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Daniel Hsiao, Lei Han
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4645

Abstract:
Advanced accounting covers a series of challenging topics including business combination and financial statement consolidation. Students in advanced accounting class often have a hard time understanding the consolidation journal entries for intra-entity transfers. We develop an innovative “do-it-yourself” approach to teaching this difficult topic. To corroborate the effectiveness of this new approach relative to the traditional method, we randomize these two approaches in different sections and collect data from both samples, including grades on a quiz on intra-entity transfers and responses in an end-of-class survey. Both the quiz performance and survey feedback indicate that this new approach to teaching consolidation journal entries for intra-entity transfer is more effective than the traditional method demonstrated in current textbooks.
Orry Swift, Ricardo Colon
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4655

Abstract:
There is substantial debate regarding the community benefits provided by nonprofit hospitals in exchange for tax-exempt status at the federal and state levels. Despite the controversy surrounding this topic, research into community benefit spending is a relatively new area of academic research. This study examines community benefit reports from nonprofit hospitals in the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) database. We employ text-based content analysis to determine how the language used in current-year reports impacts community benefit spending in the following year. Our study contributes to the literature because it is the first paper that conducts text-based content analysis of community benefit reports using the following five textual characteristics: length, boilerplate, fog, specificity, and tone. We find that the length, specificity, and tone of the reports significantly impact community benefit spending.
Ana Carolina Cordeiro, Luciano Losekann
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4650

Abstract:
Electric vehicles (EV) are emerging as less polluting alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE). Within the context of the climate change, electric vehicles (EV) become an option for the decarbonization of the transport sector. This paper evaluates the economic attractiveness of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) and a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) compared to an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICE) in Brazil. Considering the specific characteristics of the Brazilian market, such as the welldeveloped biofuels sector and the preference for vehicles with low acquisition value, EV adoption tends to be slower in Brazil. In addition, we emphasize the importance of incentive policies to encourage the adoption of electric vehicles (EV) in Brazil, considering the different profiles of potential EV adopters.
Junhan Yu, Weiqiu Yu
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4646

Abstract:
This paper explores the relationship between birth rates and housing prices in China. The empirical literature suggested mixed results in terms of relationships between housing prices and birth rates. Using a panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2002 to 2018, we estimated both static and dynamic panel models and found that there was a negative relationship between housing prices and birth rates in China from 2002 and 2018 from our dynamic model but a positive relationship from the static models. We provide some possible explanations for these findings and conclude with some policy recommendations for increasing birth rates in China.
Cretson L. Dalmadge
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4656

Abstract:
This paper utilizes structural equation modelling to analyse the regional impacts of disaster on economic growth. The analysis is conducted at the global level, and repeated for the nations that constitute Europe, Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Caribbean and Central America. The findings support a relationship between disasters and variations in economic growth. The output of the analysis suggests that disasters account for eleven percent of the variations in GDP globally. When assessed individually, Europe and the Caribbean and Central America have adjusted R2 of 0.243 and 0.244, while Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa had impacts of 0.09 and 0.10, respectively.
D. Naik, M. Krishnappa, K. Kaur, A. Almohsen, P. Meharia, B. Panja
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4648

Abstract:
The key goal of this paper is to look at network data and identify whether it is normal traffic data or anomaly traffic data. In this paper, we are using supervised machine learning techniques. Classification models are used to train and validate data. Using these algorithms we are training the system using a training dataset then we use this trained system to detect intrusion from the testing dataset. In our proposed method, we detect whether the network data is normal or an anomaly. The Decision Tree and K-Nearest Neighbor are applied to the proposed model to classify abnormal to normal behaviors of network traffic data. In addition, Logistic Regression Classifier and Support Vector Classification algorithms are used in our model to support proposed concepts. A feature selection method is used to collect valuable information from the dataset to enhance the efficiency of the proposed approach. The experimental findings revealed that the suggested method has a neglected false alarm rate, with the accuracy expected to be between 95% and 100%.
Osei Yeboah, Victoria G. Tanoh, Saleem Shaik
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4653

Abstract:
NAFTA is the first free-trade pact that has transformed and driven economic integration among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The three NAFTA countries’ agricultural export performance in four major classified commodities was each analyzed prior to the implementation and active years of NAFTA by applying a dynamic shift share model to data from 1992 through 2018. The overall results show United States was found to be the overall beneficiary NAFTA among the participating countries. The U.S. led in the exports of all the four major classified agricultural commodities followed by Canada, and then, Mexico. The most highly exported commodity among the four by any of the member nations, was consumer-oriented products while agricultural-related, intermediate, and bulk commodities follow in that order.
Frank W. Bacon, William N. Howell
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4651

