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О. М. Yakubchak, Т. V. Таran, S. V. Міdyk, V. V. Danchuk, N. Ya. Dudchenko, L. M. Vygovska
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.03.004

Abstract:
The percentage of fatty acids in cow's milk is an indicator of its naturalness, which is now relevant given the prevalence of adulteration of milk and dairy products with vegetable fats. The aim was to study certain quality indicators and fatty acid composition of milk obtained in the conditions of NULES of Ukraine "Agronomic Research Station". Materials, methods. Collective chilled milk obtained at different times of the year on the basis of ULYABP APC NULES of Ukraine was studied. Organoleptic and chemical parameters as well as fatty acid composition of milk were determined. Extraction of lipids from milk was performed by the method of Folch. Analysis of LCD methyl esters was performed on a Trace GC Ultra gas chromatograph (USA) with a flame ionization detector. Identification of fatty acids was performed using a standard sample Supelco 37 Component FAME Mix. Quantitative evaluation of the fatty acid spectrum of milk fat lipids was performed by the method of internal normalization, determining their content in percent. The study was performed in 2 parallels. Statistical processing of experimental data was performed by conventional methods of variation statistics. The probability of the difference in indicators was assessed by Student's t-test. Differences between the compared indicators were considered significant at the significance level P≤0.05. Results and Discussion. Studies have shown that milk is natural because its fatty acid composition corresponds to the fatty acid composition of milk fat. - 1.7, spring - 1.6 times. In summer and autumn, the content of unsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in milk increases, in autumn - polyunsaturated, which is due to the presence in the diet of cows green mass and corn silage and the lack of concentrated feed and vitamin and mineral supplements. The obtained results can be used as a basis for compiling a diet to obtain milk with optimal content and ratio of fatty acids, which can become competitive in the market of raw milk for the production of milk and dairy products of improved chemical composition, dietary, functional products, baby food.
S. A. Tkachuk, I. V. Yatsenko, L. V. Tkachyk
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.03.002

Abstract:
It is known that feed additives with Omega -3 improve the productivity and health of pigs. Evaluation of morphological and biochemical parameters of pig blood with the use of feed additives is a necessary study to establish scientific evidence of the effects on the body of additives used in pig feeding.The article presents scientific research to determine the morphological and biochemical parameters of blood in young pigs and pigs for fattening for the use in the diet of organic feed additives Lg-Max and Sel-Plex.Feed additives Lg-Max together with Sel-Plex, was introduced as part of a premix to animal feed of the experimental group, taking into account the need of animals in Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids (daily requirement of pigs in Omega-3 is 672 mg. In 1 g of experimental feed additive contains 353 mg of Omega-3), and the drug Sel-Plex – in the amount of 0.5 mg / kg.According to the results of the study, it was found that the studied morphological parameters of pig blood were within physiological limits according to age.Biochemical parameters in the serum of the experimental group of pigs in comparison with the control of the corresponding age are in the following dynamics: in pigs of 45 days of age probably increases – the concentration of globulins; α 2-globulins and β-globulins, and probably decreases the content of AST; in pigs 120 days of age is likely to increase – the content of total protein and magnesium; probably decreases – the content of cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase; in 155-day-old pigs, the concentration of calcium probably increases, and the concentration of cholesterol probably decreases.
N. B. Kolych, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, N. Hudz
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.03.005

Abstract:
In recent years, there is a tendency to increase the incidence of the disease in dogs with signs of diarrhea, not only in Ukraine, but also in Europe. In general, diseases with the manifestation of such specific clinical sign as diarrhea can be caused by viruses, bacteria and helminths. In general pathology of dogs, enterovirus infections of puppies occupy a leading place. The practice of specific prophylaxis suggests that in the etiological aspect diseases emerging with this symptom can be caused not only by parvo-, but also corona- and rotavirus enteritis. These diseases are extremely dangerous for puppies and miniature dogs, due to rapid dehydration, and as a result, death.The article presents the results of a study on histological changes in organs and tissues of dogs with coronavirus infection. A histological study of pathological material sampled from 6 dogs of various breeds and sex, aged from 2 to 6 months, died from diarrheal syndrome was carried out. The presence of the coronavirus was confirmed in fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction.The most expressed injuries and typical changes in all dead dogs we recorded in the small intestine, namely in the jejunum and ileum, regional lymph nodes, and also in the spleen.Morphological manifestations of coronavirus infection in dogs at macroscopic level are the following signs: the presence of exudative inflammation in the small intestine in form of serous-fibrinous jejunoileitis, hyperplasia and serohemorrhagic lymphadenitis of the mesenteric lymph nodes, multiple foci of hemorrhage in the parenchyma of the spleen and serous membrane of the small intestine, passive venous hyperemia of the liver and kidneys, dilatation of the right ventricle of the heart, pulmonary edema, cachexia and dehydration of the body.At the microscopic level we registered the following: serofibrinous jejunoileitis, hyperplasia of the lymphoid nodules of the spleen and lymph nodes, hemorrhagic infarctions in the spleen, hyperplasia of individual and aggregated lymphoid nodules of the mucous membrane in the small intestine, degenerative processes in the parenchyma of the liver and kidneys.
A. O. Oripov, N. E. Yuldashev
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.03.007

Abstract:
The modern strategy to control the main, widespread helminthiasis of farm animals provides for a complex of anthelminthiasis measures, including: planned therapeutic and prophylactic deworming, based on data from the study of the epizootology of helminthiasis in each specific climatic-geographical zone; the implementation of measures for the pasture prevention of geohelminthiasis and the fight against the main, intermediate and additional hosts of pathogens of biohelminthiasis, including zoonotic helminthiases (echinococcosis, cenurosis and сycticercoses); the implementation of measures for chemoprophylaxis of helminthiasis in certain branches of animal husbandry, for example, in sheep breeding; by using anthelmintic-salt mixtures; the use of agents that increase the immunobiological protective properties of the animal body against helminthiases and other diseases through the widespread use of vitamins, micro- and macroelements and other biological stimulants.Keywords: helminths, helminthiases, deworming, molluscicides, anthelmintics, anthelmintic-salt mixtures, immunostimulants
J. Illek, D. Kumprechtová, V. A. Tomchuk, V. A. Gryshchenko, I. V. Kalinin, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.03.001

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to compare effects of two levels of selenium yeast (SY) and sodium selenite (SS) supplementation on blood, colostrum and milk Se levels, blood chemistry parameters in dairy cows under field conditions. The study included 36 Holstein cows from 5 weeks prepartum to 12 weeks postpartum. The cows were divided into 4 treatments (n = 9): 1. Negative Control (NC) – no Se supplement; 2. Positive Control (PC) – 0.3 ppm Se (from sodium selenite); 3. S1 – 0.3 ppm Se (from selenium yeast – SELSAF®, Lesaffre Feed Additives, France); 4. S2 – 5 ppm Se (SELSAF®, Lesaffre Feed Additives, France). At 5 and 1 weeks prepartum, on the calving day, and 4, 8, 12 weeks postpartum, blood samples were taken. Colostrum and milk were collected on the calving day and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum and analysed for Se content. Initial Se status in all the cows was marginal. Negative Control cows showed suboptimal blood Se levels for the whole period under study. S1 and S2 showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher values than NC and PC cows. Colostrum Se levels were significantly higher in S1 (128.17 ug/L) and S2 (155.58 ug/L) than in NC (94.68 ug/L) and PC (99.3 ug/L) cows.Overall mean milk Se levels in S1 (20.4 ug/L) and S2 (50.0 ug/L) were higher than in NC (10.9 ug/L) and PC (16.6 ug/L). Biochemical indicators of blood did not significantly differ between the treatments and were within the physiological ranges.Se levels in whole blood, colostrum and milk, and GSH-Px activity were significantly increased by selenium yeast supplementation. The response was dose dependent and consistent. Selenium from organic source was more bioavailable than selenium from sodium selenite. Dietary Se at a tolerance dose (5 ppm) had no detrimental effect on the blood chemistry parameters analysed.
M. O. Zhukovsky, V. V. Nedosekov
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.03.008

Abstract:
The article examines the foundation , stages of formation and development of the economyanimal health . The main scientific schools and their contribution to the development of animal health economics are highlighted .It is established that the economics of animal health is a dynamic and relatively new field of research , currently little explored are economic tools that cover the problems of animal health and the functioning of the veterinary service. Relevant issues that directly engaged and involved , now , a small group of scientists, consultants and Narrow specialists.Currently, new priority areas for the development of animal health economics are the study of the economics of animal husbandry systems and animal health problems due to the impact of these systems, in particular transboundary emergent animal diseases.Undoubtedly, one of the main criteria for sustainable animal husbandry is animal welfare and biosecurity, which are priorities of the One World, One Health concept established by the FAO, OIE and WHO Triumvirate in 2009. It is the consolidation of these criteria and the laws of economics that will ensure the sustainable development of animal husbandry.It is extremely necessary to establish our own scientific school that will take into account the world experience, realities and peculiarities of veterinary medicine and animal husbandry and be implemented in modern science and production of Ukraine.
V. A. Gryshchenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, J. Illek, V. A. Tomchuk
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.03.006

Abstract:
Diseases of the digestive system are extremely common among animals, especially young animals. The purpose of this work was to determine the features of the corrective effectiveness of reparative agents based on phospholipids of various origins based on the results of a comprehensive study of clinical, hematological, immunological parameters and the structural and functional state of immunocompetent organs in CBA mice with experimental gastroenteropathology.As a result of the reproduction of an acute form of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with diarrheal syndrome in CBA mice, the development of characteristic clinical symptoms was noted. Regardless of the nature of the origin of phospholipids, preparations based on them exhibited a pronounced reparative effect on cell damage. At the same time, the effectiveness of the dietary supplement "FLP-MD" based on phospholipids from milk according to some indicators turned out to be better than the preparation Essentiale-forte based on phospholipids from soybeans. Thus, the peculiarity of the effect of the dietary supplement "FLP-MD" on the organism of sick mice is the acceleration of the restoration of the general clinical state of the animals (on the 8-10th day from the beginning of the introduction of the dietary supplement into the body versus the 10-12th day when using the drug essentiale-forte), restoration of the mass of lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen); an increase in the relative number of T-lymphocytes in the blood by 1.4 times due to the activation of proliferative processes in the organs of the immune system (4.8 times in the spleen, 1.5 times in the thymus).
V. F. Radchikov, D. M. Bogdanovich, A. N. Kot, V. P. Tsai, V. A. Tomchuk, V. A. Gryshchenko, V. I. Karpovskyi, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.03.003

Abstract:
Calf rearing is critical to a successful dairy or beef cattle breeding. Maximum productivity at the lowest cost can be obtained from healthy calves only. Zootechnical, biochemical and economic research methods were used during the experiments.It has been determined that feeding calves with experimental milk replacer with milk period duration of 65 days allowed to obtain 692 g of the average daily weight gain for the experiment period, that is 2.3% lower than the control indicator. Feeding calves with WMR helps to reduce the cost of diet by 6.0% and the price cost of weight gain by 3.6%.Use of dry skimmed milk replacer and whole milk replacer during the rearing period, with milk period duration of 115 days, contributed to decrease in weight gain by 1.8 and 1.2% compared to the control variant. Feeding calves with DSMR and WMR helped to reduce the cost of diet by 10.3 and 5.8% and the price cost of weight gain by 8.5 and 4.8%.Feeding with DSMR and WMR in diet for young animals over 115 days of age during the post-milk period increases concentration of erythrocytes in blood by 10.0 and 9.8%, hemoglobin - by 5.8 and 3.9%, amount of glucose - by 11.0 and 9.5%. Inclusion of DSMR and WMR in diet for young cattle with milk period duration of 65 and 115 days contributed to increase in the average daily weight gain in the post-milk period by 9.2 and 10.7%, while reducing the cost of feed by 5.8 and 7.6%, price cost of weight gain by 6.1 and 7.7% and increase in additional profit in the amount of 8.35 (3.5 USD) and 10.58 (4.5 USD) rubles per animal during experimental period.In the future, it is necessary to improve the feeding system of young cattle using new developments in this area.
A. Berezenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, V. Nedosekov, O. Godovskiy, Biotestlab Ltd
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.001

