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Ahmet Cumhur Akin, Murat Polat, Burak Mat, Mustafa Bahadır ÇEVRİMLİ, Mehmet Saltuk Arikan, Zeynep Özel, Mustafa Agah Tekindal
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1065921

Abstract:
Recently, Turkey has seen significant increases in animal-source foods and related raw material prices. These recent increases in prices have made it even more important to examine the prices of animal-source foods and their associated factors. This study aimed to reveal the pattern network structure and characteristics of the prices of animal-source foods and related variables for the 2010-2020 period in Turkey. To this end, a network analysis covered the prices of animal-source foods, raw material prices used in producing these foods, and some economic variables. The study results revealed that Producer Price Index (PPI) and Agricultural PPI are key variables that are highly active in the network and act as a bridge between other unconnected variables. In addition, the results of the analysis suggest that the overall network consists of highly correlated variables and that the PPI and Agricultural PPI are the two most important variables. As a result, the pattern network structure shows that economic variables have a high impact on the prices of animal-source foods. The network structure visualizes Turkey's import-substitution model in animal production and foreign dependency on feed raw materials and the market structure affected by high exchange rates. In addition, as can be understood from the positive connections between feed raw materials, the pattern network of the variables affecting the prices of animal-source foods is largely shaped by feed prices and the internal dynamics of economic variables.
Haci Ahmet Deveci, Gökhan Nur, Abdulsamed Kükürt, Mushap Kuru, Ayla Deveci
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1068527

Abstract:
In this study, the changes caused by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in the histopathological and biochemical parameters in the oxidant / antioxidant balance in mice with experimental cadmium toxicity were investigated. Plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total sialic acid (TSA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant capacity (TOC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were analyzed on mice’s blood samples. The results showed that cadmium intoxication triggered oxidative stress in the mice. It also lowered their PON activity alongside TAC and HDL levels and increased their TSA, LDL, TOC, and OSI levels. The histopathological examination of the liver tissues revealed focal apoptotic regions, sinusoidal occlusion, and irregularity in the cadmium group and no significant change in the other groups. These results indicated that CAPE can significantly prevent biochemical and histopathological changes due to cadmium damage.
Safura Jabbari, Jamal Seifdavati, Gholam Reza Ghorbani, Hosein Abdi-Benemar, Reza Seyed Sharifi, Sayyad Seifzadeh
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1025207

Abstract:
This investigation's purpose was the evaluation of the effects of physical forms of corn and forage sources on growth performance, blood parameters, and ruminal fermentation of Holstein calves. Forty-eight Holstein calves (38.2 ± 1.2 kg of BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 12 replications for 65 days. The treatments were: 1) Basal diet + mashed form corn + wheat straw (MCWS), 2) Basal diet + flacked form corn + wheat straw (FCWS), 3) Basal diet + mashed form corn+ Sugarcane bagasse (MCSB) and 4) Basal diet + flacked form corn + sugarcane bagasse (FCSB). Final body weight and daily weight gain were affected significantly by the forage (F) factor whereas no effect from C (corn physical forms) and C×F interaction were observed. Skeletal growth parameters were not affected by C, F, and F×C factors. The trial factors did not affect triglyceride and BHBA levels, while glucose level and urea were affected by C and F factors. At 30 and 60 days, Calves fed on FCWS had the highest glucose. Also, calves fed the FCSB diet presented higher urea at 30 and 60 days. Acetate acid was affected significantly by C, F, and C×F interaction (P
Ipek Erdem, Aykut Zerek, Sibel Elmacioğlu Cura, Mehmet Yaman, Mehmet Zeki Yılmaz Deveci, Ömer Kirgiz
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1062916

Abstract:
In this case report, in a twelve years old domestic cat is reported cystic echinococcosis which detected during exploratory laparotomy. In the anamnesis, there was a complaint of progressive abdominal swelling. As a result of clinical and radiological examinations, was detected unknown intraabdominal formations. At laparotomy were found to be multiple cysts on the right and left kidneys. As a result of molecular analysis, hydatid cyst, which is the larva of Echinococcus granulosus, was detected. This study is the first case of cystic echinococcosis detected molecularly in a domestic cat in Turkey.
Nevena Grkovic, Ivana Zuber Bogdanovic, Spomenka Djuric, Nedjeljko Karabasil, Branko Suvajdzic, Nikola Cobanovic, Vesna Djordjevic, Dragan Vasilev, Mirjana Dimitrijevic
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.920577

Abstract:
Seasonal variation occurring in all seasons in one year in the nutrient composition of Mytilus galloprovincialis, cultivated in Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro, was investigated in this study. Biometric parameters, meat yield, condition index, proximate composition, minerals, as well as the lipid and fatty acid compositions of mussels were analyzed. Most significant factors determining these parameters were temperature, food amount and gametogenesis The biometric parameters showed no significant differences during the sampling period. In the spring, meat yields and mussel condition index increased at significant levels. Low values od meat yield and condition index during cold months has been a result of food shortage and reproductive cycle, when mussels use carbohydrates and protein reserves. The highest amount of protein was detected in mussels harvested in August (10.76%), while the highest amount of lipids was recorded in the winter months (2.11%). Fatty acid profiles revealed the predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), followed by saturated (SFAs) and monounsaturated (MUFAs) fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were the most abundant PUFA. The concentration of metals found in mussels from the study area is within the range of mean values reported in the literature. Our results indicate that the best period for mussels harvesting were during the spring and summer (April and August), opposite the winter months when the mussels were not favorable for harvesting.
Fadime Kiran, Basar Karaca, Ali Furkan Erdoğan
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1097786

Abstract:
Microbial biofilms defined as extremely complex ecosystems are considered clinically important for humans. However, the concept and significant roles of microbial biofilms in the progression of disease has seriously lagged in veterinary medicine, when compared with human medicine. Although the research on biofilms in animals is just beginning to emerge, limited studies have paid attention that microbial biofilms are clinically important in the field of veterinary medicine, especially the livestock industry, and lead to serious economic losses. In this review, the importance of microbial biofilms causing high economic losses in the livestock industry has been highlighted. Besides, the concept of microbial biofilm, their role in the pathogenesis of the animal disease, as well as diagnosis approaches and possible therapeutic strategies needed to overcome their detrimental effects in veterinary medicine, has been discussed.
Reza Kheirandish, Soodeh Alidadi, Shahrzad Azizi, Atena Azami
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.963458

Abstract:
A 2-year-old Asian Houbara bustard was presented with a solitary well-defined, firm cutaneous mass on the hock region. Grossly, the mass protruded from the surface was located on the hairless and unpigmented areas of the right hock joint with ulceration and dried hemorrhagic foci. On microscopic examination, ulceration, hemorrhage, as well as hyperkeratosis were observed. Large round, oval to polygonal neoplastic cells extended into the dermis were arranged to form cords, trabeculae, islands or glandular-like structures without keratin pearls. These pseudoglandular structures were composed of pseudolumina containing acantholytic and detached tumor cells. Necrosis of the neoplastic cells was accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells particularly heterophils. Unlike pleomorphic tumor cells, mitotic count was almost frequent. No evidence of other abnormalities and tumor metastasis was found. These gross and microscopic features appeared to be suggestive of a rare histologic variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), acantholytic SCC.
Özge Sizmaz, Bekir Hakan Köksal, Gültekin Yildiz
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1059346

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of humic acid and boric acid on rumen fermentation parameters in rams. For this purpose, 3 rams were used in this experiment. Rams in each treatment; a control with no supplements (C), 180 ppm boric acid (B) and 5 ml/kg humic acid (H) with 65:35 forage to concentrate ratio. Each experimental period lasted 14 days, with 12 first days of diet adaptation. Totally the experimental period lasted 56 days. In both time periods (0 and 3h after feeding), there were no significant difference (P>0.05) on rumen pH, ammonia, protozoa count, estimated methane production and volatile fatty acid composition. However, butyric acid concentration tended to be higher in experimental groups (P=0.08). As a result of this study, these feed additives did not modify the rumen milieu and showed no negative effect in rams.
Ceren Yaman, Halit Kanca
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1092062

