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, Yusuf Zeren, Abdu Alameri
Asian Journal of Probability and Statistics pp 54-75; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpas/2021/v15i430364

Abstract:
In chemical graph theory, a topological descriptor is a numerical quantity that is based on the chemical structure of underlying chemical compound. Topological indices play an important role in chemical graph theory especially in the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). In this paper, we present explicit formulae for some basic mathematical operations for the second hyper-Zagreb index of complement graph containing the join G1 + G2, tensor product G1 \(\otimes\) G2, Cartesian product G1 x G2, composition G1 \(\circ\) G2, strong product G1 * G2, disjunction G1 V G2 and symmetric difference G1 \(\oplus\) G2. Moreover, we studied the second hyper-Zagreb index for some certain important physicochemical structures such as molecular complement graphs of V-Phenylenic Nanotube V PHX[q, p], V-Phenylenic Nanotorus V PHY [m, n] and Titania Nanotubes TiO2.
, Sunday Sunday Ikiensikimama, Onyewuchi Akaranta
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 33-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i230229

Abstract:
Aim: Polymer flooding is used for enhanced oil recovery. Only polymers that can withstand harsh environments work best. HPAM is mostly the polymer used for enhanced oil recovery because it is available and cheap, but it does not withstand high temperatures and high salinity reservoirs. Xanthan Gum withstands high temperatures and high salinity reservoirs, but it is expensive and plugs the reservoir. The aim of this study is to compare the salinity stability of gum Arabic and Terminalia Mantaly, a novel biopolymer, with commercial Xanthan gum. Study Design: Locally formulated biopolymers from gum Arabic exudates bought from Bauchi State in Nigeria and from Terminalia Mantaly exudates obtained from the University of Port Harcourt. The appropriate rheological tests were carried out at the laboratory. Place and Duration of Study: The laboratory experiments were carried out at the department of Petroleum Engineering, Covenant University, Ota in Ogun State of Nigeria between 2020 and 2021. Methodology: The gum Arabic, Terminalia Mantaly and Xanthan Gum powders were dissolved in deionized water to get various concentrations in ppm. The polymers were mixed and kept for 24 hours to achieve a homogenous solution. The Automated OFITE® Viscometer at different revolutions per minute (RPM) of 3 (Gel), 6, 30, 60, 100, 200, 300, and 600 was used to measure the rheological properties of the various concentrations before Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) of various concentrations were added and allowed to hydrate for another 24 hours before measuring their rheological properties again. Results: The study showed that Xanthan Gum, Gum Arabic, and Terminalia Mantaly biopolymers can be used in high salinity reservoirs. Terminalia Mantaly, a novel biopolymer, is insensitive to salinity in monovalent and divalent ions. Conclusion: Xanthan gum exhibited high viscosity even at low concentrations. Gum Arabic exhibited good tolerance to salinity at NaCl 3.5%. Terminalia Mantaly was very stable with both monovalent and divalent ions. Divalent ions have more effects on polymers than monovalent ions in reservoirs. Recommendation: It is recommended that Terminalia Mantaly be investigated more, as it can replace imported biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).
, Anho Lawrence Oghenerivwe, Egwuagu Onyekachi
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 24-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i230228

Abstract:
The aim of this work is to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of water yam peels using HCl, H2S04 acids and cellulase enzyme. The cellulase was secreted from Aspergillus niger (A.niger). The proximate analysis of the substrate showed that water yam peel is a lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulose composition of 48%. The effect of the process parameters (time, temperature, acid concentration and pH) on the yield of glucose in acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of the water yam peel was respectively investigated. Maximum glucose yield of 44.5% was obtained after 3 days of enzymatic hydrolysis at 30°C and pH 5. The HCl acid hydrolysis showed a maximum glucose yield of 27.3% at 70°C, 5% HCl after 180 minutes. The glucose yield in H2S04 hydrolysis was relatively lower than that of the HCl with a maximum yield of 26.5% at 70°C, 5% H2SO4 after 180 minutes. In addition to, the functional groups present in the glucose synthesized from ground water yam peels and the standard glucose were evaluated using Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The FTIR results showed similarities in the functional groups present in both sugars. Yam peel can be used for the production of glucose and further fermentative process to produce ethanol.
Chidiebere V. Ugwueze, Ekenechukwu E. Young, Chidimma B. Nwatu, Belonwu M. Onyenekwe, Chinweuba M. Abonyi, Chidiebele M. Ezeude, Bede I. Nnolim, Basil C. Ezeokpo, Chioma Unachukwu
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 221-233; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33578

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus has sadly become a pandemic, with chronic and debilitating complications which by far are more pronounced in the developing countries of the world. Despite the availability of a wide array of anti-diabetic drugs (both oral and parenteral medications), micro-vascular and macro-vascular diabetes complications are still common. Owing to this sad reality, the place of micronutrients augmentation has come to the frontline of research in diabetes management. Zinc is one of the well-known micro-elements with diverse functions in various physiologic processes in humans. The authors reviewed the role of zinc augmentation in subjects with diabetes generally, both those with complications of diabetes and those without complications. Emphasis was also laid on the modulatory actions of zinc on various diabetes-related processes which include: its anti-oxidant effect; improvement of insulin secretion/sensitivity; increased amylin action; inhibition of gluconeogenesis and atherosclerosis. The impact of zinc supplementation on fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin and lipid indices were also detailed, while a brief overview of the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of zinc was also undertaken.
Arpita Rai, , Anshul Kumar, D. K. Singh, Nitin Madan Kulkarni, Shailesh Kumar Chaurasia, L. R. Pathak
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 176-187; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33573

Abstract:
Background: People's adherence to control measures is imperative in the fight against COVID-19. The present study was done to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among residents of Jharkhand and to assist the government in deciding further course of action during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: This study was an online cross-sectional survey. The link to the questionnaire was displayed on the official website of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, National Health Mission, Jharkhand, official website of all districts under Jharkhand state administration, Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme and Information & Public Relations department. Participation of residents in the survey was extensively propagated using mass media mainly local television networks, radio channels and newspapers. Results: A total of 4683 responses were received from all districts of Jharkhand. The majority of the participants were young adults (47.5%) and the number of male participants was more than the females (81.4%). The mean correct knowledge score for participants of this study was 10.73+2.2 (maximum attainable score was 14) while the mean practice score for the participants was 4.5+0.69 (maximum attainable score was 5). The knowledge score of the participants was significantly associated with their age, education status and economic class (p<0.0001). The participants largely held an optimistic attitude and healthy practices towards COVID-19. Conclusion: Participants had a positive attitude but were also logically worried and uncertain about the near future. Adequate knowledge of participants was visible in their practices. There was however a gap across age groups, gender, literacy and income levels which should be addressed in future campaigns.
, Samrudhi Gujar, Vaishali Tembhare, Pranali Wagh, Jaya Khandar, Madhuri Shambharkar, Sonali Kolhekar, Khushbu Pande
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 171-175; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33572

Abstract:
Liver is the second largest organ in human body, more than 5,000 separate bodily functions .including helping blood to clot, cleansing the blood of toxins to converting food into nutrients to control hormone levels, fighting infections and illness, regenerating back after injury and metabolizing cholesterol, glucose, iron and controlling their levels. A 56- years old patient was admitted in AVBRH on date 9/12/2020 in ICU with the chief complaint of abdominal distension, breathlessness on exertion, pedal edema, fever since 8 days. After admitted in hospital all investigation was done including blood test, ECG, fluid cytology, peripheral smear, ultrasonography, etc. All investigation conducted and then final diagnosis confirmed as cirrhosis of liver. Patient was not having any history of communicable disease or any hereditary disease but he has history of hypertension and type II Diabetes mellitus for 12 years. Patient was COVID-19 negative and admitted in intensive care unit. Patient had been undergone with various investigations like physical examination, blood test, CSF fluid examination, ascitic fluid examination, fluid cytology, peripheral smear, ultrasonography, RT-PCR etc. Patient was treated with tab. farobact ER 300 mg BD, tab. Lasix 40 mg OD, tab. Udilive 300 mg BD, tab. Rifagut 300 mg BD, tab. Metformin 500 mg OD, tab. Amlo 5mg OD, syp. Duphalac 30ml HS. Monitor vital signs, maintain input output, Monitoring and managing potential complications like, bleeding and haemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy, fluid volume excess, monitor laboratory tests as indicated, Identify and assess for pedal edema. Conclusion: Cirrhosis of the liver is one of the final stages of liver disease. It is a serious condition, causing scarring and permanent damage to the liver. Life expectancy depends on the stage and type of cirrhosis of liver. Cirrhosis progresses, more and more scar tissue forms, making it difficult for the liver to function (decompensated cirrhosis). Advanced cirrhosis is life-threatening. If liver cirrhosis is diagnosed early and the cause is treated, further damage can be limited and, rarely, reversed.
, Ammar Waheeb Obeiad, Nassar Abdalaema Abdalhadi Mera, Mohammed Sadeq Hamzah Al-Ruwaiee
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 199-205; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33576

