental structure of social identity, which characterizes a person in terms of membership in a masculine or feminine group, the most significant being the way in which a person defines himself. The analysis of the influence of sports activities on the formation of the gender identity of women athletes, representatives of various types of sports is done. Experimental data show that athletes strive to see the feminine qualities in themselves and to understand the presence of dominant masculine features, qualities and role models that develop sporting activities. The results showed that the great majority of female athletes strive to achieve a balance between masculine and feminine features, as shown by the highest percentage of androgyny. In general, the results of the study show that the following concepts prevail in the perceptions of female athletes: "I am ideal" and "Typical male athlete". The lowest number of selections for the article "Typical female athlete". The results of the study showed that the majority of female athletes (28%) had a diffuse personal identity. This is the status of identity, in which there are no strong goals, values and beliefs and attempts to actively form them. In the sample, the vast majority (54%) of athletes also has a diffuse type of gender identity, that is to say, that these athletes have not yet formed their image of a woman or are not paying much attention to it. The lack of gender identity in the vast majority of respondents confirmed the importance of the influence of sports activities in power sports on the development of athletes' gender identity.
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-41-47

Abstract:
The article presents the theoretical foundations and results of the autobiographical and experimental method of studying the creative lifepath of personalities known in the world literature from the point of their time orientation and the individual’s biological cycle duration. The artistic world or the creative world is always to a certain extent conditional: it is the image of reality. Time and space in the literature, thus, also conditional, but to some extent reϔlect the author's outlook and serve as indicators of some features of the creator's personality. In this context, it is very relevant to study the personal asymmetry of the temporal perspective and its impact on the choice of prevailing temporal form of the verb describingchronotope chosen by poet or writer. In general, time is the independent variable that is always present in human mental activity. Thus, the relation of individual to space and time in which he lives, is reϔlected in his poetic and literary works, diaries, autobiographical notes, letters. A detailed analysis of the sources can reveal the time at which the individual lived and reveal his relation to a typological group. Moreover, in the work of each author it is possible to allocate various chronotopes, which, in turn, will be described by the form of the verb of precisely the subjective time experienced by its author. It is the very name ofchronotope that can clarify a lot in the personality of the creative subject. Therefore, the purpose of the study is with the help of the autobiographical method of time verbs which the author prefers to compare, and to assume exactly to which typological groupin the continuous τ-types spectrum it belongs. Also, taking into account the individual’s biological cycle duration, calculate the periods of "rise" and "fall" in the creative people life, at the same time, the opportunity to explain their mental state peculiarities at certain periods of life.
Myroslava Sadova
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-54-59

Abstract:
The article analyzes the problem of self-determination regarding the future profession of young children with different types of talents (academic, creative, intellectual). Self-determination regarding the future profession is the main prerogative of student development. If we consider the category of gifted students, their self-determination may not be easy, because teachers, psychologists, social workers will deal with "special" children who belong to the group "at risk". We call gifted children "special" because their psychological qualities can be extremely unstable to external stimuli. Such children have difficulty adapting, are often hated by others, do not understand peers because they are gifted. Theoretical and methodological analysis of self-determination regarding the future profession of young children with different types of talents (academic, intellectual, creative) allows to record several theories and approaches, namely: the concept of "productive" thinking M. Galchenko, typology of professional self-determination E. Klimov, the concept of psychology B. Tsukanov, the concept of professional development of future psychologists J. Verna, the theory of intelligence A. Binet, the concept of gifted famous dynasties F. Galton, the concept of self-realization A. Maslow, the theory of intelligence J. Guilford, the concept of emotional intelligence O. Chebykin, the concept of intelligence D Wexler, J. Holland's concept of professional self-determination and no. The definition of physical, social and emotional intelligence is given. Physical intelligence - innate, from the standpoint of inclinations is argued as generally introduced into science. Emotional intelligence, from our point of view, is a type of intellectual ability that allows a person to control their emotions, where to restrain them, to tolerate them in verbal color in order to interest the interlocutor. Social intelligence is due to the fact that a person in social contacts with people finds different ways out of difficult situations. Differential differences between the following concepts are given: abilities, inclinations, intellect, convergent and divergent thinking, giftedness, genius.
, Viktoriia Kosenchuk
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-48-53

Abstract:
The article analyzes the key approaches to the phenomenon of stress in the teacher's professional activity. The views of scientists on its nature, the factors that give rise to its appearance and deployment are presented. The concepts of "work stress", "organizational stress", "professional stress" are distinguished. Professional stress among teachers is viewed through the prism of an individual's individual response to the impact of a difficult situation (psychological approach). The teacher's reaction to the increased demands of the social environment for his activities is investigated (social approach). The psychological state of the teacher, determined by the powerful action of factors associated with the implementation of professional tasks (professionally oriented approach) is described. The importance of an integrated approach to the study of psychological characteristics of professional stress of teachers is emphasized. Currently, there is an acute lack of personal resources for the effective solution of current pedagogical problems, which leads to stress. The author has characterized the types of professional stress by the nature of the impact on the personality of the teacher and his/her activities. The factors determining the transformation of situational stress into chronic occupational stress have been determined. The features of informational, emotional and communicative stress in the teacher's professional activity are described. The types of stressors in pedagogical activity are highlighted. Particular attention is paid to objective and subjective stressors, in particular to interpersonal, mid-personal and motivational. General and special occupational stressors are described in detail. The differences from stressors that are controlled and not amenable to control in the conditions of pedagogical activity are determined. Attention is focused on the fact that professional stress among teachers can become a serious threat to the successful deployment of professional activity and lead to professional burnout. Cases in which professional stress becomes a stimulus prompting a teacher to develop and improve are identified.
Natalia Ruda, Mariia Kuzmina
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-35-40