Abstract:
Bipolar damar kapama (BDK) cihazları veteriner hekimlikte artarak kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada köpeklerin preskrotal açık orşiektomide bir bipolar damar kapama (BDK) cihazının kullanılmasının cerrahi süre, portoperatif ağrı ve cerrahi bölge komplikasyonlarını azaltıp azaltılamayacağının sütur ligasyonu ile karşılaştırılarak belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Elektif kastrasyon amacıyla başvuran 50 orta ve büyük ırk köpek rastgele ligasyon ve BDK gruplarına ayrılmıştır. Cerrahi süre, 15. dakika, 1, 6 ve 24 saatlerde portoperatif ağrı ve 24. saatte cerrahi bölge şişlik ve morluk skorları karşılaştırılmıştır. Cerrahi süre BDK grubunda (medyan 8.30; aralık 7.03 to 10.17 minutes) ligasyon grubundan (medyan 10.18; aralık 7.47 to 12.33 dakika) daha kısa bulunmuştur. Bipolar damar kapama grubunda köpeklerin yaş (r=0.458, P=0.021) ve vücut ağırlığı (r=0.432, P=0.031) cerrahi süreyi etkilemiştir. Bipolar damar kapama grubunda postoperatif 15. dakika (P=0.001) ve 1. saatte (P=0.045) ligasyon grubundan daha düşük ağrı skorları gözlenmiştir. Cerrahi bölge şişlik skoru BDK grubunda (0.24 ± 0.09) ligasyon grubuna (0.72 ± 0.17) kıyasla düşük (P=0.034) olmuştur. Bipolar damar kapama grubunda (0.44 ± 0.13) ligasyon grubundan (1.16 ± 0.22) daha düşük morluk skoru (P=0.168) gözlenmiştir. Köpeklerin açık orşiektomisinde BDK yönteminin kullanılması geleneksel ligasyon tekniğine kıyasla daha kısa cerrahi süre ve daha düşük postoperatif ağrı ve cerrahi bölge komplikayonları ile sonuçlanmaktadır.
Havva Süleymanoğlu, Kürşat Turgut, Merve Ertan, Mehmet Ege Ince, Amir Naseri
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1028816

Abstract:
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes in macrovascular and microvascular parameters in survivors (Sv) and non-survivors (non-Sv) dogs with severe sepsis and septic shock (SS&SS) in response to goal-directed hemodynamic optimization at the intensive care unit (ICU), and to evaluate norepinephrine (NE) and dobutamine (DT) ICU applications, and their effectiveness for predicting death. Thirty-five dogs with SS&SS were used. NE was given to 10 hypotensive dogs, despite one bolus of fluid therapy, at a constant infusion rate of 1.5 µg/kg/min for 2 h. If the clinical response was inadequate after 2 h, the rate of NE infusion was doubled (3.0 µg/kg/min). DT was administered to 5 dogs with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) (LVS’
, Güven Güngör, Burak Rahmi Yalçin, Savaş SARIÖZKAN, Yusuf Konca
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1048979

Abstract:
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of choice feeding of whole wheat on performance, egg quality and income in laying hens. In the study, a total of 160-Hyline W-80 white commercial laying hens with 28 weeks old were divided into four treatment groups and fed 84 days. The treatment groups were as follows: 1) Control (C, standard commercial laying hen feed), 2) C feed+choice feeding continuously with whole wheat in a separate cup (CW), 3) C feed+weekly intermittent choice feeding with whole wheat in a separate cup (WW), 4) C feed+choice feeding with continuous whole wheat+limestone together in a separate cup (WL). Choice feeding with whole wheat methods (continuous, weekly intermittent and with limestone) caused a significant decrease in live weight change of laying hens (P0.05). In conclusion, the choice feeding of whole wheat in laying hens did not negatively affect the performance and economic parameters; however, it caused reductions in some egg quality values.
Sibel Işin, Nuray Yazihan, Burcu Kesikli, Derya Biriken, Sevginur Akdaş, Ferda Topal Celikkan, Batuhan Bakirarar, Pelin Aribal-Ayral
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1019201

Abstract:
Musculoskeletal injuries as a kind of traumas that the human body is exposed to, adversely affect the quality of life and workforce of individuals due to restriction of movement function. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of dose-dependent ascorbic acid administration on the repair process after gastrocnemius muscle injury in rats. In this study, 5-month-old 66 male Wistar Albino rats were used and rats were randomized to 6 groups (n = 11/group). A linear incision was made in the gastrocnemius muscle of thirty-three animals included in the muscle injury groups. Ascorbic acid (5-10 mg/kg/day) was administered to the four groups intraperitoneally just after surgery once a day. Animals were sacrificed twenty-one days later. Blood and tissue samples were used for cytokine, collagen, and histological measurements. It was found that ascorbic acid reduced serum IL-6 and muscle tissue TNF-α levels, and increased liver tissue IL-10 levels. Muscle tissue collagen levels were not statistically different between the groups in parallel with our histological results. In our study, it was demonstrated that vitamin C has effects on inflammatory mediators during muscle tissue repair to explain mechanism detailed molecular analyzes are needed.
Nazlı TÜRKMEN, Bülent Baş, Rabia Albayrak Delialioğlu, Ayşe GÜRSOY
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1008552

Abstract:
In this study, different ratios (A-0%, B-25%, C-50%, D-75%) of kefir were used in ice cream mix in order to obtain functional ice cream enriched with probiotic bacteria. There was no difference between the chemical and physical properties of the samples, except for acidity and overrun values. Kefir containing samples showed probiotic properties during 90-day storage considering the probiotic bacterial counts. However, sample D had the lowest scores in terms of texture and flavor properties, while B and C had similar scores to sample A in sensory evaluation. Therefore, B and C were identified as probiotic products with acceptable properties during 90-day storage.
Gonca Öztap, Seher Küçükersan
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.981159

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the effects of Pinus pinaster extract (PPE) and encapsulated Pinus pinaster extract (EPPE) supplementation in normal and low protein broiler diets on performance, some blood and antioxidant parameters, and intestinal histomorphology. In the study, for obtaining EPPE, PPE was covered with alginate. The research was carried out 41-days with 288 one-day-old male broiler chicks. Chicks were classified into two groups that have different protein levels, one of with normal, the other one with 10% low protein. Also, normal and low protein level groups were divided to one control and two trial groups. The amount of 100 mg/kg PPE was added to each of the trial group diets and the same amount EPPE was added to other trial group diets. Consequently, in comparison of PPE and EPPE groups with control, statistically significant differences were observed for body weight and body weight gain in terms of protein on 41-day results (P<0.05). For feed conversation ratio, better results were determined in PPE groups at 41 days (P<0.05). Besides that, statistically significant differences were found in breast meat TBARS values and intestinal histomorphology in PPE and EPPE groups as compared to the control groups (P<0.05). In this study, it is concluded that 100 mg/kg PPE and EPPE can be supplemented in normal and low protein broiler diets without any adverse effects and to be considered as an alternative aromatic substance for broiler rations.
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1019154

Abstract:
Turkey is the second largest producer of honey worldwide. However production size does not parallel the income through the export of honey and honey products. Main reasons for this divergence are the presence of honey bee diseases (predators) and residues in the honey. Due to the observation of Aethina tumida (small hive beetle; SHB) in Europe (Italy) and Tropilealaps spp. Iran’s border regions close to Turkey, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of the Republic of Turkey has raised its alert level for these two notifiable diseases. Aethina tumida is a fruit insect originally from South Africa and it has later adapted to bee colonies. In the early 2000s, the agent came to North America with imported fruits and caused serious bee losses. Spreading to 12 countries to date SHB caused serious economic damage in the countries it entered and could not be eradicated. Tropilaelaps spp. is an ectoparasite that does not survive long without honey bee brood on which it feeds and requires to survive. Tropilaelaps mite even suppresses Varroa when found in a colony andextinguishes the colony in a short time. It is very likely that these two pests will enter and spread rapidly in Turkey and cause serious damage to our beekeeping due to the migratory beekeeping practices in our country.
Allafouza Tidjani Mahamat, Levent Altintaş, Yaşar ALUÇ
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1071743