Abstract:
One of the most common viruses in the world that causes disease in cattle is the bovine coronavirus (BCoV). This virus is the causative agent of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in newborn calves, resulting in significant economic losses in both dairy and meat farming. Considering the complex epizootic situation with the coronaviruses in the world and partial antigenic affinity of BCoV with coronaviruses of other species of animals and humans, the isolation of new strains of coronaviruses, their identification and optimization of cultivation conditions becomes extremely important and relevant. The aim of our research was to determine the features of methods of isolation of bovine coronavirus and to select methods for its cultivation in cell culture in order to obtain the virus with the highest titers of infectious activity. Isolation of BCoV was performed in monolayers of MDBK and the primary-trypsinized calf kidney culture cells, using 20 samples collected from calves with clinical signs of respiratory or/and gastrointestinal disease. 16 samples were positive for BCoV by means of Real-Time PCR test. Up to fifth serial passage, only 4 of these isolates presented typical syncytial cytopathic effect. It has been experimentally established that the continious calf kidney cell culture line (MDBK) and the primary-trypsinized calf kidney culture (CK) are suitable for BCoV isolation and accumulation. The infectious titer of bovine coronavirus at the level of the fifth passage in the cultures of MDBK and CK cells reached 5.54 ± 0.16 lg TCD50/ml and 5.59 ± 0.14 lg TCD50/ml, respectively. However, due to the high cost of obtaining primary-trypsinized cell cultures, this isolation method may be unacceptable to most pharmaceutical companies and laboratories. Also after 5 serial passages, the viral material was again examined in Real-Time PCR to confirm the isolation of BCoV - the study of 4 samples with a characteristic syncytial CPE had a positive result in Real-Time PCR. However, of the Real-Time PCR-positive 12 samples, the virus could not be isolated in continuous cell cultures of MDBK and Vero, as well as in primary-trypsinized cattle lung and kidney cell cultures. This fact may indicate the presence of different strains of BCoV circulation in farms in our country. Further research is planned to be focused on optimizing the methods and modes of BCoV strains isolation, as well as to identify and study the cultural properties of new strains of BCoV circulating in Ukraine. We will also continue the study of the obtained viral isolate for the subsequent development of tools for the diagnosis and immunoprophylaxis of coronavirus infection in veterinary medicine.
D. Y. Voityshynа, National University of Water Management and Nature Recources Use
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.005

Abstract:
Introduction .With a significant number of water bodies in Ukraine (only 2,000 small rivers), the descriptive characteristics of the ecological situation occupy a significant amount, which requires unification and encryption. Dr.Ph. Klymenko M.O, Dr. Ph. Gryb J.V. made the unification of research materials by blocks: type of basin-morphometric of the catchment surface, floodplains and riverbeds - quality of the aquatic environment - production characteristics - socio-demographic - block of economic analysis of profitability in river basins and cluster costs analysis of the state of the components of the ecosystem and assessment of the basin as a whole. The study of individual elements of the water basin (composition and quality of the aquatic environment, the state of the catchment surface, ichthyofauna, forage base of aboriginal ichthyofauna, the impact of economic activity) provides some information. There is a significant array of surface water monitoring data (hydrochemistry, ecology, hydrobiology, ichthyology, etc.), attributed to the middle and end of the twentieth century. Here it should be noted the works of Kononenko G.D., Gryb J.V., Alekseevsky V.E, Baranovsky V.A, Klymenko M.O, Tsvetova O.V, Sondaka V.V, Chernyavskaya A. P., Zhukinsky V.N and others. They established the regional features of the chemical regime of surface waters, developed a methodology for assessing the quality of surface waters and the state of transformation of the catchment surface, the peculiarities of the formation of crisis situations. Dr.Ph. Gryb J.V. researches of a chemical mode of surface waters on phases of a hydrological mode for the period from 1970 to 2000 are carried out. Kononenko G.D. conducted mapping of the territory of Ukraine by the main ions of the mineral composition of water. The State Institute of Eastern and Northern Europe (Germany) together with the Institute of Geography of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the basis of applied research of Ukrainian scientists: Rudenko L.G., Chernyavska A.P., Gryb J.V. with the participation of scientists G. Friedline, G.A. Vernichenko, T.P .Balashova, I.P. Semenova conducted a study of the state of rivers in Ukraine and drew up a map of water quality and suitability for use (1995). A map of soils of Ukraine, stock-forming and underlying rocks was also issued. Purpose . Among the important scientific results of the study is the need for unification and unification of river basins. Methodology According to the EU framework directive, the river basin and its elements are accepted as a unit of spatial research of water bodies: channel, floodplain, accessory network (number of intermediate ecotones). These include the following elements of the basin: first-order currents, second-order tributaries, floodplain. Old villages, floodplain lakes, swamps, meadows, springs, as well as subsystems of the catchment area: forest, water mirror, plowed and barren lands, urban areas and infrastructure. Assessment of the condition is carried out on three levels: good, satisfactory, bad. Collectively, the water basin is accepted as a biome that shapes the quality of surface waters, their productivity, diversity of flora and fauna. The hydrographic network itself forms the landscape and connects its elements through hydro-ecological corridors - river systems. The following mathematical dependences are used in the creation of the bio-skeleton framework of the water basin, with the increase of the values of the characteristics the value of the golden root r1 is 1.68 with the decrease of r2 - 0.68. In the pentosystem series of characteristics (classes) the numbers of phyto-swings for biological processes 1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55 are used. Results. An example of encryption of field research materials of the Lviv River (a tributary of the first order of the Pryt River) is presented in formula (1) АП; R1; Z3; Z42; E1; L; Ie; b5 5; R3; Ke5; St 3,0. (1) Plain part of Ukraine, Western Polissya region, Dnieper river basin, main canal, regulated, one intermediate Eco tone (channel reservoir), water is weakly mineralized, channel is straight , water quality class one, fish productivity is weak, the state of the basin is over drying, stability is low (low water, segmentation of the channel by locks, protective sand from unaligned slopes of the shore). Similarly, other blocks can be coded. In the perspective owe will obtain the results of the correlation with the conclusions of other scientists, in particular Klymenko M.O., Gryba J.V. and others. Thanks to encrypting the data by blocks of pool structure, we can unify the methods of research, facilitating the work of researchers and students. Conclusions 1. The economic and ecological framework of the water basin is one of the leading blocks for assessing the ecological situation. And the main indicator is the ecological and economic potential of the territory and the cost of the basin. 2. To assess the transformation of the state of the basin, reference values of the state of the enterprise are needed. 3. In assessing the situation, the final block is the economy and demographic situation - the cost of living and its duration.
V. V. Nedosekov, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, H. V. Petkun
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.011

Abstract:
Dairy animal welfare is of growing interest around the world, especially in developed countries, which have animal welfare programs and resources to establish optimal management systems for cows and understand that animal welfare is the foundation of innovative dairy farming. The article, based on the analysis, synthesis and generalization of world research and the results of own scientific expert assessment of animal welfare identifies the main problems of animal welfare on dairy farms, considers methods of assessing animal welfare in the world and substantiates the importance of implementing welfare programs and management protocols in dairy farming. Thus, in dairy farming, animal welfare is an important component based on world regulations. The analysis of regulations requires an understanding of the legislative aspects of different levels and examples of best practice: a) EU directives and practices, b) directives and practices of each European country c) national directives of non-EU countries, which must take into account all three legislative features. It has been shown that the EU has implemented a number of animal welfare acts, compromises between dairy producers and consumers on a number of instruments to harmonize law enforcement through audit, training, scientific expertise and consulting, and contributes to the stability of the EU food chain. In Ukraine, it is important to harmonize legislation with European Union norms and create a system for assessing the welfare of dairy animals, as well as information and educational activities and training on animal welfare on dairy farms for stakeholders and practical approaches to implementing animal welfare in production. We launched the European approach "Signals of cows" within the Ukrainian-Dutch project "Dairy farm", which allowed to work out the basic aspects of animal welfare in research farms NULES. In 2021, a new law on veterinary medicine was adopted, which implements 14 EU acts and includes a section on animal welfare, which is already a big step forward and opens new opportunities. However, in addition to the provisions on the welfare of calves (harmonization with Regulation 98/58 EC) do not consider regulations on the welfare of the dairy herd, which is not enough to develop the dairy industry in a global transformation. The article presents the basic indicators of welfare of cows, which are used in European countries and which we use in expert assessments. However, systemic data to assess the welfare of cows is not enough, because it is in the plane of consulting, which does not allow the analysis of the welfare of cows. In the context of globalization, the basic problem of animal welfare on dairy farms is the intensification, so the main welfare assessment programs (FARM, The Code of welfare, Welfare Quality and IDSW), which are widely used in milk production in accordance with current animal welfare standards. Intensification of animal husbandry, which provides greater economic efficiency, poses many threats to animal health and remains one of the biggest problems of animal welfare. The desire for profit reduces the ability to implement the principles of sustainable development. We consider it expedient to develop and implement programs for assessing the welfare of cows in Ukraine. So in the EU there is a voluntary WQ program that certifies producers and aims to meet the needs of society, develop a reliable monitoring system on farms and improve the welfare of cows in general. In New Zealand, the Code of welfare has been implemented, which forms awareness of farmers and care for animal welfare. Almost 98% of US farms are members of the FARM (USA) program, which is positioned as a voluntary program and a number of others. Thus, despite the fact that dairy farming is one of the strategic sectors of animal husbandry in Ukraine, the welfare of dairy farms is insufficiently studied and covered. In the perspective of research, it is important to analyze the experience of other countries in this area and the introduction of a system of welfare assessment, as well as the development and implementation of protocols on animal welfare in Ukraine based on the concept of "Five Freedoms". It is important to raise the awareness of stakeholders and officials to ensure proper compliance with EU animal welfare rules, taking into account national, regional and local networks, different support and understanding of the target audience (both farmers and producers, civil servants, scientists and educators, etc.). Also a priority is research on animal welfare, as well as the development of modern approaches to the legal provision of animal welfare, which will improve animal welfare. Thus, in order to ensure a high level of welfare of cows in relation to world standards of animal welfare, the priority is to assess the welfare of cows, improve the legal framework in Ukraine, further research in this area, implementation of effective programs to control the welfare of dairy animals.
V. S. Bomko, BILA TSERKVA NATIONAL AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY, M. S. Zakharchuk, O. M. Tytariova
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.010

Abstract:
Aimed to study the effective use of different doses of cuprum proteinate in the diet of broiler chickens, three groups of animals were formed with 50 chicks in each. Chickens from the 1st control group received cuprum sulphate as a part of compound feed, and animals from the 2nd and 3rd experimental groups received cuprum proteinate. The concentration of Cuprum in the feed in the 1st and 2nd groups was identical, and in the 3rd experimental group the amount of Cuprum was reduced by 25% compared to the control. During scientific and economic experiment, it was found that the replacement of cuprum sulphate with its proteinate with the same concentration in the feed has a positive effect on the average daily gain of broiler chickens, and therefore a live weight. Thus, the animals from the 2nd experimental group exceeded control analogues by 7.5% in average daily gain and by 9.4% in body mass at the end of the experiment. Reducing the concentration of Cuprum in the feed of chickens from the 3rd experimental group by 25% (the source of the microelement is cuprum proteinate) compared to the control also had a positive effect on the productivity of these animals. They exceeded control analogues in terms of average daily weight gain by 3.8%, and in terms of live weight by 5.8%. At the same time the direct correlation between animal productivity and quantity of the consumed feed was noted. Thus, broilers from the 2nd experimental group consumed more feed by 3.3% compared to control peers. The chickens from the 3rd experimental group exceeded controls by 1.5% in this index. Thus, cuprum proteinate is a more efficient source of Cuprum for broiler feed. The concentration of this microelement in the feed of these animals aged 5-21 days should be 18.2 g/t, 22–35 days - 16.8 g/t, 36–42 days - 12 g/t or 16.5 g/t on average during the experiment.
G. I. Demydas, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, I. V. Svystunova, E. S. Lyhosherst
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.008

Abstract:
An important factor in the feed industry intensification is the cultivation of perennial legumes, including sainfoin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mineral fertilizers and seed inoculation on the formation of the root system and the symbiotic productivity of different varieties of sainfoin grown on green fodder. Experimental studies were conducted during 2016-2018 on the research field of Forage Production, Land Reclamation and Meteorology Department, located at the NULES of Ukraine "Agronomic Research Station" on typical low-humus chernozem. According to the results of the research, it was established that on average in three years the biggest root mass - at the level of 52.7 t/ha was formed by sainfoin variety Amethyst Donetskyi with providing complete mineral fertilizer in the dose N45P60K90 and presowing seeds inoculation by Rhizotorphin. In plants of the same variant, the most developed symbiotic apparatus was also noted - in the flowering phase, the total number of tubers was 126 units/plant, and their weight was 3.444 g/plant. As a result of a strong root system of plants formation and a well-developed symbiotic apparatus, the amount of biologically fixed nitrogen under crops of sainfoin of variety Amethyst Donetskyi reached 143 kg/ha.
I. L. Rogovskii, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.014