Abstract:
The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. How does the market react to a global pandemic announcement? How efficient is the market? The purpose of this study is to test for semi-strong form market efficiency. Will the healthcare industry show excess gains? A link between the market and pandemics can be inferred but has not been heavily studied. In the efficient market hypothesis, Fama (1970) proposes that in semi-strong form market efficiency, all public information is factored into the market and no investor can achieve a risk-adjusted, above normal return. To study this relationship, S&P 500 data on 10 healthcare firms was collected for several days surrounding the announcement and standard event study methodology from finance literature was used. Evidence here supports the expected positive signal associated with the sample firms and pandemic announcement. Likewise, the results support the semi-strong form efficient market hypothesis and suggests the possibility of trading on this information up to 24 days before the announcement.
Jiangxia Liu
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4657

Abstract:
Bad news causes a decline in the stockholder’s wealth. However, the magnitude of the impact varies between studies. Intending to explain the different impacts observed, we explore the factors affecting the extent of stock impact from bad news announcement. Event Study Methodology is used to analyze data from the US, India, and Japan. The rich multinational data allows the comparison of stock impact between countries. We find that disruptions cause stock decline; however, the magnitude of reduction varies between countries. We argue that national culture plays a vital role in planning and management strategies, affecting mitigation and continuity strategies. Modern companies are multinational and operate in multiple countries. Despite this, national culture is ingrained in their management styles. To explore this, we also study companies traded on stock markets outside their domicile country. We find that national culture has a strong influence on planning and preparedness. Cultural orientation impacts resiliency. We argue that investors realize the importance of culture as company domicile affects the stock impact from bad news.
Maribel-Aponte García, Carlos A. Alvarez
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4647

Abstract:
The study presents preliminary findings of a Pilot Project that identified alternatives to disruptions in international trade and supply chains in the face of atmospheric (hurricane Maria in 2017) and pandemic (COVID-19) disasters. It focused on four critical imports: water, humanitarian relief goods, solar photovoltaic products, and COVID-19 test reagents. The project proposed an alternative pathway and method to address disruptions: build an integrated database from Bill of Lading and import-export-related data organized by Harmonized Schedule Code. Data analyses were carried out based on the Harmonized Tariff Schedule code system, and an integrated database was generated for imports of the four products that Puerto Rico buys in the international market. Import Key data were analyzed based on the Bill of Lading, sector, companies that sell the product, location of countries where the products are sold, ports that can reach Puerto Rico, and contact information of the companies and suppliers. This information allows humanitarian organizations, SMEs and the government to identify alternative supply networks.
Justin O. Holman, Allie Hacherl
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4658

Abstract:
A new partition of geographic regions in the Eastern US, based on environmental variables rather than political borders, is introduced as an alternative approach to aggregation of consumer demand data. The classification exercise described in this paper led to the definition of twelve distinct geographic regions representing the same area as seventeen corresponding Western States in Holman (2020). The same exercise is repeated here to define twelve distinct regions representing the same area as thirty-one corresponding Eastern States and the District of Columbia. The purpose of this classification exercise in both cases is to create Consumer Ecoregions (CERs) that, in comparison to the partition of states, demonstrate significantly less variability in terms of population, economic output, and land area while better representing unique climates and landscapes. This serves the broader goal of developing a partition for the entire conterminous United States which can be used to analyze business and economic data through a geographic lens that provides a more concise view of distinct regions.
Emrah Beşe, H. Swint Friday
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4649

Abstract:
In this study, the relationship between economic growth and emissions from coal consumption per capita is analyzed in India for the period 1960 to 2019. Although coal constitutes 70% of energy needs of India currently, India has been investing significantly in renewable energy to make clean energy meet half of its needs in the near future. This study does not confirm relationship between emissions and economic growth in the long-run in per capita terms. Total consumption terms may be analyzed in the future studies since this study does not analyze the total consumption terms because the model does not satisfy the stability requirements. For per capita analysis, the result is inverted N relationship between emissions and economic growth. Although the coefficients are insignificant, inverted N relationship between economic growth and emissions shows that there may be unsustainability in economic activities due to economic policies in India. Future studies may analyze different periods with different methodologies in India for the relationship between coal consumption and economic growth.
Gabriel Justo Saucedo-Arteaga
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4652

Abstract:
The interstice is a space where three or more states, or municipalities, converge, with low: accessibility, development and natural resources; social conflicts and instability. Interstices with conflicts can be identified: bordering, agrarian, socio-environmental; armed groups, drug trafficking and in indigenous regions, among others. This concept has been constructed based on macro ethnographic studies (participant observation) in regions of the Estado de Mexico and la sierra Tarahumara; previous investigations and news of local conflicts. It uses the official cartography, about: social backwardness, poverty, marginalization, indigenous population, human development and criminality. The interstices have economic and geographical conditions, but the political will and responsibility is unavoidable. They seem to be "no man's land" or empty spaces of power, because they do not represent an economic or political interest for the State; on the contrary, they do facilitate the development of capital and factual power groups that evade corrupt laws or regulations and put the population at risk.
John Cooper
Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v23i6.4654

