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Jaehyuk So, Keunyeong Oh, Kwansik Park, Sun Woo Kim, Kangmin Lee
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 89-98; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.1.089

Abstract:
Fatigue Performance Evaluation of High-strength Bolt Used for Marine Transport Plant Structures Fatigue load;Sea transport;Plant structure;High-strength bolt connection;Coefficient of friction; The offshore plant structure has been transported to the site by barge because it is hard to manufacture in site. When the structure was transported on the sea, offshore plant structures and connection were experienced repetitive submarine load. For this reason, it was known for that the axial force of high-strength bolted connection was declined. Therefore, in this study, high-strength bolted connection was evaluated the shear fatigue performance under longtime fatigue load during marine transport. The experimental variables were selected intial axial force, surface type, and bolt type because they ar important factors in the change of axial force of bolts. As a experimental results of considering various variables, the variation of axial force showed within 1%. Therefore, the high-strength bolted connection was verified structural safety under longtime fatigue load.
Mi Jin Jung, Sung Kee Yoon
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 73-80; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.1.073

Abstract:
Structural Performance on the Self-centering Connections with Different Conditions of PT Strands Steel moment frames;Beam-to-column connection;Self-centering;Posttensioning force;PT strands; In this study, cyclic loading analysis was conducted in order to understand the behavior of self-centering connections based on the number of PT(posttensioning) strands and initial posttensioning force. The initial posttensioning force needs to be above the yield moment of an angle for obtaining noticeable self-centering effect and it is proper that decompression moment ratio needs to be below 0.35 to minimize the residual displacement of major elements. As the number of PT strands increased, self-centering capacity also improved since initial posttensiong force in each PT strand has been decreased. It is also appropriate that initial posttensiong force needs to be less than or equal to 75% of yield strength of PT strands.
Young Han Choi,
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.1.037

Abstract:
A Study for the Weldability and Welded Joint Performance on the SAW of HSA800 Steel HSA800;TMCP;SAW;Weldability;Welded joint performance;Post heat treatment;Homogeneity; In this research, 9 SAW welding specimens with 1 hour post-heat treatment (PH1) and 2 hours (PH2) were experimented to confirm the weldability and the joint performance of 60mm thickness HSA800 steel. SAW tests with PH1 & PH2, including weld impact test, bend test, hardness test, macroscopic test, and microscopic test, had a good test results. However, from the chemical composition test results, P composition was not satisfied with Korean Industrial Standards(KS). According to the weld-zone tensile tests, 2 hours post-heat SAW is recommended because the mechanical characteristics of SAW PH2 were better than those of SAW PH1.
Soo-Keuon Lee, Jae-Guen Yang, Ji-Seok Kang
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 81-88; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.1.081

Abstract:
Evaluation of Buckling Load and Specified Compression Strength of Welded Built-up H-section Compression Members with Residual Stresses Residual stress;Design axial compressive strength;Buckling load;Built-up H-section;Finite-element analysis; Residual stress is defined as stress that already exists on a structural member from the effects of welding and plastic deformation before the application of loading. Due to such residual stress, welded H-section compression members under centroidal compression load can undergo buckling and failure for strength values smaller than the predicted buckling load and specified compressive strength. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of residual stress from welding on the determination of the buckling load and specified compressive strength of the H-section compression member according to the column length variation. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis was performed for the H-section compression member where the welded joint was fillet welded by applying heat inputs of 3.1kJ/mm and 3.6kJ/mm using the SAW welding method.
Seungjun Kim,
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 49-60; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.1.049