Abstract:
Based on the analysis of most domestic combines, it is established that they have a traditional scheme of threshing and separating device, which includes one or two sequentially arranged threshing threshers and keyboard straw shaker. The design of drumming from rods with cross plates provides, first of all, intensification of process of threshed grain. Cereals are threshed easily, so there is no need to intensify threshing. For example, when harvesting grain harvester KZS-9M "Slavutich" with a gap at the outlet between the threshing drum and the drum 18 mm and the speed of the threshing drum 450 min-1, the loss of threshing was absent in all experiments. In this case, the transverse plates of the drum are an obstacle to the movement of the threshed mass in the threshing-separating device, forming a dead space behind each bar, where a small component of plant mass accumulates. The quality of the threshing and separating device of the combine harvester was determined by the coefficients of undersmilling, separation, crushing and clogging of the grain received for cleaning. Damage to the grain during threshing in the thresher is mainly due to the influence of the circumferential linear velocity of the threshing drum and the gap between the threshing drum and the drum. Therefore, the gap in the threshing space is variable and changes in the direction of decrease from the entrance of the plant mass into the threshing device to its exit. To summarize, we used the gap in the threshing space at the outlet of the thresher. In this regard, the beginning of the tests was at a drum speed of 450 min-1. During the tests it was found that the greatest influence on the damage to the grain has a circular linear speed of the threshing drum. Thus, when increasing the speed of the drum per 100 min-1 from 450 to 550 min-1, the damage increased from 1.5% to 5.5%, ie almost 4 times.
I.P. Kotlyar, H.M. Kuznіetsova, V.K. Rybalchenko
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.003

Abstract:
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which includes ulcerative colitis (UC), is one of the most serious and currently unsolved problems in modern gastroenterology. In terms of severity and frequency of complications, IBD occupies one of the leading places in the structure of gastrointestinal tract diseases. The etiology of IBD is still not fully understood. It is probably of an autoimmune nature, and the main causes are considered to be hereditary predisposition, allergic reactions, nutrition, etc. Dystrophic and atrophic changes of the colonic mucosa, accompanied by its secretory and motor function alterations, digestive disorders, as well as extraintestinal manifestations (general intoxication, liver and skin injuries, joints) are main IBD features. Because tumor growth is usually accompanied by inflammation of tumor nodules in adjacent apparently normal tissue, and prolonged pharnaceutical suppression of inflammation significantly reduces the risk of tumor development, chronic UC is considered as a precursor condition. Moreover, the number of colorectal cancer cases among people with UC history exceeding 10 years, increases eightfold compared to the average population. In this regard, it is important to prevent this pathology, in particular with the help of food supplements of natural origin, such as vegetable oils of flax and milk thistle, which are used in traditional medicine, including inflammatory diseases of the digestive system. Studies on their possible anti-inflammatory effects on the colonic mucosa and biochemical parameters of blood in ulcerative colitis have not been performed. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of vegetable oils (flaxseed and milk thistle, obtained by different methods of pressing) in a model of acute colitis in rats. Object of research: biochemical mechanisms of realization of influence of thistle and flaxseed oils of different methods of extraction at ulcerative colitis. The effects of linseed and milk thistle oils obtained by cold pressing (to 45°C) and hot pressing (to 95°C) on the development of acute colitis in rats, when administered with food, have been investigated. It was shown that the use of linseed oil both cold and hot-pressed under conditions of adding it to the feed in an amount of 10% for 2 weeks prevents the development of inflammatory and destructive changes in the colon of rats with acute colitis and its negative consequences in the liver (for approaching to the normal values of serum markers of its functional activity). These oil properties could be realized partially by unsaturated fatty acids, in particular ω3, including minor ones. The data obtained may indicate that one of the mechanisms of implementation of the anti-inflammatory action of these substances is their ability to reduce oxidative stress - one of the main factors and promoters of inflammation.
L. M. Burko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, I. V. Svystunova, S. P. Poltoretskyi, T. I. Prorochenko, Uman National University of Horticulture
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.009

Abstract:
The results of research on the influence of species composition of grass mixtures, the level of fertilizing, and growth stimulator Fumar on the productivity of sown meadow herbage on typical low-humus chernozems of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe are presented. The experimental part of the work was performed in the scientific laboratories of the Forage Production, Land Reclamation, and Meteorology Department in the production unit of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine "Agronomic Research Station". The territory of the research station is located in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe and is a part of Bila Tserkva agro-soil district. The experimental plots were laid on typical low-humus chernozems, coarse-grained light loam in terms of mechanical composition, which are characterized by a high content of gross and mobile forms of nutrients. The climate of the region is characterized by unstable humidity and moderate temperatures. The average annual air temperature is 6-8 ° C. The annual amount of precipitation reaches 562 mm, during the growing season - 354-394 mm (63-70% of the annual norm), which falls unevenly throughout the year. The purpose of the study is to establish patterns of high productivity formation of sown perennial grasses depending on the species composition and fertilizers on typical low-humus chernozems of Right-Bank Forest-Steppe. The analysis of fertilizers effect showed that the highest productivity on all stands was provided by the combined application of complete mineral fertilizer and biostimulator of growth Fumar (N60P60K90 + Fumar), where productivity compared to the option without fertilizer on average over the years of research on alfalfa t/ha of dry mass or by 9%, on its mixtures with cereals - by 0.89–1.19 t/ha, or by 9–11%, and on cereal herbages - by 2.79 t/ha, or by 54% at LSD 0.41 t/ha. Productivity from the use of growth stimulant Fumar increased by 0.27-0.32 t/ha of dry weight or 2-4% and depended a little on the species composition of herbages. High efficiency of alfalfa inclusion in leguminous-cereal grass mixtures, as well as use of single-species alfalfa sowing for fodder purposes, especially on backgrounds without mineral nitrogen, was revealed. The productivity of these herbages in comparison with cereal herbages on nitrogen-free backgrounds (variants without fertilizers and P60K90) on average for 2014–2016 increased from 3.74–4.10 to 8.06–8.68 t/ha of fodder units, from 0.57-0.66 to 1.70-1.96 of crude protein, from 93.7-101.4 to 182.1-206.2 GJ/ha of gross energy and from 38.9-42.7 to 82.4–91.3 GJ/ha of metabolic energy or by1.8–3.0 times, while on backgrounds with nitrogen application (variants N60P60K90 and N60P60K90 + Fumar) - respectively from 5.73–5.93 to 8, 27–9.22 t/ha, from 1.13–1.21 to 1.89–2.29 t/ha, from 139.8–144.8 to 192.5–219.1 GJ/ha, and from 59.6–61.7 to 89.4–98.2 GJ/ha, or by 1.4–1.6 times. Comparison of the productivity of alfalfa-cereal mixtures with single-species sowing of alfalfa shows that on the same backgrounds it was at the same level with slight fluctuations. On average, in the first three years of use, the most influential factor in the yield of 1 ha of dry mass is the factor of grass cover with a share of 60%. The share of fertilizer factor is 40%. The inclusion of alfalfa in legumes and cereal mixtures, as well as the use of single-species sowing for fodder purposes compared to cereals in the background without mineral nitrogen on average for the first three years of use, increases the productivity of sown grasslands from 5.12-5.54 to 10,44–10.78 t/ha of dry weight, from 3.74–4.10 to 8.06–8.68 t/ha of feed units, from 0.57–0.66 to 1.70 1.96 of crude protein and from 38.9–42.7 to 82.4–91.3 GJ/ha of exchange energy or by 1.8–3.0 times, while on backgrounds with N60 application - from 7.28–7.59, respectively, to 9.42–9.71 t/ha, from 5.73–5.93 to 8.27–9.22 t/ha, from 1.13–1.21 to 1.89–2.29 t/ha and from 59.6–61.7 to 89.4–98.2 GJ/ha, or only by 1.4–1.6 times. Among the alfalfa-cereal herbages in the first two years of use, the most productive was the agrocenosis, the cereal part of which is represented by smooth bromegrass and English bluegrass. The lowest, but quite high productivity of alfalfa and alfalfa-grass herbages is provided without fertilizers, which on average for the first three years of use ranges from 9.95 to 10.86 t/ha of dry weight, 1.70 to 1.85 t/ha of crude protein, 82.4–85.8 GJ/ha of metabolic energy, while cereals, respectively, 5.12 t/ha, 3.74 t/ha, 0.57 t/ha, 38.9 GJ/ha.
O. M. Klymenko, National University of Water Management and Nature Resources, L. M. Korniiko
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.002

Abstract:
The current state of the ecological situation in our country is becoming dangerous not only for the present but for future generations largely. These are contradictory principles of sustainable development and threatens the further development of the state. Ensuring the sustainable development of human civilization depends on many factors and conditions. In recent decades, humanity has been actively implementing the concept of sustainable development. This concept became widespread after the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. This concept of sustainable development creates possibility to achieve socio-ecological and economic security and safety. The concept of sustainable development is based on the impossibility of solving environmental safety problems separately without solving economic and social problems. Thus, focusing only on the economic indicators of production leads to a catastrophic deterioration of the environment and public health, which is accompanied by loss of ability to work, reduced efficiency, and, consequently, reduced Gross National Product. At present, the concept of sustainable development is especially relevant for our country in general and for its regions in particular. The problem of environmental safety plays an important role, as it ensures the use of natural resources that will contribute to their natural recovery as well as reduce the impact of anthropogenic pressure on the environment. For effective studying the problem of environmental safety we decided to assess environmental safety at the regional level on the example of Rivne region. The article considers the issue of assessing the state of ecological safety of residential areas of Rivne region. Analysis of recent research shows that environmental safety is formed under the influence of environmental, socio-economic and man-made factors. Therefore, the definition of environmental safety requires a comprehensive approach. Since the definition of local safety requires a comprehensive approach, it is based on assessing the socio-ecological safety of the research area. Achieving the goal is expected through the solution of the following tasks: - substantiate the selection of indicators for the assessment of residential areas; - to calculate the levels of security of residential areas of Rivne region for each district. The method of evaluation of scientists Gerasymchuk Z.V., Oleksiiuk A.O. is represented as a basis. It is proposed to divide all indicators into 3 blocks: resource, biosphere-centric and anthropocentric. The assessment is performed using indicators of partial integrated levels of environmental safety of three blocks of resource, biosphere-centric and anthropocentric. In the resource block we will analyze the indicators that show the number, level of involvement and efficiency of use. In the biosphere-centric we will analyze the indicators of anthropogenic impact on the environment through the formation of discharges, emissions and waste. In the anthropocentric block we will study the state of health of the population, the level of growth and population estimate. Then, based on these calculations for each unit, we determine a partial indicator of environmental safety. On the basis of the calculated 3 blocks according to a technique we will receive an integrated indicator of ecological safety. The integrated indicator gives a qualitative assessment of the ecological condition of each specific district according to the developed scale Gerasymchuk Z.V., Oleksiiuk A.O. Also this indicator gives us the possibility to make a comparative description of the districts among themselves. Thus, in our work it was established that in the vast majority in the zone of ecological threat there are 12 districts, in the zone of ecological danger - 3 districts of Rivne, Sarny, Zdolbuniv regions. In the zone of ecological risk is Berezne district. A large number of areas that are in the zone of danger indicates that these areas are characterized by a high level of man-made load on the environment. Based on this, to ensure the environmental security of the territory it is necessary to form the main and supplementary strategies, depending on the state of environmental security and financial capabilities of the region. Thus, the conducted diagnosis of environmental safety allowed to assess not only the integrated indicator of environmental safety, but also to identify the main factors that may lead to the deterioration of the environmental situation.
P.V. Korol, S.O. Kostenko, O.M. Konoval, M.S. Doroshenko, Lizhi Lu, A.M. Chepiha, O.M. Sydorenko, P.P. Dzhus, N.P. Svyrydenko, T.V. Lytvynenko, et al.
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.006