Abstract:
This paper examines the role of tax on firm value of closely held businesses. Using sales transactions of closely held business organizations as a proxy for firm value, the double tax system applicable to C corporations versus the single level of tax on passthrough businesses is expected to result in lower firm value for passthrough entities than comparable C corporations. This theoretical assumption is based on increased pricing flexibility available for firms facing a single level of tax over that of entities subject to double taxation. A dataset of nearly 30,000 closely held business sales was evaluated to find that passthrough entities are associated with lower firm value than comparable C corporations. This finding is important since prior research has produced conflicting results. This study contributes to the literature by examining a more comprehensive dataset, including all forms of passthrough entities, and improving the methodology used in earlier studies.
Edward E. Scott, S. Cathy McCrary
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4631

Abstract:
In recent years, there has been concern surrounding the future supply of accounting graduates due to declining accounting program enrollment. This exploratory study investigates which undergraduate class year is likely better suited for increased efforts by accounting faculty to influence students’ decisions to major in accounting, particularly students who studied accounting in high school. Using variables from a prior study that conceptualized an integrative theoretical model based on social cognitive career theory and the theory of reasoned action, we examine the potential effect that precollege coursework in accounting might have on students’ personal interest, accounting technical skills self-efficacy, image of the accounting profession, and intent to major in accounting. Undergraduate business students enrolled in core business courses were surveyed and high school students participated in focus group discussions. Study results indicate differences between groups of students who did (did not) study accounting in high school and suggest freshmen year is influential towards intent to major in accounting.
Lin Li, Robert S. Keyser, Raven Pierson
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4636

Abstract:
Affordable Learning Georgia (ALG) is an initiative that began in 2014, which supported faculty when transforming their previously required textbooks to low-cost, no-cost textbooks. The goal was to help reduce the financial burden on students in their pursuit of a college education. In this study, the researchers developed no-cost textbooks for two undergraduate industrial and systems engineering courses. Both quantitative and qualitative measures are used to assess the effectiveness of the textbook transformation and students’ experience of no-cost learning material in the Industrial and Systems Engineering program. The responses were overwhelmingly positive with respect to the no-cost textbooks in both courses.
Laura May Pipe, Jennifer T. Stephens
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4628

Abstract:
With shifting societal and learner needs, expectations, and experiences, course design must evolve to best support students in both adapting to and creating change. By incorporating the Toward a Liberated Learning Spirit (TALLS) model into backward course design, courses can be designed to encourage intellectual risk-taking and attend to diverse knowledge and ways of knowing that disrupt oppressive and colonizing practices in both content and structure. This article outlines the use of the TALLS model in the backward design of a Native Movement undergraduate course to showcase how courses can be developed for engagement, inclusivity, and active and justice-forward learning.
Bing Li, Zheng Li
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4632

Abstract:
Teacher identity provides a critical analytical lens for the field of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) research in the last decade. However, the complicatedness of identity leaves room for disputes over conceptualizations and components of EFL teacher identity, while at the same allowing for multiple theoretical approaches. This paper reviewed three major challenges facing the EFL teacher identity research field: conceptualization, components, and analytical approaches. Two recent endeavours were synthesized that have stood out among research attempts in this field: a situated learning perspective and a developmental lens. Implications are suggested for EFL research in the future.
Hyun Jung Kang, Matthew Farber, Kimberly A. Mahovsky
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4640

Abstract:
At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, K-5 teachers were forced to shift their teaching practices from in-person instruction to an emergency remote teaching (ERT) format. Using the TPACK framework (Koehler et al., 2014), this study explores how teachers’ pedagogical practices for STEM instruction may have changed during and after ERT. The results indicate no significant differences in terms of direct instruction. Still, there were noticeable changes with collaborative learning and teachers’ use of technological tools in STEM classrooms. Teachers’ self-reporting of their pedagogical practices shift highlights the need for further professional development in the practical use of technological tools to meet current needs.
David M. March, Darren Perrett, Christopher Hubbard
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4638

Abstract:
The purpose of this project is to explore the feasibility of a new approach for producing evidence-based distractor sets. We use Common Wrong Answers (CWAs), and the associated performance data, generated by candidate responses to open gap-fill tasks, to produce distractor sets for multiple-choice gap-fill tasks based on the same texts. We then investigate whether these distractor sets are effective for use in language tests, in terms of empirical and qualitative review, and consider potential impacts on the production process for test material. This project explores a new and innovative method of content development, and raises the possibility of a new approach to item production that can semi-autogenerate test items in shorter periods of time without affecting quality or reliability. Although the approach is specific to one task type, it is hoped that further research will expand on the applications of the approach to deliver a version that may be operationalised for use across different task types in the development of language assessments.
M. Jayne Fleener
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4622