Abstract:
Background: Cardiac Troponins-I (CTNI) are myoregulatory polypeptides that control the actin-myosin interface, considered specific to cardiomyocytes. Age and sex variances in the extent of CTNI levels have arisen a recent debatable emphasis. Existing revisions do not display a reliable clinical power of sex-specific CTNI 99th centiles, which actually might mirror procedural aspects. Nevertheless, from a biochemical viewpoint, the trends of sex-specific CTNI 99th centiles seem sensible for the ruling-in of acute myocardial infarction AMI. Vulnerable females may be missed when applying the male sex-specific threshold. This study aimed to determine whether gender differences in CTNI exist in patients with AMI presented with chest pain. Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional, single-center, included 236-patients with AMI diagnosis by cardiologists at Merjan teaching hospital during the period from April to July 2020 from patients attending the hospital for cardiac consultation complaining of acute chest pain suggestive of AMI. Blood analysis had initiated at the time of admission included serum creatinine, blood urea, R/FBS, WBCs, PCV, and serum CTNI. A p-value below 0.05 specifies statistical significance. All statistical bioanalyses had performed by IBM-SPSS, version-25 for Windows. Results: The mean age of participants was 67.5 years, the men were dominant 76.2%. The incidence of DM and hypertension were significantly high and 24.5% of the patients were current smokers. Biochemical serum analysis revealed mean creatinine, urea, sugar, and STI values were 79.8±4.2 mmol/l, 15.9±1.7 mmol/l, 10.9±0.9 mmol/l, and 7.9±0.6 ng/ml separately. Both hypertension and smoking were significantly (p-0.001) more among males compared to the females, which is not the case for the prevalence of DM. The males were heavier significantly than females (p-0.001). Almost, there was no impact of gender on most of the other study variables other than serum TNI levels, which were significantly higher among the males (p-0.001). Conclusion: In patients with AMI presented with acute chest pain, the routine of CTNI in the diagnosis of AMI is based on the patient's gender. The application of gender-dependent cutoff levels for CTNI analyses appears to be highly suggested.
Sayali Deshpande, , Priyanka Paul Madhu, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Sunaina Mutyalwar
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 163-170; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33571

Abstract:
Various studies published in the literature around the world indicate a significant prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC). Treatment of early childhood caries (ECC) using silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has become a viable alternative, particularly for young and anxious children, because traditional restorative treatments is unlikely to combat this prevalent condition. Arrested caries is identified by the hardening of teeth and it changes its color from dark brown to black. More restorative treatments can be performed if necessary. Traditional ECC restorative treatments are not always inexpensive or feasible, as they involve patient cooperation to achieve a satisfactory result. Japan was the first country to promote silver diamine fluoride in 1960. SDF has been used to prevent the spread of caries in various Asian nations, including Japan and China. It was enacted as a fluoride to treat sensitive teeth in the United States by Food and Drug Administration ( FDA). For young children or individuals with specific needs, it is painless and simple to use .The fluoride in SDF stimulates remineralization while the silver ions act as an antimicrobial agent when applied to carious lesions and stop cariogenic biofilms from growing. SDF also prevents future degradation of the dentin's collagen. With a 38 percent use rate, SDF has been utilized in a number of nations. According to a review, SDF is a harmless, economical caries control agent with a wide utilisation in dentistry, and it may meet the WHO Millennium Development Goal (MDG) as well as the United States Institute of Medicine's criteria. The applications of SDF in dental treatment are discussed in this article.
, Maaz Khan, Muhammad Raza Memon, Abdul Hameed Lanjwani, Farhatullah Kandhro, Arshad Hussain Laghari, Sadia Qamar Arain
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 234-245; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33579

Abstract:
The aim of the present review is to provide basic knowledge about the role of tumour necrosis factor-α 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 in neuro-inflammation diseases. We performed an open-ended, English restricted search of PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library for available literature from 24Feb. 2018–12 May 2021, using terms related to neuroinflammation, tumour necrosis factor-α, tumour necrosis factor II (TNFR-II), TNF-α and related diseases, TNFR-II and inflammation-related diseases, their relationships, and polymorphism. The main outcomes assessed were the presence of plaques and tangles, behaviour and cognition, reduction in brain tissue mass, and synaptic function the majority of studies were documented a beneficial effect in other areas, including the presence of plaques and tangles and synaptic function. The human studies were showed that TNF-αI was beneficial to Alzheimer's disease patients, with one being a small pilot study and the latter being an observational study, with a high risk of bias. It is concluded that the functions and mechanisms of TNF-α and TNFR-II in inflammation-related diseases will provide new viewpoints and theories in the development and treatment of these diseases. They play important roles in the pathogenesis of diseases induced by or related to inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways.
, Abhijit Wadekar, Gaurav Jagtap, Vijay Kota, Anil Wanjari
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 188-191; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33574

Abstract:
Organophosphorus compounds are chemical agents in widespread use throughout the world, mainly in agriculture. In developing countries organophosphorus (OP) poisoning is a commonly encountered problem. Here we present a rare case of OP poisoning with angioedema as the presenting feature. Prompt treatment of these cases will help in reducing the morbidity and mortality.
, Kiswendsida Romaric Nanema, Boureima Sawadogo, Mahamadou Sawadogo
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1130447

Abstract:
Aims: Senna obtusifolia (L.) is an important wild herbaceous species for subsaharan Africa population. It is used in human food and traditional medicine to treat several deseases. In Burkina Faso, despite its potentialities, this species is of a little interest in scientific research. The aim of this study is to provide a good knowledge of the genetic diversity of this species. Study Design: The experimental design used was a randomized Fischer block type with three replications. Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out at Gampéla during 2018 rainy season. Methodology: Seventy (70) accessions of Senna obtusifolia were used for the evaluation of agromorphological variability. A total of twenty-seven (27) quantitative traits were studied. Results: The study revealed the existence of a great variability within the studied collection. Among the twenty-one (21) traits used for the analysis of variance (ANOVA), seventeen (17) variables significantly discriminate the accessions. A high heterogeneity was observed for the number of leaflets of the three first leaves and the number of floral pieces. In addition, significant correlations were observed between several variables. Indeed, the number of primary branches was positively correlated with the number of fruits per plant (r = 0.483), the number of grains per plant (r = 0.352) and the leaves biomass (r = 0.279). However, the number of days at flowering (NJF) is negatively correlated with the number of primary branches (r = -0.281). The variability obtained was structured in three groups. The third group is composed of accessions with the best agronomic performance that could be used in future breeding program. Conclusion: A high agromorphological diversity of Senna obtusifolia was observed and could be used in a breeding program.
A. B. Dharmarathna, W. M. S. S. K. Kulathunga
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 22-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i430245

Abstract:
Introduction: An outbreak of pneumonia of unknown reason was named as COVID-19 by WHO and declared as pandemic. It was observed as most people infected with the COVID-19 virus is mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without getting treatment. Older people with chronic diseases are more likely to develop serious illness. There is no effective modern medicine available so far for the treatment of COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the Knowledge on prevention of COVID-19 Epidemic in among the Traditional Doctors. Methodology: Descriptive study was conducted among the 20 Traditional Practitionerson Knowledge and prevention of Corona Epidemic by purposively selected, open ended questionnaire that used a 5-point Likert scale for the response option. Recoding in to different variable and Analysis each question. According to that frequency distribution as 1-3 responses in to1 - Inadequate knowledge 4-5 responses in to 2- Adequate knowledge. The questionnaire included socio demographic characteristics, questions regarding the Knowledge and prevention of Corona Epidemic (Q1 toQ10). SPSS Software (16 version) used for Statistical analyzing. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, mean mode, Slandered deviation and percentage were used to describe variables. Results: According to the present study mean age was 49.6+1.2737(SD). Considering all the questions Q1 to Q10 Adequate knowledge vary in 50 -80% and Inadequate knowledge vary in 15-50%. In our study 80% of them were mentioned that corona infection was mainly affected to the respiratory tract, most common symptoms were sore throat in 70%, transmission of the Corona infection through air 50%, reduce social distance less than one meter 80% was the main cause for the infection transmission through the society, the precautions for prevent the corona infection through the society that Keeping social distance more than one meter in 85%, The advises given by them in the management lived separately from others until cure the diseases in 45%,The treatment protocol followed them in the treatment Administration of immunity enhancement drugs 30%, wholesome foods and behaviors suitable for corona infection were reducing Kaphadosha (one of the body humor) 35%. Conclusion: In the present study Considering all the questions Q1 to Q10 most of them have adequate knowledge. Although they were not expressed much details of the treatment protocol in the management. It is recommended that further large scale studies are needed to confirm the knowledge and Prevention of Corona epidemic.
, Sarika Bhimrao Gaikwad, V. V. S. S. Sagar
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 294-298; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51b33545