Abstract:
Antibiotics used on animals with food value may cause residual problems in food in terms of public health. This situation can cause serious problems in terms of human health. Raw milk, which is one of the products that are important in terms of food value, is one of the foods that are likely to contain antibiotics, even in trace amounts. In this study, raw goat's milk samples offered for sale in Ankara, Çankırı and Kırıkkale; One active ingredient was selected from the five most commonly used antibiotic groups in animals (enrofloxacin, sulfametoxazole, tilosin, penicillin G, oxytritracycline) and it was aimed to determine the residue levels of these substances in milk. For this purpose; Within one year and in two different periods, 150 raw goat milks were collected from the enterprises belonging to goat milk breeders and analyzed in terms of antibiotics specified by HPLC method. The retention times for enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, tylosin, penicillin G and oxytetracycline were 7.9; 9.7; 11.5; 5.4; 7.3 min. aspect; LOD values are 1.47, respectively; 0.8; 7.51; 2.69; 8.89 µg/L and LOQ values of 4.47, respectively; 2.44; 22.78; 8.16; It was found to be 26.96 µg/L, as a result of the analysis, no antibiotic residues were detected in the goat milk samples. It is predicted that goats have a higher level of disease resistance than other milch animals, therefore, it is foreseen that the lower use of antibiotics in these animals leads to this result.
Serap Özkale, Hatice Ahu Kahraman
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1069886

Abstract:
Research in recent years has focused on innovative technologies that provide pathogen inactivation without damaging the structural properties of foods. Ohmic heating (OH) is an innovative technology, that provides an effective microbial inactivation with massive and rapid heating. This study aims to determine the effects of milk fat on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by OH with a low voltage gradient. L. monocytogenes inoculated 3.1%, 1.5%, and 0.1% fat-milk samples were heated up to 62°C by OH and conventional heating (CH) process. OH treatment lead to the inactivation of L. monocytogenes in both 1.5% and 0.1% groups and led to approx. 5.30 log decrease, however, there was only a 3.10 log decrease in the 3.1% group at 6 min. CH lead to a few reduction as 0.21, 0.29 and 0.39 log in 3.1%, 1.5% and 0.1% fat-milk respectively. In OH, the sublethal injury ratio was higher than CH in all milk groups. However, OH did not statistically change color and pH values at the 6th min of the process, had a significant effect on Hydroxymethylfurfural value only in 3.1% fat-milk. In conclusion, the increased fat content may have important inhibitory effects on pathogen inactivation in OH. Thus, the OH conditions should be chosen carefully to sufficient inactivation of pathogens in milk with high-fat content.
Ali Yiğit, Şule Sanal, Ayşe MENTEŞ GÜRLER
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1009718

Abstract:
In order to improve animal husbandry in Turkey, eight livestock congresses were held between 1968-2000 under the leadership of the Turkish Veterinary Medical Association (TVMA). In these congresses, besides problems in the livestock sector, issues related to the production and consumption of animal products were also discussed. The aim was for the organizers and participants to be composed of different fields related to animal husbandry and thus address the issue from every perspective. The establishment of an autonomous "Ministry of Livestock" was demanded in all congresses. Problems and solution proposals regarding animal husbandry in Turkey were scientifically discussed with veterinarians, producers, industrialists, consumers, and government representatives. As a result, it can be said that the topics discussed in the congresses shed light on the current problems and solutions regarding the development of veterinary medicine and country animal husbandry.
Nursel Dikmen, Hüseyin Özkan, Funda Çimen, Baran Çamdeviren, Emrah Ay, Pınar Ambarcioğlu, Nizami Duran, Akın YAKIN
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.938418

Abstract:
The aim of study was to investigate the proliferative and inflammatory effects of atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin in lung cancer. The effects of statins were investigated in Vero, BEAS-2B, and A549 cell lines. In addition to expressions of BAX, BCL-2, TNFα, IL-10, IL-6, protein levels of TNFα, IL-10, IL-6 were determined. Cell viability and MDA were also measured. While the cell numbers in groups with low doses of statins were found to be approximately 1x106/mL, proliferation was inhibited at higher rates containing high doses. Simvastatin, rosuvastatin and high dose atorvastatin upregulated the BAX, while high dose of atorvastatin and both doses of rosuvastatin caused downregulation in BCL-2. All statin groups had higher MDA. Simvastatin and high dose rosuvastatin upregulated TNFα. Low dose simvastatin and atorvastatin and high dose atorvastatin and rosuvastatin upregulated IL-10. IL-6 were upregulated with low dose of rosuvastatin. TNFα was higher in simvastatin and rosuvastatin groups. IL-10 were highest in rosuvastatin groups. Atorvastatin groups had lower IL-6. Although cell numbers have reduced by all statins, rosuvastatin are more effective on studied genes. Findings may give important insights about drugs and target receptors to be used with and without statins in cancer treatment.
Yaşar ŞAHİN, Zehra Gün Gök, Mehmet Eray Alçiğir, Miyase Çinar
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.990270

Abstract:
In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of a poly(ethylene terephthalate)-g-poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PET-g-HEMA) nanofiber wound dressing modified with sericin-coated silver nanoparticles (S-AgNPs) on internal organs, oxidative stress, and biochemical parameters. To establish a burn model, the backs of anesthetized rats were shaved and then third-degree burns were created with a round-bottomed stainless steel rod 2 cm in diameter kept in 100 °C water for 20 seconds. The wounds of the negative control group (G1) were covered with standard bandages; the wounds of the positive control group (G2) were covered with SILVERCEL, used as burn wound material; and the wounds of the experimental group (G3) were covered with PET-based dressing material. Histopathological changes in organs (liver, kidneys, heart, pancreas, lungs), oxidative stress (total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, and nitric oxide), and biochemical parameters (serum aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT], creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea) were examined. Compared with the G1 group, plasma AST, ALT, and GGT levels were found to be significantly decreased in G2 and G3 (P<0.001). Plasma total antioxidant status was found to be significantly increased in G2 and G3 compared to G1 (P<0.05). Compared to the G1 group, degenerative and necrotic changes in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were found to be significantly reduced in G2 and G3 (P<0.05). In conclusion, this work demonstrates that the synthesized PET-based wound dressing material has the capacity to be used commercially. Bu çalışmada, serisin kaplı gümüş nanopartiküller ile modifiye edilen poli(etilen tereftalat)-g-poli(hidroksietil metakrilat) (PET-g-HEMA) nanofiber yara pansuman malzemesinin iç organlar, oksidatif stres ve biyokimyasal parametreler üzerindeki etkisinin araştırılması amaçlandı. Yanık model oluşturmak için, anestezi altındaki sıçanların sırtı tıraş edildikten sonra 100 °C suda bekletilen 2 cm çapa sahip yuvarlak dipli paslanmaz çelik çubuk ile 20 saniye temas ettirildi ve sıçanların sırtlarında 3. derece yanık yaraları oluşturuldu. Negatif kontrol (sargı bezi) grubunun (G1) yarası standart sargı bezi, pozitif kontrol grubunun (G2) yarası yanık yara malzemesi olarak kullanılan silvercel ürünü ve deney grubunun (G3) yarası da PET tabanlı örtü malzemesi ile kapatıldı. Çalışmada organlar (karaciğer, böbrek, kalp, pankreas, akciğer) üzerindeki histopatolojik değişikler, oksidatif stres (TAS, TOS, NO) ve biyokimyasal parametreler (serum; AST, ALT, GGT, CK, LDH, total protein, albümin, globülin, üre) incelendi. G1 gubu ile karşılaştırıldığında, plazma AST, ALT ve GGT düzeyleri G2 ve G3 gruplarında anlamlı olarak azaldığı bulundu (P<0.001). Plazma TAS seviyesi, G1 grubuna kıyasla G2 ve G3 gruplarında anlamlı bir şekilde artığı bulundu (P<0.05). G1 gubu ile karşılaştırıldığında karaciğer, böbrek ve pankreastaki dejeneratif ve nekrotik değişikliklerin G2 ve G3 gruplarında anlamlı olarak azaldığı bulundu (P<0.05). Sonuç olarak; sentezlenen PET tabanlı yara örtü malzemesinin ticari olarak kullanılma kapasitesine sahip olduğunu göstermektedir.
Nigar Yerlikaya
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.920487