Abstract:
This paper explores higher education futures post the Corona virus pandemic. It uses futures and social inquiry approaches to explore how post-pandemic times will impact higher education. As a research method, social inquiry connects across social systems to explore complex relationships and impacts, providing a broader perspective of potential influences and synergies of social phenomenon. Social inquiry research shifts focus away from causal affects to explore patterns of connectivity and is therefore an appropriate methodology for futures inquiry. An examination of 141 trends associated with COVID-19 impacts provided the data for futures analyses through a Causal Layered Analysis approach. Three guiding questions including how we can address the challenges and embrace the opportunities of post-pandemic times to create more equitable, inclusive and sustainable higher education futures were explored. Results point to the need to rethink our social metaphors for more equitable and desirable higher education futures. Implications of this research suggest the need to examine and revision the purpose and values of higher education to meet the needs of individuals and society.
Aaron N. Taylor, Jason M. Scott, Joshua L. Jackson
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4629

Abstract:
In this study, we examine the extent to which academic and student engagement factors explain law school grades and first-time bar exam performance. Applying fixed effects linear and logit modeling, our analysis leverages law student transcript data and responses to the Law School Survey of Student Engagement (LSSSE) among students from a diverse group of 20 law schools to estimate academic performance and odds of bar passage. Most notably, we find that GPA improvement during law school is associated with greater odds of passing the bar exam, particularly among students who struggle the most during the first semester. Furthermore, while we find that LSAT scores and undergraduate GPA are predictive (p < 0.05) of both law school performance and bar success (as in previous research), these effects are quite modest. Based on these findings, we propose and discuss several recommendations. These should be helpful to higher education scholars and practitioners, particularly law school deans, administrators, faculty, and academic support staff.
Cecelia M. Wigal
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4637

Abstract:
This paper addresses how one instructor redesigned a face-to-face design course - Introduction to Engineering Design (IED) - known for its collaborative and experiential learning focus to accommodate a synchronous hybrid flexible (HyFlex) delivery. In semesters prior to spring 2020, students in IED learned the design process by practicing it using a project supported by clients and customers in the local community. Due to Covid19, however, students during the 2020 spring and fall semesters and the 2021 spring semester could not physically meet with traditional clients, which is integral to the experiential aspect of the course. It was also difficult for students to physically meet consistently in teams. These alterations had the ability to negatively affect the learning experience. Thus, the collaborative nature of the class and the client identification and interaction structure was revised. This paper describes the course design process focus, project and client identification, and team collaboration process used in the HyFlex delivery to aid learning of the design process.
Elizabeth Keida, Jessica Harris, Barry A. Friedman
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4635

Abstract:
Sixty percent of adults in the United States suffer from chronic disease. Worksite wellness programs that target at-risk populations have positive health benefits. Discover Wellness: Find a Healthier You (DW) is a worksite wellness program intended to improve the higher education employee health by providing an opportunity for participants to learn and practice healthy behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate DW program impact on employee behavior change to reduce chronic disease risk. This study employed a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design that assessed self-efficacy and health behaviors of employees of a state university in the northeast United States. Participants experienced significant improvement in stress (t23 = -31.602, p < 0.001), nutrition (t21 = -36.313, p < 0.001), physical activity (t22 = -34.380, p < 0.001), and sleep (t23 = -18.450, p < 0.001). Additionally, anecdotes from participants revealed themes of comradery and reflection on health behaviors.
Abeer A. Alawad
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4634

Abstract:
This study aims to explore the ability of Google Reverse Image Search (RIS) to detect plagiarism in images in the interior design field. Several image modifications were introduced by retaining the basic concept of the original image. These changes were classified into three categories as follow: a change in the design elements, introduced random changes by adding different objects to the existing image contents, and introduced various image effects. findings show that Google RIS does not take long to find newly uploaded images. Although it cannot detect changes related to the image contents, it can detect changes related to image size and contrast. Overall percentage of the modified images that were detected as matching the original image was only 5%. By contrast, the net percentage of images retrieved by Google RIS with contents actually related to the uploaded original image was 58.5%. Therefore, Google RIS is inaccurate in detecting any changes in the image contents irrespective of their simplicity, which implies that it cannot help in detection of visual plagiarism.
Stella Erbes, McKenna Wizner, Jackie Powlis
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4625