Abstract:
Vascular anomalies are one of the challenging diseases to manage, presenting in different age groups and with varied clinical course, of which hemangiomas are common which are vasoproliferative neoplasms and can occur in any organ. Depending on the age at presentation they are classified as congenital and infantile hemangiomas. Not much attention has been paid regarding the imaging and treatment modalities of vascular malformations particularly hemangiomas due to scarcity of literature related to this condition. Majority of these vascular malformations are self-limiting, but in a few cases these lesions may grow with age which can be treated surgically or by sclerotherapy which has been the safe, less invasive, economical and easily available modality for treating hemangiomas. Bleomycin is the main sclerosing agent used which is a cytotoxic anti-tumor antibiotic which was later found to have anti-cancer properties. In our case, a 9 year old male child presented to our institution with a lump in the left side of abdomen since birth. Contrast enhanced CT abdomens was suggestive of a vascular malformation. Patient was treated with sclerotherapy with intralesional bleomycin for which good results were noted by decrease in the size and vascularity of the swelling.
, Ranjana Sharma
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 98-104; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33563

Abstract:
Background: “Chronic Kidney Disease” also known as a chronic renal failure, is one of the major health problems today. And infection is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, contributing around 30–36% of deaths among patients on dialysis. Overall, this condition is a threat to the life of the patients, hence to improve in the patient’s condition on dialysis and renal replacement therapy is a must. Here, early vaccination becomes must as primary treatment modalities to prevent the patients from communicable diseases like Hepatitis-B, Influenza, Pneumococcal diseases. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the awareness program on selected vaccinations among chronic kidney disease patients. Methodology: Quasi experimental one group pre-test post-test research design will be used in this study and samples will be chronic kidney disease patients. Non probability purposive sampling technique will be used to select the samples. This research study included 100 chronic kidney disease patients of selected hospitals in Vidarbha region. Samples must select according to requirements for inclusion and exclusion criteria. For this study, Age between 18 to 65 years above, both male and female, Chronic kidney disease patients attending Nephrology and Medicine OPD/IPD and admitted patients in selected hospitals in Vidarbha region, able to read and write Marathi or Hindi, Willing to participate in study, available during data collection. Expected Results: 1. To access this information for educating and change the attitude of patients regarding selected vaccination among chronic kidney disease patients. And understand the importance of vaccination before the onset of dialysis and renal transplantation. Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn from the statistical analysis.
, Christian Akowanou, Macaire Agbomahena
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3431564

Abstract:
We analyze analytically the effects of anisotropy in permeability and that of a transverse magnetic field on thermal convection in a porous medium saturated with a binary fluid and confined in a horizontal cavity. The porous medium, of great extension, is subjected to various conditions at the thermal and solutal boundaries. The axes of the permeability tensor are oriented obliquely with respect to the gravitational field. Based on a scale analysis, the velocity, temperature, and heat and mass transfer rate fields were determined. These results were validated by the study of borderline cases which are: pure porous media and pure fluid media discussed in the literature. It emerges from this study that the anisotropy parameters influence the convective flow. The application of a transverse magnetic field significantly reduces the speed of the flow and thereby affects the temperature field and the rate of heat and mass transfer.
Z. B. I. A. Boli, W. H. Coulibaly, R. Bamba, W. M. Allouet-Boraud, R. Koffi-Nevry, K. M. Dje
Biotechnology Journal International pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i530150

Abstract:
Post-harvest storage of oilseeds, particularly groundnut, is a real problem for farmers and traders whose stocks are subject to attacks by pests and fungal contaminants in the shops. In order to find alternative solutions to this problem, a survey was conducted in Côte d’Ivoire, specifically in the markets of the communes Abobo, Adjamé and Yopougon in city of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. The objective of this work is to evaluate the main risk factors for spoilage of groundnut seeds sold during storage in the Abidjan markets. To this end, a survey was conducted among 75 groundnut seeds sellers in the three aforementioned communes of Abidjan and identified the main risk factors favorable to spoilage of groundnut seeds sold during storage. The lack of exact knowledge of the origin of the groundnut seeds sold (92 to 100%), the storage of groundnut seeds in polyethylene bags (84 to 100%), the lack of knowledge of spoilage (28 to 44%), the long periods of sale (22.2 to 86.7%), moisture (0 to 72.2%) and insect pests (5.6 to 20%° were identified as the main factors of these risk of spoilage.
, Ruchira Ankar
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 71-75; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33559

Abstract:
Background: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in the world and it is a major stressor in women's lives. Breast cancer cases are increasing in both rural and urban settings. Mastectomy is a procedure that removes the breast to prevent cancer cells from returning. Many complications can develop after a mastectomy but lymphedema and limited range of motion are the most prevalent. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of post mastectomy exercises in breast cancer patients on reduction of lymphedema and improving range of motion among patients undergone mastectomy. Objectives: To assess pre interventional level of lymphedema among patients undergone mastectomy. To assess pre interventional range of motion among patients undergone mastectomy. To evaluate the effectiveness of post mastectomy exercises in reducing lymphedema among patients undergone mastectomy To evaluate the effectiveness of post mastectomy exercises in improving range of motion among patients undergone mastectomy. To associate demographic variable with post mastectomy exercises. To associate correlation of post mastectomy exercise with lymphedema and range of motion. Methodology: A pre interventional one group pretest posttest design would be adopted to assess the effectiveness of post mastectomy exercises in breast cancer patients on reduction of lymphedema and improving range of motion among patients undergone mastectomy. In this study interventional analytical study will be used. Purposive sampling technique will be used to collect the data. The study will include 30 patients undergone mastectomy will be assessed by using American lymphology lymphedema scale and Elvaru STJ (Subtalar joint) range of motion and range of motion reliability tool with the help of inch tape and goniometer and then post mastectomy exercises will be teach by researcher as intervention. Expected Results: The goal of this study is to see how effective post-mastectomy exercises are at reducing lymphedema and improving range of motion in breast cancer patients who had undergone mastectomy. Teaching post-mastectomy exercises can help the respondents reduce lymphedema and improve their range of motion.
Shalaka Gadhave, Vaishali Gahane, Poonam Gajbhiye, Harsha Gandhare,
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 12-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33553

Abstract:
Introduction: As the healthcare programs focus on the relatively higher incidence, women have a fair level of awareness of breast cancer. Breast of male hence ignored in the community. Studies from India have shown that medical care is often taken in an advanced stage because of lack of awareness, and the aggressive nature of breast cancer in Indian men and seen at quite an early age. Video-assisted knowledge teachings about awareness of male breast cancer among adult males would improve their understanding and exploration of the perceptions and opinions of Indian male cancers. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of video-assisted education on male breast cancer knowledge among adult males in the city of Wardha. Methods and Materials: One group pretest and posttest design with a quantitative research approach has been used in this interventional study design. This study has been carried out in community set up. Sample size was100. Validated Pretested predesigned structured questionnaires were used. In Microsoft excel sheet, data collected was entered. SPSS-software was used to perform the statistical analysis. Frequencies and percentages for categorical variables have been presented. Results: The pre-test findings show that 15(15%) of the adult males had a poor level of knowledge score, 50(50%) had average knowledge and 31(31%) of them had good knowledge and 4(4%) of them had found a very good level of knowledge. After video-assisted teaching in the post-test 3(3%) had a good knowledge score and 97(97%) had very good knowledge, thus it shows that after the post-test the knowledge score was increased. The Mean value of the pre-test is 9.32 and the post-test is 23.14 (p-value is 0.001), the calculated t-value is 35.47. Hence it indicates that Teaching aided with video was effective. The post-test score was significantly associated with population variables such as occupation and bad habits. The post-testing knowledge score with demographic variables such as age, religion, family type, education, marital status, dietary pattern, and area of residence was not significantly linked. Conclusion: The study shows that the expected teaching on male breast cancer has helped adult males to gain a better understanding of the nature of the disease and to take measures to prevent male breast cancer.
, A. A. Adu, O. O. Babalola, V. Kusemiju, G. O. Mekuleyi
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 22-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3431566

Abstract:
The effects of three traditional smoking methods on the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fishes were studied to determine the concentration of PAHs in locally available and commonly consumed smoked fish species. Samples of two highly traded species of fish, Scomber scombrus and Horse markerel, among the low income people for immediate consumption were purchased from the market and processed using sawdust smoke, firewood smoke and charcoal smoke respectively. Some of the fresh fishes were also analyzed as control. The PAHs content were extracted with standard dichloromethane using solid-liquid extraction, and analyzed using Gas chromatography – Mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) method. The results showed that fish samples processed with sawdust smoke recorded the highest concentrations of total PAHs, having 1.295 mg/kg in Horse markerel and 2.020 mg/kg in Scomber scombrus, followed by firewood smoked samples with total PAHs content of 0.910mg/kg in Horse markrel and 1.175 g/kg in Scomber scombrus while charcoal smoked samples recorded the least total PAHs levels of 0.590 mg/kg in Horse markerel and 0.960 mg/kg in Scomber scombrus. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations which is usually used to estimate the carcinogenicity of other PAHs was below detection level in both species of fish. PAH4 was proposed by European food safety authority, recommendation level of 30 mg/kg was concluded by the EU regulation. Any PAHs have been associated with intense carcinogenicity in humans, and thus have implication for the quality and safety of these fish products. Therefore, it is imperative that regulatory bodies conduct awareness campaigns to educate the smoked fish processors, traders and consumers on the need to discourage the use of sawdust in smoking fish and adopt safer and improved methods of smoking fishes.
N. V. Gowtham Deekshithulu, Y. Naga Lakshmi, V. V. Tejaswini
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 518-527; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130779