Abstract:
The problem of cyberbullying has been studied by psychologists and teachers in the search for aggressive behaviors and forms of psychological violence in the school environment. A comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyberbullying in children and youth is available in the scientific literature. At the same time teachers are extremely unprotected in the cyberenvironmentand have no practical recommendations to prevent and overcomecyberbullying. This article highlights the problem of cyberbullying among teachers and examines its impact on teachers' satisfaction with their professions. Teacher satisfaction with different aspects of their job is considered. It was determined that the phenomenon of cyberbullying became fairly common in distance education conditions, because teacher's communication with the students shifted into the online space. This problem for one cause or another is silenced, not discussed; cases of bullying do not advertised properly. The teaching staff, looking after its own reputation, ignores problem of bullying. Under these conditions, the problem persists, but on the contrary, acquires more volumes and assures abusers of their impunity. Silencing the problem of cyberbullying among teachers will lead to more violence in the educational setting. Therefore, this problem cannot be ignored since the teacher constantly interacts with the children and can tolerate their negative emotions on the students. The presence of communication between cyberbullying and satisfaction with professional activities in teachers is considered. The results of the study on cyberbullying and teacher job satisfaction were presented. The survey was followed by a total of 30 high school teachers in Mykolaiv of all ages and backgrounds. Overall, over onethird of respondents were victims of cyberbullying. Almost half of them said that they knew about cyber-attacks against their colleagues. Most often, teachers have been victims of cyberbullying by parents and a mixed group of bulls (parents + students). Based on the job satisfaction surveyresults, teachers have a high level of satisfaction. There is also a difference in levels of satisfaction with work activities among teachers who have experienced cyberbullying.
Irina Litvinenko, Lyubov Bogdan
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-17-21

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the issue of psychological security in the conditions of the New Ukrainian school. The etiology of the concepts of the main components of psychological security is studied and the aspects of psychological danger are considered. The NUS Concept is analyzed. It is noted that the interaction in the system «studentteacher – family» in early school age significantly affects the attitude of the child to himself and to others (parents, peers). Primary school students were diagnosed with emotional and psychological safety at school. Drawing projective techniques have a priority position in the study of the ideas of younger students about the psychological security of the educational environment, because in this period of cognitive activity is dominated by visual thinking and continue the intensive development of the emotional sphere. The main criteria and indicators for assessing the perceptions of younger students about the psychological safety of the educational environment are: the quality of the physical space in which the interaction takes place; student-teacher-family relationships present in the educational environment of threat. The author’s projective test «Vulcan» allows revealing with a high degree of reliability the ideas of younger students about the psychological safety of the educational environment. The expediency of using the proposed projective technique is justified by certain advantages: ease of execution, game form, high validity at the professional level of the researcher, the impossibility of falsifying the results, the possibility of disclosing the personality, intellectual level of the child. Prospects for further research will be to study the implementation of the concept of NUS in relation to secondary education. In particular, this applies to the transition of students from primary to secondary school, taking into account the risks of such a transition and the possibility of their prevention. The provisions of the New Ukrainian School emphasize the peculiarities of interaction in the system «student - teacher – family», which will help create conditions for the safe transition of students to secondary education.
Irina Litvinenko, Svitlana Makusheva
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-22-28

Abstract:
The article is related to the theoretical analysis of a child of primary school age who is experiencing a crisis of loss, namely the death of a loved one (one of the parents - the mother). The concepts of «grief», «loss crisis», «psychotrauma» and «post-traumatic stress disorder» were also analyzed. We also touched upon the issue of the type of loss crisis during the analysis. Primary school children have a specific emotional sphere for their development - we have considered this issue in more detail in a scientific article. The main reactions of the child to the loss of a loved one are also described. The death of a loved one has a certain individual imprint on the life of any person or child. Therefore, the impact of the death of a loved one on the present and future of the child was considered. Too often, relatives or guardians living with a child misbehave with a younger student, which also affects the child’s emotional state and has a significant impact on his or her personal development. In our work, this problem was also considered as the main cause of the development of a child of primary school age not only depression but also post-traumatic stress disorder, which is a serious intervention for the already vulnerable psyche of the child. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children of primary school age who survived the death of one of the parents – the mother – is considered. The article emphasizes that the emotional sphere in children and adolescents is particularly reactive, so mental trauma (loss crisis) affects them more than adults. However, it is necessary to take into account the smaller depth of feelings, the rapid change of mood in children, due to which psychogenic reactions in them are shorter. We also considered in the article the reasons for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in children of primary school age. The scientific article considered post-traumatic stress disorder at the emotional, cognitive and behavioral levels in a child of primary school age who has lost a loved one. The article examines children of primary school age with post-traumatic stress disorder who have lost a loved one – the mother, the presence of a negative emotional state (malaise, low activity and poor depressed mood) and the results were confirmed by statistical processing.
Natalia Ruda, Oleksandra Nikolina
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-29-34

Abstract:
The article deals with the problem of teachers’ psychological preparation to the blended learning. The readiness of the teacher is one of the main issues that need psychological support and development. The problem of the psychological readiness of teachers to engage in an occupation has always been acute. However, the modern environment forces teachers to adapt to all challenges. One of such conditions was the forced passage to a blended learning. As far as this issue is concerned, the issue of psychological preparation of teachers for all the challenges of today is still unresolved, as well as the role of voluntary self-regulation in the structure of psychological preparation of teachers. The study of the phenomenon of psychological preparedness for the use of blended learning in teachers' professional activities involves concentrating on a number of issues. These factors further complicate the training of psychological preparation. The purpose of the study is to identify the relationship between voluntary self-regulation and psychological ability to work in blended learning. The article discusses the theoretical aspects of teachers' psychological preparation for blended learning, particularly the voluntary component. The article deals with the empirical results of the study of the structure of psychological readiness of school teachers to use blended learning technologies. The research involved 30 teachers of different age and representing different levels of education. A questionnaire aimed at diagnosing the psychological readiness of the use of blended learning technologies is developed. One of the components of teachers' psychological readiness for a blended form of learning is studied - volitional self-regulation, which includes indicators of persistence and self-control and its connectedness with the psychological readiness of the teacher. The study of the volitional component revealed that the levels of self-mastery and perseverance of most teachers are at medium and low levels. However, the results of the study showed that most teachers subjectively define themselves as psychologically ready for a blended form of education. It is submitted that the subjective indicators do not coincide with the results of the objective study. The study has become the basis for the development of a set of exercises to augment the components of psychological preparedness.
Svitlana Karskanova, Olena Biluk
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-5-10