Abstract:
Due to its high reproductive potential, short interval between generations and embryonic development outside the mother's body, the bird provides unique opportunities for its use in fundamental and applied biological research. The creation of a transgenic bird is complicated by the structure of its opaque egg cell with a large yolk and a unique reproductive system of this class. Direct microinjection of DNA into an oocyte, which is often used in mammals, is practically impossible for birds, since fertilization occurs in the infudibulum of the reproductive tract and can be polyspermic. Therefore, manipulations with the zygote turned out to be difficult for their use in creating a transgenic bird. Over the past decades, some alternative strategies have been developed for producing transgenic poultry using bizarre animals created by transferring blastodermal cells. However, to date, the efficiency of creating transgenic poultry in many cases remains very low, and the technique of using ducks to create transgenic poultry is practically not developed. Busulfan is used to suppress cell proliferation. Injection of busulfan into the pidembryonic cavity is one of the methods that increases the number of donor cells when creating chimeras. However, until now, methods of creating hermentative ducks chimeras face difficulties associated with the structure of the shell of waterfowl. Therefore, the aim of the work was to establish the effect of factors influencing the survival of transgenic embryos when using various methods of introducing a DNA construct into the duck genome. The objects of the study were ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) of the Shan partridge duck and Shaoxing breeds kept at the duck farm of Zhuji Guowei Poultry Development Co., Ltd, China. The studies were carried out in the poultry genetics laboratory of the Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences and on the duck farm of Zhejiang Generation Biological Science and Technology Co., Ltd. (Zhejiang Province, PRC). For the analysis of survival, we used embryos obtained by using various methods of introducing the DNA (insertion of the EGFP gene, mediated by homologous repair (HDR)) 1) direct injection of the DNA construct into the sub-embryonic cavity; 2) transfection of DNA with sperm; 3) injection of transfected donor blastomeres into recipient embryos after exposure to busulfan or ultraviolet radiation. A total more than 1100 eggs were examined. As a result of the direct injection of a transgenic DNA construction ( sub-embryonic cavity of 300 embryos, 35.7% of embryos did not develop after injection, 36% stopped developing at the time of the first ovoscopy (day 9 of incubation), 8% died within 10-15 days, 17, 3% - 16-25 days. In total, after direct injections, 9 live ducklings were received (the survival rate was 3%), of which 4 were transgenic. After insemination of ducks transfected with sperm, 292 eggs were laid for incubation. After the first ovoscopy, 51.4% of the eggs were unfertilized; 0.7% of embryos stopped developing at the time of the first ovoscopy (9 day of incubation), 1.0% died within 10-15 days, 17.8% - 16-25 days, 6.2% suffocated during hatching. In total, after using the transfected sperm, 67 live ducklings were obtained (the survival rate of embryos from fertilized eggs was 47.2%). Among 31 adult animals, 19 were transgenic. To sterilize recipient cells for the use of busulfan at a concentration of 300 ng per egg, followed by injection of blastodermal transfected donor cells, 200 embryos were examined, among which 61.0% of embryos developed after injection, 17.0% stopped in development at the time of the first ovoscopy (day 9 of incubation ), 12.5% of those died in the period of 10-15 days, 9.0% - 16-25 days. In total, after injections of busulfan at a concentration of 300 ng per egg, 1 live duckling was obtained (the survival rate was 0.5%). Using busulfan at a concentration of 150 ng per egg, 100 embryos were examined, among which 68.0% of embryos developed after injection, 11.0% stopped developing at the time of the first ovoscopy (day 9 of incubation), 5% died within 10-15 days, 14.0% - 16-25 days. In total, after injections of busulfan at a concentration of 150 ng per egg, 2 live ducklings were obtained (the survival rate was 0.5%). Using busulfan at a concentration of 75 ng per egg, 100 embryos were examined, among which 12.0% of embryos developed after injection, 27.0% stopped developing at the time of the first ovoscopy (9 day of incubation), 14.0% died in the period 10-15 days, 42.0% - 16-25 days. In total, after injections of busulfan at a concentration of 75 ng per egg, 5 live ducklings were obtained (the survival rate was 5%). Ultraviolet irradiation of 200 embryos for 1 hour followed by injection of blastodermal transfected donor cells resulted in death after injection of 20%, stopped developing 27.5% (9 days of incubation), 7.5% died within 10-15 days , 35.0% - 16-25 days. A total of 20 live ducklings were obtained using ultraviolet radiation (survival rate was 10%). Among 13 adult animals gave offspring, 7 were transgenic chimeras. The use of ultraviolet light has reduced the impact of egg infection due to the structure of waterfowl shells. Thus, the safest for the survival of embryos was the method of insemination of ducks with transfected sperm, using which 47.2% of embryos survived.
Y. V. Nikolenko, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, O. V. Fedonenko
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.004

Abstract:
Environmental assessment of water is an integral part of monitoring water bodies. It provides information about water as a component of the aquatic ecosystem, the habitat of hydrobionts and an essential part of the natural environment, which is necessary for establishing environmental standards for water quality and adoption of measures to improve the ecological state of water bodies. Assessment of the quality of the ecological environment is an important parameter of sustainable development, necessary for the rational use of nature. Currently, the Zaporizhzhia (Dnipro) reservoir is exposed to increased anthropogenic impact, which affects water quality. The ecological state of the reservoir is deteriorating, and mass algal bloom is observed. The work aims to provide an integrated environmental assessment of water quality in different sites of the Zaporizhzhia reservoir. The study was conducted in 2019 at 5 sites along the course of the Zaporizke reservoir, which differ in hydrological and hydrochemical conditions: Samara Bay, Festivalnyi pier, Monastyrsky island, creek of the Mokra Sura river and the lower section of the reservoir (near Viyskove village), following generally accepted hydrobiological methods. The article calculates block indices and provides an environmental assessment of the water quality of the Zaporizhzhia reservoir according to the "Methodology for environmental assessment of surface water quality in the corresponding categories. The assessment of water quality by the criteria of contamination with salt composition components indicates that the water body condition is good at most of the studied points. The worst indicators were recorded in Samara Bay, where increased mineralization is observed for a long time. The trophic-saprobological block revealed to have the worst indicators and a high amplitude of index fluctuations. No significant deviations were observed in terms of the content of toxic and radiation exposure indicators throughout the entire studied water area, which makes it possible to assign water to the same class. It has been determined that the water quality of the Zaporizhzhia reservoir according to the average annual data is characterized as "good" in terms of the state and "clean, fairly clean" in terms of purity degree. However, during the study period, significant deviations from the average were observed, especially in the summer. There is a need for systematic monitoring of the reservoir, the establishment of annual dynamics, which will make it possible to determine the causes of deteriorating water quality and develop ways to address them.
S. A. Tkachuk, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, I. V. Yatsenko, Ya. K. Serdyukov, L. V. Tkachik, A. I. Kravchenko, Kharkiv State Zooveterinary Academy, LikoVet Veterinary Center
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.012

Abstract:
The use of feed additives consisting of organic components and containing fatty acids, namely polyunsaturated fatty acids, of the omega-3 family, is necessary for the regulation of numerous biological processes and support of the body's metabolic homeostasis. The material for this study was young meat-lard pigs (Landrace + Large White) and muscle tissue samples from the longissimus dorsi (m. Longisimus dorsi) pigs taken at the level of 10-12 thoracic vertebrae, at the time of slaughter, at the end of the study period. For histological examination, the selected material was fixed in a 10% formalin solution according to Lilly, embedded in paraffin, and histosections with a thickness of 10 μm were made, which were stained with Karatsi's hematoxylin and eosin. The obtained preparations were examined under a light microscope with a Micros MCQ-2000 photo attachment. The liver of the pigs in the experimental groups did not differ in appearance from the liver of the pigs in the control group. However, according to the histological examination of the liver of the pigs of the experimental group, which were fed the feed additive LG-MAX 2.0 g / day, the presence of single dystrophic processes in hepatocytes was established in the liver of the pigs of the experimental group, which were fed the feed additive LG-MAX 4.0 g / day - the presence of granular and fatty infiltrative dystrophy and vascular hyperemia inside the lobule, and in the liver of pigs that were fed the feed additive LG-MAX 2.0 g / day together with Sel-Plex - in addition, a weakly expressed lymphohistiocytic infiltration of the stroma was established.
A. Tyshchenko, Y. Lyuta, O. Piliarska
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.007

Abstract:
Purpose. To evaluate the genotypes of alfalfa feed direction under different conditions of moisture and to identify genotypes that would consistently reproduce a high level of economically valuable traits to create new breeding populations. Methods. The research was conducted at the Institute of Irrigated Agriculture of NAAS during 2017‒2020 years in the field for fodder use on two backgrounds of moisture: drip irrigation and natural moisture. In the year of sowing 1‒3 slopes and 3‒4 for the second year of life were carried out by grassland depending on meteorological conditions of the year, genotype, growing conditions. The subject of research were Unitro and Elegy varieties, root system power selections from samples taken in the Askania-Nova Reserve, Rambler, Abayska multi-colored, Siberian 8 and F3‒F5 hybrid populations. Results. Studies have shown that the characteristics of plant height’ and duration of inter-period periods’ are quite variable, they are subject to fluctuations in years of use of grass, slopes and depend on genetic and biological characteristics of alfalfa populations and meteorological conditions. Alfalfa populations differed in the duration of interspecific periods, height and growth intensity in terms of average daily growth depending on the slope and the year of life of the grassland. The duration of inter-period periods, the onset of oblique ripeness of alfalfa depended on the average daily temperature, the duration of sunshine and the length of the day. The calculated correlation coefficients show that the duration of the inter-period periods is strongly inversely related to the average daily temperature (r = -0.93) and weakly dependent on the day length (r = 0.14) and the duration of sunshine for 1 day (r = -0.18), closer to autumn, they decrease, so with each cut the duration of inter-period periods decreases. The longest was the period of germination-beginning of flowering and was 65 days. This is due to the conditions of this period - low average daily temperature (19.2°C), although the duration of sunshine was high and was 751.8 hours, but for the day the sun shone only 11.7 hours. The shortest period was regrowth-beginning of flowering (second slope) and was 43 days at a high average daily temperature (25.7°C) and a long period of sunshine 12.1 hours per day. In the third mowing, the duration of the regrowth period - the last mowing (beginning of budding) was 55 days, but the plants did not reach the mowing maturity, as it was time for the last mowing before the grass enters the winter. During this period, the average daily temperature drops to 19.9°C, day length to 13:32 hours, the duration of sunshine to 9.2 hours per day. The height of plants on the slopes largely depended on meteorological conditions and was maximum in the second slope, reaching 61.3‒67.7 cm. The lowest indicators of the trait were characterized by populations in the first slope with fluctuations from 51.4 to 56.6 cm and the third ‒ 32. 9‒39.7 cm under irrigation. Under conditions of natural moisture, alfalfa plants were significantly inferior in height with fluctuations of 41.1‒48.1 cm in the first slope and high variability from 18.4 to 29.8 cm in the second, with coefficients of variation on slopes V = 4.0 and 10.5, respectively. The largest linear increase in height in the first year of life was characterized by plants in the second slope with an index of 1.43‒1.60 cm/day under irrigation. The average daily increase in the first and third slopes was much lower and was respectively 0.79‒0.87 cm and 0.62‒0.72 cm under irrigation and 0.63‒0.74 cm and 0.43‒0.63 cm in the first and second slopes in conditions of natural moisture. Alfalfa populations did not differ in the length of inter-period periods during the growing season, and they differed mainly in the years of life of grasses. In the grassland of the second year, this difference was observed depending on the slope and meteorological conditions of the year. Thus, in the second year of life with grass from the first slope to the fourth there was an acceleration of the onset of the beginning of flowering phase (oblique maturity). In the first slope it occurred on the 72-nd day, the second ‒ on the 40-th, the third ‒ on the 39-th and the fourth ‒ on the 51-st day. This occurred with a gradual increase in average daily temperature from 12.4°C in the first slope to 23.3 in the third and its decrease to 21.3°C in the fourth slope. In the change in the duration of sunshine, the same pattern is observed: decrease, then a gradual increase with the following decrease: 8.6‒10.5‒11.1‒9.6 hours/day, respectively. The length of the intercostal periods, similar to the first year of life with grass, was inversely related to the average daily temperature (r = -0.982), rainfall (r = -0.644), day length (r = -0.666) and the duration of sunshine in one day (r = -0.961) and the height of plants which largely depended on meteorological conditions, day length (r = 0.778) and precipitation (r = 0.695). Under irrigation conditions, it varied in different populations on slopes from 64.0 to 70.0 cm in the first slope, 68.1–71.4 cm in the second, and acquired a maximum value of 70.6–76.4 cm in the third slope. Subsequently (the fourth slope) the growth of plants slowed down and their height was in the range of 38.7‒49.7 cm. 40.9‒61.5 cm) from slope to slope and only in some genotypes (Elegy, M.g./P.p., L R/H., A.r.d) in the second slope they remain high. A high positive relationship between the average daily linear growth and plant height (r = 0.991). The highest linear growth was characterized by plants in the third slope, ie in July with fluctuations from 1.81 to 1.96 cm per day, smaller growth rates (1.70-1.78 cm / day) differed plants in the second slope under irrigation. Under...
V. А. Korenda, Ukrainian State Research Institute ", O.S. Protasov, I.Y. Vyshniakov, N.L. Tciren, T.L. Eremenko, D.P. Torchilevsky, L.F. Strnad, Z.S. Sirko, Resource", et al.
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.04.013