Abstract:
Present study entitled was carried out in field irrigation lab, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem. In the present experiment locally available agricultural substrate paddy straw, sugarcane bagasse and cocopeat were tested with black soil and farm yard manner as casing materials. For parameters such as days required for spawn run, pinhead formation, harvest days, total yield and biological efficiency were determined. Significant results were obtained for all the experimental parameters and also for the stem length and cap diameter. Best substrate found was the paddy straw in the recent experiment with days required for spawn run (14 days), pin head formation (11.2 days), days for first harvest(50 days), stem length (8.07 cm), capdiameter (8.67 cm), first harvest (489.45 gm), second harvest (453.68 gm), total yield (925.24 gm), biological efficiency (94.31%). The next best in the order was coco peat followed by sugarcane bagasse. Hence this study confirms the suitability of paddy straw for cultivation to mushroom growers and farmyard manure with 15 cm casing thickness as substrate for its cultivation for achieving higher yield. The benefit cost ratio was estimated as 1.57.
, Esy Maryanti
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i330206

Abstract:
The interaction of ectoparasite in correlation to its host’s skin is important. The extent of interaction somewhat makes these parasites able to survive in the harsh conditon of the host’s skin. Their existence mostly in the context of gaining their nutrition and perhaps continue its regeneration. Because these diseases caused by ectoparasite are easility transmitted, widespread, and the state of polyparasitism is often took place in a single vulnerable host, and significant primary and secondary morbidity and or complication occurs, which can worsen the course of the inital disease. This minireview aim to discuss about the interlinkage of some EPSD agents in correlation to its host’s skin, their interaction and what makes these endoparasites able to survive in the skin in the context of gaining their nutrition.
, PreranaSakharwade, Khushbu Meshram, Madhuri Shambharkar, Jaya Khandar, Shalini Lokhande, Pooja Kasturkar, Kavita Gomase
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 153-158; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33569

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching ramifications that extend far beyond the Clinical Diseases. Children around the world have been impacted by the socioeconomic, psychological, and physiologic effects brought about by the emergence and response to this virus. This is especially true for children already suffering from obesity. They have been placed in an almost impossible situation due to the negative effects of living in relative isolation. Using logistic regression, the hazard factors for loss of life in young overweight COVID-19 patients were investigated. According to our data, obesity is linked to many health risks for teenage COVID-19 patients. They have a significant death rate, with worsening irritant responses, greater vascular damage, and elevated rates of lung consolidation. Younger children infected with COVID-19 who were hospitalized had a high proportion of comorbidities. Infants had less severe illness. Obese child were more likely to necessitate mechanical ventilation, as well as higher indicators of Inflammation at the time of admission. While in the hospital childhood obesity was linked to serious COVID-19 disease. Europe is no exception, three weeks have passed since Italy's mandatory countrywide lock-down began; lifestyle, diet, exercise, and sleep were collected and compared to data on children gathered in 2019. The additional weight accumulated during the lock-down may not be readily reversed, and if better practices are not re-established, it may contribute to obesity in adulthood. The United States similarly has reported increasing weight gain in youth aged 2-19 during the pandemic.
, Bali Thool, Manjusha Mahakarkar, Shalini Moon, Archana Teltumade
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 315-320; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51b33548

Abstract:
Background: The study of cultural factors in nutrition emerged as a distinct focus of research only recently, with the formation of the National Research Council's Committee on Food Habits in 1941. The impact of culture on nutrition has primarily been studied in the realm of "food habits," which is the second of two distinct spheres comprehended by nutrition science. The first is concerned with determining nutritional requirements and dietary standards and includes biochemistry and physiology. Objective of the study: This study aims to assess the effects of self-instructional module on knowledge regarding cultural beliefs of dietary habits among postnatal women. 1. To assess the existing knowledge regarding cultural beliefs of dietary habits among postnatal women 2. To assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module on knowledge regarding cultural beliefs of dietary habits among postnatal women 3. To associate knowledge regarding cultural beliefs of dietary habits among postnatal women with demographic variables. Material and methods: Evaluatory research approach is used to assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module on through the difference between the pre-test and post-test knowledge score. In this study a total number of 60 postnatal women who fulfil the inclusion criteria were selected. A structured questionnaire developed for assessing the knowledge of postnatal women. Result: According to the findings, 13.33% of postnatal women had an average level of knowledge, 55% had a good level of knowledge, and 31.67% had an excellent level of knowledge. Conclusion: According to findings of the study, there is an improvement in knowledge of postnatal women. Statistically, the self-instructional module on knowledge regarding cultural beliefs of dietary habits among postnatal women was proved to be effective.
Sharvari Sahasrabuddhe, , Pradnya P. Ghadage
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 306-314; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51b33547

Abstract:
Background: Forward flexed posture is one of the most common structural change which occurs during menopause due to osteoporosis. Stretching and strengthening of cervical and thoracic spine muscles helps to alter the postural changes and maintain COG. This study thus, aims to see the effectiveness of the structured exercise protocol in post-menopausal women. Aims and Objective: To study the effectiveness of supervised and non-supervised stretching and strengthening protocol in post-menopausal women with forward posture. Materials and Methods: A total 40post-menopausal women with forward head posture were selected on the basis of selection criteria. They were randomly allocated in two groups A) Supervised Group= 20, B) Unsupervised Group=20 each. Forward flexed posture was assessed using Occiput to Wall Test and Craniovertebral Angle. Treatment was explained to both the groups. The pre and post measurements of the participants were recorded. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired t test. Occiput to wall test and craniovertebral angle were used as the outcome measures for determining the effect of stretching and strengthening on forward neck posture. Comparing the pre-intervention and post-intervention values of occiput to wall test, a significant difference was seen following administration of protocol (p<0.0001). For craniovertebral angle, a significant difference was seen between pre-intervention and post-intervention values (p<0.0001). Also, it was seen that there was a significantly higher difference in the values of craniovertebral angle and occiput to wall test values in the supervised groups as compared to the unsupervised group. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the effect of stretching and strengthening exercise in improving postural kyphosis in post-menopausal women. In addition, all variables of interest showed statistically significant post-treatment improvements in supervised group than unsupervised group.
, Sani Danladi, Audu Mohammed
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i830251

Abstract:
Houseflies (Musa domestica) are common insects of the families muscidae, order Dipthera. They are synanthropic insects that are widely distributed worldwide. They enter several places, including contaminated premises due to their own biological habit of feeding. This study identifies the pathogenic parasites and bacteria associated with the houseflies in Lafia, Nigeria. A total of 215 flies were collected from 5 locations (New market, Neigbourhood market, Kasuwan Turmatur, Kasuwan Karo and Yanlemu market) within the Lafia metropolis, from September, 2019 to March 2020. The fly specimens were analyzed for the presence of pathogenic parasites and bacteria using standard laboratory procedures. The results showed that the parasites: Entamoeba hietolytic was most prevalence with (22.11%) Ascaris lumbricoides being (15.05%), Taenia species (14.70%) schistosoma mansoni (14.70%), Hookworm and Trichnris trichura recorded least prevalence accounting for (1.12%) respectively, pathogenic bacteria isolated and identify from the houseflies are; Staplyloccus sp (36.36%), Bacillus species (19.48%), Klebsiella sp (19.75%), Escherichia sp (6.49%), Protens sp (7.41%), Salmonella sp (6.49%) and Moraxella sp (2.47%). The result showed significant variation (P0.05) associated with the frequency of occurrence of bacteria species. It can be concluded that Musca domestica in Lafia harbor parasites and bacteria on their external and internal parts. The housefly have mechanical potential to transmit pathogens to man. Measures most be taken to control the fly population to avoid both present and future outbreaks of diseases condition emanating from the flies activities.
Deeplata Mendhe, Achal Jiwane, Ranjana Sharma,
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 62-65; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33557

Abstract:
Introduction: Wilm's tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a common complication in children with renal cancer. It was responsible for 6% of all malignancies. It almost always affects children under the age of five. 90% of cases are diagnosed before the age of three, with the peak incidence occurring between the ages of two and five years. The case of a 2-year-old girl with Wilm's tumor is shown below. The majority of cases are unilateral, but 5% to 10% of the time both kidneys are affected. Case Presentation: A 2-year-old girl was taken to the hospital with a chief complaint of a lump in the abdomen, fever, vomiting and fatigue, nausea, swelling, pain in the abdomen, weakness. On physical examination the patient has experienced in weakness the upper and lower limb, pain experiencing in the abdomen and presenting lumps in the abdomen S1 and S2 are heard in the cardiological system, and air entry is bilaterally equal in the respiratory system. Pupils are reflected light, tone, and a palpable smooth abdominal mass is frequently discovered by chance. The infant was never admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). There had been no previous evidence of neonatal sepsis or jaundice. For a year, the girl was breastfed. The right side of the abdomen was where the first symptoms appeared. Small at first, but quickly grew larger and more asymmetrical.
Deigna-Mockey Viviane, Biego Godi Henri, Nyamien Yves Bleouh, Adama Coulibaly
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 62-76; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430110