Abstract:
Investigation of Fatigue Damage of the Mooring Lines for Submerged Floating Tunnels Under Irregular Waves Submerged floating tunnels;Mooring lines;Fatigue;Hydrodynamic analysis;Irregular waves; As well as the strength check, fatigue life check is also mainly required for designing mooring lines of the floating structures. In general, forces which induce dynamic structural response significantly affect to fatigue design of the mooring lines. So, waves are mainly considered as the governing loading for fatigue design of the mooring lines. In this study, characteristics of the fatigue damage of the mooring lines for submerged floating tunnels (SFT) under irregular waves are investigated. For this study time domain hydrodynamic analysis is used to obtain motion of the tunnel and tension and stresses of the mooring lines under the specific environmental conditions. Also, the Rainflow-counting method, the Palmgren-Miner's rule, and S-N curves for floating offshore structures presented by DNV recommendation is applied to calculate the fatigue damage due to the fluctuating stresses. Referring to the design plactice of the tendon pipes for TLP (tension-leg platform), which is very similar structural system to SFT, it is assumed that a 100 year return period wave attacks the SFT systems during 48 hours and the fatigue damages due to the environmental loading are calculated. Following the analysis sequence, the effects of the tunnel draft, spacing and initial inclination angle of the mooring lines on the fatigue damage under the specific environmental loadings are investigated.
A Reum Yoon, Su Eun Kim, Sung Bo Kim
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 61-71; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.1.061

Abstract:
Flexural Behavior of Composite Ring Stiffened by GFRP and Steel Pipe GFRP;Composite ring;Yield load;Crack load;Ultimate load;ABAQUS; The flexural behavior of composite ring stiffened by GFRP and steel pipe is presented in this paper. The effective width is required to construct FEM beam element model to verify the composite flexural behavior of stiffened ring of cylindrical shell structure. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical and FEM results by commercial program ABAQUS to verify the effective width coefficient. The yield, crack and ultimate loads is calculated using theoretical strains that varies depending on yield state and compared with experiment result and FEM results by ABAQUS solid model.
Dong Ho Choi, Hoon Yoo, Sun Gil Gwon, Ji Hoon Lim
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 13-24; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.1.013

Abstract:
Buckling Analysis using Fictitious Axial Forces and Its Application to Cable-Stayed Bridges with HSB800 Steel Elastic buckling analysis;Inelastic buckling analysis;Effective length;Fictitious axial force;Steel cable-stayed bridge;HSB800 steel; System buckling analysis is usually used to determine the critical buckling load in the buckling design of cable-stayed bridges. However, system buckling analysis may yield unexpectedly large effective lengths of the members subjected to a relatively small axial force. This paper proposes a new method to determine reasonable effective lengths of girder and tower members in steel cable-stayed bridges using fictitious axial forces. An improved inelastic buckling analysis with modified tangent modulus is also presented. The effective lengths of members in example bridges calculated using the proposed method are compared with those obtained using the conventional buckling analysis method. The proposed method provides much more resonable effective lengths of the members. When girder and tower members are built with HSB800 steel instead of conventional steel, the effective lengths of the members under a small axial force slightly decreases in the inelastic buckling analysis without fictitious axial forces, while the proposed method that considers fictitious axial forces provides almost no changes in such lengths.
Cheol Ho Lee, Sung Yong Kim
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.1.025

Abstract:
Seismic Retrofit of Welded Steel Moment Connections Considering the Presence of Composite Floor Slabs Seismic retrofit;Welded steel moment connection;Slab effect;Heavy shear tab;Haunch;Reduced beam section(RBS); In the 1994 Northridge earthquake, connection damage initiated from the beam bottom flange was prevalent. The presence of a concrete slab and resulting composite action was speculated as one of the critical causes of the prevalent bottom flange fracture. In this study, four seismic retrofit schemes are proposed in order to salvage welded steel moment connections with composite floor slabs in existing steel moment frames. Because top flange modification of existing beams is not feasible due to the presence of a concrete floor slab, three schemes of bottom flange modification by using welded triangular or straight haunches or RBS(reduced beam section), and beam web strengthening by attaching heavy shear tab were cyclically tested and analyzed. Test results of this study show that haunch and web-strengthened specimens can eliminate the detrimental effect caused by composite action and ensure excellent connection plastic rotation exceeding 5% rad. Design recommendations for each retrofit scheme together with supplemental numerical studies are also presented.
Ji Hoon Lim, Dong Ho Choi
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.1.001