Abstract:
The problem of development of social intelligence of the future speech pathologist is in the sphere of the person professional growth with an emphasis on development of the parties of social intelligence. The article is devoted to the analysis of psychological determinants of development of the intellect for the students who will be speech pathologists. Influence of the socially-psychological factors on a social intellect is examined here. At different age stages of the individual the knowledge of the specifics of social intelligence from preschool to adulthood, makes it possible to predict the understanding of social reality. Theoretical generalization of the data obtained in our research provide an opportunity to determine the basic psychological qualities that is necessary for the successful performance of the functions of a speech pathologists. The well-known periodization of R. Selman shows that social intelligence develops throughout all person’s life. Learning the skills to solve complex social problems can be an essential area for improving the developing personality and adult personality. If this is not taught purposefully, the vast majority of society will not be able to realize its potential in situations of social interaction in full. Features of preparation of the speech pathologists for professional activity are caused by philosophy of a modern society development. The culture of building high human relations, teaching students this - is an indisputable value of modern society. Revealing the specifics of social intelligence at each stage of the ontogenetic development of the personality of each student who will be defectologist determines for himself his potential and resources. The principle of parity in the process of professional development of future special educators requires subjective interaction in tandem “teacher-student”, where the teacher not so much teaches, but helps the student to learn independently, as a result of which the student receives not only knowledge but also skills. The leading principles of professional development of the future pathologist should also include the principle of dialogue.
Yuliia Korenieva, Anastasiia Liashko, Iryna Korostylova
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Psychological Sciences; https://doi.org/10.33310/2078-2128-2020-20-1-11-16

Abstract:
The article describes the results of research that analyzed late pregnancy and features of the psychological and em otional state of women during pregnancy after 35 years. The causes and factors that provoke some psychological discomfort in women with late pregnancy have been identified. Comparative psychological characteristics of normal and late pregnancies are given. The results of the comparative analysis according to the age criterion allowed to establish that anxiety, frustration and neurosis in the studied women depend on age. The obtained results made it possible to identify the above factors as certain key signals that affect the level of affectivity. According to the results of the method “Self-assessment of mental states,” it is shown that the dominant psychological state in women with late pregnancy was anxiety (55.4%), and almost a third of the group showed frustration (29.3%), while aggression (8.4%) and rigidity (6.9%) were very little. The “polarization” of the indicators “aggression” and “anxiety” is emphasized. Because almost half of women with normal pregnancies tend to be aggressive, while more than half of women over the age of 35 tend to be anxious. Also, women with late pregnancy have a high level of neuroticism (73.8%). In women with late pregnancy in most cases (27.8%) consider pregnancy as a way to maintain a relationship and keep a man married. In 21.4% of respondents found a very low readiness for motherhood and a high degree of anxiety, pessimism. The obtained results made it possible to identify the above factors as certain key signals that affect the level of affectivity. Women with late pregnancies are under considerable pressure of affective moods, anxiety and frustration. Most of them have a high level of neuroticism, anxious type of gestational dominance, experience extensive mental stress. Also, this group is three times more likely to suffer from neurotic manifestations, as evidenced by appropriate screenings of neurosis. These results indicate the need for psychological impact on women with late pregnancy, which aims to reduce anxiety and frustration, harmonization of the psycho-emotional state in general.
Timea Kulchar
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-103-107

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the experience of Hungary in the development of Euro-regional cross-border cooperation. It is clear that the aim of the Euro-regions of Hungary was to achieve a high level of cooperation. These are European territorial dimensions, where there is rapid and branched communication, a competitive economy, where the role and importance of the periphery are diminished, there is an extensive network of social and cultural ties, and that the multiethnic population in these border regions is particularly important. without conflict. At the formation stage, the Hungarian Euro-regions sought to adapt as effectively as possible the specific Western European model of the Euro-region. Interestingly, this was done very quickly compared to the Western European regions where the euro-regions were subject to time-checks. Particular attention was paid to the dynamics of the development of the Hungarian Euro-region of Western Pannonia. The Western Pannonia Euro-region was created on the then-eastern border of the EU, so the experience of Euro-regional cooperation gained by Hungary's western border regions is of considerable interest to Ukraine. Hungary's accession to the EU is functionally gradually changing the Euro-region of Western Pannonia, that is, changing the territorial development plans of the Euro-region. Given the geographical location of the Western Pannonia Euro-region, this Euro-region served as a model for cooperation between EU and non-EU border regions. It should also be noted that funding for joint cross-border projects is important. From the point of view of economic development of the border areas, the high, dynamic development of the economy and the activity of economic ties were still characteristic of the whole Euro-region. The study focuses on the Eastern Partnership initiative. Particularly noteworthy is the Eastern Partnership initiative put forward in May 2008 by Poland and Sweden, which proposed a deepening of relations with eastern neighbors covered by the European Neighborhood Policy, including Ukraine. The Eastern Partnership is, in essence, a continuation of the Neighborhood Policy, ie it means that no EU member states are currently expected to enter.
Volodymyr Starosta
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Pedagogical Sciences, Volume 66; https://doi.org/10.33310/2518-7813-2019-66-3-232-237

Abstract:
The article describes the views of scientists on the problem of readiness for professional activity. The author identifies the most common approaches of researchers regarding the characterization of the concept «readiness for professional activity» (personal, functional, systemic, personal-activity, result-activity); summarizes the proposed interpretations of the definition of readiness for professional activity and shows a considerable number of definitions of this concept (readiness as a condition, result, phenomenon, process, quality, purpose, etc.). The analysis of the above formulations shows that they are complementary, but not contradictory, since each of them highlights certain aspects of understanding the essence of such readiness, significantly broadens and deepens the understanding of the complexity and versatility of the «readiness» phenomenon. Students' readiness for professional activity can be understood as a multilevel personal neoplasm, which is formed in several sub-structures of the personality and which are interconnected: the personal component of readiness (substructure of orientation, substructure of mental processes, substructure of biopsychic properties); functional component of readiness (experience substructure). The author analyzes the relationship between the concepts of «preparation», «readiness for professional activity», «professional competence»: the purpose and result of professional training of specialists is their readiness for professional activity, which organically contributes to the formation of professional competence through systematic self-improvement of personality, the accumulation of professional etc. Professional competence is seen not only as a result of professional training, but also as an integration of experience and further self-education, the ability to solve professional problems. The competency approach integrates the above approaches of researchers, penetrates the students' readiness for professional activity and aims to develop professional competence.
Andrii Pospielov
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-108-113