Abstract:
This research was carried out to determine the general profile of the students enrolled in Turkish and English programs of Ankara University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (AUFVM). Determination of the demographic characteristics, family and socio-economic statuses and pre-university education levels of students are aimed. Additionally, reasons for choosing the veterinary profession, career expectations, views on postgraduate education, leisure time preferences and participation in sportive and artistic activities are evaluated. The universe of the study consisted of 545 students studying in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th grades enrolled in Ankara University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2019-2020 Spring Semester of Turkish and English programs. It has been determined that the students are generally of urban origin (mostly from the central Anatolian region) and come from families with low income. Accordingly, more than half of the students chose the veterinary faculty program as their first choice and they are satisfied with being a veterinary faculty student and a candidate of the profession. In addition, it has been highlighted that more than half of the students want to continue their post-graduate education, “sometimes” have the chance to participate in sportive and cultural activities, and have low rate of reading books. As a result, it can be said that collecting data of veterinary faculty students and presenting a general overview of the student profile will be beneficial for both university and faculty administrators and academicians in terms of providing the opportunity to know the students and assess their abilities.
Coşkun AYDIN, Gökmen Zafer Pekmezci
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.987702

Abstract:
Monogeneans are common ectoparasitic flatworms of marine fish. The diplectanid monogenean Diplectanum aequans (Wegener, 1857) (Diplectanidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites in the wild and cultured European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) worldwide. This parasitic species cause severe pathological damages in the gills and death in the infected European sea bass. Presently, there is no information on the molecular data of D. aequans from Turkish coasts. In the present study, diplectanid monogeneans were collected from wild and cultured D. labrax (L.) in the Black Sea (FAO area 37.4.2) and Aegean Sea (FAO area 37.1.3) coasts of Turkey, morphologically identified, and genetically characterized by DNA sequencing of 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA fragments. The collected diplectanids were unambiguously identified as D. aequans based on detailed morphological features and sequence characterization of partial 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. The prevalence and mean intensity of D. aequans were 100% and 15.1, respectively. This study reports first information of molecular (28S and 18S rRNA) evidence of D. aequans from D. labrax in the Turkish coasts. The new 18S and 28S rRNA sequences for D. aequans isolated from the Black Sea (FAO area 37.4.2) and Aegean Sea (FAO area 37.1.3) are genetically characterized. The 28S and 18S rRNA sequences of D. aequans can be used to resolve the phylogenetic positions of Diplectanidae species from the Black and Mediterranean Sea.
Ales Gregorc, Caio Domingues, Hidayet Tutun, Sedat Sevin
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1029296

Abstract:
Bees’ are the major pollinators in natural ecosystems and in agricultural production of several crops used for human consumption. However, they are exposed to multiple stressors that are causing a serious decline in their population. We highlight a major one among them, the Varroa destructor mite (Varroa) that causes severe impacts on the health of honey bee colonies, transmitting a variety of viruses that can affect the survival ability of individual bees and entire colonies. Diagnosis and mite control methods have been intensively studied in recent decades, with many studies in different areas of knowledge having been conducted. This overview summarizes these studies with a focus on colony defense systems, biological characteristics of the parasite Varroa, diagnostic methods used to establish the infestation level of colonies, and currently used control methods.
Ali Daşkin, Esra Totan, Kemal Tuna Olğaç
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.985216

Abstract:
In this case, semen that handled by urethral catheterization was deposited into the deepest point of the vagina of an anesthetized queen. Intravaginal artificial insemination was applied on the 2nd day of onset of the oestrus and only single insemination was performed. Insemination time was determined by behavioral and cytological evaluations. Two healthy kittens were obtained 62 days after insemination. The case has important reports in terms of being the first artificial insemination performance in cats in Turkey, resulted in parturition.
Süleyman Karakaya, Pinar Karatepe, Halil Yalçin, Ali Arslan
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1006294

Abstract:
In this study, morphometric measurement, meat yield, moisture, pH, protein, fat, fatty acids and ash content were determined in a total of 102 (15 female and 87 male) freshwater crab (Potamon persicum Pretzmann,1962) caught from xxxxxxxx. Meat yield in male and in female crabs were found to be as 12.75±0.38% and 10.93±0.32% respectively. It has been observed that moisture and protein amounts were higher in female crabs than in male crabs. The amounts of fat were 0.96±0.31% in male crabs and 0.97±0.35% in female crabs. The ash contents were found to be as 2.68±0.04% in male crabs and as 2.66±0.03% in female crabs. It was determined that the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (female:male 33.56%:37,44%) in female and male crabs were higher than polyunsaturated (female:male 24.19%:21.62%) and saturated fatty acid (female:male 28.11%:32.85%) content. The highest fatty acid was found to be as omega-9, in terms of omega-3 (male crabs % 8.54, female crabs %14.85), omega-6 (male crabs % 10.04, female crabs %5.46) and omega-9 fatty acids (male crabs % 23.65, female crabs %19.14) in freshwater crab (Potamon persicum Pretzmann,1962) meat.
Ali Said Durmuş, Eren Polat
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.951261

Abstract:
The subject of this study was a 7-day-old female simmental calf brought to Fırat University Veterinary Faculty Animal Hospital Surgery Clinic with the complaint of cleft in the upper lip and palate. In the clinical examination, it was determined that the calf had respiratory difficulties and the nostrils were not formed normally. The calf was diagnosed with cheilognathopalatoschisis. Palatoplasty and reconstructive surgery were performed on the calf for the treatment of the rarely encountered case. Both ends of the cleft hard palate were released and sutured opposite each other. The medial wings of the nostrils were stitched and brought to their normal position by creating a wound. During the interview with the patient's owner, it was learned that the calf had difficulty in swallowing during feeding. It was determined that the calf died on the 8th postoperative day due to aspiration pneumonia that developed due to the absence of probable swallowing reflex.
Tuba Bayir
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.959951

Abstract:
This study was aimed to understand the temporal, spatial epidemiology and calculate the case fatality rates of Newcastle Disease (ND) between 2017-2019 in Turkey using The World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) database of The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Also was aimed to produce the maps by using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). 220 outbreaks of ND were registered in 47 provinces of Turkey between 2017-2019 and were 88,372 poultry animals contracted the disease. The highest number of ND outbreaks, cases, deaths and killed/disposed animals was reported in The Black Sea Region between 2017-2019. The outbreak was mostly seen in the spring months. The peak month of Newcastle Disease was in May, the lowest month was October. Creating maps based on the outbreaks of ND, commonly seen in Turkey will have an important role in improving the measures to be taken against the disease.
Habip Muruz, , Abdurrahman Aksoy
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.933798

Abstract:
This study was conducted to compare cholesterol levels and shell pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin) of chicken (conventional, organic), quail, pheasant and goose eggs. Chicken (organic system - Lohmann Brown and cage system - HyLine Brown), quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), goose (local) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs homogeneously selected with a subjective scoring were used as the material of the study. For each poultry species, 20 eggs were used to determine egg yolk cholesterol and eggshell protoporphyrin and biliverdin levels. Egg yolk cholesterol levels varied between 14.96–16.96 mg/g and cholesterol levels of the cage system were found lower. The greatest eggshell protoporphyrin level (81.92 µM/g) was obtained from quail eggs and the lowest (10.73 µM/g) from chicken eggs of the cage system. While biliverdin was not encountered in chicken and goose eggshells, the difference in biliverdin levels of quail (2.83 µM/g) and pheasant (1.02 µM/g) eggs were found to be significant. Further detailed research is recommended to put forth the effects of different housing systems on egg cholesterol levels and shell pigment concentrations and to identify the factors (physiological, environmental and feeding) playing a role in these effects.
Aytaç Ünsal Adaca
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.950726

