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Sandeep Panchal, Vasudha Vasudha
Addiction Research and Adolescent Behaviour, Volume 5, pp 01-04; https://doi.org/10.31579/2688-7517/035

Abstract:
Objectives: This study was carried out with the objectives of investigating the relationship between Family relationship and loneliness in adolescents. Accepted children will score less on loneliness. Neglected children will score high on loneliness. Concentrated children score less on loneliness as compare to accepted children. Method: Sample consisted of 150 adolescent selected by purposive sampling technique. The scales employed for data collection were Family Relationship Inventory by Sherry and Sinha and UCLA loneliness (III) Scale by Russell. Hypothesized that accepted children will score less on loneliness as compare to concentrated and neglected. Results: 150 subjects were taken & after scoring those high on accepted, concentrated and neglected were selected to form three groups. Conclusion: Findings indicate that the fundamental cause of loneliness is disconnection. Family support and close relationships with their adult children play a central role in adjusting to a new life and in preventing and/or lessening
Shahidul Islam, Rupa Dev
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-11; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/062

Abstract:
In the evaluation of antimicrobial activity, antibacterial activity of ethanol, chloroform & n-hexane extracts of P. edulis was tested against 10 bacteria at concentrations of 500µg/disc. Standard antibiotic disc of Azithromycin (30 µg/disc) was used for the comparison. The extracts showed no activity against gm (+ve) & gm (-ve) bacteria at a concentration of 500 µg/disc. Antifungal activity of ethanol, chloroform & n-hexane extracts of P. edulis was tested against 7 fungi at concentrations of 500µg/disc. Standard antifungal disc of Fluconazole (30 µg/disc) was used for the comparison. In antifungal screening the chloroform extract showed activity against A. fumigatus (15nm). In DPPH scavenging assay the ethanol extract of leaves showed maximum % inhibition of 73.41% at 100μg/ml while the standard ascorbic acid showed % inhibition of 82.14% at the same concentration. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased by increasing the concentration of the sample extract. The extract exhibited considerable DPPH free radical scavenging activity as indicated by their IC50 values which indicate the potency of scavenging activity. Standard ascorbic acid was found to have an IC50 of 1.66μg/ml. In comparison to standard ascorbic acid, ethanol extract of P. edulis showed of an IC50 of 2.57μg/ml. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity by albumin denaturation assay method, the percent inhibition of protein denaturation in the experiment of ethanol extract of leaves of P. edulis was found to be 55.454% at 500μg/ml, 49.818% at 250μg/ml and 41.818% at 125μg/ml. The extract possesses significant activity comparable with that of the standard acetyl salicylic acid which showed percent inhibition of protein denaturation of 91.945%, 88.181% and 45.454% in the same concentration range. In this analgesic activity study using Eddy’s hot plate method in mice, the ethanol extract of P. edulis showed mild analgesic activity. After 30 minutes of administration of standard drug (Diclofenac 9 mg/kg), mean latency was found to be 17.34sec. While the extract at concentration of 400 mg/kg exposed mean latency of 6.67sec. Respectively. During antipyretic activity by Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia method in mice, the ethanol extract of leaves of P. edulis produced moderate antipyretic activity. In this test, the extract reduced temperature from 102.4°F to 99.84°F (p=0.151188), 98.74°F (p=0.070485), 98.6℉ (p=0.056108), 98.37℉ (p=0.039072) and 98.27°F (p=0.110528) in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th hour respectively and caused maximum reduction of temperature in 1st hour. During antidiarrhoeal activity by castor oil induced test in mice, the ethanol extract of P. edulis produced moderate antidiarrheal episode. The latent period and the total diarrheic faces were found to be 0.978 hr & 8.34 at 500 mg/kg for P. edulis as compared to standard (Loperamide 3mg/kg) 2.845 hr & 5.34. In the sedative and hypnotic activity by using open field box, hole cross box and swing Test method on swiss albino mice ethanol extract of P. edulis showed moderate sedative and hypnotic activity. During the open field test, squares crossed by the group receiving standard Diazepam and ethanol extract of leaves of P. edulis were 63 and 84.34 respectively. During the swing test, number of swings observed after administration of standard Diazepam and ethanol extract of leaves of P. edulis were 3.67 and 8.67 respectively. During diuretic activity by using the Lipschitz test in mice, ethanol, n-hexane and chloroform extracts of P. edulis (500mg/kg body wt.) showed no activity compared to standard drug Furosemide (20mg/kg body wt.)
Gudisa Bereda
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-10; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/070