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exposure to pyrethrinoids and oragnophosphorus pesticides found in Côte d’Ivoire kola nuts. Study Design: Kola nuts samples were collected from farmers, collectors and urban stores in 3 regions (western, southwestern and eastern) and 2 big storage centers of Côte d’Ivoire. Place and Duration of Study: Health Department of Hydrology Health and Toxicology, Training and Research Unit of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, running 2017-2020. Methodology: Pyrethrinoids and organophosphorus residues were qualitatively and quantitatively determined using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem mass spectrometry Agilent 1290 Infinity II LC (LC-MS/MS) and their potential health risks assessed in kola nuts samples from selected regions of Côte d’Ivoire. Health risk estimates were analyzed using Estimated Average Daily Intake (EADI) and Hazard Index (HI) with risk categorized for non-carcinogenic health effects. Results: A total of 12 pyrethrinoids and 3 organophosphorus were identified and their residues were detected in all the kola nuts samples analyzed. The results showed that the mean concentration of organphosphorus in all kola nuts was 5±1 µg/kg FW. This level is the same observed for acrinathrin, delatmethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvelerate, flucythrinate, tau-fluvalinate, cyfluthrin et tefluthrin. As for the other pyrethrinoids, the values obtained are 17.2±6.2 µg/kg FW, 25±14.6 µg/kg FW, 30±11.3 µg/kg FW and 39.4±21.2 µg/kg FW, respectively for bifenthrin, cypermethrin, permethrin and cyhalothrin. The average contents determined for each active molecule are all lower than the MRLs fixed for these residues in the kola nuts. As a result, all the Estimate Average Daily Intake (EADIs) determined in adult Ivorians are lower than the corresponding Toxicological References Values (TRVs). Thus, the Hazard Quotient (HQ) calculated for each substance is less than 1. Conclusion: The risk of adverse effects from consuming kola nuts contaminated with residues of pyrethrinoids or organophosphorus is very unlikely.
, Ranjana Sharma, Dinesh V. Mude, Pooja Kasturkar, Pratibha Wankhede, Kavita Gomase, Prerna Sakharwade, Kanchan Bokade
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33555

Abstract:
Central line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI), is a substantial contributor to in-hospital morbidity and death, as well as increased cost and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). CLABSIs are one of the most deadly for each infection is expected to have a mortality rate of 12-25 percent. CLABSI prevention is important, and nurses play a vital role. Nurses are required to complete initial training as well as annual competence tests for central venous catheter protocol and other skills to ensure that they are delivering direct care to patients using the most up-to-date evidence-based practices. Conclusion: CLABSI prevention bundles are the best method for implementing many interventions at once in addition to standardizing practice. Standard prevention bundles in addition to routine CLABSI education for staff are the most effective methods for preventing infection; it is inevitable that compliance with bundles will vary across healthcare institutions.
, Shaik Mohammad Anjum, Sreeja Nannapaneni, Sri Sarvani Vemuri, Bhavana Potluri, Sreedhar Bodiga, Vijaya Lakshmi Bodiga, Suryanarayana Veeravilli
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 88-97; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33562

Abstract:
Recent examinations express that multi organ failure is seen in Corona virus infected patients with different pathway. It has been shown in contemplates that increased levels of cytokines like IL-1B and INF gamma were observed. It is called as cytokine storm with higher convergences of CCL2 and CXCL10. The cytokine storm is trailed by our immune system attacking own body which thus may cause numerous organ abnormalities and conclusive outcome being death. There is currently no specific treatment for viral illness, and this methodology is an optional path for focusing on specific qualities that may diminish cytokine storm. In such manner Peroxisome Proliferators Activated Receptors (PPARs) have a place with group of transcription factors which are known to manage the inflammatory mechanisms in body. This immunomodulatory approach is intended to focus PPAR-gamma ligands and their molecular docking studies. The activation or increased expression levels of PPAR gamma because of chosen agonists may reduce the cytokine storm in the covid patients. Thus, this is one such fascinating way to deal with neutralization of the cytokines exorbitantly elevated by use of substances like pomegranate, lemon grass and so on to activate PPARs reliably.
, Toufiq Ahmed, Riyadh Arefin
Asian Plant Research Journal pp 44-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/aprj/2021/v8i430184

Abstract:
Aims: Pruning is the cutting of branches of a tea bush at predetermined height and at a specified interval in order to reinvigorate and bring tea bushes within reach of the pluckers, which directly related to the productivity and quality of tea. In Bangladesh, Three and four year pruning cycles were the conventional recommendations for the tea plantation. In this experiment, along with BTRI recommended four types of pruning operations (LP, DSK, MSK and LSK), two more types of pruning operations such as: UP (Unprune) and LoS (Level of Skiff) were considered as treatments. This experiment was conducted with two main objectives: to evaluate the yield and yield related parameters of tea due to different types of pruning operations as well as to find out the effect of pruning operations on organoleptic quality of black tea. Study Design, Place and Duration of Study: This experiment was conducted ‘D2 Thall’ area at the main research farm of Bangladesh Tea Research Institute (BTRI) from December 2017 to November 2019. The experimental design was Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with six treatments and three replications. Methodology: The treatments are denoted as T1 (UP: Unpruned) control, T2 (LP: Light Pruning), T3 (DSK: Deep Skiffing), T4 (MSK: Medium Skiffing), T5 (LSK: Light Skiffing) and T6 (LoS: Level of Skiffing) respectively. Data were collected under the following parameters: Number of plucking point or pluckable shoot/bush in each plucking Fresh weight (g) of 100 shoots (three leaves and a bud) Oven Dry weight (g) of 100 shoots (three leaves and a bud) to calculate Dry Matter Content Green leaf weight (kg) to calculate Yield of each treatment Number of plucking round to calculate Yield gap of each treatment Black Tea Quality of each treatment by Organoleptic Tasting Method. Results: It was found that, number of plucking points/pluckable shoot and yield were found significantly high in T6 (Level of Skiffing), T5 (Light Skiffing) and T1 (Unpruned) than the other treatments. But in terms of tea quality, lowest quality tea was found in T1 (Unpruned), T6 (Level of Skiffing) and T5 (Light Skiffing) treatment. So, it can be concluded that, ‘Skiff Pruning’ or ‘Unprune’ technique had positive effect on yield but the quality of these technique were poor in comparison with other treatments. T2 (Light Pruning) treatment gave more tender and fresh shoot than the other treatment. For this reason, dry matter was low in T2 (Light Pruning) treatment but tea quality was much better than the other pruning technique. Conclusion: Pruning has positive or negative effect on yield and quality of tea. ‘Skiff Pruning’ or ‘Unprune’ has positive effect on yield but the quality of is poor than the other treatments. Best Quality tea can be produced from Light Pruning tea section because of having more tender and fresh shoot than other treatments.
, M. C. Onuigbo, E. U. Godwin-Nwakwasi, O. C. Chukwuka, Ephraim I. Ekanem
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology pp 77-86; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajb2t/2021/v7i430111

Abstract:
The trace mineral concentration, phytochemical composition and antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extract of C. lanatus seeds were carried out using standard methods. The preclinical experimental model was 120 mgkg-1 b.w. (via intraperitoneal) Alloxan induced diabetic rat model, with ethanol extract of C. lanatus seeds administered orally at 500mgkg-1 b.w. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids/triterpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates and oils. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that iron had the highest value (8.31mgkg-1), followed by zinc (5.78 mgkg-1), then manganese (4.28 mgkg-1). Selenium concentration was appreciable (0.85 mgkg-1). Ethanol extract of C. lanatus seeds significantly (p < 0.05), dose and time dependently reduced blood glucose level, increased body weights of rats and had positive effect on organ weights and organ volume. The results in this study showed that Citrullus lanatus seeds are rich in zinc, selenium, manganese, iron, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids/triterpenoids, and tannins. They may therefore serve as good sources of these trace mineral nutrients and bio actives for nutritional and medicinal purposes relating to diabetes management.
Rucha Bante, Shiva Bawane, , Suhas Talwekar, Manjusha Mahakarkar
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33552

Abstract:
Need of Study: The quarantine would impact day-to-day employees and companies with daily profits. Confining abnormally reduced social and physical contact with others whereas loss of habits is direct linked to distress, monotony, social isolation and disappointment. Hence the investigator plans to assess the effect of social media on the mental health of quarantined people related to covid-19. Objectives: To assess the psychological impact (stress and anxiety level) on quarantine people. Methodology: The study was based on an evaluative approach. The population was about all adults, above 18 – 60 years of age who were quarantined. The sampling technique used in the study was probability convenient sampling and the tool was PSS scale and GAD-7 checklist. The data gathering process began based on the objectives and the hypothesis the data were statistically analyzed with various tests such as descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results: The majority 60% of the subjects had moderate levels of stress regarding social media on quarantine people due to covid-19 and 91% of subjects had mild anxiety regarding social media. Conclusion: Research study concludes that clients of the community were suffered from stress and anxiety during the covid pandemic as per their occupation and lack of knowledge regarding stress and anxiety management brought resulted in increasing disturbance in performing a daily activity with an increase in the death rate due to overuse of social media.
, Ranjana Sharma, Mayur Wanjari, Pratibha Wankhede, Sagar Alwadkar, Hina Rodge
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 148-152; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33568