Abstract:
Feedback is considered an essential element of effective learning. Students who receive feedback from peers can improve their clinical and communication skills. This paper aims to provide evidence on whether peer-assisted learning (PAL) is successful in providing students with the ability to provide feedback. In the study, a tutor group (n=20) is trained to provide constructive feedback to peers. After that, the tutors trained other students (tutees, n=20) in PAL to increase their skills in providing feedback. After the training, tutors and tutees used role play about veterinarian-client consultation. Finally, each tutee provided feedback to the tutor about his/her communication skills. There was a statistically significant change between the mean scores of the both “tutor and control groups” (P<0.004) and “tutors and tutees” (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of academic year and gender between groups. Tutees benefited from being trained by peers, and tutors also improved by training others. Both tutors and tutees had the opportunity to improve themselves and increase their feedback skill levels. PAL was found to be effective for both tutors and tutees. Neither the academic year nor the gender of the students tended to change the effectiveness of PAL, and this result shows that PAL can be applied to all veterinary students. Geri bildirim, etkili öğrenmenin temel bir unsuru olarak kabul edilmektedir. Akranlarından geribildirim alan öğrencilerin, klinik becerilerini ve iletişim becerilerini geliştirebildikleri bilinmektedir. Bu makalenin amacı, akran eğitimi ile öğrencilere geri bildirim verme becerisi kazandırmanın etkinliğini ortaya koymaktır. Çalışma, öğreten grup (n=20), kontrol grubu (n=20) ve öğrenen grubundan (n=20) oluşan ön test-son test kontrol grubu deseni olarak tasarlanmıştır. Öğreten grup, etkili geri bildirim vermek üzere eğitilmiş, sonrasında akranlarına geri bildirim verme becerisi kazandırmak üzere akran eğitimi vermiştir. Eğitimin etkinliğinin değerlendirilmesi için öğrenciler rol oynama yöntemini kullanarak veteriner hekim-hasta sahibi görüşmesi yapmıştır. Görüşmelerin sonunda hasta sahibi rolünü oynayan öğrenen grup, veteriner hekim rolünü oynayan öğreten gruba iletişim becerileri konusunda geri bildirim vermiştir. Yapılan istatistiksel değerlendirmeler sonucunda, hem öğreten ve kontrol grubunun (P<0,004) hem de öğreten ve öğrenen grubun (P<0,001) puan ortalamaları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark tespit edilmiş; ancak gruplar arasında sınıf ve cinsiyet açısından anlamlı fark tespit edilememiştir. Sonuç olarak, öğrenen grubun yanı sıra, öğretenlerin de akranlarını eğiterek kendilerini geliştirdiği saptanmış, akran eğitiminin geri bildirim verme becerisi kazandırılması amacıyla kullanılabileceği ileri sürülmektedir. Akran eğitiminin sınıf ve cinsiyet değişkenlerinden etkilenmemesi, bu eğitim metodunun veteriner fakültesinde öğrenim gören tüm öğrencilere uygulanabileceğini göstermektedir.
Necati Timurkaan, Hasan Öngör, Hakan Kalender, Burak Karabulut, Fethiye Çöven, Aydın ÇEVİK, Hatice Eröksüz, Burhan Çetinkaya
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.974221

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to to investigate pathological lesions and the presence of of Israel variant 2 (IS /1494/06) genotype of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens with visceral gout. Sudden deaths were observed in broiler breeders and layer hens belonging to two different flocks located in eastern Turkey. Broiler chickens were previously vaccinated with a vaccine containing strains of IBV Massachusetts serotype, but no information was available about the vaccination history of laying hens. At necropsy, there was accumulation of white chalk-like material on the serosal surface of the heart, liver, spleen and air sacs. The kidneys were unilaterally or bilaterally enlarged and pale in color and, ureters were also enlarged. Pooled organ samples from diseased chickens and kidneys alone were examined by virus isolation, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), nucleotide sequencing analysis and histological methods. Israel variant 2 (IS-var 2) genotype was detected in the samples of both flocks as a result of virus isolation, rRT-PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Histological examination revealed multifocal and randomly distributed crystal deposits in the renal tubulus and adjacent interstitium. Mild to moderate crystalline deposits surrounded by heterophils and macrophages were detected in the serosal layers of the heart, spleen, liver, and air sacs. The findings of this study indicated that IBV should be taken into consideration in visceral gout cases of chickens, and detection of IBV genotypes in the field will enable us to use vaccines compatible with these genotypes in order to control the disease more efficiently.
Nevra Keskin Yilmaz, Patricia A. Schachern, Irem Gul Sancak, Michael M. Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.947214

Abstract:
The Eustachian tube is a canal from the tympanic cavity to the nasopharynx that is responsible for the aeration, drainage, and pressure equalization of the middle ear. Partial or complete blockage of the tube can trigger severe ear disease. We evaluated pathologic changes from Eustachian tube obstruction (ETO) in 15 temporal bones from cats with bilateral ETO from the temporal bone collection of University of Minnesota Medical School Otopathology Laboratory. The samples were evaluated for histopathological changes to investigate the continuum of the disease at intervals of 2 days, 1-week, 2-weeks and 4-weeks. Temporal bones were sectioned in the horizontal plane and every 10th section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. One section from each ear was stained with periodic acid-Schiff and Alcian blue. Sections were studied under light microscopy. The results revealed moderate hyperplasia equally developed throughout the epithelial layer surrounding the middle ear and neutrophil-rich inflammatory cell infiltration. As the duration of obstruction prolonged to the 4th week, compositional change of the middle ear effusion from serous to mucoid that was accompanied with granulation tissue formation was observed. In conclusion, the severity of the findings related to ETO are directly proportional to the duration of the disease. Therefore, patients presenting with long-lasting complaints of ear diseases should be examined for dysfunction or blockage of the Eustachian tube.
Yusuf Şen, Ali Bumin, Oytun Okan Şenel, Başak ÖZGERMEN, Ali Haydardedeoğlu, Medine Irem Başer
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.887739

Abstract:
Thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive imaging method used in the imaging of the thoracic cavity. In comparison with thoracotomy, thoracoscopy provides better visualisation of even the smallest lesions localised in the thoracic cavity. With the use of thoracoscopy, the operation stress in the patient and tissue trauma are reduced and operating time is shortened. The aim of this study was to evaluate 20 dogs with severe pericardial effusion, which manifested as severe circulation disorder and respiratory distress. The patients determined with pericardial effusion as a result of radiographic and echocardiographic examinations were applied with partial pericardiectomy to achieve permanent health and it was decided to apply this with the minimally invasive thoracoscopic method. The paraxiphoid-trandiaphragmatic approach was applied to the first ten patients and the intercostal approach to the remaining ten. The applicability of thoracoscopic partial pericardiectomy, the advantages compared to open surgery, the differences between the two approach techniques, the disadvantages, complications and success rates were evaluated in the study. At the end of the study, it was concluded that this procedure was a successful procedure for dogs and the trans-diaphragmatic approach was more useful. In conclusion, thoracoscopic partial pericardiectomy was determined to be easy to apply and more advantageous than open thoracotomy operations.
Başaran KARADEMİR
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.969542

Abstract:
It is well known that fluoride (F) poisoning causes anxiety and depression, and Agomelatine, an analogue of melatonin, has been reported to be effective on anxiety and depression. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the short-term efficacy of Agomelatine application on anxiety and depression caused by F intoxication via Open-Field and Hot-Plate tests. 40 male BalB-C mice, aged 5-6 months, constituted the research material for this study. Subjects randomly divided into 4 groups (Healthy-Control, Fluorosis-Control, 25 mg/kg Agomelatine, 50 mg/kg Agomelatine). Healthy-Control group (HC) received tap water, containing 0.3 ± 0.05 mgF/L. Fluorosis-Control group (FC) received drinking water containing 40 mgF/L. Other two experimental groups (25 and 50) received drinking water containing 40 mgF/L and single dose Agomelatine (25 and 50 mg/kg respectively). The effect of Agomelatine on anxiety and depression induced by high dose F was evaluated using Open-Field and Hot-Plate tests compared to control groups. Fluorosis caused to decrease in Rearing, Grooming and Square numbers of Open-Field test and to increase Defecation counts (P<0.05). Agomelatine applications enabled the mentioned Open-Field findings to return to healthy control data. According to the hot-plate findings, low reaction time caused by fluorosis increased again in Agomelatine groups (P<0.05). According to these results, with the administration of Agomelatine, psychological improvement was observed in the subjects with fluorosis compared to the control group. Consequently, according to Open-Field and Hot-Plate tests findings, it could be concluded that Agomelatine has a curative effect on anxiety and depression induced by F toxicity.
Ruhi Kabakçi, Ayşe Arzu YİĞİT, Hüsamettin Ekici, Yaşar ALUÇ, Erdal Kara
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.931057