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the first period of the interstate military conflict in the Horn of Africa. The events of 1960-1977 are revealed. In two conflict zones. On the one hand, the buildup and manifestation of an interstate military-political confrontation between Ethiopia and the Republic of Somalia, and on the other hand, aspects of the emergence of an intrastate military conflict in Ethiopia itself related to the Eritrean issue are analyzed. Moreover, it is noted that the province of the Ethiopian Empire, and since 1974 the Republic of Eritrea, de facto was not so much an internal structure of the indicated state as a semi-legal state, fought for its independence. This process was provoked in 1945-1959. Great Britain, Italy and the UN. These world players created a situation of the unification of British and Italian Somalia into a single state - the Republic of Somalia, depriving it after the creation of those territories that were inhabited by related tribes. Thus, Western countries pushed Somalia to search for ways to unite with the territories of Ogaden and Kenya exclusively by military means. And Somalia, which was experiencing the shortcomings of all Somalia, was forced to seek a partner who would provide official Mogadishu with the means of warfare, against the background of constant help not to her, but exclusively to neighboring Ethiopia. That is why the Republic of Somalia has become an exclusively Soviet ally since the late 1960s. An example of the creation of a single Republic of Somalia and an attempt to have Western countries as an ally, and after 1974 the countries of socialism, the maritime power of Ethiopia, actually created a complex of double interstate conflict in this region of East Africa. It was in him that the status of Somalia as a country without related territories and Eritrea as the usual province of Ethiopia was fixed, which did not suit their peoples and leaders.
Alexander Ganchev
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-90-97

Abstract:
Changes in the structure of a family and family interaction are studied in the given article together with social roles of a man and a woman during socialism which was characterized by violation of the patriarchal system of the Bulgarians in South Bessarabia. Besides, it's about violation in intergenerational transmission and changes in the ethnic composition of the Bulgarian group in the region with regard to its involvement from an industrial to an information soviet society. This led to the intensification of the population's communicative behaviour and therefore to violations in the Bulgarian group's endogamy of the region. During socialism changes of Bulgarian population's family structure take place in Budzhak. Within the set time period a number of simple nuclear families was rising due to living alone retirees and dislocated marriages of younger generation. Family workflow changes take place together with devide between intergenerational social transmission as the result of equalisation of rights between men and women together with inclusion of a woman into working and social life. Thus, both educational and social functions completely moved from a family to the government institution which in turn led to the formation of a generation that didn't own knowledge and practice to resume traditional life praxis. It became irrelevant the same as a role of the third generation. In consequence, a new family was formed where social knowledge for keeping lifestyle was passed from children to parents. Rising Bulgarian mobility and dynamism influenced on process-related activities between ethnic groups of the region, on forming civil society with equal legal rights instead of patriarchal ones. It also reduced the meaning of " endogamy" and contribute to local Bulgarian population's openness.
Marianna Lasinska
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-59-65

Abstract:
Big part of European Jewry emigrated to other continents in late XIXth – early XXth century. Jews from Russian Empire started their first emigration wave in 1881. The main reason of this wave was Pogroms, according to traditional historiography. Other reasons were: low social level of life in Russian Empire; restrictions on Jewish rights («Pale of Settlement»); religious and ideological ideas of Zionism; networks of relatives and friends with information about wonderful life in other countries; Jewish hometown-based associations in foreign countries with their help to new immigrants etc. One more reason of Jewish migration – the work of recruiting agents network. The Number of recruiting agents was too big in Russian Empire in late XIXth – early XXth century. The business with recruiting of new emigrants was a very profitable. Mass of Jewish people coming out from Russian Empire to other countries and continents with recruiting agents services. There were many scammers in association of recruiting agents. Two waves of Jewish emigration caused irreparable damage economic system and demography of Russian Empire. Situation with Jewish immigration into Russian Empire was quite different. It`s character was not such mass. The main reasons of immigration were: business, finance and Zionism. This study is based on archival materials of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire of the Vilnius Governor-General, which are stored in the holdings of the Central Archives for the History of Jewish People Jerusalem (State of Israel). These archival materials are about permanent and temporary migration of European Jewry that took place across the northwestern border of the Russian Empire to the territories of Western European countries, England and the North American continent during 1881-1903. Circumstances of crossing the specified border by foreigner Jews in the opposite direction (immigration) for staying within the Russian Empire are covered. It is noted that one of the reasons for the mass emigration movements of the Jewish population outside the Russian Empire was the active actions of emigration agents and their societies.
Natalia Sofyak
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-38-45

Abstract:
The article deals with the activities of brothers Alexander and Andriy Poteben. The work of the prominent Ukrainian philosopher, linguist and public figure - Alexander Potebni, is covered. His contribution to the development of Ukrainian science is analyzed. The most important scientific achievements of the scientist and their influence on the further development of Ukrainian philosophical thought are mentioned. The scholar's attitude and opinions regarding the Ukrainian language in the context of the current sociopolitical situation are shown. Among other things, his views on Ukrainian-Polish and Ukrainian-Russian relations in the historical past are highlighted. The article analyzes the life and activities of another brother, Andrew Potebni. The period of his stay and study in the Polotsk Cadet Corps is covered. Some aspects of friendship with cadets of Polish, Belarusian and Lithuanian origin are considered. Some of them later became members of the Polish uprising of 1863 against the Russian Empire. The character of A. Potebna and the formation of the outlook of a future participant of revolutionary events in the territory of the Polish lands are characterized. He is referred to his transfer to the 16th Schlossburg Infantry Regiment of the 4th Infantry Division, localized in Warsaw. A. Potebni's participation in the revolutionary struggle and his role during the January Polish uprising of 1863–1864 was demonstrated. The article considers the attitude of the newspaper's editorial staff to it and its struggle against the Russian autocracy. Personal relationships and friendships between A. Potebnei and O. Herzen and M. Ogarev are characterized. The activities of the Committee of Russian Officers in Poland are covered. The article discusses the versions of the attempt on O. Lieders, who held the position of governor of the Kingdom of Poland. The participation of other family members - Nicholas and Peter Potebni - is partially covered. They also joined the Polish armed struggle to restore the Commonwealth.
Anna Cherednik
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Pedagogical Sciences, Volume 66; https://doi.org/10.33310/2518-7813-2019-66-3-255-261