Abstract:
Anemia is a group of diseases described by decrease in hemoglobin or red blood cells, resulting in decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. Iron deficiency is the most frequent nutritional deficiency, and the most routine cause of nutrition related anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency is the sequence of impaired absorption (pernicious anemia are imperfect production of intrinsic factor compulsory for absorption of vitamin B 12). Without folic acid, deoxyribonucleic duplication and cell separation cannot continue. Colchicine, para-aminosalicylic acid and heavy alcohol intake for lengthy than 2 weeks perhaps generates malabsorption of vitamin B12. Iron combines with porphyrin and globin chains to figure hemoglobin, which is underpinning for oxygen release from the lungs to different tissues. Folic acid should not be given alone in patients with pernicioius anemia without knowing whether they also have a Vitamin B12 deficiency.
Troise Stefania
International Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Reviews, Volume 11, pp 01-16; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-4861/212

Abstract:
Aim: Neurothekeoma is a benign lesion of superficial tissue mainly localized in the head-neck area. The aim of the article is to provide a systematic literature review on the tumor’s main characteristics and its correct surgical treatment. We support our theory with the report of an aggressive case of the lower lip region which required a large excision and reconstruction with local flaps. Materials and Methods: The literature review is based on the scientific materials produced from December 1980 to March 2020 on the head and neck neurothekeomas. In total, 76 papers were included in the study. We presented a classic neurothekeoma S-100 protein positive case that required wide local excision with healthy margins and reconstruction with Bengt-Johanson’s step technique. Results: Most of the papers were case reports (47,4 %) and reviews (19,7 %) with 721 evaluated neurothekeomas. The male to female ratio was 1:1,8 with a mean age of 26,4 years. The most frequent site of lesions was the head (36,1%), and the three subtypes were divided in cellular (65,7%) mixed (17,5%) and classic (16,8%). The classic neurothekeoma resulted more immunoreactive for S-100 Protein while cellular neurothekeomas for NKI/C3. Our case was successful without recurrence at 1 year follow-up. Conclusion: Our review highlights that neurothekeoma mainly occurs in young women in the superficial planes of the head and neck. The most frequent type is the cellular one, but the most aggressive is the classic type due to a high local recurrence of protein S-100. A local excision is sufficient for the cellular neurothekeoma, while for the classic type a wide local excision with healthy tissue margins is necessary. The treatment of our case demonstrates that by following this guide, relapse can be avoided.
Claudio Bazzi
International Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Reviews, Volume 11, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-4861/206

Abstract:
Background: In glomerulonephritis (GN) with nephrotic syndrome (NS), proteinuric and novel molecular biomarkers do not achieve 100% accuracy in predicting outcome and treatment responsiveness. Aim of study: To verify whether the combined excretion of IgG/C and α2m/C, markers of damage to the epithelial cell layer (podocytes and slit diaphragm) of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) can assess disease severity, and predict outcome and responsiveness to steroids and cyclophosphamide. Methods: In 151 patients with glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome a new proteinuric marker was developed based on a combination of different median values of urinary excretion of IgG/C and α2m/C: IgG/C < or > than the median was classified as IgG/C0 or IgG/C1, respectively. The median of α2m/C was calculated independently in IgG/C0 and IgG1, and classified as α2m/C0 and α2m/C1 if < or > than the median. Thus 4 groups were defined: IgG/C0 & α2m/C0, IgG/C0 & a2m/C1, IgG/C1 & α2m/C0, IgG/C1 & α2m/C1. Results: The groups from 1+1 to 0+0 are characterized by increasingly severe disease, with progressively higher eGFR and progressively lower histologic (GGS%, TID and AH scores) and proteinuric parameters (TUP/C, IgG/C, α2m/C and α1m/C). In 151 patients the functional outcomes rates were: IgG/C1&α2m/C1&BP 1: “Remission and persistent NRF”, 15%; “Progression and eGFR reduction”, 85%. In IgG/C0&α2m/C0&BP 0: “Remission and persistent NRF”, 96%; “Progression and eGFR reduction”, 4%. In 84 patients treated with steroids + cyclophosphamide: IgG/C1&α2m/C 1&BP 1: “Progression and eGFR reduction”, 100%: “Remission and persistent NRF”, 0%; IgG/C0&α2m/C0& BP 0: “Remission and persistent NRF”, 100%; “Progression and eGFR reduction”, 0%. Conclusions: Combined urinary excretion of IgG/C and α2m/C in association with blood pressure offers 100% prediction of outcome and responsiveness to steroid and cyclophosphamide treatment
Bandar Ali M.D
International Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Reviews, Volume 11, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-4861/211