Abstract:
This study was conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations and oxidative status of plasma and erythrocytes in Angora cats at different age and gender. Sixteen young (less than 1 year old) and 14 adult (1-6 years old) cats were also grouped according to gender as male (n=17) and female (n=13). The separated plasma samples from cat’s blood were analyzed for selected heavy metals and total oxidant and antioxidant capacities (TOC and TAC) and calculated for oxidative stress index (OSI). The erythrocyte hemolysates were also evaluated for malondialdehyde (MDA), and super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Results of the study showed that most of measured metals were not varied statistically according to age or gender. However, adult cats had significantly (P<0.01) higher Cu and lower Fe levels compare to young cats. Plasma levels of TOC, TAC and OSI, and erythrocyte MDA concentrations in young cats were significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of adults. While the SOD activity was decreased by the age, GPX activity was increased (P<0.05). However, the activity of CAT was changed by only gender which was higher in males (P<0.01). In conclusion, it is well known that metals especially trace elements, are required for many kinds of physiological process and the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, it can be suggested the periodic measurement of metals and the addition of common antioxidant supplements to diet of adult Angora cats will support weakening antioxidant mechanisms by the age. Bu çalışma, farklı yaş ve cinsiyetteki Ankara kedilerinde ağır meta konsantrasyonlarını ile plazma ve eritrositlerin oksidatif stres durumunu araştırmak için yapıldı. On altı yavru (1 yaşından küçük) ve 14 yetişkin (1-6 yaş) kedi aynı zamanda cinsiyete göre erkek (n=17) ve dişi (n=13) olarak gruplandırıldı. Kedilerin kanından ayrıştırılan plazma örnekleri seçilen ağır metaller ve toplam oksidan ve antioksidan kapasiteler (TOC ve TAC) için analiz edildi ve oksidatif stres endeksi (OSI) için hesaplandı. Eritrosit hemolizatlarından ise, malondialdehit (MDA), süper oksit dismutaz (SOD), katalaz (CAT) ve glutatyon peroksidaz (GPX) açısından değerlendirildi. Çalışmanın sonuçları, ölçülen metallerin çoğunun yaş veya cinsiyete göre istatistiksel olarak değişmediğini gösterdi. Bununla birlikte, yetişkin kedilerde yavrulara göre Cu’nın önemli derecede (P<0.01) yüksek, Fe’nin ise daha düşük olduğu belirlendi. Gençlerdeki plazma TOC, TAC ve OSI seviyeleri ile MDA konsantrasyonları yetişkinlere göre anlamlı derecede yüksekti (P<0.05). SOD aktivitesi yaşla birlikte azalırken, GPX aktivitesi arttı (P<0.05). Ancak, erkeklerde daha yüksek olan CAT aktivitesi sadece cinsiyete göre değişti (P<0.01). Sonuç olarak, metallerin özellikle iz elementlerinin birçok fizyolojik süreç için ve antioksidan enzimlerinin sentezi için gerekli olduğu iyi bilinmektedir. Bu nedenle, metallerin periyodik ölçümünün ve yetişkin Ankara kedilerinin diyetine yaygın antioksidan takviyelerinin eklenmesi yaşla birlikte zayıflayan antioksidan mekanizmaların desteklenmesi açısından önerilebilir.
Funda Almaç Çelik, Abdullah Kaya
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.975163

Abstract:
This study aims to demonstrate the incidence of deafness in Van cats and its distribution by eye color. A total of three hundred Van cats between 2 months and 8 years old were divided into three separate groups (equal in number) at the Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Turkish Van Cat Research Center and subjected to hearing tests using Clinical ABR (Auditory Brain Response) device. Because of this study, the rate of deafness in Van cats was 14.33%. Moreover, it was determined that deafness was not related to sex and hair length. Van cats with spots on their heads did not have deafness. Because of the evaluation based on the hearing thresholds of Van cats, most Van cats had a very good level of hearing (0–10 dB nHL). Unilateral deafness was much lower in Van cats compared to other white cat breeds. Consequently, the rate of deafness in Van cats was lower compared to other white cat breeds. Because of this study, the Van Cat Research Center will prevent the breeding of cats that are deaf based on ABR test results in Van and its surroundings. The incidence of deafness in Van cats will decrease as a result of future studies.
Ferhan Kaygisiz
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.981971

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the marketing channel choices of beekeepers in the sale of strained honey. The primary data was collected with questionnaires conducted with 162 bee breeders in Turkey. When beekeeper characteristics by marketing channel selections were compared, it was determined that breeder's education status, income other than beekeeping, the status of getting support, payment method, satisfaction with the channel, way of determining the price, the source of information, and credit usage status were the variables influential in choosing a marketing channel. As a result of comparing the group selling strained honey through the direct channel and the group selling it through the indirect channel, significant differences were found between the groups in terms of beekeeper's age, the share of beekeeping in annual income, the number of hives, the share of strained honey in beekeeping income, and the selling price of honey. Providing training for beekeepers, ensuring their access to market information, improving infrastructure conditions, and encouraging the production of bee products and cooperative membership will contribute to the increase in their income.
Ali Reha Ağaoğlu, Özgecan Korkmaz Ağaoğlu, Özge Sidekli, Mesih Kocamüftüoğlu
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, Volume 67, pp 193-199; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.640288

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using presynch-10 and ovsynch synchronization protocols on endometrial expression and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) that thought to play roles during endometrial healing process in cows diagnosed with repeat breeder syndrome (RBS) and subclinical endometritis (SE). A total of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows identified as having RBS and SE were used. The animals in Group 1 (G1, n=20) were applied presynch-10 and ovsynch furthermore, biopsy and blood samples were collected both before and after administration. Biopsy and blood samples were taken from the animals in Group 2 (G2, n=20) without performing any synchronization. The IGF-1 gene expression profiles were determined in all samples using RT-qPCR. Even though the level of IGF-1 expression increased in samples taken after synchronization in G1, it was not statistically significant (P>0.05). There was no statistical difference in serum IGF-1 levels between G1 and G2 (P>0.05). In conclusion, the expression of the IGF-1 gene in the endometrial tissue of RBS cows with SE was identified, but the evidence suggests that the synchronization protocols in question had no significant effect on the gene expression profile being investigated.
Ogün Bozkaya, Hüsamettin Ekici, Zehra Gün Gök, Esra Arat, Seda Ekici, Mustafa Yiğitoğlu, Ibrahim Vargel
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.1014802

Abstract:
In the present study, functional silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from silver ions using the therapeutic plant extracts of Centella asiatica (CA). CA functional groups coated AgNPs (CA-AgNPs) formation was proved by characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks at around 420 nm wavelength. The mean zeta size and zeta potential of CA-AgNPs were found to be 29.5 nm and -24.5 mV, respectively. It was determined that the obtained nanoparticles had a negative surface charge and the results showed that the CA-AgNPs were stable. The functional groups analysis of the CA-AgNPs was investigated by a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). With antibacterial test, it was determined that the obtained nanoparticles have antibacterial activity on both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. The cytotoxicity effects of CA and CA-AgNPs in different concentrations on L929 fibroblast were investigated with the MTT test, and it was determined that CA-AgNPs had a cytotoxic effect at concentrations above 1 mM. In addition, the analgesic effects of CA-AgNPs were investigated with tail flick and hot plate methods for the first time in the literature by tail flick and hot plate methods, and statistically significant results were obtained with both methods. These results showed that CA-AgNPs at certain concentrations are suitable nanoscale biomaterials for many biomedical applications.
Orkun Babacan
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.828306