Abstract:
The most important factor in improving the energy efficiency of enterprises and organizations of the State Reserve is the rational use of fuel and energy resources. Oil depots are not the most energy-intensive in the State Reserve system, but reducing electricity consumption is an important factor in reducing the cost of their products. During the past 10-15 years, the world has seen the widespread and successful introduction of frequency-controlled electric drive to solve various technological problems in many sectors of the economy. Installation of frequency converters on the pumping equipment of oil depots gives the chance of smooth regulation of modes of their work. At the same time loading of electric motors of pumps will be optimum, and losses of the electric power are minimum. At oil depots, the main consumer of electricity is pumping equipment. The technological process of operation of these enterprises involves reverse pumping of fuels and lubricants between tanks and rail and tank trucks. The peculiarity of oil depots is the uneven loading of equipment due to different needs in the number of pumped oil products over time, so the loading of the pumping station will also be uneven due to different pressure and supply in the pipelines. To maintain the set mode of operation of the pumping station when changing external factors affecting its operation, it is necessary to monitor and regulate the modes of operation of pumping units. This function can be divided into two areas: regulation of hydraulic modes of operation of pumps, which is used at oil depots, and regulation of energy efficiency of pumping station equipment. The calculation of technical and economic indicators of the introduction of frequency-controlled electric drive is performed on the example of state enterprise "Aystra" Chernihiv. The main purpose of the plant is the reception, storage and shipment of petroleum products of the state material reserve. Production capacity for heavy-duty rail tanks and vehicles allows for freight operations with a capacity of 350 tons per hour.
, Sss", V. Lyulʹchyk, P. Bida, O. Kachanovsʹkyy, S. Bulakevych, O. Petrova, Rivne Professional Collegeof Nules Ofukraine "
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 6-6; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.06

Abstract:
The issue of establishing the boundaries of water protection and coastal stripes in Ukraine were examined in the article. The purpose of the study is to present the practical results of the formation the boundary delimiter of coastal protection stripes, based on scientific and methodological approaches to the development of land management projects for the establishment of coastal protection stripes and modern technologies in the area of geographic information system. Theoretical principles of establishing the boundaries of water protective zones and coastal protective stripes on water resources are analyzed. Regulatory basic documents on the subject of use in the establishment of water protection zones and coastal protection stripes have been explored. It is noted that the size of water protective zones and coastal protective stripes can be set in accordance with the provisions of the Land Code of Ukraine, and according to the especial projects in land management. It is suggested the procedure for establishing coastal and water protective zones is based on determining the hydrographic characteristics of water sites and morphological parameters of coastal areas using remote sensing data and geoinformation system and includes six steps: 1. Determination of morphometric parameters of water sites. 2. Obtaining relief data and its application 3.Determining the steepness of the slopes. 4. Construction of catchment areas and determination of surface effluent directions. 5. Creation of a buffer zone around water sites (construction of a protective stripe and a water protective zone). 6. Combining layers of informative maps for the final definition of boundaries. The use of the methodology is presented on a specific example, namely the pond in the village Gremyache, Rivne region. Methodology will provide a technical background for establishing and decision-making on the size of water protective zones and coastal protection stripes around water objects. One more aspect of the problem, solved by the methodology proposed in the article, involves informative supporting of decisions in a sphere of controlling water fund lands at the regional level as part of the planning measures for sustainable regions development and protection of water objects. Keywords: water protective zone, coastal protection belt, land management project, Earth remote sensing data of the Earth and geographic information system data, boundaries of the water protective zone and coastal protective stripe
E. Butenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, A. Vintselevych
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 7-7; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.07

Abstract:
The article highlights the scientific principles of the formation of environmental land use in Ukraine. The components of suburban areas of megacities and the process of their development in modern society are studied. The article reflects the impact of urbanization on land use and the environment. Emphasis is placed on the fact that the development of urbanization is accompanied by the disappearance of valuable natural and recreational complexes, the loss of cultural and historical heritage, increasing social tensions. The study was carried out on the basis of statistical and analytical data of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the State Geocadastre of Ukraine, the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, the Ministry of Economy of Ukraine, materials of scientific conferences, seminars, the author's own calculations. The article substantiates the need to create recreational land use in the suburban area of the metropolis. The conceptual apparatus in terms of interpretation of the concepts "recreational areas", "recreational land use", "recreational lands" is studied. An assessment of the peculiarities of the creation, use and maintenance of recreational land use in the suburban area of the metropolis. The procedure of formation of lands of recreational purpose, significance of these territories is revealed. As a result, it is established that the most important problems of recreational land use in Ukraine are ensuring high quality recreation, expanding the diversity of opportunities for recreational lands and resources closely related to them, meeting people's needs to communicate with wildlife and restoring public health. However, the radical transformation of landscapes and the large-scale development of urbanization have led to a decrease in the recreational value of landscapes and thus to the formation of recreational areas on lands unsuitable for other economic uses. All this negatively affects the quality of recreation, the diversity of recreational activities and the ability to remain in the recreational sphere of landscapes that meet the needs of the population in recreation. Key words: recreational land use, suburban area of the metropolis, recreational territories, lands of recreational purpose.
I. Novakovska, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, L. Skrypnyk, N. Ishchenko, National Aviation University
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 2-2; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.02

Abstract:
The peculiarities of the free market of agricultural lands are described. The consequences of opening the land market in terms of economic, land and legal components in the system of land relations are presented. The list of conditions for the purchase and sale of agricultural land is highlighted. The specifics of the functioning of the free market of agricultural lands are substantiated. The characteristic of basic normative-legal acts in the sphere of functioning of the land market is given. A comparative analysis of the current state of purchase and sale of land by farms and agricultural holdings. A comparison of the indicators of the number of concluded agreements of purchase and sale of agricultural land, the average value of rent per 1 hectare of land, respectively, by region and price fluctuations per 1 hectare of land when concluding purchase and sale agreements. The foreign experience of land market function with the detailing of the factors influencing the further development is analyzed. In particular, the problems and needs in the functioning of the land market of Poland, Brazil, the United States and the United Kingdom are considered. The possibility of introducing an electronic system such as EMBRAESP, which monitors the main indicators of the efficiency of the urban real estate market, together with city legislation, land regulations and large public works projects that may affect the behavior of real estate markets. Key words: land relations, land market, land lease, land legislation.
, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 8-8; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.08

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the formation of the institutional environment of ecologically safe agricultural land use through the model of harmonization of ecological and economic interests of the subjects of agricultural land use. The structure of agricultural land use is based on criteria, the content of which represents both economic and environmental interests of society. For example, the landowner (land user) is interested in converting his land into the most economically attractive - arable land, which reflects his private economic interests, and on the other - society is interested in maintaining the optimal state of agricultural landscapes, which in turn provides the optimal ratio of destabilizing, stabilizing and stabilizing reflecting the public environmental interests [7]. Usually such differentiation of interests of subjects of agrarian land use causes situations of impossibility to agree them voluntarily. Therefore, there is an urgent problem in effective regulatory policy in the field of land use, in particular through the formation of the institutional environment of environmentally friendly agricultural land use through the model of harmonization of environmental and economic interests of agricultural land users. In the article, it is clarified that the institutional model of harmonization of ecological and economic interests of subjects of agrarian land use provides for the introduction of tools to eliminate the conflict of ecological and economic interests, which includes a number of tools, levers and techniques, in particular: -adaptation paradigm; formation of ecological consciousness of land users, ecological morality and ethics; development of the organizational and economic mechanism of formation of ecologically safe agrarian land tenures and land uses optimum through a combination of market and state levers of influence; regulatory and legal support of ecological safety of agricultural land use; optimization of the organizational structure of land use management. Keywords. Institutional environment, institutions, ecologically safe agricultural land use, land relations, economic development, ecology.
O. Yusypenko, State Ecological Academy
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 10-10; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.10

Abstract:
Today, in the conditions of transformational transformations, the recreational potential of reservoirs is used only partially, in connection with the priority of development of other branches of activity (health-improving). This is despite the fact that the value of water resources is involved in the processes of all areas of activity. That is why the issue of land management formation of recreational land use of water protection zones and coastal protection strips requires an integrated approach. Which is carried out through the assessment of recreational and tourist potential of territories and settlements to emphasize the characteristics and features that are important in the implementation of recreational activities and have a direct impact on the planning organization of land use. For the purpose of verifying the set of general intelligence, the author schematically presents the concept of "structural components that form the land use of cultural landscapes ". It has been established that in a city, the assessment of the attractiveness of land use of landscapes for recreational activities should determine the originality of recreational land use in accordance with regional and local specifics and landscape diversity. It has been seen that as a result of using various methodological approaches to assessing the recreational potential of land use of the water protection zone and the coastal protection strips, the following should be established: the recreational capacity of land use of the territory; permissible recreational load; recreational digression. In addition, according to the results of the assessment, it is proposed to divide the recreational land use of the territories of water protection zones and coastal protection strips by popularity rating, in particular, with high, medium and low potential values. As an example, the state of recreational potential in Kyiv was considered and it was established that the land management arrangement of the city needs an immediate solution for further development of recreational land use. Also, the author, due to the lack of established boundaries of water protection zones, presents a characteristic of acute social and environmental problems of land use of water bodies in Kyiv. It has been established that if there are restrictions on the use of land and other natural resources, but there is no information about them, then there is a possibility of the occurrence of various types of damage to the land use of water protection zones and coastal strips. That is why, it is proposed to allocate functional land use zones of the coastal protection strips by types of development, which will allow more efficient use of the existing potential of recreational land use of water protection zones and coastal protection strips within Kyiv and its greening and generally increase capitalization. Keywords: recreational land use, water protection zones, coastal protection strips, functional areas
Y. Dorosh, Land Management Institute of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, , A. Barvinskyi, A. Tarnopolskyi, O. Sakal
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.01

Abstract:
The crisis situation in the use of land resources in both agrarian and non-agrarian spheres of land use in Ukraine is stated. One of the main reasons for this situation is identified the lack of a perfect system of legal documents that would really regulate scientifically sound environmentally and economically acceptable land use. The concept of land use and protection in the conditions of development of the digital economy and society in Ukraine which can be used for development of the corresponding state target program is substantiated. The concept defines the guiding direction in the organization and implementation of processes of sustainable land use, protection of lands from depletion, degradation and pollution in market conditions with high priority of monitoring of land and land relations by automated information-analytical systems and remote sensing of the Earth. The principles and approaches to the development of the state target program of land use and protection are proposed. Options for solving the problem of ensuring the rational use and protection of land are outlined and analysed. The directions, ways, stages of realisation, innovative component and expected results and efficiency of execution of the state target program of use and protection of lands on the basis of the developed concept are defined. Keywords: land resources, rational use of land resources, land monitoring, land and soil protection measures
Y. Dorosh, Land Management Institute of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, , , A. Barvinskyi, V. Demchuk, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 3-3; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.03

Abstract:
The article analyzes the main legal conflicts that arose as a result of the adoption of changes to the land legislation of Ukraine during 2020-2021. It was found that the transfer of land for use requires a permit for the development of technical documentation on land management to establish (restore) the boundaries of land in kind (on the ground). At the same time, there is another conflict - the specified technical documentation performs the same function as the land management project for the allocation of land for use. As a result of the analysis of amendments to the Law of Ukraine "On Land Management", it is established that the wording of the text of the article in terms of the basis of work has two interpretations, the first of which concerns privately owned land, and the second - state and municipal land in use. In addition, it was found that in the latest versions of regulations, the terms "owner" and "owner (manager)" meet next to each other, which allows us to state that the authors of the regulation aimed to separate the disposal of private land from one on the one hand and state and communal - on the other. Key words: legislative acts, land plots, land management, division (association) of land plots, privatization of land plots.
S. Movchan, Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, A. Yakunicheva, I. Lezhenkin, S. Kolomiiets
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 4-4; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.04