Abstract:
Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis “AAC” is defined by inflammation of the gallbladder without the presence of gallstones. It is by far less common than acute calculous cholecystitis where it only counts 5-10% of all cases of acute cholecystitis. In a patient with the disease of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) having a gallbladder disorder is not common. Herein, we present a 43-year- old lady who is known case of hypertension, SLE, and End-stage renal disease on hemodialysis due to lupus nephritis presented to the emergency department with a right upper abdominal pain, and abdominal ultrasound revealed acalcular cholecystitis. Further diagnostic tools supported the diagnosis, and she underwent after preparation uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
Hadi Ghazalbash
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/073

Abstract:
Introduction: In this comparative study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group reality therapy versus desipramine pharmacotherapy in reducing the craving and relapse of methamphetamine-dependent patients. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental research was conducted using a control group and two experimental groups of reality therapy and desipramine pharmacotherapy. The statistical population of this study included all methamphetamine-dependent patients under methadone treatment who referred to the health clinics of Yazd city, Iran. We selected 30 patients using convenience sampling and then categorized them randomly into three groups of reality therapy, desipramine pharmacotherapy, and control. In the pre-test stage, the risk questionnaire was administered to evaluate the stimulants. The first experimental group attended 10 sessions of reality therapy once a weak and were evaluated immediately after the treatment. The data were analyzed using the covariance analysis. Results: The findings showed no significant difference between the total mean score of the reality therapy and desipramine pharmacotherapy groups (F= 3.289, P= 0.087). Hence, these two interventions had no effect on attenuating craving to use the drugs. To check the homogeneity presumptions of covariance matrix and variances of the two groups, the Box (6.241) and Levine (0.250) tests were applied, respectively. The results about experimental groups (Reality therapy and Desipramine group) in comparison with control group were meaningful. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed between the reality therapy and desipramine pharmacotherapy groups in reducing craving to use the drugs. The scope of changes showed that craving for drug consumption reduced in reality therapy (51.0) and desipramine pharmacotherapy (36.0) groups.
Sh.A. Topchiyeva
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-04; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/076

Abstract:
This article presents experimental data on the detection of age-related changes in the blood digestive enzyme blood amylase in partridges (Alectoris chukar). The purpose of the work is to determine the kinetics of changes in the blood digestive enzyme amylase in partridges in ontogenesis with the complex use of vitamins and an anti-stress drug. Experimental studies revealed the dynamics of changes in the digestive enzyme amylase in the blood plasma of partridge chicks from the moment of hatching and up to 2 months of age, with the complex use of vitamins (A-20000 IU, D3 -1250 IU, E-50 mg), as well as the anti-stress preparation of succinic acid) at the rate of 0.03 g per 1 kg of mass. Determination of the activity of the blood digestive enzyme amylase in partridges was carried out spectrophotometrically according to the method of Karavea, on a Specol 1500 spectrophotometer (Analitik Jena), at a wavelength of 690 nm. It was revealed that the activity of the blood digestive enzyme amylase in 1-day-old control partridges significantly exceeds the activity of this enzyme in 7, 13, 22, 31 and 60-day partridges by 1.6, 1.9, 2.2,1.9, 1.8 times, respectively. The activity of the blood digestive enzyme amylase in 1-day experimental groups of partridges significantly exceeds the activity of this enzyme in 7, 13, 22, 31 and 60-day experimental groups of partridges by 1.4, 2.3, 2.6, 1.8, 1.9 times, respectively.
Kanika Chopra
International Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Reviews, Volume 11, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-4861/210

Abstract:
Super-refractory status epilepticus is known as the seizure that persist beyond 24 hours even after administration of intravenous anesthesia drugs. It is a rare diagnosis especially in pregnant population and thus its management is also limited to case series and reports. Our case presented with this diagnosis and we managed it with three tier system of pharmacological agents and termination of pregnancy. Unfortunately, exact cause of the SRSE in our case was not found and patient has been discharged on dual antiepileptic drugs along with antidepressants with follow up in neurology out-patient department. It is important to keep one self-aware of the treatment protocol in cases of status epilepticus other than due to eclampsia.
Ronald B. Moss, Meghan McCabe Pryor, Rebecca Baillie, Katherine Kudrycki, Christina Friedrich, Mike Reed, Dennis J Carlo
Addiction Research and Adolescent Behaviour, Volume 5, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.31579/2688-7517/034