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine how traditional and proficiency-based grading schemes impact student learning and college admissions. Traditional grading (e.g., A, B, C, D, F) is common in secondary schools; however, proficiency-based grading (also referred to as standards-based grading, mastery learning, or competency-based education) is another system that schools have adopted to assess student learning. This mixed-method inquiry analyzed survey data from 72 college sophomores and interview data from four university admissions counselors. Data revealed that 1) students believe that traditional grading methods inadequately measure learning, yet they still prefer letter grades over the proficiency-based model, and 2) counselors evaluate a wide array of grading systems for college admission based on procedures that are not universal. Given that many post-secondary institutions have removed the standardized testing requirement of the SAT/ACT in the admissions process during the COVID-19 climate, universities must now carefully consider how to evaluate applications given the varied grading systems represented. Educational stakeholders wonder how institutions of higher education will evaluate student learning.
Robert M. Bernard, Eugene Borokhovski, Brian Mihov, Richard F. Schmid
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4633

Abstract:
This meta-analysis investigates the effects of four instructional dimensions rated on a scale from more Teacher-centered (T-C) to more Student-centered (S-C) plus several coded moderator variables on the achievement of undergraduate students in science education courses. More student-centered conditions served as the ‘treatment’ while more teacher-centered conditions were considered the ‘control.’ Hedges’ g, operationalized as the adjusted standardized differences between treatment and control means, served as the outcome measure. The weighted average difference between groups was g ‾ = 0.34, k = 140 (random effects analysis), indicating an overall difference in favor of student-centered instruction. Out of four rated dimensions (Pacing, Teacher’s Role, Flexibility, and Adaptation) only Flexibility was significant in metaregression as a negative predictor of effect size. Two demographic variables (i.e., class size & subject matter), and one instructional moderator variables (i.e., technology use) were also significant when added to Flexibility, producing a model that accounted for 36% of total variation in effect size.
Summer P. Maunakea
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4641

Abstract:
ʻĀina-based initiatives are not only proliferating in Hawaiʻi communities, but also in academic institutions where interest in place-based education, sustainability education, and STEM has increased. In an effort to uphold the integrity of ʻāina and promotes its integration into PreK-20 learning settings, this article describes characteristics of ʻāina-based pedagogies as a Hawaiʻi approach to Indigenous land-based education. This research presents ancestral Hawaiian principles of ʻāina-based pedagogies, along with the learning environments that ʻāina-based education occurs in, common instructional approaches, fields of study, and purposes of application. Findings from this study ground ʻāina-based learning in a Kanaka ʻŌiwi perspective and may assist others in designing ʻāina-based learning experiences, strengthening their educational initiatives, and evaluating their programmatic outcomes.
Sergiy Klymchuk, Chris Sangwin
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4639

Abstract:
This study analyses school mathematics teachers’ attitudes towards using provocative mathematics questions in teaching and assessment as a potential pedagogic innovation. By a provocative mathematics question, we mean here a question designed to deliberately mislead the solver. It normally calls for an impossible task. For example, the question might ask for a proof of something that is not provable or show the existence of a solution of an equation that does not have a solution. Often a catch is based on a restricted domain or indirectly prompts the use of a rule, formula, or theorem that is inapplicable due to their conditions/constraints. Five groups of school mathematics teachers did a mini-test consisting of provocative questions. A post-test questionnaire was given to the teachers to obtain their feedback on the possible use of provocative questions in their teaching practice to enhance students’ critical thinking skills. Teachers’ responses are discussed and analysed in the paper.
Mojtaba Seyedian, Julie Fitzpatrick, Tai David Yi
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4630

Abstract:
Selection of a textbook for an introductory investment course can be challenging. Many criteria may be considered in such decisions, including a textbook’s pedagogical approach, end-of-chapter material, and instructor supplements. Faculty may also wish to consider a text’s readability, or the qualities of writing which are related to reader comprehension. Using the Flesch-Kincaid readability index, this study analyzes the predicted readability of five popular introductory investment textbooks. T-tests are performed to determine whether significant differences exist between the textbooks. Our results indicate that the Jordan/Miller/Dolvin textbook is the most readable while the Jones/Jensen textbook is the least readable among our sample. These findings can be useful to adopters and editors of introductory investment textbooks.
Olha Matiash, Liubov Mykhailenko, Roksolana Milian, Viacheslav Olshevskyi
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4627

Abstract:
The article proves the effectiveness of the experimental system of the partnership between a pedagogical university and school. We suggested a personal approach to monitoring the indicators and levels of methodological competence of mathematics teachers in terms of collaboration. Methodological competence indicators in teaching pupils mathematics, the formation of which is the most possible in partnership between a pedagogical university and a school, are determined based on the analysis of 12 educational programs for mathematics teachers, thorough analysis of Ukrainian scientists' research results, based on questionnaires of students, teachers, and lecturers, as well as on our experimental research.
Carol Isaac, Arla Berstein, Joseph Balloun
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i10.4626

Abstract:
Atlanta, one of the fastest gentrifying cities in the United States, is comprised of neighborhoods near the city center amid urban wealth that suffer from severe poverty and low literacy rates. One neighborhood school has been ranked as one of the lowest in the state. To combat decades of underperformance, Atlanta Public Schools (APS) created an initiative that has helped bring this community together. The purpose of this case study, using interviews and survey data with thematic content analysis, was to understand the role of school district leadership in the creation of a new framework, replacing the original public school with a long record of failure.
Vin Crosbie
Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.33423/jsis.v16i4.4621