Abstract:
The article substantiates pedagogical conditions of preparation of future rehabilitation teachers to work in the conditions of inclusive teaching of students. It is revealed that the realization of the first condition (formation of students of stable positive motivational orientation to inclusive learning through the use of interactive forms and active teaching methods) was ensured through the use of interactive forms (psychological-pedagogical practicum, lectures-discussions) , panel talk (panel debate), panel discussion, closed discussion in microgroups, small group work, psycho-gymnastics), active teaching methods (question-answer here, the “half-voice discussion” method, the clinic method, heuristic questions, the reproduction of the professional situation, business games, game therapy, relaxation exercises, selection and creation of individual portfolio, scenario method, brainstorming, gateway method a holistic view of students' level of motivation was used by the “Map of Social Motives Development”. socio-pedagogical work with children with special educational needs) provided for updating the content of disciplines ("Fundamentals of inclusive education" "Correctional psychopedagogy", "General pedagogy", "Psychological and pedagogical bases of correctional and educational work); use of organizational forms (seminar, discussions, debates, abstracts, research, pedagogical practice, out-of-class activities), methods (roleplaying games, analysis of pedagogical situations, performance of creative tasks, complex of psychological and pedagogical exercises, planning of rehabilitation) . It is proved that the realization of the third pedagogical condition (realization of quasi-professional activity aimed at mastering the ways and experience of performing specific professional actions during inclusive student learning) was carried out with the use of technologies: game technologies, technologies of correction and rehabilitation work, technology of formation of technology.
Pen Siyue
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Pedagogical Sciences, Volume 66; https://doi.org/10.33310/2518-7813-2019-66-3-212-215

Abstract:
The article discusses the results of work on the development of the component-criterion structure of the problem of forming the timbral hearing of future music teachers in the process of instrumental learning. The dynamics of its development is traced and a phased plan of experimental work on the formation of this phenomenon is presented. The levels of formation of timbral hearing based on the qualitative characteristics of the studied phenomenon are determined, and are defined as the ability of students to develop hearing pitch, timbral equalization, the search for individualized solutions in the field of instrumental sound, the search for exquisite sound color, increases the listeners' interest, their auditory activity. The method of diagnosis is the primary stage of our pedagogical research, which solves the problem of development of timbral hearing of future teachers of music through the fixation, measurement and evaluation of this pedagogical phenomenon, which characterizes the state of its formation. Carrying pedagogіchnoї dіagnostiki on osnovі viznachenih kriterіїv sformovanіst timbral ear maybutnіh uchitelіv muzyky in protsesі іnstrumentalnogo navchannya (rіven muzichnoї eruditsії scho viznachaєtsya neobhіdnіstyu nakopichennya muzikoznavchih she methodically knowledge rozvitkom timbre and auditory umіn that aktivіzatsієyu muzichnogo mislennya; obіznanіst in zasobah muzichnoї viraznostі, nayavnіst elementarnih vіdomostey From the ensemble of the visions, about the world of formality, to know how to instrumental mystery and bajanny ıh rozshiryuvati; s zdatnostі to otsіnki empatіyno-volovogo will have vikonavskіy dіyalnostі; funktsіonuvannya vsієї zmіstovo-strukturnoї modelі formuvannya timbral ear, spryamovanoї on CREATIVE samorealіzatsіyu maybutnіh uchitelіv muzyky) zabezpechuє viznachennya real will okreslenoї problemi nashogo disertatsіynogo doslіdzhennya.
Vitaliy Leleka
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Pedagogical Sciences, Volume 66; https://doi.org/10.33310/2518-7813-2019-66-3-156-160

Abstract:
The article reveals the most important problems of national-Patriotic education of students. The role of the higher educational institution in the formation of civil and ideological qualities of the person, which are manifested in the awareness of their historical, cultural, national, spiritual and other belonging to the Motherland as the highest principle of functioning, is analyzed. Ways and means of formation of patriotism of student youth in out of educational activity are considered. The conditions of application of active forms and methods of Patriotic education aimed at moral and spiritual improvement of students are analyzed. The most effective methods of patriotism formation as ways of influence on consciousness will and feelings of youth are defined. At the present stage of development of the Ukrainian state, the issue of Patriotic education has become quite acute. Ukraine is going through fateful historical events – the revolution of Dignity, the annexation of Crimea, military operations in the Donbas. The relevance of the formation of value orientations of students is due to the need for national revival and construction of the Ukrainian democratic state. State national program "Education" ("Ukraine XXI century"), the Laws of Ukraine "On education", "On General secondary education", "the Concept of upbringing in the conditions of development of Ukrainian statehood", "the concept of civil education of the individual in terms of development of the Ukrainian statehood" as defined by the strategic objectives of education in the personality of love of country, awareness of its civic duty on the basis of national and universal spiritual values, the assertion of the qualities of a citizen-patriot of Ukraine as an ideological factor in the development of cultural and creative potential of our people. The formation of the national intelligentsia, the promotion of enrichment and renewal of the intellectual gene pool of the nation, the education of its spiritual elite-a task that faces higher education institutions at the same level with the training of highly qualified specialists.
Viktoriia Mizyuk
Scientific Visnyk V.O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Pedagogical Sciences, Volume 66; https://doi.org/10.33310/2518-7813-2019-66-3-172-177

Abstract:
Digital technologies increase the impact on society, economy and education every day. Schools gradually penetrate the technologies of virtuality and complemented reality; teachers must be prepared not only for their understanding, but also for their use. Currently, mixed learning becomes more popular in educational institutions, but not all teachers understand the essence of this concept. A generalized analysis of domestic scholars has shown that the notion of "mixed learning" relates to such concepts as "learning process", "learning system", "educational technology", "educational methodology", "combination of methods", "modernization tool", etc. On the basis of the analysis of literature on the concept of "mixed learning" in foreign and domestic researchers, the author presents her own definition, discloses the main components of mixed learning and its benefits in organizing educational activities in institutions of general secondary education; a scheme of combining traditional and e-learning in a mixed one is prepared. Digital technologies have a significant impact on the nature, the form of training, the kind of activity of students, allow the implementation of fundamentally new forms and methods of learning, and, as a consequence, increase the efficiency of educational process in a digital society. Before higher education there is the task of training specialists who can use a computer for the organization of interactive training and testing, video conferencing, participation in telecommunication projects, webinars, forums, etc. It is noted that modern teacher has to develop independently educational content in text, video, multimedia and hypermedia format, to use digital and educational resources, to set up educational content management systems and to organize training with the use of the Internet and its services.
Vladislav Parkhomenko
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-119-123