Abstract:
Background: Previously, we reported on an opioid receptor quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) model to evaluate naloxone Methods: In this study, we extended our model to include higher systemic levels of fentanyl (up to 100 ng/ml) and the newly approved 8mg IN naloxone dose (equivalent to 4 mg) Results: As expected, at the lower peak fentanyl concentrations (25 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml), the simulations predicted that 2 mg, 4 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg IM doses of naloxone displaced fentanyl and reached below the 50% receptor occupancy within 10 minutes. However, at the concentration of 75 ng/ml, the simulation predicted that the 2 mg dose of naloxone failed to reach below the 50% occupancy within 10 minutes. Interestingly, at the highest peak concentration of fentanyl studied (100 ng/ml), the model predicted that the 4 mg of naloxone IM (equivalent to 8 mg IN) failed to reach below the threshold of 50 % occupancy within 10 minutes or even within 15 minutes (data not shown). In contrast, the model predicted successful reversals when 5 and 10 mg IM doses were utilized. Conclusion: These results support the notion that acutely administered higher doses of naloxone are needed for rapid and adequate clinical reversal, particularly when higher systemic exposure of the potent synthetic opioids occurs.
Michael F. Shaughnessy, Rubeli Alvarez
Addiction Research and Adolescent Behaviour, Volume 5, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2688-7517/038

Abstract:
Recently, social emotional intelligence has been fostered by several different theorists and has received much attention during these pandemic times. The present paper attempts to explore the realm of social emotional intelligence and how social emotional intelligence may address internet and game addiction as well as the extensive need for approval that seen on social media. Social emotional Intelligence has been around for many years- but has undergone many transformations. What would have been called “common sense “and morphed into this construct that we call “social emotional intelligence” to reflect our ability to understand, cope with, and address our emotional needs and deal with the sometimes harsh emotions, and comments and behaviors of others.
Hany A. Batakoushy, Mahmoud A. Omar, Hytham M. Ahmed, Mohamed A. Abdel Hamid, Mahmoud M. Sebaiy
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-10; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/069

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide disease that requires special and continuous medical care. Many classes of oral hypoglycemic drugs are currently used; however, the treatment strategy depends on the nature of diabetes type, pharmacological properties of the used drugs in addition to the clinical characteristics of the patient. As such, in this literature review, we will shed the light on the pharmacology and analytical chemistry profile of certain oral hypoglycemic drugs specifically Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin and Saxagliptin that got attention in the last decade. Mode of action and most of up-to-date reported methods that have been developed for determination of these important anti-diabetic drugs in their pure form, combined form with other drugs, combined form with degradation products, and in biological samples are mentioned in detail.
L. Sarvananda, Amal D Premarathne
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-02; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/068

Abstract:
The discovery of antibiotics becomes one of the maximum groundbreaking improvements of drugs. This healthcare staple, liable for treating illnessesthat when had been incurable, is now turning into much less and much lesspowerful due to antibiotic resistance. The microorganism accountable can emerge as immune to this medicinal drug through genetic mutation through replica or from other microorganism via transformation, transduction, or conjugation. It is critical to recognize the strategies wherein antibiotic resistance takes place to formulate a plan of assault in this healthcare disaster. The biggest populace of antibiotic customers in the U.S. is livestock, as medicinal drug is given preventatively and in huge portions in order to shield the herd. Knowing this, efforts are being made to fight it. As of now the two primary techniques to relieve this urgentbe counted are to both create new antibiotics to outrun the rapid mutations of the microorganism or to reduce the quantity of antibiotics fed on which could pause or gradual the rate of antibiotic resistance. Both of those methods include disadvantages; but those efforts are hired for loss of a higher opportunity. It is obvious that we're getting ready to a pharmaceutical disaster each nationally and globally and extra exploration is wanted to benefit manage of antibiotic resistance.
Rajiv Kumar
International Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Reviews, Volume 11, pp 01-02; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-4861/208

Abstract:
Nanomaterials and nanotechnology are quite helpful in disease identification, prevention, treatment, scheming, and monitoring [4]. The properties of multifunctional nanomaterials altered by applying the strategies of nanotechnology and furnished for designing novel remedies for various medical applications. Furthermore, modified features of nanomaterials can influence their fate and also upgrade their claims in inhalation. Thus these types of nanoscale innovations achieved by adopting aforesaid strategies significantly. The nanotools and remedies treat viral infection and, in the end, also improve the health of the lungs
Raynee Kirthi, Abbaraju Krishna Sailaja
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-04; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/072