Abstract:
As the Industrial Era wanes and the Informational Era dawns, a new genus of media has arisen from the unprecedented capabilities of computer-mediated technologies to provide simultaneously to massive numbers of consumers individualized selections of news stories, entertainment, and other information, according to each consumer’s own unique mix of needs, interests, tastes, and beliefs. This genus, which this paper terms Individuated Media, has reach equal or exceeding that of the Industrial Era media products and services colloquially known as Mass Media; yet can be differentiated from such traditional media because each consumer simultaneously receives a customized, even bespoke, feed of contents, unlike the uniform edition or program schedule that the consumers of a Mass Media service would all simultaneously receive. This paper considers recognizing Individuated Media as a distinctly new genus of media and begins to examine this new media’s affects upon the sustainability of traditional media theories, doctrines, practices, and business models in this century.
Tibor Kezelj, Rudolf Gruenbichler
Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.33423/jsis.v16i4.4618

Abstract:
The research field of insolvency avoidance was particularly fuelled by the economic crisis of 2008. Corporate insolvencies cause financial as well as non-financial damage to the entrepreneurs, to creditors, but also to society through lost jobs or taxes. Neural networks, but also regressions and decision trees, represent interesting approaches to insolvency prevention due to increasing computer power and data availability. This paper presents the current state of research on these selected algorithms in insolvency avoidance. The paper therefore provides a contribution to structuring the current state of research and shows the trends of the research field. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out in the scientific databases with reference to the field of business administration and management with focus on an engineering environment using defined keywords, and the results were processed and analysed. One result is that, due to the different data availability and parameters, research is being carried out into different algorithms for avoiding insolvency and the trend is towards insolvency prevention for SMEs.
Johannes H. Snyman
Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.33423/jsis.v16i4.4620

Abstract:
This research study is about the current subscriber status of the three dominant telephone technologies: landline, cellular, and Internet Protocol. After a brief history of the three technologies, data from the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) was used to determine the number of subscribers from 1997 to 2018, the last date of published data. Results indicate that landline subscribers are in steep decline. However, a complete shut-down of the system is not in sight yet. The number of cellular telephone subscribers is still growing steadily and growth is predicted to continue. The number of Internet Protocol subscribers has been growing fast but due to increased competition will begin to slow down in the future.
Fernando Almaraz-Menéndez, Teresa Martín-García, Carmen López-Esteban
Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.33423/jsis.v16i4.4617

Abstract:
Higher Education Institutions, like many other organizations, are facing pressure from the development of digital technologies as a push towards the digitization of their activities and towards a type of change that some describe as disruptive and that forces them to review their processes and structures. This article describes the case of the medialab of the University of Salamanca, MEDIALAB USAL, as an experience of new learning space in higher education. Its origin is explained from the experiences of citizen technology laboratories and experimental laboratories at the point of intersection between Art, Science and Technology. Its structure and working methods are explained, and its activities are illustrated through the description of four educational innovation projects based on different digital technologies: a mathematics didactics project using AppInventor, Wikipedia as a tool for knowledge generation, Arduino for innovation in the teaching of Fine Arts and a university Hackathon as an activity to introduce students to social and entrepreneurial innovation processes.
A. Mapapa Mbangala, Karim Sabri, Gérard E. Colson
Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.33423/jsis.v16i4.4619

Abstract:
Multi-period differences of technical and financial performances are analyzed by comparing five North African railways over the period 1990–2004. A first approach is based on the Malmquist DEA TFP index for measuring the total factors productivity change, decomposed into technical efficiency change and technological changes. A multiple criteria analysis is also performed using the PROMETHEE II method and ARGOS software. These methods provide complementary detailed information, especially by discriminating the technological and management processes by Malmquist and the two dimensions of performance by Promethee, service to the community and enterprise performance, which are often in conflict.
Zoya Salmon-Powell, Joya Scarlata, Edward F. Vengrouskie
Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.33423/jsis.v16i4.4616

Abstract:
Artificial Intelligence (AI), or sometimes referred to as machine learning, has become, over the last several years, a driving force in conducting business and has re-shaped the best practices across multiple industries, from retail to transportation. In addition, it has influenced significant innovations across the globe, including voice assistants, self-driving vehicles, and chatbots. This article explores how AI is impacting the business landscape, specifically in leadership and management. Trends discussed in this article are Robot Process Automation, Cyber Security, Data Accuracy, Customer Service, and Human Resources. Additional benefits of AI in the workplace include increased productivity, a greater focus on strategy, innovation, and improved organizational processes.
Shiri Ayvazo, Hagit Inbar-Furst, Hedda Meadan
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i9.4586