Abstract:
Nominal Flexural Strength Considering Strain-hardening Effect of HSB600 Steel for Composite I-girders in Positive Bending Strain-hardening;High performance steel;HSB600;Composite I-girder;Positive bending;Nominal flexural strength; This paper proposes nominal flexural strength considering strain-hardening effect of HSB600 high performance steel for compact composite I-girders in positive bending. Unlike conventional steels, HSB600 undergoes strain-hardening just after yielding without going through yield plateau. However, because the nominal flexural strength specified in domestic and foreign bridge design specifications has been developed for the conventional steel composite girders, the nominal flexural strength does not appropriately consider the strain-hardening of HSB600. Therefore, plastic moment considering a strain-hardening is proposed so as to consider effect of the strain-hardening of HSB600 on flexural strength and then moment-curvature analysis is performed to a wide range of cross-sections. From results of the analysis, a parameter representing the effect of the strain-hardening on the flexural strength of HSB600 composite girders is proposed. Furthermore, by using this parameter, the nominal flexural strength considering the strain-hardening effect for HSB600 composite I-girders in positive bending is proposed and then evaluated by comparing with the current AASHTO LRFD bridge design specifications.
Woo-Young Lim, Young-Chan You
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 169-180; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.2.169

Abstract:
Seismic Performance of Beam-to-column Weak-axis Moment Connection of Small-size Steel Structure Small-size steel structure;Beam-to-column weak-axis connection;Cyclic loading tests;Seismic performance; Cyclic loading tests for beam-to-column weak-axis connections were performed to investigate the seismic performance. In this study, the connections were developed to improve the constructability on the basis of investigation for existing small-size steel structures. The primary test parameter is the number of high-tension bolts which are used to connect steel beam and column using exterior and interior flange plates. Test results showed that the number of bolts had a significant effect on the cyclic behavior of beam-column weak-axis connections. From the analysis of test results, it is concluded that more than four bolts in the connections can satisfy the requirements of semi-rigid connection presented in current design codes. All of specimens showed the bearing failure around bolt holes and fracture at the beam flange. However, when the web height and the flange width is relatively small, the number of the bolts used in the connections might be limited. Thus, the additional research in this area is needed.
Jong Jin Lim, Dong Gwan Kim, Sang Hyun Lee, Choul Soo Park, Chang Nam Lee, Tae Sung Eom
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 181-192; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.2.181

Abstract:
Seismic Tests of Steel Beam-to-column Moment Connections with Inclined End-plate Beam Splice Inclined end-plate;Beam splice;Steel moment frame;Stress concentration;Cyclic loading test;Beam-column connection; A beam splice method using inclined end-plates and high-strength tension bolts was developed. The end-plates welded to a bracket and a spliced beam are connected each other by using the tension bolts. In the present study, six exterior beam-to-column moment connections were tested under cyclic loading. Test parameters were the end-plate details and bolt arrangements. All specimens were designed so that moment resistances of the end-plates and bolts were greater than the required moment at the beam splice, in accordance with the design methods of AISC Design Guide 4. Test results showed that in the beam splices with the extended end-plates, the beam moment successfully transferred to the bracket, without any defeats such as excessive prying action of the end plates and brittle failure at the end plate-to-beam flange weld joints. However, the deformation capacities of the overall beam-to-column connections were limited due to the brittle failure of the beam-to-column flange weld joints. From the test results, recommendations for seismic design and detailing of the beam-to-column moment connection with inclined end-plate beam splice were given.
Ilro Youn, Cheol Hwan Kim, Cheon Gi Do, Woong Jang
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 159-167; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.2.159

Abstract:
A Study on the Structural Performance of Steel Plate Damper Seismic design;Steel damper;Experimental study;FEM analysis study;Structural characteristics; The earthquake which was recently occurred in Kyeongju area caused serious damage to several structures. It is needed to improve capacity against seismic of existing structures constructed before providing seismic design code. This paper is to verify the structural characteristics proposed diagonal steel dampers for existing structures to enhance the seismic resist capacity. The experimental and analysis study were undertaken to obtain the load-displacement relationships of diagonal steel dampers. The valuables were angels and spaces of strut. As a result, it is verified that the proposed steel damper is effective in the seismic reinforcement of existing structures.
Sung Bae Kim, Yong Han Jeon, Seong Hyun Cho, Young Han Choi,
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 135-145; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.2.135