Abstract:
The article, based on the memoirs of P. Bilon, highlights the process of formation and development of the armed forces of the UPR (Ukrainian People's Republic) Directory (1918-1919). Such phenomena as “atamanism”, the unification of the Galician army and the UPR army, and the creation of Ukrainian military aviation are considered. The importance of studying memoirs as a unique source on the history of the Ukrainian revolution is noted. Military memoirs in fact often is the only source for the history of certain military units, conducting combat operations and their direct participants. Considered is the degree of understanding in the memoirs transformational processes of the Ukrainian revolution under the influence of domestic- and foreign-policy situation during of 1918-1919. Lighting of the period of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921 through the prism of memoir literature, comparing it with data from other information sources, and most importantly with official historical doctrine of both the Soviet and modern periods, not only provide a qualitative highlight the main aspects of the research, but also to reveal the "moral feature" of the era. Namely, the mood of specific individuals who have left us memoirs. Thanks to them you can see the many facets of the mentality of that society, which fell into the whirlpool of tumultuous political events. It is noted that the active involvement of the memoir heritage will contribute to a maximum of an objective picture of historical events, to intensify the study of processes in early XX century by representatives of academic historical scholarship.
Anastasia Gevko
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-124-126

Abstract:
This article analyzes the domestic memoirs related events 1917–21. Characterized Istpartu activity aimed at collecting evidence memoir. An important key base for researchers of the revolutionary events of 1917-1921 in Ukraine, it occupies a memorial legacy of witnesses of those turbulent years. After the defeat of the liberation struggle and the establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine, Istpartu was created in 1921. At one time, Istpartu took a leading place among the scientific institutions of Ukraine. Istpartu had its own journal, Chronicle of the Revolution, 57 issues were issued, in which memoirs were published mainly by supporters of the Soviet camp. "Chronicle of the revolution" in 1922-1935 published 168 memories of revolutionary events in Ukraine, among the authors there were 123 direct participants in those events. The activities of Istpartu at the regional level contributed to the study and publication of materials on the history of the revolution and the Civil War in Ukraine. Also, in the field, in the 1920s. local editions of regional Eastparts began to appear. Mostly these were collections of documents and memoirs, which often contain unique material that did not appear in official documents. For example, the book “Pages of the struggle. The collection of materials on the history of the revolutionary movement in Nikolaev", prepared by the Nikolaev Istpartu in 1923. In Soviet Ukraine, after the establishment of the dictatorship of the Bolsheviks, writing memoirs (with a non-Soviet perception of the past) about the revolutionary events of 1917 and the Civil War, and even more so publishing them, was practically impossible, and not only because of restrictions on archives, but also because hard censorship behind the printed word. The memoirs that were issued in those years for the “Marxist approach” are characterized by Soviet schematics and ideologically verified published material.
Vitaliy Kucher
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-127-133

Abstract:
The proposed article analyzes the actual problem of development of the medical demographic situation in the Mykolaiv region at the end of the XX - at the beginning of the XXI century. Characterization of scientific works on this subject is given. The level of disease spread in the region is determined, their origins and the morbidity of the population are found out. The impact of the environmental situation on the health of the population of Mykolaiv region is demonstrated. The description of housing and living conditions is given and their negative impact on the health of the residents of Mykolaiv region is explained. The growth rates of active tuberculosis among the residents of Mykolaiv region are analyzed. The changes in the medical field and their consequences are evaluated. The main factors that negatively affect the medical demographic situation in the region are identified. The reasons for the increase in craving for non-traditional treatments are substantiated. Attention is paid to the health of the mental plan and specific diseases in the field. Prerequisites for the spread of alcoholism and drug addiction in the region are analyzed. The methods of control of these diseases are evaluated. On the basis of statistical material the level of morbidity among children of the Nikolaev area is determined. The problems of the spread of AIDS in the territory of Mykolaiv region are involved. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on the spread of radiation diseases among the population of the region has been determined. Attention was drawn to the positive developments in the medical field at the beginning of the 21st century. Based on the material studied, their consequences and disadvantages were evaluated. The logistical condition of health care institutions and the attempts to improve the medical demographic situation in the region are analyzed. Based on the material studied, the problems of this field and the ways of their further solving are determined.
Yulia Sedliar
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-114-118

Abstract:
The US economic embargo against Cuba has been in place for fifty years. During that period, its rationale and goals have not changed. As it is stressed in the article, principal purpose of the US sanctions strategy is either to modify the international behavior of Cuba, which Washington regarded as a threat to US strategic interests in the Latin America region, or to eliminate the Cuban political regime entirely. Measured against these goals, the sanctions clearly have failed. Author examines key factors having restricted sanctions’ ability to achieve American proclaimed goals regarding to Cuba. In this context, it is underscored that controversial maintenance of the US embargo against Cuba among US allies directly affected the results of sanctions strategy against Cuba. It is stressed that since the early 1960s, when the United States imposed a trade embargo on Cuba, the centerpiece of U.S. policy toward Cuba has consisted of economic sanctions aimed at isolating the government. The United States embargo against Cuba is a commercial, economic, and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba. An embargo was first imposed by the United States on sale of arms to Cuba on the 14th of March 1958, during the Fulgencio Batista regime. On October 19, 1960 the U.S. placed an embargo on exports to Cuba except for food and medicine after Cuba nationalized American-owned Cuban oil refineries without compensation. On February 7, 1962 the embargo was extended to include almost all imports. Currently, the Cuban embargo is enforced mainly through six statutes: the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the Cuban Assets Control Regulations of 1963, the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992, the Helms–Burton Act 1996, and the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000. The stated purpose of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 is to maintain sanctions on Cuba so long as the Cuban government refuses to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights. The article emphasizes that The Helms–Burton Act further restricted United States citizens from doing business in or with Cuba, and mandated restrictions on giving public or private assistance to any successor government in Havana unless and until certain claims against the Cuban government were met.
Volodymyr Bugrii
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-72-77

Abstract:
On the basis of archival sources material, financial and household factors are characterized. They formed the conditions for the research work of teachers of the departments of history of pedagogical institutes of Ukraine. The state of providing the scientific literature of historical offices and libraries is revealed. It was found that the proper conditions for work in the history rooms and libraries of pedagogical institutes were created only at the Kyiv Pedagogical Institute. In provincial pedagogical institutes, the situation with the scientific literature seemed much worse. To overcome the problems with the scientific literature, the state began to allocate some funds for the purchase of domestic and foreign publications. The level of funding for scientific activities has been clarified. It is established that the focus of attention of the Directorate of the Pedagogical Institutes of Ukraine was primarily the educational process and work on the restoration of the destroyed material base. Funds for business trips were not enough. Funds were not enough even to secure approved research plans. The reasons which influenced the budget of time of scientific work of teachers-historians were determined. The major impediments to the scientific work of the teachers of the departments of the history of pedagogical institutes were their heavy workload of teaching and community work. Typographic possibilities for printing the results of scientific work are investigated. Most pedagogical institutes were found to lack their own printing facilities. Delay with the printing of monographs, articles, abstracts meant the transfer of dissertations to a later date. The pathetic material status of teachers of pedagogical institutes also had a negative impact on scientific activity. There were no laboratories for the study of history, archeology, and ethnography in pedagogical institutes. This reduced the level of research and prevented the strengthening of the material base. The departments of history of pedagogical institutes and self-calculated researches were not conducted. The conducted research helps to form an understanding of the conditions of development of historical science in pedagogical institutes.
Alina Ivanenko
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-78-83