Abstract:
The author considers the essence of economic category of land relations and reveals the factors that determine the peculiarities of land relations in the agrarian sphere and their regulation. The article describes the model of mechanism of regulation of land relations, represented as a set of structural and functional elements (a system of legal, economic, organizational and environmental regulators and subsystems of regulatory, informational, methodological, technical, and financial support) that allow using special methods and tools to influence the subjects of land relations within the framework of implementation of state land policy in order to achieve the objectives of state management of land relations. The author notes a paradoxical situation: there are large-scale real burdens of land plots involved in the process of agricultural production, but no established servitudes due to the absence of delimitation of ownership of encumbered land plots, as well as the absence of practices for their establishment. The specificity of land servitudes in agriculture is revealed. It consists of the following elements: 1) a significant share of land servitudes appeared in the pre-reform period when state ownership of land without registration of encumbrances was dominant; 2) low level of activity of the state in initiating the processes of formation of mechanisms for official recognition of land burdens, establishment of land servitudes and implementation of mandatory servitude payments; 3) the absence of uniform methods for determining the adequate compensation for burdening of productive lands; 4) the absence of mechanisms for reinvesting funds received by land owners in the form of servitude payments in the reproduction of land resources; 5) the absence of mechanisms for receiving servitude payments for encumbering the land plots, the ownership of which is not delimited. Key words: land relations, land resources, productive lands, regulation mechanism, servitude, land servitude, servitude relations.
V. Chabaniuk, Institute of geography of the National academy of sciences of Ukraine, O. Dyshlyk, “Geomatic Solutions” Llc
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 11-11; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.11

Abstract:
The actual, feasible and simultaneously "correct" models of digital NSDI of Ukraine are considered in the work. A model of the existed digital NSDI system of Ukraine is named “actual”. This model already differs from the model defined by the [1]. As the latter is unlikely to be implemented in the near future, the issue of the digital feasible NSDI model of Ukraine in the next five years, which would take into account the actual model, is especially acute. In addition to feasibility, such a model must also be "correct", what is proposed in the article. The correct is called a model, the truth of which can be established by inductive or deductive reasoning. To do this, the correct model must be formalized enough so that everyone can verify the authors’ reasoning independently. Understanding both actual and correct models of NSDI of Ukraine will help to properly organize and develop actual Spatial Infrastructure Activities (SpIA) in Ukraine, including the real[1] implementation of the [1]. Although the results of the article call into question its feasibility and substantiate an alternative viewpoint on the automation problem of NGDI/NSDI/SpIA. However, we are convinced that it is still possible to change the alternative viewpoint to a cooperative one, if by means of by-laws the models of NGDI (Law), NSDI (article) and, finally, SpIA are agreed upon To prove the "correctness" of the feasible NSDI model, the theory of Relational cartography and its two main methods are used: Conceptual Frameworks and Solution Frameworks. In addition, the correspondence between Relational cartography and Model-Based Engineering is used. Key words: NSDI; product model; process model; actual, feasible and «correct» model. [1] Real. 1. Which exists in reality, true. Is used with: reality, life, existence, conditions, circumstances, fact, danger, force, wages, income. 2. One that can be implemented, executed: a real plan, a real program, a real task, a real deadline. 3. Which is based on taking into account and assessing the real conditions of reality: a real approach, a real view, a real policy.- accessed 2021-feb-14, http://slovopedia.org.ua/32/53408/32016.html (Ukrainian).
Y. Dorosh, Land Management Institute of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, A. Barvinskyi, , D. Melnyk, A. Vysidalko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 5-5; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.05

Abstract:
The article analyses the regulatory and legal support for the organization of organic land use in Ukraine. It is established that the current regulations in the field of organic production are aimed mainly at regulating the technological processes of organic production, the procedure for its certification and the market of organic products. At the same time, the legislators did not pay attention to the issues related to the organization of the territory of agricultural enterprises for the production of organic products in order to meet the requirements of the relevant standards and rules of IFOAM. It is proved that for the organization of the territory of organic land use and land tenure it is necessary to develop and implement appropriate land management projects. In view of this, it is necessary to amend the Law of Ukraine "On Land Management", supplementing Article 25 with a new type of land management documentation: land management projects for the organization of organic land use (land tenure), and to enshrine the composition and content of such land management projects. Key words: normative-legal regulation, organic land use, buffer zone, crop rotation, land management project.
T. Kravchuk, Kp Pleso
Zemleustrìj, kadastr ì monìtorìng zemelʹ pp 9-9; https://doi.org/10.31548/zemleustriy2021.03.09

Abstract:
In the process of working on the article, the author considered the issue of establishing and ensuring compliance with the land use regime of water protection zones and coastal protection strips (on the example of the city of Kyiv). The urgency of considering this issue lies in the importance of optimizing land use as one of the most important tools to protect water bodies from technogenic and anthropogenic impacts and, in general, to improve the water-ecological situation of the hydrological regime. From which the purpose of the work follows, namely, to study the features of optimization of land use of water protection zones and coastal protection zones in Kyiv by the method of land management for the environmental safety of the city's population and public welfare in general. As a result of the research process, the theoretical basis was formed by scientific works related to the essence of the task, as well as legislative and regulatory legal acts of Ukraine on land use regulation. The information and statistical base was an extract from the scheme of planning restrictions of the General Plan of Kyiv and data of the State Service of Ukraine on Geodesy, Mapping and Cadastre, the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. As a result of research, it was revealed that according to the legislation on the lands of cities and urban-type settlements, the size of the water protection zone, as well as the coastal protection zone, is established according to existing at the time of installation of a water protection zone concrete building conditions. Nevertheless, the example of the city of Kyiv shows that such information may be missing. The author describes the problematic issues of the land management process of works on establishing the boundaries of water protection zones and coastal protection zones and restrictions on the use of land and other natural resources. Expertly determined the approximate possible area, taking into account the specific building conditions and possible flooding at the maximum flood water level. The model of optimization of land use of the territorial community by means of establishment of restrictions in use of the earths and other natural resources occupied by water objects is proposed. At the same time, the model combines technological, instructional and administrative tasks of land use optimization. In addition, the optimality criteria and restrictions on the use of these criteria proposed in the model, which make it possible to unambiguously determine the location of the boundaries of water bodies and restrictions on the use of lands and other natural resources, taking into account the interests of land users and legislation. Keywords: land use optimization, water protection zones, coastal protection strips, land management process
Y.Y. Dovbnia, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, L.V. Shevchenko, Т.B. Zheltonozhskaya, S.V. Shulyak, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, State Research Institute for Laboratory Diagnostics and Veterinary Sanitary Examination
Sučasne ptahìvnictvo pp 25-29; https://doi.org/10.31548/poultry2021.07-08.025

Abstract:
Nanosilver preparation is synthesized in the carriers based on polymer/inorganic hybrids in aqueous dispersion form by in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles in biocompatible and biodegradable polymer/inorganic hybrid based on silica sol and polyacrylamide. Hydrophilic polymer/inorganic hybrid used as a carrier for silver nanoparticles was synthesized by the developed method of directly grafting polyacrylamide "from" the unmodified surface of silica sol. The size of silver particles in the preparation was <10 nm. Studies have found that single, double and three-fold sprinkling of laying hens of nanosilver in polymer/inorganic hybrid carriers at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l (at doses of 0.2 and 0.4 mg per hen per day) did not affect the consumption of feed, water and egg productivity of poultry. The obtained nanosilver preparation is safe for laying hens and it does not cause disorders of clinical condition, diseases and poultry death during three-fold drinking with 10 days interval. After drinking the preparation of nanosilver to the laying hens at doses of 0.2 and 0.4 mg per head per day with an interval of 10 days, the dose-dependent amount of silver in the manure was increased only after a single drinking and after double and triple drinking, it did not affect the content of silver, copper, zinc, iron and lead. Single drinking of laying hens with a solution of silver nanoparticles in carriers based on polymer/hybrids at a concentration of 1.0 mg/l (0.2 mg per hen per day) increased the silver content in hen manure by 20% compared to the control group, and it did not affect the content of copper, zinc, iron and lead in manure. Nanosilver preparation at a concentration of 2.0 mg/l (0.4 mg per hen per day) increased the silver content by 44% in hen manure on the 10th day only after the first drinking of the preparation and it did not affect the content of copper, zinc, iron and lead compared to the control and with similar data of hens to which the same preparation was given at a concentration of 1.0 mg/l.
V. Honchar, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, O. Iakubchak
Sučasne ptahìvnictvo pp 7-13; https://doi.org/10.31548/poultry2021.07-08.007

Abstract:
The effect of feeding lycopene and astaxanthin to laying hens on the morphological parameters of edible eggs was investigated. The experiment consisted of three periods and lasted 90 days. For this, 3 groups of chickens were formed, 15 heads each. The control group was fed complete feed, the first for its research group - lycopene at doses of 20, 40, 60 mg/kg of compound feed, the second research group-astaxanthin at doses of 10, 20, 30 mg/kg of compound feed from 1 to 30, from 31 to 60, from 61 for 90 days, respectively. Eggs were taken from each group of laying hens and divided into two lots. The first batch was stored at 4±0.5 °C, and the second at 12±0.5°C. Both batches of eggs were stored for 30 days. Feeding hens-laying hens with lycopene at a dose of 20, 40, 60 mg/kg or astaxanthin at a dose of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg of compound feed does not affect the morphological parameters of eggs when stored at 4±0.5 °C. The addition of lycopene at a dose of 20 mg/kg or astaxanthin at a dose of 10 mg/kg of compound feed, at a temperature of 12±0.5 °C for 30 days, contributed to a decrease in the weight of chicken eggs by 0.66 and 0.92%, respectively, which happened by reducing the mass of protein by 1.01 and 1.73%, respectively. Storage of eggs for 30 days at a temperature of 12±0.5 °C obtained from chickens fed with supplements of both lycopene at a dose of 40 mg/kg and astaxanthin at a dose of 20 mg/kg of compound feed contributed to a decrease in egg weight by 0.75% and the mass of protein-by 1.13%, respectively, and by 0.78% – the mass of eggs and the mass of protein – by 1.02%, respectively. Storage of eggs from chickens that received supplements of lycopene at a dose of 60 mg/kg or astaxanthin at a dose of 30 mg/kg of compound feed at a temperature of 12±0.5 °C led to a decrease in the weight of eggs by 0.71 and 0.67%, respectively, and the weight of protein by 1.19 and 1.56%, respectively.
O.V. Tsinoviy, State Research Station of Poultry of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, G.V. Biletska
Sučasne ptahìvnictvo pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.31548/poultry2021.07-08.018

Abstract:
A new method of purification and concentration of goose enteritis virus has been developed. For this purpose, three options for further purification of the virus were used and their comparative analysis was performed. The virus was purified without detergents, as well as with detergents – sarcosyl and nonide R-40. We obtained the best results using the mild nonionic detergent nonidet R-40, which was used in our further work. The virus was identified by electrophoretic studies in polyacrylamide gel, as well as electron microscopy. During purification and concentration of the virus, the infectious titer of the virus was 9.2-9.5 lg TCD50/cm3 suspension, in which the cell monolayer in 50% of the wells was affected by cytopathic action), which is 2 lg TCD50/cm3 higher than in the original material. The protein content in the test samples ranged from 200 to 500 mg/ ml. Thus, analyzing our results on the purification and concentration of goose enteritis virus, we can conclude that the antigen obtained by this method is suitable for the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hyperimmune and negative sera for ELISA diagnostics were obtained, the optimal ratios of components for designing an ELISA test system were worked out, and the formula for recalculating antibody titers in geese blood sera when testing them in one dilution was derived. A positive-negative threshold was determined for this diagnosticum (which of the studied sera have a positive, doubtful or negative titer of antibodies to the causative agent of viral enteritis in geese). In the new conditions the spread of particularly dangerous viruses, this development, with the appropriate equipment, can be further used to purify and concentrate these viruses, study their biological properties, cultivate and use them in the development of new vaccines.
Dukhnytskyi V. B., National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Tyshkivska A. M.
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.02.005