Abstract:
Seismic Performance of HyFo Beam with High Depth-to-SRC Column Connections Hybrid composite beam;Seismic performance test;Inter-story drift angle;Detail of connection; This study is a secondary study that is a cyclic seismic test of High depth hybrid composite beam and column connection after the primary bending strength test of a high depth Hybrid composite beam. Total of 3 seismic test specimens were prepared to cyclic test. The bracket and beam web spliced by high strength bolt and the bracket and beam upper flange was spliced by welding. Test results showed that the seismic strength was higher than the plastic moment($M_p$) in the positive negative moment section, the requirement of composite intermediate moment frame wes satisfied. Therefore, the requirement of intermediate moment frame can be secured by applying the details of connection of this study results.
Joon Tae Ahn, Dong Ku Shin
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 123-134; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.2.123

Abstract:
Ultimate Axial Strength of Longitudinally Stiffened Cylindrical Steel Shell for Wind Turbine Tower Cylindrical shell;Longitudinal stiffener;Axial buckling strength;Finite element method;Initial imperfection; Ultimate axial strength of longitudinally stiffened cylindrical steel shells for wind turbine tower was investigated by applying the geometrically and materially nonlinear finite element method. The effects of radius to thickness ratio of shell, shape and amplitude of initial imperfections, area ratio between effective shell and stiffener, and stiffener spacing on the ultimate axial strength of cylindrical shells were analyzed. The ultimate axial strengths of stiffened cylindrical shells by FEA were compared with design buckling strengths specified in DNV-RP-C202. The shell buckling modes obtained from a linear elastic bifurcation FE analysis as well as the weld depression during fabrication specified in Eurocode 3 were introduced in the nonlinear FE analysis as initial geometric imperfections. The radius to thickness ratio of cylindrical shell models was selected to be in the range of 50 to 200. The longitudinal stiffeners were designed according to DNV-RP-C202 to prevent the lateral torsional buckling and local buckling of stiffeners.
, Jae Kwon Ahn, Dae Kyung Kim, Ji-Hun Park, Seung Hwan Lee
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 111-122; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.2.111

Abstract:
Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concrete-filled U-shaped Mega Composite Beams U-shaped composite beam;Seismic composite connection;Ordinary moment frames;Web local buckling;Finite element analysis; In this paper, the applicability of a 1900mm-deep concrete-filled U-shaped composite beam to composite ordinary moment frames (C-OMFs) was investigated based on existing test results from smaller-sized specimens and supplemental numerical studies since full-scale seismic testing of such a huge sized beam is practically impossible. The key issue was the web local buckling of concrete-filled U section under negative bending. Based on 13 existing test results compiled, the relationship between web slenderness and story drift capacity was obtained. From this relationship, a 1900mm-deep mega beam, fabricated with 25mm-thick plate was expected to experience the web local buckling at 2% story drift and eventually reach a story drift over 3%, thus much exceeding the requirements of C-OMFs. The limiting width to thickness ratio according to the 2010 AISC Specification was shown to be conservative for U section webs of this study. The test-validated supplemental nonlinear finite element analysis was also conducted to further investigate the effects of the horizontal stiffeners (used to tie two webs of a U section) on web local buckling and flexural strength. First, it is shown that the nominal plastic moment under negative bending can be developed without using the horizontal stiffeners, although the presence of the stiffeners can delay the occurrence of web local buckling and restrain its propagation. Considering all these, it is concluded that the 1900mm-deep concrete-filled U-shaped composite beam investigated can be conservatively applied to C-OMFs. Finally, some useful recommendations for the arrangement and design of the horizontal stiffeners are also recommended based on the numerical results.
Seungjun Kim,
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 29, pp 99-110; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2017.29.2.099

Abstract:
Bending Behavior of the Mooring Chain Links Subjected to High Tensile Forces Mooring chain;Friction;Stress concentration;Nonlinear finite element analysis;Fatigue; This paper presents the study of the bending behavior of mooring chain links for keeping the position of the offshore floating structures. In general, chain links have been thought as the axial members due to the fundamental boundary condition. But, the flexural stiffness can be induced to the contact surface between chain links when friction occurs at the surface of the chain links due to high tensile force. Especially, the mooring chains for offshore floating platforms are highly tensioned. If the floater suffers rotational motion and the mooring chain links are highly tensioned, the rotation between contact links, induced by the floater rotation, generates the bending moment and relevant stresses due to the unexpected bending stiffness. In 2005, the mooring chain links for the Girassol Buoy Platform were failed after just 5 months after facility installation, and the accident investigation research concluded the chain failure was mainly caused by the fatigue due to the unexpected bending stress fluctuation. This study investigates the pattern of the induced bending stiffness and stresses of the highly tensioned chain links by nonlinear finite element analysis.
Sung Bae Kim, Seong Hyun Cho, Jae Yeong Lee,
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 28, pp 403-414; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2016.28.6.403