Abstract:
World War II and the period of Nazi occupation of Ukraine became the period of severe Nazi social experimentation, the transformation of local society into the subject of pumping of raw materials and human resources. At the same time, in order to achieve the goal and objectives of the occupation, humiliation and neutralization of the resistance movement participants, the German administration had to create a certain appearance of law and order. An important role in this segment of occupation policy was played by the system of local civil and criminal courts that arose in mid-1942. The central government of the Reichcommissariat “Ukraine” succeeded in issuing several completed legal acts that regulated this sphere of functioning of the local society. Occupation topic has already become the central subject of research of contemporary Ukrainian historians. Thus, some aspects of local judicial institutions functioning in the RCU are covered in publications of O. Goncharenko, M. Kunitsky, and Y. Levchenko. But the legal lawmaking of the regional administrative units of the RCU, represented by the general commissariats, has actually remained out of their scientific attention. This is the subject of following study. The lawmaking process of the occupation administration of the RCU in the field of creating a system of civil and criminal justice envisaged the creation of normative acts of primary and regional (local) levels. The normative acts, adopted by the central department of the RCU, received the highest legal status. Normative acts adopted by the general commissariats received the status of sub-legal acts. With a few exceptions, the regulations of the general commissioners did not detail competently the specific provisions of the articles of the Reichcommissioner. Mainly, normative acts of the general commissioners contained technical details to the regulations of the Reichcommissioner. Other prescriptions of the Reichcommissar normative acts were simply repeated. The peculiarity of the normative acts of all levels, and especially of the heads of the general districts of “Zhytomyr”, “Volyn and Podillya”, was their extremely unsatisfactory translation from German into Ukrainian. Some specific legal instructions of normative acts, even those published in the official collections of documents, are difficult to understand. Therefore, one of the tasks of those representatives of the central and regional occupation administration of the RCU, who were responsible for creating the system of local justice, was to interpret the texts of the necessary normative acts.
Maryna Naumenko
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-66-71

Abstract:
In the article, based on research materials of periodical publications illuminated the literature value in cultural evolution of southern region of Ukraine in 1950-1960 yrs. It is specified that the literature in the USSR against the background of active political events of the 50's-60's yrs. considered by government institutions as an extraordinary phenomenon of culture, which has important socio-political value. The main value of the literary life of southern Ukraine research play the materials of local periodicals, which contain information missing from other types of sources. Like a historical source the newspaper has several advantages despite of subjective nature – information inexhaustibility, completeness, comprehensiveness, quick delivery of up-to-date information. The literary life of the southern region of Ukraine is presented in local newspapers: "Pivdenna pravda", "Bug'skay Zaray", "Chornomorska komuna", "Literaturnyy almanakh" (Odessa), "Naddnipryanskaya Pravda" (Kherson). The Literature in mentioned periodicals occurs as one of the traditional consideration objects – in common with music, theater, cinema and other areas of artistic activity. These sources contain extensive factual and analytical content with important stages in the history of southern Ukraine's literature The basic tendencies, substantive aspects and peculiarities of the literary life of the region are analyzed. The degree of interaction between a particular industry and the press has been established. Some conclusions are made. First of all, the literary life of the region was under the strict control of Soviet public association structures. At the second, most publications include the different types of artistic text analysis: philological, linguistic, stylistic, literary. It's worth to remark that interest of periodicals in the course of literary life say for to the cultural region integration into the Union space. In the third place, using periodicals as a source of knowledge in the cultural development research, can clearly identify the literary trends inherent in this region. In general, the newspaper periodicals of the 1950-60 th, taking into account certain historical conditions of its functioning, its ideological orientation, are an important systematized and chronological source of study of the cultural life of Ukrainian society during the liberalization of the Soviet regime.
Catherine Cherniavska
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-53-58

Abstract:
The article discusses the key aspects of the concept of "nation" and "nationalism" that have emerged in Ukrainian socio-political thought of the modern era. The ideas of Ukrainian statehood were quite actively developed in the environment of the Ukrainian intelligentsia at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries and subsequently reflected in the programs of Ukrainian political parties in different directions. The political works of M. Mikhnovsky and S. Hrushevsky, as the founders of the Ukrainian political doctrine, are analyzed, their views on the establishment of statehood on the Ukrainian lands are compared and the main differences of their vision of the future destiny of the Ukrainian people are revealed. Along with the federalist vision of the future of the Ukrainian state, there is another direction - independent. In the early twentieth century. a new ideological doctrine - nationalism - is beginning to emerge. The experience of Ukrainian nationalism is in many respects unique, since this ideological doctrine will appear on the territory of our country quite late, in comparison with other European countries, actively combined with various forms of Marxism, and in the end, did not ensure the formation of a nation-state. The relevance of this topic is that the problem of the formation of state-building ideas in Ukrainian sociopolitical thought of the late XIX - early XX centuries. was important for outlining the national and political orientations of the Ukrainian people, which greatly influenced the course and results of the revolution and civil war of 1917 - 1921 in Ukraine. The purpose of the article is to analyze and contrast two alternative models of Ukrainian statehood that belonged to the leading political figures - M. Hrushevsky and M. Mikhnovsky and to determine the role and meaning of the ideas of "nation" and "nationalism" in their concepts.
Laslov Zubanych, Attila Józsa
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-98-102