Abstract:
One of the mTain indicators that determine the effectiveness of the antibiotic in the body is its ability to penetrate and accumulate in high concentrations at the sites of the pathological process. The article presents the results of studies of the intake, distribution and excretion of tilmicosin phosphate – the active substance of the tilmox 25% antibiotic from the body of broiler chickens cross KOBB-500, suffering ornithobacteriosis. It was found that 24 hours after the start of feeding the solution of the drug "Tilmox 25%" broiler chickens with ornithobacteriosis, most tilmicosin phosphate was contained in the lungs, while in the liver less than 1.6 times, kidneys - 3.0 times, heart muscle – 3.4 times, pectoral muscles – 3.5 times than in the lungs. After 48 and 72 hours, the tilmicosin content increased in all studied organs, but the pattern of its distribution was the same as after 24 hours. Tillmicosin phosphate levels in the lungs exceeded the values in the liver, kidneys, heart and chest muscles by 1.8, 2.7, 2.9 and 3.9 times, respectively, for 72 hours of the experiment. At 96 hours, tilmicosin levels were highest in the pectoral muscles, kidneys, liver, and lungs, and only slightly less in the heart than in previous study periods. The obtained results testify to the organ affiliation of tilmicosin phosphate to lung tissues in patients with ornithobacteriosis of broiler chickens. One day (120 h of the experiment) after discontinuation of tilmox 25%, the content of tilmicosin phosphate in the lungs, liver, kidneys, heart and pectoral muscles of broiler chickens was 53, 50, 57, 68 and 34%, respectively, according to 96 hours. The Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale sensitivity to tilmicosin and its distribution in maximum amounts in the lungs of broiler chickens with ornithobacteriosis provided a therapeutic effect, which was confirmed by microscopic studies.Studies on the pharmacokinetic properties of tilmicosin have been performed mainly in healthy birds. Therefore, the optimization of treatment regimens of already known antibiotics, which will be based on the study of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties not only on clinically healthy but also on diseased organisms is a relevant and important issue in the field of veterinary pharmacology. Keywords: tilmox 25%, tilmicosin phosphate, broiler chickens, ornithobacteriosis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, pharmacokinetics, distribution, accumulation, excretion
Tkachuk S. A., National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Yatsenko I. V., Tkachyk L. V., Savchuk L. B., Kharkiv Kharkiv State Animal Veterinary Academy, Podolsk State Agrarian Technical University
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.02.002

Abstract:
The overall tasting score of meat (23.83 ± 0.31 points) and broth (23.90 ± 0.24 points) from the experimental group of pigs fed the feed additive Lg-max 2.0 g / day, was higher, than in the control (22.33 ± 0.38 points) and the meat taste in this group was significantly higher by 13.95% (p <0.01), compared with the control. In contrast, in the meat of pigs fed the feed additive Lg-max 4.0 g / day, the indicator of appearance, smell (taste) and taste was significantly lower by 17.39% (p <0.01), by 23 , 40 (p <0.01) and 13.9% (p <0.05), compared with controls, respectively. The appearance of pig meat fed Lg-max 2.0 g / day with Sel-Plex was significantly lower by 10.87% (p <0.05) compared to the control.According to the indicators of the tasting evaluation of the broth from the meat of the experimental groups of pigs, no statistically significant difference was found with those in the control, which may indicate a positive effect of the studied feed additives on the organoleptic characteristics of pork. However, the odor of the broth (in the meat of pigs fed a feed additive Lg-max 4.0 g / day) was significantly lower by 20.8% (p <0,01), and the taste ( meat of pigs fed Lg-max feed additive 2.0 g / day together with Sel-Plex) – by 21.74% (p <0.05), compared with the control.According to microscopic and biochemical parameters, pork from experimental and control groups of pigs met the requirements of current regulations for fresh meat obtained from healthy animals.Key words: pork, microscopic and biochemical parameters, tasting, feed additives Lg-max and Sel-Plex.
G. O. Boyko, N. V. Puzrina
Ukrainian Journal of Forest and Wood Science, Volume 12, pp 50-57; https://doi.org/10.31548/forest2021.02.005

Abstract:
The species composition of micromycetes of Scots pine seeds, collected from plantations growing in different forest vegetation conditions and selected from trees of different age groups, was studied. It was found that the most common species of micromycetes - Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycelia sterilia. Dominant species of micromycetes, in particular Penicillium cyclopium, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium sambucinum, which are the most dangerous for the development of healthy planting material, have been identified. The largest number of micromycetes from seeds of plantations growing wet birch (A3) - 189 and fresh beer (A2) - 103 micromycetes, and the smallest - fresh (B2) and raw subir (B3), respectively: 92 and 93 isolates. The highest frequency of occurrence on experimental samples of seeds of Scots pine, selected from fresh pine stands, had micromycetes: Penicillium cyclopium, Alternaria alternata, Trithothecium roseum micromycetes had the highest frequency of occurrence of Scots pine seeds taken from fresh pine stands, and Mortierella alpine, P. canescens, P. lanosum, P. variabile, Fusarium sporotrich had the lowest frequency. It was noted that Mycelia sterilia (9.2%), Fusarium sporotrichioides (9.6%) were the most common on seeds selected from trees of different age groups, while Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, Fusarium verticillioides were the least common. Trichothecium roseum - 1.9%. The similarity of the species composition of mycobiota seeds selected from young and medieval plantations (similarity index - 84.2%) and medieval and mature (similarity index - 89.4%) was studied. Less similarity was observed between the species composition of fungi identified on seeds selected from young and mature plantations (similarity index is -73.6%). The most similar were the seeds of medieval and mature plantations, the least similar - the young and mature. The seeds were selected from different age groups, are different in species composition of micromycetes (similarity varied between 73.6 - 89.4%). Keywords: age groups of trees, mycobiota, type of forest vegetation conditions, micromycetes, Scots pine.
V. M. Maliuha, V. V. Minder
Ukrainian Journal of Forest and Wood Science, Volume 12, pp 6-21; https://doi.org/10.31548/forest2021.02.001

Abstract:
At present, high-level attention is paid to the issues of the role, significance, optimal use of soils, their protection and combating degradation. By introducing the Sustainable Development Goals at the national level, Ukraine is obliged to introduce new programs and projects that, in practice, will have macroeconomic stability, ecological balance and social cohesion. During scientific research on the multifunctional role of protective forest plantations, which at one time were created on eroded territories, which include gully-ravine lands, to revive the properties of soils, work was carried out to substantiate their regenerative function. To achieve this goal, 90 soil-forest typological stations were established in erosion control plantations of various periods of plant growth and development with the selection of 270 soil samples. A study of their water-physical and agrochemical properties was carried out with the processing of the data obtained by statistical methods. Based on the analysis of scientific literary sources, the study of successful production experience and our own research on anti-erosion plantations to determine their impact on soil properties and the environment, qualitative stages of the ecological restoration of eroded soils have been developed. Changes in the age periods of growth and development of woody plants in protective forest plantations created on gully-ravine lands lead to a gradual step-by-step ecological restoration of eroded soils. Thus, a clear correlation of the age periods of growth and development of woody plants with the qualitative stages of ecological restoration of eroded soils was obtained. The selection of research objects provided for taking into account the same technology for creating anti-erosion plantings, growth and development in the same conditions, corresponding to five age periods of growth and development of woody plants. In each age period, qualitative changes occur during the growth and development of the vegetation cover, as well as quantitative changes in indicators characterizing the properties of the soil, which are presented in comparison with the control, which is the pasture. The main functions of these plantings are presented. Attention is paid to all age periods of growth and development of anti-erosion plantings in terms of forest measures for the successful cultivation of anti-erosion plantings and their effective action. The stages of ecological restoration of eroded territories are clearly consistent with the identified age periods. The prospects for understanding the process of restoring protective vegetation cover, including forest plantations, and their direct impact on the properties of eroded soils are opening up. Keywords: erosion processes, eroded soils, anti-erosion role, periods of development, qualitative stages, soil properties, hydraulic roughness.
I. M. Kulbanska, ,
Ukrainian Journal of Forest and Wood Science, Volume 12, pp 81-92; https://doi.org/10.31548/forest2021.02.008

Abstract:
Attention is focused on the fact that in recent years there has been epiphytotic dieback out of many species of forest woody plants both in Ukraine and in other countries of the world, which has a dynamic character and a tendency to grow. In the deep pathology of this phenomenon, phytopathogenic bacteria, which have high reproduction energy and can penetrate the plant both from the outside and cause a pathological process as vital obligates, were left without attention. It has been established that the most common and harmful disease of common ash in Ukraine is tuberculosis. The causative agent of the disease is the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi Gard. affects both trunks, branches and shoots, and inflorescences of common ash. Bacteria Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig., Pseudomonas syringae Van., Erwinia herbicola Eh., Xanthomonas sp. were isolated from tuberculous pathology as a concomitant myco- and microbiota and micromycetes Cladosporium cladosporiodes Fres., Ulocladium botrytis Preus., Mycelia sterilia (dark), Mycelia sterilia (orange), Fusarium heterosporum Lin., Fusarium sp., W., Cylindrocarpon didymium Har., etc. The mechanism of systemic relationships of the components of myco- and microbiota of tuberculous pathology of common ash in the regulation (self-regulation) of pathogenicity and aggressiveness of vital obligates has been investigated. Attention is focused on the prospects and expediency of using the antagonistic properties of myco- and microorganisms and biological products based on them for the prevention and protection of tree plantations from bacterial pathogens. It is shown that the pathology of common ash is a multifaceted phenomenon with interrelated processes of an infectious and non-infectious nature. The need to distinguish between the etiology and pathogenesis of this negative phenomenon is indicated, that is, not to mix the factors that lead to the weakening of ordinary ash (factors catalyzing the disease) and the factors that cause its epiphytotic dieback. Keywords: bacteria, fungi, common ash, antagonism, Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi.
S. V. Rabko, L. F. Poplavskaya, S. A. Lamotkin, I. V. Kimeichuk, V. M. Khryk,
Ukrainian Journal of Forest and Wood Science, Volume 12, pp 58-70; https://doi.org/10.31548/forest2021.02.006

Abstract:
The aim of the research is to analyze the content of terpenes in the needles of trees of climatic ecotypes of Scots pine growing in geographic forest crops and to reveal the differences in the level of essential oils. The object of the research is 17 Scots pine climatypes growing in geographical plantations on the territory of the Negorelsk Educational and Experimental Forestry Enterprise of the Minsk region in Belarus. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Scots pine needles essential oil was carried out by gas-liquid chromatography without preliminary fractionation on chromatograph "Kristall 5000.1". In the studied climatypes of Scots pine, different levels of essential oil content among monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygen-containing groups were determined, as well as significant differences in the content of a number of components within the studied groups were revealed. The highest yield of essential oil is observed in the subspecies of the European Western Scots pine - 1.9%, slightly lower than this indicator in the forest-steppe subspecies (1.7%). This indicator was significantly lower in the European Eastern pine variety - 1.1% and the Siberian subspecies - 1.0%. The obtained data on the composition of essential oil and the ratio of a number of components among subspecies and varieties of Scots pine (subspecies: Lapland, Siberian, forest-steppe, European; varieties: European western and eastern) will further select the most promising climatic ecotypes and subspecies for selection resistance to biotic and abiotic environmental factors, taking into account the growth and productivity of stands. Information on the content of essential oil components in the needles of climatypes and subspecies of Scots pine makes it possible to expand knowledge in the field of plant resistance, their safety and growth, especially in the context of the outlined climate change. Key words: component composition, extractives, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, geographical plantations, climatic ecotype.
Zhurenko O. V., National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Karpovskyi V. I.
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.02.004