Abstract:
Introduction: Mucinous Cystadenoma carcinoma is a type of tumor in the cyst adenocarcinoma grouping it can occur in the breast as well as the ovary. Tumors are normally multiocular with various smooth thin-walled cysts. Within the cyst is found an emergence or cellular debris. Patient History: The female patient 63-year-old who was admitted to AVBRH on the date 21/05/2021 in the obstetric and gynae ward with a chief complaint of generalized weakness, loss of appetite, fever for 2 days 7 days ago, 2-3 fever spikes and burning micturition. All over investigation observed like blood and urine investigation, CT scan of the abdomen, histopathology then the final diagnosis is confirmed as mucinous Cystadenoma carcinoma. Pharmacology: The patient was treated with antibacterial medicine, antibiotics, and diabetics, thyroxin stimulating drugs, etc. Management: Inj. Ceftriaxone 1gm 12 hourly, Inj.-piptaz 4.45 gm, 8 hourly, tab. Gimipride 0.5 mg with tab. Metformin 500 mg 12 hourly, tab. Thyrox 62.5 mcg, tab telmisartan 40 mg with tab. Chlorthalidone 12.512.5 mg 12 hourly, Inj.-pan 40 mg, 12 hourly, Inj.- Neomol 100 ml, and Tablet- nitrofurantoin 6 hourly. Nursing Management: Monitor the vital sign, monitor nutritional status and monitor random blood sugar. Maintained bed rest of patient, managed the pain level of the patient. The patient was assessed for risk of bleeding. Conclusion: The patient was admitted to the hospital with the chief complaint of generalized weakness, loss of appetite, fever for 2 days 7 days ago, 2-3 fever spikes and burning micturition. and the patient was admitted to AVBR Hospital in the obstetric and gynae ward, immediate treatment was started by a health team member and all possible treatments were given and now the patient's condition is satisfactory.
, Khushbu Meshram, Shalini Lokhande, Pooja Kasturkar, Achita Sawarkar, Madhuri Naik, S. Avita Pohekar, Sheetal Sakharkar
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 159-162; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33570

Abstract:
A vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neurinoma, or acoustic neurilemoma is a slow growing benign tumor arises balance and hearing nerves in the inner ear. It is caused by overabundance of Schwann type of cell, which support and insulate nerve fibers, wrap onion skin around them. The nerves that control hearing and balance are impaired when vestibular schwannoma increases in size, resulting in hearing loss that is one-sided or asymmetric, tinnitus and loss of balance. When a tumor develops large enough, obstruct the facial nerve, resulting in numbness in the face. Vestibular schwannomas can also damage the facial nerve, resulting in facial weakness or paralysis on the tumor's side. If the tumor becomes large enough, it press against surrounding brain areas like the cerebellar and brainstem, posing a life-deteriorating hazard.(1) 17 years old male child was admitted in neuro ward with rare case of right acoustic and left trigeminal schwannoma, hydrocephalus with neurofibroma. In the present case, the treatment approach was mainly underwent in the form of right V.P.Shunt done and treated with antibiotics, antacids, anticonvulsants, analgesics, brain stimulants, protectants, multivitamins and other supportive treatment. Nurses have to play an important role to identify such type of symptoms and they should think critically, take action immediately to provide care to such type of patients.
Samar Ahmed Elrashedy, Mohamed Abd Elrahman Elgariah, Mohamed Mahmoud Abo Elnasr, Ehab Abd Elmoneim Wahb
Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research pp 245-252; https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2021/v33i2231176

Abstract:
Background: Chronic pleural empyema (CPE) is the last phase of the triphasic process of pleural empyema development. Lung decortication is the corner stone in management of chronic empyema. This study aimed to objectively evaluate the efficacy of conventional decortication operation in chronic pleural empyema in adult patients. Also to prove that decortication of variable sizes of chronic empyema thoracis lesions is followed by improvement considering respiratory impairment. Methods: This prospective clinical study was conducted on 103 patients undergoing elective lung decortication operation for management of chronic empyema. All patients were subjected to the history taking, general examination, chest examination, computed tomography (CT), pulmonary function test and arterial blood gases. Postoperative evaluation was done in outpatient clinic 6 months post operatively including: Full clinical examination, investigations (acute phase reactants, CT chest, PFT and arterial blood gases. Results: Total leucocytic count, ESR 1st hour, ESR 2nd hour and CRP were significantly decreased in post than pre. FEV1 and FVC were significantly increased in post than pre (P <0.001). FEV1 / FVC Ratio was significantly decreased in post than pre (P <0.001). Transverse and antero-posterior diameters of affected hemithorax were significantly increased in post than pre (P <0.001, 0.019 respectively). Transverse and antero-posterior diameters of normal hemithorax were insignificantly different between post and pre. PaO2 and SpO2 were significantly increased in post than pre (P <0.001). PaCO2 was significantly decreased in post than pre (P <0.001). Conclusions: The improvement in the lung function, arterial blood gases, transverse and antero-posterior diameter of affected and normal hemithorax was proposed to have resulted from the decortication in chronic empyema thoracis. Decortication of variable sizes of chronic pleural empyema lesions is followed by objective improvement considering respiratory impairment.
Shrikant Bute, Saurabh Gupta, , Nikita Naidu, Milind Umekar
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 115-127; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33565

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of the present investigation was to prepare interpolymer complex between Chitosan and Eudragit L100, and to evaluate its performance as a matrix for controlled release of drugs, using Diclofenac sodium as a model. Methodology: Interpolymer complex were prepared by combining different % chitosan solutions with different % Eudragit L100 solutions in different ratios. The formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) between carbopol and Chitosan was investigated, using turbidimetry and viscosity measurement. The structure of the prepared IPEC was investigated using FTIR spectroscopy and DSC. A Rotary compression press was used to formulate matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium using polymers in physical mixture and IPECs.The amount of Diclofenac Sodium released in the dissolution medium was determined spectrophotometrically at 276 nm. Results: The results of the present investigation confirmed the formation of an interpolyelectrolyte complex between Chitosan and Eudragit L 100. The release of the model drug Diclofenac sodium was significantly controlled from tablets made up of the IPEC as compared with polymers alone and in combination. Release profiles were represented by a mathematical model, which indicates that the prepared system releases drug in a zero-order manner by changing the ratio of the IPEC in the tablets. Conclusion: Controlled release drug delivery systems designed to manipulate the drug release to achieve specific clinical objectives that are unattainable with conventional dosage forms.
O. A. Idam, M. Rowaida S. Musa, Ramy A. Yousif
Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research pp 20-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajfar/2021/v15i530342

Abstract:
The current study was conducted in two different localities have been selected in Western Kordofan State (Elsonout and Abu-zabad Localities) to evaluate some heavy metals concentrations (Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, and Lead) in three parts (liver, gills and muscles) of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in Dams, also to evaluate the same heavy metals concentrations in Dams water where Nile Tilapia is cultured. The evaluation was included the correlation of heavy metals accumulation between fish organs and water samples were compared. Finally, the results were compared with recommended levels by FAO, WHO and other international organizations. A total of 54 samples has been taken from marketable size Nile Tilapia parts (gills; livers and muscles) and subjected to analysis of heavy metals accumulations. Also, a total of 18 water samples were taken from Dams (shallow, middle and deep water). The data was subjected to SPSS using ANOVA. The findings of this work were revealed that, there were a highly significant differences (P≤0.01) in all heavy metals among gills, liver and muscles of Nile Tilapia cultured in Dams. And there was a highly significant difference (P≤0.01) in all heavy metals among gills, liver and muscles of Nile Tilapia according to localities. Anyway, when compared fish organs; we found that, gills were recorded the maximum figures in all heavy metals followed by livers and the minimum figures were recorded by muscles. The results of this study were in the permissible levels recommended by international organizations.
, V. I. E. Ajiwe, O. F. Obumselu, N. P. Okafor
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 39-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52a33556