Abstract:
With this study, carbapenem resistance genes were declareted for the first time in Enterobacteriaceae isolates isolated from animals in Turkey. On bacteriological examination of milk samples, E. coli was isolated in 14 (6.60%), Klebsiella oxytoca was isolated in 3 (1.41%) and Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated in 2 (0.94%) a total of 212 samples. At least 2 E. coli isolates were detected resistant to all of the active substances used in the test except for Penicillin+Framycetin. All the isolates were detected susceptible to Penicillin+Framycetin. The highest resistance in K. oxytoca isolates was found to be against cefotaxime, whereas, the highest resistance detected in K. oxytoca isolates against sulphametaxazole/trimethoprim. According to the PCR results of blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV genes, blaCTX-M gene was detected in 1 K. oxytoca isolates with positive ESBL and 4 E. coli isolates. According to the PCR results of carbapenemase and colistin resistance genes, IMP gene were detected in 4 E.coli, 1 K. oxytoca and 1 K. pneumonia isolates. OXA-48-like gene were detected in 2 E. coli isolates. In these 2 E. coli isolates also has IMP gene. While NDM and mcr-1 genes were detected 2 E. coli, NDM gene was detected in 1 E. coli isolate. As a result of identification of ESBL and carbapenem resistance in the species in Enterobacteriaceae family becoming prevalent and increasing, especially among E. coli isolates. Also, identification of multiple antibiotic resistance of active substance in the isolates indicated that antibiotic resistance also spread rapidly and increased.
Pınar Yilgör Huri, Çağdaş Oto
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.871933

Abstract:
The use of 3D printing technology in the field of medicine, which started with the millennium, continues to increase today. Depending on the technological developments in this field, the use of rapid prototyping technology in the field of veterinary medicine is becoming widespread with the development of 3D printers, increasing material variety, cheaper printing costs and being more accessible. Additive manufacturing is used in veterinary education and training, experimental research and clinical studies, and its area of use is expanding day by day. In this review, both the current usage potential will be evaluated and the expected developments in the near future will be revealed. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Bioprinting, Rapid prototyping, three-dimentional printing, Veterinary medicine Özet: Milenyum ile birlikte başlayan 3 boyutlu baskı teknolojisinin tıp alanında kullanımı, günümüzde artarak devam etmektedir. Bu alandaki teknolojik gelişmelere bağlı olarak 3 boyutlu yazıcıların gelişmesi, malzeme çeşitliliğinin artması, baskı maliyetlerinin ucuzlaması ve daha kolay ulaşılabilir olmaları ile hızlı prototipleme teknolojisinin veteriner tıp alanındaki kullanımı da yaygınlaşmaktadır. Katmanlı üretim, veteriner hekimlikte eğitim, deneysel araştırmalar ve klinik çalışmalarda kullanılmakta, kullanım alanı her geçen gün genişlemektedir. Bu makalede hem mevcut kullanım potansiyeli değerlendirilecek, hem de yakın gelecek beklentileri irdelenecektir. Anahtar sözcükler: Biyobaskı, Hızlı prototipleme, Katmanlı üretim, Üç boyutlu baskı, Veteriner tıp
Osman Safa Terzi, Erdal Kara, Yasin Şenel, Ebubekir Ceylan, Salim Neşelioğlu, Özcan Erel
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.928731

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine dynamic thiol-disulphide homeostasis (TDH) parameters and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) levels in calves with neonatal diarrhea and compare with healthy controls. A total of 50 calves were included in the study. There were 25 calves in both diarrhea and healthy groups. Serum native thiol, total thiol, disulfide and IMA amounts were measured using new methods. Native thiol (p=0.025) and total thiol (p=0.041) values decreased significantly in calves with neonatal diarrhea compared to the healthy control group. Disulphide (p= 0.133), % disulphide/native thiol ratio (p=0.001) and IMA (p=0.0018) parameters were lower in healthy group, and the difference between the two groups was significant for the parameters other than disulphide. This study shows that TDH is impaired in neonatal calf diarrhea and IMA levels are increased due to oxidative stress.
Muammer Göncüoğlu, Naim Ayaz, Sabri Hacioglu, Samiye Yeşil, Özcan Yildirim, Cevdet Yarali, Harun Seçkin, Bekir Pakdemirli
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.915360

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to monitor the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in particularly, on certain foods and surfaces in contact with food in the supermarkets of the districts where the highest number of cases reported due to the filiation data of the Ministry of Health, in Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, a total of 172 samples were taken from 5 markets in 4 districts in Ankara. In the study, RNA extraction from the samples was performed by the cador Pathogen 96 QIAcube HT Kit using QIAcube automated extraction robot. RdRp gene targeting RT-qPCR assays was used to determine the SARS-CoV-2. According to the analysis, all of the supermarket samples selected based on the high number of cases in the district were found to be negative except the one where the COVID-19 cases were detected in the staff. In this market, COVID-19 RNA was detected with a high number of copy such as 5000, by Real Time RT-PCR in pooled swab samples taken from salt shakers, pepper shakers, red pepper shakers, vinegar and oil bottles in the social area where the staff used in lunch and breaks. This finding showed that, it is of great importance for public health to monitor food businesses against COVID-19 cases and to take samples from these businesses. Therefore, the collection of samples from food businesses in the regions with high number of cases at certain intervals should continue within the scope of the "Early Warning System".
Mehmet Aydın AKALAN, Aysun Çevik Demirkan, Ismail Türkmenoğlu, Ibrahim Demirkan, ,
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.882553

Abstract:
Merlin is the smallest bird of the Falconidae family and lives in America, the northern regions of Europe and Asia, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Since the poultry does not have teeth, lips, and cheeks, the tongue fulfills significant functions related to nutrition, and it differs morphologically as a result of differences in eating habits. In this study, the tongues obtained from five adult merlin (falco columbarius) were examined morphologically and stereologically. It was determined that the tongue of the merlin was thin, long, and rectangular, the front part was oval, W-shaped papilla linguales caudales were found between the corpus linguae and radix linguae. The average length of the tongue was 26.32 ± 1.38 mm, the width was 7.26 ± 0.32 mm, and the thickness was 1.58 ± 0.14 mm. The histology of the tongue of the Merlin showed that the dorsal and ventral surfaces are covered with keratinized multilayered squamous epithelium; there are taste buds in the epithelial layer, the number of taste buds is higher especially on the radix lingua side; and the presence of paraglossum, which is in the hyaline cartilage structure. The volume calculated stereologically was as an average of 374.2 ± 14.08 mm3. Bozdoğan, doğangiller (Falconidae) familyasının en küçük kuş türü olup Amerika, Avrupa ve Asya’nın kuzey bölgelerinde, Ortadoğu ve Orta Asya’da yaşar. Kanatlılarda diş, dudak ve yanak gibi organlar bulunmadığından dil beslenme ile ilgili önemli fonksiyonları yerine getirmektedir. Beslenme alışkanlıklarındaki farklılıklar sonucunda morfolojik olarak oldukça farklılık göstermektedir. Bu çalışmamızda beş adet ergin bozdoğandan (falco columbarius) elde edilen diller morfolojik ve stereolojik olarak incelenmiştir. Morfolojik incelemelerimiz sonucu bozdoğan dilinin ince, uzun ve dikdörtgen şeklinde, ön kısmının oval olduğu, corpus linquae'sı ile radix linguae’sı arasında papilla linguales caudales’lerin bulunduğu tespit edildi. Ölçümlerimiz sonucunda ise dilin uzunluğunun ortalama 26,32 ± 1,38 mm, eninin ortalama 7,26 ± 0,32 mm, kalınlığının ise 1,58 ± 0,14 mm olduğu saptandı. Histolojik incelemelerimizde bozdoğan dilinin dorsal ve ventral yüzeyinin keratinize çok katlı yassı epitel ile kaplı olduğu, epitel katman içerisinde özellikle radix lingua tarafında sayısı artan biçimde tat tomurcukları bulunduğu ve dil dokusu içerisinde sağlı sollu bulunan ve hyalin kıkırdak yapısında olan paraglossum’un varlığı saptandı. Dilin stereolojik olarak hesapladığımız hacmi ise ortalama 374.2 ± 14.08 mm3 olarak tespit edilmiştir.
Hasbi Sait Saltik, Mehmet Kale
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.846475