Abstract:
Bending Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Forming Composite Beam with High Depth Composite beam;Hybrid beam;New shape and high depth;Bending performance test;Flexural strength; Recently according to the decreasing of steel price and increasing of labor cost the various studies of steel structure and composite structure are proceeding. This study developed the new shape of high depth hybid forming composite beam and performed the bending test to evaluate the bending performance by creating 10 specimens. Bending test result showed that capacity of the beam was increased stably. The ratio of the nominal load to the maximum load($P_u/P_n$) is 1.19 and the deformation capacity(${\delta}_{0.8P_u}/{\delta}_y$) is 3.9~4.5. Also, it is possible to apply the existing evaluation equation(KBC 2009) of composite beam.
, Cheol Ho Lee, Eun Taik Lee, Tae Ho Han, Young Han Choi, Jong Rak Kim
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 28, pp 313-323; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2016.28.5.313

Sung Bae Kim, Seong Hyun Cho, Kwang Soo Oh, Yong Han Jeon, Young Han Choi,
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 28, pp 151-162; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2016.28.3.151

Hong Gun Park, Ho Jun Lee, ,
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 28, pp 231-242; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2016.28.4.231

Abstract:
Seismic Performance of RC Column-Steel Beam Connections for Large Columns RC column;Steel beam;Beam-column joint;Face bearing plate;Transverse beam;Welded stud; Earthquake resistance of RC column-steel beam (RCS) joints with simplified details were studied. Simplified details are necessary for large columns to improve the productivity and constructability. To strengthen the beam-column joint, the effects of transverse beams, studs, and U-cross ties were used. Four 2/3 scale interior RCS connections were tested under cyclic lateral loading. The specimens generally exhibited good deformation capacity exceeding 4.0% story drift ratio after yielding of both beam and beam-column joint. Ultimately, the specimens failed by shear mechanism of the joint panel. The test strengths were compared with the predictions of existing design methods.
Eun Taik Lee, Jong Rak Kim, Young Han Choi,
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 28, pp 281-292; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2016.28.4.281

Abstract:
A Study for the Weldability, Welding Position and Welded Joint Performance on the FCAW of HSA800 Steel HSA800;TMCP;FCAW;Weldability;Welding position;Welded joint performance;Homogeneity; In this research, 10 specimens of FCAW welding with positions of 1G and 3G were tested to confirm the weldability, welding positions, and welded joint performance of 60mm HSA800 steel. The test results showed that FCAW 1G and 3G satisfied HSA800 steel's KS and the criteria for homogeneity of strength, indicating a good weld zones. However, according to the tensile test results of weld zone, 3G position FCAW welding requires improvement of welding techniques and methods.
Jinwon Shin,
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 28, pp 271-280; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2016.28.4.271

Abstract:
A Numerical Analysis for Blast Pressure and Impulse from Free-Air Burst Computational fluid dynamics;Near-field detonation;Verification;Validation;Numerical analysis; The need to accurate quantification of blast pressure loading in the near field is important because the focus of security design of critical infrastructure, buildings and bridges is for near-field detonations. Incident and reflected pressures for near-field detonations are very difficult to be measured by commercially available pressure transducers due to the high pressure and temperature, which requires a verified and validated computational fluid dynamics code to reasonably predict the near-field pressures and impulses. This paper presents numerical studies to verify and validate a CFD code for calculations of incident and reflected overpressures and impulses. The near field is emphasized and recommendations for mesh sizes to optimally simulate the near-field detonation are provided.
Jin Seok Jeong, Myung Rag Jung, Chang Kwon Ock, Won Tae Lee, Moon Young Kim
Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction, Volume 28, pp 243-251; https://doi.org/10.7781/kjoss.2016.28.4.243

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