Abstract:
Education initiatives emphasize the need to use evidence-based practices (EBPs) in general and special education classrooms. To ensure effective teaching it is essential that teachers gain knowledge of EBPs and implement these practices with fidelity. Ongoing changes in teacher training programs (TTPs) such as the reduction in field experience hours and the impact of COVID-19 require exploring new models to support and supplement preservice learning of EBPs. This paper discusses how technologies such as online training modules and coaching can support the training of preservice teachers, and specifically looking, as an example, at the practices in the state of Israel.
Stan Mierzwa, Lauren Spath-Caviglia, Iassen Christov
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.33423/jlae.v18i4.4608

Abstract:
Recently while near my hometown baseball field, I was reminded of the Little League Pledge. Players traditionally recited the pledge prior to the start of a baseball or softball game; two lines particularly stood out to me, they were “I will play fair and strive to win. But, win or lose, I will always do my best.” The first line mentioned got us thinking about the pandemic and rise in cybercrime. Why are there persons willing to partake in cybercrime, taking advantage of the situation the pandemic has created, and not playing fair? Can cybersecurity researchers utilize similar efforts or strategies used by the global public health to combat cybercrimes, during difficult causal situations? This paper will outline a subset of current research taking place concerning cybercrime and COVID-19 through a rapid literature review, bring to light strategies and technologies that can be used to complement the research, and bring a call to action for researchers and practitioners to give this topic greater attention, awareness, and more knowledge and focus.
Erin S. Barry, John E. McManigle
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.33423/jlae.v18i4.4605

Abstract:
Self-awareness is essential to leader development. Internal self-awareness refers to how well we see and understand ourselves and our impact on others. External self-awareness refers to the extent to which we understand how others see us. To optimize self-awareness, it is important to receive and provide frank and meaningful feedback. These skills can improve leader performance, increase self-awareness, and enhance development. Currently, there are few instruments that provide information about self-awareness. The creation of a self-assessment and peer feedback tool would help provide individuals with clear assessments of their leadership knowledge and skills as well as perspectives from peers with whom they work closely. This article describes the development of a self-assessment and peer feedback tool based on a LeaderFollower Framework. This tool can be used within leader development programs to enhance selfawareness and peer perceptions to further develop leaders.
Romy Sauvayre
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.33423/jlae.v18i4.4607

Abstract:
An anxious belief that the vaccine against measles may cause autism in children has circulated since 1998. This belief has resulted in a worldwide reduction of vaccination coverage. Between 1998 and 2004, the scientific community was engaged in an intense debate over proof of vaccine safety. The question is then to examine the justification and the acceptance of this anxious belief by scientists, journalists, and parents. What are the epistemic obligations of individuals when scientific evidence is lacking? Therefore, the ethics of belief will be questioned through a contemporary socio-historical case study because it permits the examination of belief, knowledge and confidence mechanisms, and the attribution of epistemic values when it is difficult to produce indisputable evidence.
Carol Stewart
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.33423/jlae.v18i4.4613

Abstract:
While this unprecedented time of COVID-19 has resulted in financial loss for many companies, it’s also produced new leadership opportunities. Remote work, at-home schooling, and socially-distancing are a few examples of the new norm and new business possibilities. As crisis proverbially breeds innovation, new businesses have already sprung up around the world in support of growing demands. History shows this growth in entrepreneurial endeavors to be a trend during times of economic downturn. More than half of 2009 Fortune 500 list and just under half of 2008’s Inc. list were created during a recession or bear market. Challenging economic times often seed the growth of entrepreneurial capitalism. One reason for this growth is that startup companies begun during times of high stress tend to be capable of operating in less favorable conditions. In times of economic upheaval, even mature businesses with longer history and deeper pockets require special leadership to ‘pivot’ their operational strategies to stay viable. This paper explores effective leadership theories to explain the success during uncertain times.
Ethan Lau, Kok Keong Chai, Vindya Wijeratne, Gokop Longinus Goteng
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i9.4589

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has changed dramatically the way how universities ensure the continuous and sustainable way of educating students. This paper presents the evaluation of the hybrid pedagogic methods in students’ progression in Learning using neural network (NN) modelling and prediction. The hybrid pedagogic approach is based on the revised Bloom’s taxonomy in combination with the flipped classroom, asynchronous and cognitive learning approach. Educational data of labs and class test scores, as well as students’ total engagement and attendance metrics for the programming module are considered in this study. Conventional statistical evaluations are performed to evaluate students’ progression in learning. The NN is further modelled with six input variables, two layers of hidden neurons, and one output layer. Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is employed as the back propagation training rule. The performance of neural network model is evaluated through the error performance, regression, and error histogram. Overall, the NN model presents how the hybrid pedagogic method in this case has successfully quantified students’ progression in learning throughout the COVID-19 period.
Kelli Dougan, Kara Lasater, John Pijanowski
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i9.4596