Abstract:
Background: Combretum platypterum is used ethno-medically in the treatment many diseases in Africa, such as; helminthiasis, sexually transmitted diseases, conjunctivitis, malaria, lumps, fever, eye problems, diarrhea, lower backache, coughs, swellings, as febrifuge, tonic, and to stop post-partum bleeding. Aim: This work was aimed at investigating the phytochemical, proximate, anti malarial, anti inflammatory, anti bacterial and anti fungal activities of leaf extracts of Combretum platypterum. Methods: Leaves of C. platypterum were cold extracted with methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analyses, proximate, anti malarial, anti inflammatory and antimicrobial tests. Results: The results revealed that, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, resins and reducing sugars were found in all the extracts. It was also observed that the presence of the metabolites in each extract was in polarity-dependent manner. The percentage composition of carbohydrates was also the highest followed by the composition of proteins. The suppressions of the extracts against P. falciparum at half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 mg/ml) were found to be higher than that of chloroquine at IC50 µg/ml. It was also found that methanol extract had the highest inhibition against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. K. pneumonia was resistant to the inhibition of the extracts. The anti inflammatory assays showed that methanol extracts at 500 mg/ml exhibited higher lipoxygenase Inhibition than diclofenac at 500 µg/ml. Ethyl acetate extract showed highest inhibition of heat-induced hemolysis, protein denaturation and proteinase among all the extracts. Conclusion: The therapeutic use of the leaves of C. platypterum against malaria and swelling was confirmed by the activities of the extracts against inflammation and P. falciparum. It is also necessary that the bioactive compounds responsible for these activities be isolated.
, O. K. Agwa, G. O. Abu, O. Akaranta
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1230409

Abstract:
Aim: This study investigated the screening, characterization and identification of sophorolipid-producing yeast isolated from palm oil effluent polluted soil. Place and Duration: Two soil samples impacted with palm oil mill effluent were obtained from Elibrada and Rumuche in Emohua Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria, between March 2020 and September 2021. Methodology: The soil samples were analyzed for physicochemical, geotechnical and microbiological qualities. The yeast isolates were identified using biochemical and 16S ITS molecular approaches. The isolates were screened for hydrocarbon degradation and sophorolipid production. The sophorolipid production was evaluated using emulsification index (E24), haemolytic activity, oil spread activity, drop collapse and blue agar plate assay (Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide CTAB Method). Results: The pH of the Palm oil mill effluent -impacted soil ranged between pH 6.18 to 6.34 the electrical conductivity value for Elibrada and Rumuche were 20.84 µS/cm and 80.19 µS/cm respectively while that of the unpolluted soil was 220.13 µS/cm. Permeability of the soil from Elibrada was 2.7 cm/s, Rumuche had 1.3 cm/s while the unpolluted soil had 5.6 cm/s. Total organic carbon for soil samples from Rumuche was 4.92%, Elibrada had 6.13% while the unpolluted soil had 8.74%. Oil and grease component for the Rumuche soil was 10500 mg/kg, Elibrada had 7200 mg/kg and the unpolluted soil had 28.0 mg/kg. Total fungal count for Rumuche soil samples was 3.8 × 104 CFU/g while Elibrada had 3.2 × 104 CFU/g. Eighty percent (80%) of the isolates were Candida spp. while 20% were Saccharomyces sp. There were four bands separated which were denoted as ITS 600bp and a Ladder L which was 500bp. The phylogenetic construct showed that the Y8 was 70.2% similar to Candida parapsilosis. The isolate Y3 was 95.8% similar to Candida haemulonis. Isolate Y9 had 100% similarity with Pichia kudriavzevii while Y13 had a 97.4% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae the GENBANK accession numbers were Candida haemulonis MW182014, Candida parapsilosis MW182015, Pichia kudriavzevii MW182016 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MW182017. Conclusion: There is an increasing concern to develop a process for microbial isolation and characterization for effective biotechnological advancement using impacted environmental media as a bioresource.
, C. A. Obafemi, E. M. Obuotor, I. J. Olawuni
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 194-201; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51b33539

Abstract:
Aims: To synthesize some phthalimides derivatives and evaluate the compounds for their possible biological properties. Methods: The substituted phenylisoindoline-1,3-dione were synthesized from the reactions of N-phenyl phthalimide with different substituted aromatic aldehyde. The synthesized compounds were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis. The acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitions were determined by Spectro photochemical analysis of acetylthiocholine and butyryl choline chloride. Results: Compounds 6 (IC50 = 30±3 µg/mL) and 4 (IC50 = 141±60 µg/mL) were found to be the most active inhibitors against acetylcholinesterase, while compounds 4 (IC50 = 102±10 µg/mL), 5 (IC50 = 105 ± 20 µg/mL) and 2 (IC50 = 190 ± 10 µg/mL), were found to be most active inhibitor against butyryl cholinesterase. Conclusion: The considerable acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the synthesized compounds makes them good candidates for the development of selective acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitors.
, Rizwana Qureshi, Mumtaz Ali Bharo, Shahbat E Maryam Syed, Aatir H. Rajput, Khalil Ahmed Kazi
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 289-293; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51b33544

Abstract:
Background: Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old, and is responsible for killing around 525 000 children every year. Though many treatment modalities exist, chronic diarrheal conditions demand a safer alternative modality (with lesser side effects) and thus, role of probiotics in prevention and management of chronic diarrhea merits exploration. Objective: To study the impact of probiotic (Saccharomyces Boulardii) in prevention and management of chronic diarrhea. Methodology: This experimental study comprised of a sample of 178 (chosen via non-probability, consecutive sampling) children aged 2 months to 12 years, presenting to the study setting with chronic diarrhea (from November 05, 2019, to May 04, 2020) to the Dept. of Pediatrics at Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad. After taking written consent, data was recorded onto a structured questionnaire containing inquiries about the socio-demographic details, diarrheal disease history, medication history and eventual treatment outcome. The study population was divided into 2 equal groups (S. Boulardii group & Control Group) of 89 each. The active treatment period was 5 days. All study participants were examined on day 0 (inclusion day) and followed up on day 3 and day 6 during active treatment phase and in the following month thereafter for observation. The data obtained was analyzed through SPSS version 20. Results: The mean age of the sample stood at 6.5 (SD ± 1.5) years. Baseline characteristics such as mean age and the average frequency of stools were comparable in S. boulardii and control group at the time of inclusion in the trial. By day 3 it reduced to 2.8 and 4.4 stools per day respectively and by day 6 it reduced to 1.4 (S. boulardii Group) and 3.7 (control group). The duration of diarrhea was 3.2 days in S. boulardii group whereas it was 5.2 day in control group (P = 0.001). In the following month, S. boulardii group had a significantly lower frequency of 0.46 episodes as compared to 1.28 episodes in control group. Conclusion: After careful consideration, it can be concluded that average frequency of stools is significantly reduced and brought down to normal in the S. boulardii group as compared to the control group The drug was well accepted and tolerated. There were no reports of the side effects during treatment period.
Journal of Economics, Management and Trade pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i1030368

Abstract:
The study investigated the quality management practices and business performances of SMEs in Merhabete/Alem Ketema, Ethiopia. Four key dimensions of quality management practices including customer focus, human resource focus, supplier quality management, and continuous improvements were used as independent variables accompanied by different measurement instruments under each variable, while a non-financial performance variable was used to measure the business performance. Primary data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 245 employees. Data were analyzed using descriptive and econometrics analysis. The findings indicate that the four key independent variables had a positive and significant effect on the performance of SMEs. The study recommended that SMEs should ensure that the objectives of the organization are linked to customer needs and expectations to improve performance, and they should allow participative consultation and engagement of employees in making decisions on quality issues and provide freedom to act with responsibility and accountability.
, Catherine Sotirakou, Constantinos Mourlas, Spiros Moschonas
Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science pp 196-204; https://doi.org/10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i1130379

Abstract:
This paper examines the notions of neoliberalism and the financialization and marketisation of public life by using computational tools such as sentence embeddings on a novel corpus of neoliberal articles. More specifically, we experimented with distributional semantics along with several Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques and machine learning algorithms in order to extract conceptual dictionaries and “seed” words. Our findings show that sentence embeddings reveal repetitive patterns constructed around the given concepts and highlight the mechanical character of an ideology in its function of providing solutions, policies and constructing stereotypes. This work introduces a novel pipeline for computer-assisted research in discourse analysis and ideology.
Tawfeeq I. Altherwi, Luai Alhazmi, Abdulsamad Yahya A. Ahmadi, Faisal Ali M. Othathi, Abdulaziz Ali M. Othathi, Ahmed Hussein M. Awaji, Mohammed Ibrahim Y. Dabsh, Nasser Ahmed H. Batt, Mohammed Aboubaker R. Alshafey, Abdulghani Ahmed M. Alkaeeal, et al.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 235-245; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51b33537

Abstract:
Background: Acute Myocardial Infarction is usually a complication of an ongoing atherosclerotic pathophysiological process inside the distribution of the coronary arterial supply. For many years, acute myocardial infarction has been one of the leading causes of death worldwide. One of the major complications of acute myocardial infarction is the event of “cardiac arrest”. However, with an early approach to emergency medical services and early seeking of healthcare, the potential mortality chance can be reduced. Despite the significance of the situation and its vulnerability, delays in approaching emergency medical services exist due to variable influences. This study had investigated the reasons behind the delays and the awareness of the general public on acute myocardial infarction and its associated symptoms. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional type of research that was conducted in October 2021 through November 2021 period that invited 427 participants through social media platforms. Results: The online questionnaire was distributed and administered by 427 subjects. The mean age of the participants was (27.62 years, SD=11.692) with a minimum age of 18 years and a maximum age of 89 years. The majority of the study participants were females (n=237, 55.5%), of those who called during the daytime, 97.4% of them have mentioned that they would call the EMS directly but when investigated about the time to wait before calling EMS, 55.3% of the participants who chose to call during the daytime would call in less than an hour. Conclusion: For initiating public campaigns and providing the public with the consequences of an ignored myocardial infarction and the potential mortality that could be associated with delaying the emergency medicine services approach.
, A. Radi, M. Kmari, A. Hassani, R. Abilkasseme, A. Agadr
Asian Journal of Pediatric Research pp 6-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajpr/2021/v7i330216