Abstract:
The Canine Distemper Virus (CDV), which infects dogs and a broad range of animal species, remains a serious concern in Turkey as well as worldwide. The current study shows that CDV can be detected and isolated rapidly and specifically in naturally infected dogs. The samples used included whole blood, nasal swab, ocular swab, rectal swab, and urine (n = 250) and were collected from 50 stray dogs, which had not received any vaccine against CDV in 2016–17. The presence of the CDV genome was confirmed in 105 (42%) samples using one-Step real-time RT-PCR. In total, 39 dogs were diagnosed with CDV infection based on the detection of characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) in MDCK cells (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney), which was further verified by the fluorescence antibody technique (FAT). A total of 12 one-Step real-time RT-PCR negative samples, consisting of 4 rectal swabs and 8 urine samples, were found to be positive by virus isolation.In the tests for viral genome detection and virus isolation, positive correlations were found for blood samples, nasal swabs, ocular swabs (p<0.01, r = 1), rectal swabs (p<0.01, r = 0.844), and urine samples (p<0.01, r = 0.697).Out of a total of 117 (46.8%) samples showing viral growth in cell culture, 37 (31.62%) were found to have a high CPE, 26 (22.23%) had medium CPE, and 54 (46.15%) had low CPE. The highest CPE levels detected by FAT were for rectal swab and urine samples. In conclusion, the one-Step real-time RT-PCR method on rectal swab samples proved to be a highly sensitive method for the rapid and reliable detection of CDV. Besides, non-modified MDCK cell cultures are better for the isolation of CDV from naturally infected dogs.
Elif Doğan, Sıtkıcan Okur, Armağan HAYIRLI, Zafer Okumuş
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.905135

Abstract:
Göğüs boşluğundaki organların boyutu ve kalbin büyüklüğü toraks radyografileri alarak ölçülebilir. Kalbin boyutunu ölçmek, kardiyoloji hastaları için çok önemlidir. Çalışmamızda bu literatür bilgilerine dayanarak, 85 rattan anestezi altında toraks radyografileri alındı ve dijital ortamda Vertebral kalp büyüklüğü (VHS) ve kardiyo torasik oran(CTR) hesaplandı. Ortalama VHS, sağ lateral pozisyonda 7.22 mm ve sol lateral pozisyonda 7.34 mm idi. Ventrodortal pozisyonda alınan radyografide, ortalama CTR 0.89 mm olarak hesaplandı. Sağ ve sol lateral pozisyonda elde edilen VHS değerleri arasında anlamlı bir fark yoktu. Ayrıca, VHS ve CTR arasında anlamlı bir korelasyon ölçülmedi. Sonuç olarak, Wistar ratlarla ilgili daha önce yayınlanan çalışma verileri bulunmadığından sonuçlarımızın referans değerler olabileceğini düşünüyoruz.
Efe Kurtdede, Arif Kurtdede, Naci Öcal, Erdal Kara
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.907076

Abstract:
In this study, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of ANGPTL4, FGF21, IL-1β, IL-6, SOD, MDA, serum biochemicals and hematological parameters in cows with subclinical ketosis. Study group, the subclinical ketosis group, included 10 dairy cows aged 3-5 years at <21 days postpartum with a mean serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) level of 1.37 ± 0.04 mmol/L and whose urine samples tested negative for ketone bodies. The control group included 10 healthy dairy cows with a mean serum BHB level of 0.40 ± 0.08 mmol/L. An increases in serum AST (p < 0.001) and a decreases in serum albumin levels (p < 0.05) indicated altered liver functions. During negative energy balance, serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels (p < 0.001) increased and serum HDL, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels (p < 0.05) decreased as indicators of increased risk of metabolic pathology. Increases (p < 0.001) in serum ANGPTL4, FGF2, IL-1β, IL-6 and MDA (p < 0.001) and increase in SOD levels (p < 0.05) were evaluated as indicators of the development of effective metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress. It is concluded that significant increases in serum ANGPTL4 and FGF2 levels were associated with negative energy balance and effective cytokine responses and oxidative stress in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.
Özlem Şahan Yapicier, Aybars Akar, Yusuf Sinan Sirin
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.884894

Abstract:
A two and half-year-old, mix breed, male cat was admitted to Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Teaching Hospital with respiratory disstress and coughing lasting for a month. The initial examinations of ultrasound and radiography, a pericardial abcess was detected near the right side of heart and was drained with pericardiosynthesis. Bacteriological methods based on colony morphology, sugar fermentation tests and molecular confirmation using 16S rRNA-23S rRNA specific primers were performed to identify of M. arginini from pericardial abcess. Patient was treated with azythromycin and enrofloxacin. Full recovery was observed during follow-up examination after a month. The findings of this case increase our understanding for pathogen M. arginini in cats and zoonotic importance has been emphasized for pet owners.
Ziya Yurtal, Tuncer Kutlu, Muhammed Enes Altug, Bülent Özsoy, Halil Alakuş, Şule Yurdagül Özsoy
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.872947

Abstract:
In this study, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of kefir were investigated in spinal cord injury that was experimentally created on rats with compression trauma model. A total of 56 Wistar-Albino male rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into seven groups with 8 rats in each group randomly. The animals were given freshly prepared kefir 18 ml/kg/day orally for 7 days before the trauma and during the trauma. Spinal cord injury was created according to the weight drop method. While animals were under general anesthesia on the 1st and 7th days before euthanasia, intracardiac blood was collected for analysis and then they were sacrificed. After sacrification, tissue sections were taken from the damaged spinal cord segment for tissue analysis. The samples were examined biochemically, immunohistochemically and histopathologically. When compared to the sham groups, kefir had a positive effect in preconditioning and treatment groups by decreasing spinal cord bleeding, edema, myelin sheath damage, liquefactive necrosis, neuronal necrosis, selectivity of canalis centralis and gitter cell levels significantly. When compared to the sham groups, kefir was found to have a positive effect in treatment groups by decreasing the neuron specific enolase (NSE), ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and myelin basic protein (MBP) levels significantly on the 1st and 7th days, and by increasing the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) level significantly. As a result, it was demonstrated that kefir had a protective and therapeutic effect on spinal cord injury.
Ceren Aşti, Hatice Öge
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.33988/auvfd.877478

Abstract:
Visceral Larvae Migrans (VLM) is a syndrome in humans, caused by Toxocara canis larvae. Nowadays, a current and fully effective treatment procedure has not yet been developed against such a common infection. In this study, the effect of the combination of albendazole and Nigella sativa oil for the treatment of VLM in humans was investi-gated. Five experimental groups were formed and totally 125, 6-8 weeks old Swiss albi-no were used. All mice, except the negative control group, were infected with 750 T. canis eggs with infective larvae. 100 mg/kg albendazole and 0.15 ml N. sativa oil were applied separately and together by orally to the all treatment group mice. The efficacy of the treatment was investigated parasitologically, histo-pathologically and hematological-ly on post-infection 7th, 14th, 28th, 45th and 60th days with necropsies. According to mi-grated larvae count, the highest treatment efficacy was obtained in group of combina-tion. The treatment efficacy level was 72.46%; 48.81%; 36.25% in groups of combina-tion, albendazole and N. sativa oil, respectively. It was observed that the most severe pathological changes were developed in group of albendazole, and the inflammatory reactions and pathological changes in groups of combination and N.sativa oil were found milder. Nigella sativa oil has been thought to enhance the larvacidal effect of al-bendazole, which is enhanced by anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects and by increasing tissue defense and immunity.
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