Abstract:
The leading role in the mobilization of the organism adaptive capabilities is played by neuro-humoral mechanisms, primarily the activity of the central nervous system. The full-value mineral nutrition of cattle depends on the provision of animals with macronutrients, which are included in the structure of many enzymes or are their activators, taking a leading role in redox reactions. The studies were carried out on cows of the Ukrainian black-and-white breed of 2-3rd lactation. By the results of the study of tone of the autonomic nervous system, 3 research groups were formed: І – normotonic, ІІ – vagotonic, ІІІ – sympathicotonic cows. Blood from cattle was obtained twice a year in summer and winter. Whole blood was stabilized with heparin, blood serum was obtained by sedimentation method, and blood cells – by centrifugation of heparinized blood, plasma collection and after triple washing of cells in cold isotonic solution, followed by centrifugation. The tone of the autonomic nervous system in cows in summer is inversely related to the content of phosphorus in whole blood (r = -0.73; P<0.05) and blood cells (r = -0.87; P< 0.001). However, in blood serum these relationships are unreliable both in summer and in winter (r=–0.,02–0.24). In winter, the tone of the autonomic nervous system in cows is inversely reliable associated only with the phosphorus content in whole blood (r=-0.81; P FU = 8.41; P<0.01), while the content of this element in the serum and blood cells of cows did not depend from the season. So, the tone of the autonomic nervous system and the season affect the content of calcium and phosphorus in the blood of cows. Keywords: higher nervous activity, types of higher nervous activity, nervous processes, autonomic nervous activity,
Yehorov O. V., National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Malyuk M. O., Kozlovska G. V.
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.02.007

Abstract:
Transfusing of whole blood and blood components has a constant risk factor – a microbial contamination. Because using of contaminated blood products can cause sepsis and high risks to the health of recipients.Violation of the rules of asepsis during blood donation, during the manufacture of blood products, damage to blood collection systems or their tightness, etc. can lead to microbial contamination.We examined 5 samples of preserved canine packed red blood cells, which were taken in closed systems, using CPDA anticoagulant and following storage at a temperature of + 2-6 ° C for 30 days. According to the results of bacteriological examination of samples of canine packed red blood cells (pRBC) after their storage, no non-sterile sample was found.Thereby, the method of blood collection using closed systems with CPDA anticoagulant is reliable and allows to obtain donor blood and blood components without loss of sterility during long-term storage.Keywords: canine packed red blood cells, microbial contamination, donor blood sterility
I. L. Rogovskii, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.03.012

Abstract:
The analysis is based on data that were timed during the operation and repair of diesel engines of agricultural machines and, in particular, engineering monitoring about the most frequent characteristic failures of parts and elements of power energy institutions, as well as about possible causes of the course and development of typical inequalities. The typical causes of failures of elements of diesel power plants, which can be different, have been determined. First, the specific design features of a particular type of engine, which may be uncharacteristic for other typical diesel engines and must be eliminated by appropriate changes to the diesel engine design. Second, improper operation of the diesel engine, such as misapplication, inadequacy of grade fuel and oil refueling design failure. Thirdly, sudden failures for the use in the manufacture of a diesel engine of some materials, defective parts, as well as significant violations of installation and adjustment technologies. In order to prevent failures, choosing the above reasons, it is necessary to correct design flaws, improve technical control, follow the operating instructions, as well as carry out organizational diagnostic measures. In this article, attention is paid to malfunctions and defects, the development of which is caused by natural processes of equipment degradation under load, ensuring the working processes of the diesel engine and its systems, as well as additional accelerating factors, such as contamination of the coolant, oil, fuel, an increase in backlash and clearances, enough values for long-term operation of diesel power plants of agricultural machines of various types.
Nastina Olha, Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University
Law. Human. Environment, Volume 12, pp 49-55; https://doi.org/10.31548/law2021.02.006

Abstract:
The article examines the formation of communal land ownership law, formation of legal regulation in the field of consolidating the status of territorial communities as subjects of communal property, the impact of decentralization of powers processes on resolving the issue of the legal regime of territorial communities’ lands and united territorial communities’ lands, determination of scientific approaches to the formation of the model of communal land ownership law in Ukraine. It is updated the legislator’s inconsistency in determining the principles of building the institution of communal land ownership law, lack of a well-founded concept of communal property law, legislative contradictions of approaches to the creation of sustainable local self-government in Ukraine, based on the priority of land interests of territorial communities. Scientific attention is paid to preconditions for determining the constitutional status of territorial communities, legislative consolidation of the grounds for the formation of communal land ownership in the state, solving the problem of the definition of «communal land ownership law» absence in current legislation. Focused attention on legitimization of the powers to exercise the communal property law through the solution of the issue of land and legal competence of territorial communities, improvement of their status as subjects, who exercise the right of communal ownership of land directly or through local governments, the exercise of the right of communal ownership of land in the ways specified in the land law. According to the study it is established that the Constitution of Ukraine has provided the necessary prerequisites for the formation of a fundamentally new land system in the field of communal property on the land of communities. An important scientific task in modern conditions is improving the legal regulation of land and legal competence of territorial communities as subjects of communal land ownership for the sustainable development of territories. It is determined that the acceleration of administrative and land reforms will contribute to the full legitimization of the united territorial communities and the formation of territorial communities as equal subjects of land ownership. Keywords: territorial communities, decentralization, local government reform, communal land ownership
Deineha Maryna, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Gutsol Ruslan
Law. Human. Environment, Volume 12, pp 35-48; https://doi.org/10.31548/law2021.02.005

Abstract:
The article examines the features of the legal regulation of the circulation of agricultural land between agricultural producers in the EU and identifies areas for improvement of domestic legislation in this area. The study shows that world experience indicates the existence of various models of legal regulation of land turnover among agricultural enterprises, which can be effective if you take into account the specific features of a country and national interests. Virtually every country in the world in one way or another regulates such circulation. There are countries with «hard» and «soft» regulation of land transactions between agricultural producers. But almost every developed EU country gives priority to farmers living in the area and running the farm, in contrast to large agricultural holdings. Despite the fact that in the EU countries the legislation on the circulation of agricultural land between agricultural producers is based on different models of legal regulation, the positive experience of these countries should be used to improve domestic legislation in this area. In the field of legal support for the use of land by agricultural producers, it is necessary in domestic land legislation to pay special attention to the granting of preferential rights to acquire agricultural land to farms, local communities, tenants, etc.; provide for the establishment of a preferential procedure for the acquisition of such land and the provision of tax benefits; and to determine the limits of land concentration at the level of oblasts and united territorial communities or to establish a permitting procedure for the acquisition of land plots with an area larger than that established in the territory of a certain oblast or united territorial community. Keywords: agricultural lands, circulation of agricultural lands, agricultural commodity producers, agricultural holdings, farms
Hafurova Olena, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Marchenko Svitlana, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
Law. Human. Environment, Volume 12, pp 27-34; https://doi.org/10.31548/law2021.02.004

Abstract:
The article is provided a scientific and theoretical analysis of trends in Ukrainian legislation in the field of agricultural cooperation. The author notes that in the Law of Ukraine of July 21, 2020 «On Agricultural Cooperation» (new Law) on the one hand, describes in detail the basics of functioning of these entities, but, on the other – its content almost completely eliminates the basic principles of agricultural cooperation established by domestic law and also contradicts the principles of the cooperative movement. There is a general negative trend in the development of legislation on agricultural cooperation. It is already traced in the Law of Ukraine of November 20, 2012 «On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine «On Agricultural Cooperation», that is characterized by «truncated form» (out of 38 articles, only 16 remained), significant number of reference provisions, establishing advantages for the development of agricultural service cooperation. With the adoption of the new Law, this negative trend has deepened and is in the artificial separation of agricultural cooperation from the cooperative system and the gradual loss of its social orientation. This approach is unacceptable and will negatively affect the further development not only of agricultural cooperation as a socio-legal phenomenon, but also of agricultural production and the social sphere of the countryside. Keywords: principles of agricultural cooperation, agricultural cooperative, agricultural service cooperative, agricultural industrial cooperative, agricultural cooperative which operates without profit, agricultural cooperative which operates for profit
Koshevoy V. I., Kharkiv State Zooveterinary Academy, Naumenko S. V., Klochkov V. K., Yefimova S. L.
Ukrainian journal of veterinary sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/ujvs2021.02.008

Abstract:
The search for effective and safe means of correcting male hypofertility is an urgent problem of modern reproductology. Researchers have proved the possibility of the use of nanoparticles based on oxides of rare earth elements for the treatment of disorders of male reproductive function. We investigated the effectiveness of the use of gadolinium orthovanadate nanoparticles activated by europium the size of which was 25×8 nm in the dose of 0,0125 mg per kg of live weight to correct reproductive ability decrease in boars under oxidative stress. After 14 days of hydrosol nanoparticles administration we established experimentally the dynamics of the content markers of oxidative stress and stable metabolites in the Nitrogen oxide cycle, and also determined the changes in sperm quality indicators. Thus, diene conjugates concentration in the blood serum of boars on the 15th day tended to decrease, and on the 30th day of the study was lower by 9,4 % compared to the group of animals before administration. At the same time the amount of thiobarbiturate-active products decreased on the 15th day of the study by 24,7 %, and on the 30th day – by 48,2 %, which indicates the normalization of oxidative processes in males. We noted positive changes in the system of the Nitrogen oxide cycle, the content of stable metabolites on the 15th day was lower than in animals before administration by 25,2 %, and on the 30th day – by 42,6 %. At the same time, we observed an improvement in the quality of boar sperm, especially motility and the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate increased by 42,9 % and 57,1 % on the 60th day and by 95,2 % and 1,48 times on the 90th the day of the study, respectively. In this case, the volume of ejaculate, sperm concentration and sperm content with morphological anomalies with the introduction of nanoparticles normalized and almost reached the values of the control group. The researchers are interested in further elucidating the effect of correction of reduced reproductive ability in boars under oxidative stress with gadolinium orthovanadate nanoparticles on hormonal background and the state of enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems of antioxidant protection.Keywords: sperm quality, prooxidant-antioxidant system, peroxidation, oxidative stress markers, the Nitrogen oxide cycle, nanomaterials
V. А. Korenda, Ukrainian State Research Institute ", O. S. Protasov, I. Y. Vyshniakov, N. L. Tciren, T. L. Eremenko, D. P. Torchelevskiy, S. M. Okhrimenko, Z. S. Sirko, Resources", et al.
Naukovì Dopovìdì Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu Bìoresursiv ì Prirodokoristuvannâ Ukraïni; https://doi.org/10.31548/dopovidi2021.03.004

Abstract:
At present, the enterprises of the State Reserve system have a long-term storage of a large number of wheat and other cereals, as well as a significant range of food products. Recently, due to the violation of the organizational and economic method of storage of grain crops and the system of technological operations during their cultivation, the amount of grain damaged by pests and pathogens has increased, as a result, it gets to the elevators of low quality. This facilitates access to such grain during storage of collar pests. There is another important factor in enhancing the negative effects of collar pests - warm, with a short frosty winter, which only stimulates their reproduction. For these reasons, up to 100% of the crop can be lost during storage. Poor preparation of the granary for storage, moisture, and high grain temperature can also be the reason. The article is devoted to the essence and content of such a problem as the control of various pests in granaries and food bases. The article provides a brief overview of the main existing pest species and methods of pest control. As a result of research for the enterprises of the State Reserve system of Ukraine the most effective method, ozonation and ultrasonic loading is chosen. The technology of decontamination of warehouses is given, the advantages and disadvantages of this method are shown. The article also presents an effective method of rodent control in granaries and food warehouses with the help of ultrasonic waves and electromagnetic radiation, the technology of application of ultrasonic frequencies to repel rodents is proposed. The article presents the method of research using industrial ozonator, shows its technical characteristics and also presents the results of research and the main parameters of ozonation of the warehouse (ozone concentration and duration of treatment). Recently, ozonation of premises has become widespread in pest control. Ozonation - a technology for decontamination of premises, based on the use of ozone gas - a strong oxidant. Special installation - ozonator produces ozone from oxygen contained in atmospheric air. The approximate required capacity of the ozonator is 3 - 5 g/h per 100 m3 of room volume. Large granaries and food warehouses require additional fans to mix the air. Ozonation is carried out in the absence of people. People should not enter for 1.5 - 2 hours after switching off the ozonator, while ozone decomposes into oxygen, if necessary, you can enter in an ozone respirator or a respirator with a carbon filter. An effective method of combating rodents and insects in granaries and food warehouses is deterrence by ultrasonic waves and electromagnetic radiation. Ultrasonic deterrent generates sound waves of high frequency and high volume, electromagnetic generates pulses that are transmitted through electrical wiring. These devices create an uncomfortable environment for rodents and insects, forcing them to leave the room. To avoid rodents getting used to ultrasonic radiation, the devices automatically change the range of emitted ultrasonic frequencies. Ultrasonic waves are reflected from solid materials and coatings (wood, glass, concrete, etc.) and are absorbed by soft materials (curtains, carpets, products stored in bags, etc.).
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