Abstract:
Relative age effects are the outcomes that are manifested when older and younger students are compared in an environment such as a classroom. Research has shown that older students have higher student achievement than younger students (Datar, 2006; Lin et al., 2009; Oshima & Domaleski, 2006; Yesil-Dagli, 2006). This case study grouped students by their birthdays to form kindergarten classes where the average range of ages were within a four month span. Focus groups were used to determine the effects of this practice from the teachers’ perspectives. Some teachers thought that grouping kindergarteners by birthday improved teacher-student relationships, allowed for better student instruction and reduced negative student behaviors. However, other teachers felt burdened by groups of the youngest students and lamented not having older students to teach and model for their younger peers. The teachers in this study thought that the youngest students in a cohort were less prepared for school and required more of their time and instruction than the oldest students.
Patti B. Abels, Maria V. Gamba
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i9.4593

Abstract:
While in school, it is a wonderful time to begin to teach upcoming professionals about giving back to the communities they live or work within. These young adults can inspire the next generation of students to do the same. Participating in service learning allows students to see the impact of their hard efforts on the communities they serve. Witnessing the specific needs or purposes that need to be addressed by the community should inspire the students to get involved in order to make a difference. Teaching should focus on enabling students to enter the workplace, including opportunities for personal development.
Katy Campbell, David Peacock
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.33423/jlae.v18i4.4643

Abstract:
University-community engagement (UCE) researchers have developed taxonomies, frameworks and practices for the field, but have not deeply considered issues of social, cultural, political, geographical and economic dimensions of theory and practice in institutions and their communities, including faculty, staff, and senior leadership. These dimensions may include institutional and personal history, such as religious affiliations; epistemology; forms of leadership; power structures; and social locations, among others. These cultural forms are reflected in institutional discourse, for example the narratives of engagement actors, and can be expressed in a variety of cultural artifacts including personal stories of praxis. Leading community engagement efforts is a transformative values-driven activity; we believe that transformative leadership is a process of continual, transformative learning, which is fundamentally a process of identity transformation. The narratives of six institutional leaders of community-engaged scholarship (CES) in higher education are examined for how their various scholarly and professional identities have developed through transformative learning processes), revealing themes of serendipity, moral coherence, values congruence, agentic change, moral courage, authenticity, relational practice and generativity that integrate these stories.
Marijke Leibel, Erin Jacobson, Alyson Mike, Sharon Grady
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i9.4587

Abstract:
The word pivot has become the mantra for many educators during the year 2020. With the dramatic shift in instructional practices during the COVID19 pandemic, leadership and professional learning have necessitated a consequential pivot to offer support to new and experienced teachers. The North Dakota Teacher Support System and Iridium Learning have collaborated to deliver professional learning to new and experienced educators to address many of the needs and challenges currently facing education in rural and urban areas alike. Navigating similar obstacles, such as isolation and technology-induced stress, has become second nature to the state mentoring program in North Dakota.
Adolfo Garcé
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.33423/jlae.v18i4.4609

Abstract:
During the first half of the 1960s, under the auspices of the Alliance for Progress, Uruguay carried out the most ambitious planning effort of its history. The government set up an office to design the plans: the Technical Secretariat of the Commission on Investment and Economic Development (CIDE, in Spanish). In late 1965, the CIDE made available to the government its most important product, the National Economic and Social Development Plan (1965-1974). In early 1966, the government formally approved the plan, but never implemented it. However, both economic and social information and reform proposals generated by CIDE deeply permeated the political debate and the positions of the main social and political actors. This experience confirms the main conclusions of the research and policy “nexus” literature but, at the same time, invites us to devise and put forward new hypotheses.
Sophia Kusyk
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.33423/jlae.v18i4.4615

Abstract:
The corporate social responsibility responsibly (CSR) pyramid (Carroll, 1991) plays a substantive role in business and social theory, and research on it is incomplete if it disregards the full gambit of organizational contexts. By focusing on small enterprises (SMEs), this mixed methods study makes a dual contribution to the growing body of research on Carroll's (1991) (CSR) pyramid. First, the research addresses the hierarchy of the CSR pyramid in the previously neglected context of SMEs in Spain. Second, grounded in CSR orientation (CSRO) theory (Schwartz & Carroll, 2003), the study demonstrates how CSR dimensions differ between best practice corporate social performance (CSP) and normal CSP companies. The findings challenge the original hierarchy of the CSR dimensions and suggest that the philanthropic dimension is a differentiator for CSROs. Thus, in contrast to the original CSR pyramid (Carroll, 1991) and in line with the development of CSR orientation theory (Schwartz & Carroll, 2003), a balanced CSRO emphasis for best practice CSP is supported.
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