Abstract:
Background: Orbital cellulitis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency, jeopardizing the vital and functional prognosis. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological, therapeutic and evolutional aspects of orbital cellulitis cases treated at the pediatric service at Mohamed V military hospital. Patients and methods: retrospective study including all the children aged between 1 month and 15 years treated for orbital cellulitis at the pediatric service of the Mohamed V Hospital over a period of 3 years (1st January 2016-31st December 2019). Results: 24 cases of orbital cellulitis were gathered. Age varied between 1 month and 15 years with a median of age of 6. years. Feminine predominance (58%) was noted . The disease mainly involved the sinus (32%).Clinically, fever was present in 10 patients (41%),palpebral edema was universal, proptosis was noted in 5 cases(20.8%),chemosis and ptosis were noted in 4 cases(16.6%),bacteriological testing identified micro-organisms in 3 cases. An orbital CT scan was performed in all cases of our study, showing preseptal cellulitis in 14 cases (58.3%), orbital cellulitis in 3 cases(12.5%),and orbital abscess in 7 cases. The medical treatment consisted of ceftriaxone, metronidazole and aminoside or amoxicilline clavulanic acid, corticosteroid therapy prescribed in 5 cases. Surgical treatment was indicated in 3 patients. The outcome of All cases was favorable. Conclusion: The majority of our cases had a positive evolution highlighting the advantage of an early diagnosis, and adapted antibiotic and a multidisciplinary patient care making the need for surgery rarely necessary.
A. G. S. Reddy, K. S. Sastry, Guru Raghavendra
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 28-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i1030313

Abstract:
Application of Water Quality Index (WQI) to assess the water quality for drinking water suitability and intensity of contamination is in practice worldwide. Many WQI methods have been in use since their conceptualization, and some are country-specific or use-specific. A generalized and widely acceptable method that can project ground truths in non-dimensional numerical form to evaluate the water quality, especially for drinking uses, is lacking. Complexity and disagreement among different methods are adding to incongruence among the scientists. The concept and a simple calculation method of WQI are deliberated. Five different WQI methods using water chemistry results of Vizianagarm District are discussed. The WQI output obtained from these methods displays discrepancies in the proper projection of water quality. Some samples show similarities in WQI values obtained from two to four methods. However, the suitability status of water for drinking purposes could not be precisely ascertained from these indices. Since the water chemistry results and WQI values are incompatible, the output from these methods could be red herring. Few issues are identified among the studied methods which need improvisation. The use of ideal value in the weighted arithmetic index method and arbitration in assigning Weight for each parameter gives scope for speculation. Non-uniformity in the categorization of water and the suitability statuses of drinking water are discouraging factors. The WQI is an effective tool in screening the vast database for identifying and addressing the issues in water quality. Since drinking water standards and water supply are government-sponsored, an institutional intervention is required to standardize the WQI computation procedure. Such an initiative is necessary for the practical application of water quality data to contain water-borne diseases.
Syahfori Widiyani, , W. Yohannes Widodo, Dian Zamroni, Fajar L. Gultom, Forman Erwin Siagian, Hardi Hutabarat
International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Case Reports pp 8-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijmpcr/2021/v14i430139

Abstract:
Introduction: Bullous haemorrhagic dermatosis is a rare clinical disorder which is usually related to a treatment with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), characterized by multiple intra-epidermal haemorrhages distant from the site of injection. Presentation of Case: A 62-year-old male patient with coronary heart disease who received heparin treatment experienced several tense, haemorrhagic bullae located on the right arm area, close to the injection site, and followed by the formation of several hematomas on his back trunk 2 days after he had received UFH. The lesions regressed after discontinuation of heparin and supportive topical treatments. Discussion: The lesions in this patient have similar characteristic with heparin-induced skin necrosis and demonstrate thrombocytopenia probably related to heparin. There are some proposed hypotheses of pathophysiology which include hypersensitivity reaction and idiosyncratic dose-related reaction. Given the clinically course, the discontinuation of heparin treatment was essential for lesion regression in addition other supportive measures. Conclusion: Heparin-induced skin lesions may indicate the presence of life-threatening heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. An early diagnosis is crucial to enable discontinuation of heparin if required.
Gerardo Cazzato, Anjali Oak, Asim Mustafa Khan, Jayesh
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 218-234; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51b33536

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of the study is to justify the need of deep learning predictive model in obtaining molecular phenotypes of overall cancer survival. Study Design: The study is based on the secondary qualitative data analysis through usage of systematic review. Methodology: A qualitative study has been conducted to analyse the necessity of deep learning. It also includes the need for deep learning models to obtain the imaging of the cancer cells. In the study, a detailed discussion on deep learning has been made. The analysis of the primary sources has been obtained by evaluating the quality of the resources in the study. The study also comprises of a thematic analysis that enlightens the benefits of deep learning. The study is based on the analysis of 14 primary research-based articles out of 112 quantitative articles and structuring of a systematic review from the collected data. Results: The morphological and physiological changes that occur in the cancerous cells have been clearly evaluated in the research. The result signifies the prediction can be made by implementing deep learning in terms of cancer survival. Advancements in terms of technology in the medical field can thus be improved with the help of the deep learning process. It states the advancements of the deep learning models that are helpful in predicting the model of cancer to determine survival rate. Conclusion: Deep learning is a process that is considered to be a subset of artificial intelligence. Deep learning programmes are meant to be performed for complex learning models. Although there is difference in the concept of deep learning and image processing still artificial intelligence brings both together so as to ensure better performance in image processing. The need for deep learning models has become invasive, and it helps to build a strong ground for cancer survival.
Lawrance Ebenezeri Kileo, Nsajigwa Emmanuel Mbije
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 126-143; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430264

Abstract:
Saadani-Wami-Mbiki wildlife corridor has been facing conservation threats as a result of various land-use practices (LUP) carried out in and around the corridor. The understanding of changes happening in the corridor over time is important for establishing the management baseline data. This study aimed at identifying land use practices along the Saadani-Wami-Mbiki wildlife corridor and their implications to wildlife conservation. Specifically, the study sought to determine the rate of land cover changes in the corridor between 1975 and 2011 and the effects associated with land use practices on wildlife conservation. The land sat imageries of 1975, 1995, and 2011 were used to assess the rate of vegetation cover changes as a result of various land use practices carried out along. The household survey and Key informants' interview methods were used to obtain socio-economic data which were analyzed using SPSS while GIS data were analyzed using the ERDAS IMAGINE 9.1 and ArcGIS 9.3 programs. In the past 36 years (1975-2011), the cultivated land increased by 25%, settlement by 13%, open forest by 10% while closed forest and grassland decreased by 18% and 3% respectively. Shifting cultivation, overgrazing, charcoal burning, settlements, and poaching were identified as major land use practices threatening wildlife conservation within the corridor. Based on the results, it was recommended that, the Government should formulate a land use management plan and introduce a community-based natural resources management strategy to improve natural resources utilization and reduction of human stress to the corridor.
V. Jaldhani, D. Sanjeeva Rao, P. Beulah, B. Srikanth, P. R. Rao, D. Subrahmanyam, P. Sudhakar, A. Krishna Satya, C. N. Neeraja,
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 258-266; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130540

Abstract:
Aims: To assess heat-induced PSII damage and efficiency in eight promising backcross introgression lines (BC2F6) of KMR-3R/N22 possessing qHTSF1.1 and qHTSF4.1. Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad India during wet/rainy (Kharif) season 2018. Methodology: Eight ILs (BC2F6) and parents were evaluated for heat tolerance. The high- temperature stress was imposed by enclosing the crop with a poly cover tent (Polyhouse) just before the anthesis stage. The fluorescence parameters viz., maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), Electron transport rate (ETR), effective PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) and coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (qN) were measured under ambient and high-temperature stress. Results: The heat-tolerance potential of ILs was assessed in terms of PSII activity. The results indicated that significant differences were observed between treatments (T), genotypes (G) and the interaction between T × G. The physiological basis of introgressed QTLs controls the spikelet fertility by maintaining the productive and adaptive strategies in heat-tolerant QTL introgressed lines with stable photosynthetic apparatus (PSII) under high-temperature stress. Conclusion: The Fv/Fm ratio denotes the maximum quantum yield of PSII. The heat-tolerant QTL introgressed lines exhibited stable photosynthetic apparatus (PSII) and noted better performance under high-temperature stress. They may be used as donors for fluorescence traits in breeding rice for high-temperature tolerance.
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