Abstract:
On the occasion of the 700th anniversary of the Drugeth (of Italian origin) family’s arrival to Northeastern Hungary (in our case, to the Ung Сounty), a significant growth of interest is observed in the family as a whole as well as in some of its members who dominated the region for almost three centuries. This interest is not accidental, since the Drugeth family except the state-level dignitaries (palatines, royal judges, Transylvanian governors, commanders), enriched the history of the Hungarian kingdom with writers, poets, school founders, robber knights, and forgers. However, history often plays a strange game with its participants, since, while memories of some individuals are kept unchanged for dozens of succeeding generations, but for some others we have to assemble the "historical mosaic" depicting heroes of that time, practically from small fragments. In almost every scholarly work on the history of Northeastern Hungary (present-day Zakarpattia), special attention is paid to representatives of the Drugeth family, but biographical data of its individual members are rare. Scientific researches that began during the last decade at the Uzhhorod National University gave a serious “impetus for the intensification of “studies concerning the Drugeths” in the Ukrainian historiography”. The scientific work covers the life path and activity of a little-known representative of the Northeastern Hungarian nobility, statesman and writer Zsigmond Drugeth (? –1684). He has been paid little attention by the Hungarian historical science paid, although during his 27 years long life he graduated from university, participated in major historical events, and published 2 books. Unfortunately, Zsigmond Drugeth became a “victim” of the historical science. Science accepted the “mistake” of one of the historians as a historical fact, therefore the life path of Zsigmond Drugeth in most publications ends with a shameful execution on the scaffold. The aim of our scientific work is to show the real person who has left a powerful but still unknown mark in the history of Northeastern Hungary based on available resources.
Nadiya Ryzheva
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-84-89

Abstract:
The article analyzes the most important stages in formation and development of the spiritual and cultural paradigm in Western Europe. Formation of both spiritual and religious systems and their subsequent transformations have considerably influenced human consciousness, accompanied by fundamental social, economic, and political changes. The article emphasizes that it is possible to comprehend the nature and scope of these phenomena only provided a comprehensive analysis of European spiritual and religious discourse based on the basic foundations of the historical realities of definite periods. The role of Christian values in creating European civilization is emphasized. The significance of religious norms in the creation process of spiritual algorithms is substantiated. A comprehensive analysis of the Christianity impact on society reveals both the objective reasons of the religious ideas emergence in history and the reverse influence of Christian values and beliefs on secular culture. The crystallization of historical contacts between religious and secular types of spirituality is accompanied by a change in their positions: secular spirituality becomes a dominant category. The article emphasizes that in the modern context religion, largely related to traditional values and outlook, responds to the challenges of globalization. Complex historical and scientific retrospection shows that issues of global culture and global values are the focus of attention due to the religious context which stimulates the complex comprehension of globalization rather than only as a political and economic phenomenon. For many centuries it has been the spiritual and religious paradigm that has formed the global idea. Understanding this algorithm helps to comprehend spiritual and religious values as an enzyme of cultural and secular development.
Irina Lobodovskaya
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-27-30

Abstract:
This article is about the artistic legacy of the famous monumental artist Grigory Avksentievich Dovzhenko, who lived and worked in the difficult and contradictory times of Ukrainian history and yet managed to preserve the identity of our culture in his works, perpetuate its signs in paintings, murals, mosaics, «Stone embroidered shirts». Studying local history, preserving cultural heritage sites, popularizing the historical past contributes to the formation of national and local identities, and gives impetus to the development of local communities. It is the community, its past, its distinctive identity, that is becoming the determining factor today, especially in the light of the processes of decentralization and preservation of the memory of generations. Life fate and creative heritage of G. Dovzhenko, a famous Ukrainian monumental artist, who devoted almost six decades to art. Each of his thoughts, every sketch, drawing, portrait, panel, still life is a continuation of eternal life, preservation of family memory. His creative heritage enriches today's and future generations. It must be remembered that the culture of every nation belongs to humanity, and our holy duty is to honor our cultural lights, be proud of them and popularize them, otherwise our awareness of ourselves as a nation will be impossible. Also during this period G. Dovzhenko addresses the topics of the national past. This is how the mosaic and fresco images of the times of Kievan Rus and Khmelnytskyi appear. Among the works of these years, the mosaic composition «Kiy, Schek, Choriv and their sister Lybid» is distinguished on the facade of the cinema «Rovesnik» in Kiev (1971), in which the artist managed to show the opto-color possibilities of smalt - the favorite material of ancient Ukrainian masters. G. Dovzhenko also portrays still lifes - bouquets of flowers in jugs, bread, fruits. But most often he paints flowering or covered with abundant fruit tree branches. These peculiar fragments of natural motifs are depicted by harmonious patterns on the canvas. G. Dovzhenko's artistic look reveals the organization of the subject world. The artist is constantly studying the laws and interconnections of natural forms. Hundreds of sketches of flowers and plants are of value to the attentive and skillful reproduction of form and color, the identification of logical structural conditionality of the structure, they are extremely interesting and further stylization, processing into decorative elements. This is a rare case in the practice of contemporary artists, when the artist does not use secondary material, but seeks to find and understand the laws of rhythm and symmetry, color plastics and structure. G. Dovzhenko in his work sought to embody a sense of gratitude for life. The artist was constantly experimenting, looking for different solutions of mosaic panels, based on the use of the best ancient traditions.
Natalia Buglay
Scientific Visnyk V. O. Sukhomlynskyi Mykolaiv National University. Historical Sciences, Volume 48; https://doi.org/10.33310/2519-2809-2019-48-2-7-11

Abstract:
In the article the Polish transfrontal policy is analysed at the end of ХХ – at the beginning of ХХІ ages, that is characterized the wide palette of connections in political, economic, ecological, infrastructural, educational, cultural and humanitarian spheres. Development of transfrontal collaboration of Poland for period 1995–2005 was very much an important factor not only from point of development actually of boundary regions but also in the context of acceleration of the European integration process of country on the whole. Among Central Europe countries Poland was one of more active participants of transfrontal collaboration. It is found out, that RP is the transfrontal leader of region of Central Europe. Indisputably, that every boundary region has the specific descriptions, both positive and negative. However, will mark that a level of development of transfrontal collaboration of regions of Poland is excellent, in fact every level has both the features and depends on a nearby partner for other side of border. To our opinion, political will of sides, activity of territorial organs of power is the base condition of transfrontal collaboration. Coordination of efforts of sides is sent, foremost, on implantation of the European legal field in a national legislation, overcoming of asymmetry of development. An Ukrainian-Polish transfrontal collaboration is characterized prevailing of barrier function of border, high level of centralization of power, low bringing in, to the collaboration of local societies. After east expansion of European Union in 2004 – for the Ukrainian side new instruments and mechanisms, new instituty forms, were opened, consequently, new possibilities of transfrontal collaboration.
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