Abstract:
Capsule endoscopy (CE) has improved the diagnosis and treatment of the small bowel providing a non-invasive, well tolerated method of as it should be visualizing the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. The development of Medical Capsule Robots, which has emerged from the science fiction idea of robots touring within the body to diagnose and cure issues. The first ever introduced capsule robot was a pill or capsule endoscope evolved to seize pics of the gastrointestinal tract. Today, varieties of capsule endoscopes are available and are expected to hit the market soon. They are barely large than ordinary oral dosage forms such as tablets or capsules, made of a biocompatible case and have digital circuitry and mechanisms to seize and transmit images.15 years ago, capsule endoscopy (CE) has turn out to be the primary-line investigation system in some small bowel pathologies and scientific practices. The first marketed capsule robotic was a capsule endoscope in general evolved to seize only the pictures of the gastrointestinal tract however Later, these have been advanced to be used as a device to construct micron and sub-micron sized drug shipping structures for target shipping and treatment.Technology is swiftly progressing, assisting in the broadening and improving the benefits and applications of capsule endoscopy.
Iva Srdanovic
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/061

Abstract:
Second generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have reduced the rate of in-stent restenosis (ISR) to < 10% [1, 2] in patients undergoing PCI. However, late catch-up in-stent restenosis remains an issue despite the advent in drug-eluting stent technology from 1st to 2nd generation drug eluting stents. The late catch-up phenomenon has been associated with serious consequences and adverse events and remains an important issue in modern practice, despite medical advances with more biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, as well as new therapeutic agents and thinner scaffolds in the development of 2nd generation DES polymer systems. The idea behind biodegradable polymers has been to provide a more controlled elution profile for DES drugs, allowing for long-term therapeutic, but sub-toxic, drug levels in the arterial tissue to prevent ISR and stent thrombosis. However, the late catch-up phenomenon remains an issue resulting in 2ndary revascularization beyond the first year of primary PCI, as it is defined as ISR >1 year. Late stent thrombosis (1 year) also remain an issue for biodegradable polymer systems. A long-term presence of the polymer can cause inflammation and thrombogenesis, which is dependent upon polymer degradation kinetics in case of biodegradable polymer DES systems. However, the cause of late catch-up restenosis and stent thrombosis is multi-factorial from a drug-in-polymer formulation perspective of drug release kinetics, e.g., drug elution profile, drug physiochemical properties, and polymer degradation kinetics. It appears that the focus should be on controlling burst release for both late catch-up restenosis and stent thrombosis phenomena.
Adriel Martìnez Rodríguez, Ada de Las Nieves Rodríguez Reyes, Elisa Maria Puentes Rizo, Pedro Rolando López Rodríguez, Ailé Cruz Arias
Addiction Research and Adolescent Behaviour, Volume 5, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.31579/2688-7517/037

Abstract:
Pregnancy in adolescence is a problem of alarming dimensions that demands comprehensive multisectoral care. The incidence of pregnancy in adolescents has grown and no previous studies on the entity were found. Objective: To describe the behavior of adolescent pregnancy in the Mantilla health area. Method: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study of a universe of 82 pregnant adolescents from the Mantilla health area from April 2019 to November 2020. A survey and test of perception of family functioning were applied, which were processed using Descriptive Statistics techniques. Results: 57.3% of the pregnant women were between 17 and 19 years old, 53.7% had not completed the pre-university or intermediate technical level and 75.6% did not wish to interrupt their pregnancy. Conclusions: Pregnancies in adolescence are unplanned and therefore unwanted; the vast majority of adolescents admit that they are incapable of facing pregnancy and what it means for their later life.
Bernat N. Tiffon, Jorge González Fernández
Addiction Research and Adolescent Behaviour, Volume 5, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.31579/2688-7517/040

Abstract:
Zgourides (2020) already appreciates the existence of a general scarcity of research data on paraphilias, both controlled (in the laboratory for research purposes) and anecdotal (field work), which limits the generalization of this type of sexual behaviour. For that author, little scientific information has been published on alternative sexual behaviours, this being due to differences in cultural understandings, religious and/or legal prohibitions
Maryam Rangchian, Ali Ghorashi, Maryam Mehrpooya, Rashid Heidari-Moghaddam
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/064

Abstract:
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the profile of medicines and nutritional supplements usage, including the correctness of consumption manner, among male bodybuilders. Methods: A checklist was applied to gather data from bodybuilders participating in gyms in Hamadan. Questions were asked about the athlete's demographics, medicines and supplements being used in line with their bodybuilding goals. Then, the pharmacist assessed that how correct is the manner of consumption and provided the participants with the needed advices. Results: 82.5% of the respondents were not using any medicines. Supplementation was far more common and magnesium was the most current product. Wrong consumption was very more prevalent for medicines than supplements. Inappropriate dosage was the most frequent mistake in supplementation. Conclusions: Although a majority of the participants reported that they had received consultation, noticeable issues regarding medicine misuse were identified. Totally, the findings demonstrated the importance of pharmacists' collaboration to ensure athletes' access to accurate consultations.
Aouatif Chentouf
Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology Research, Volume 5, pp 01-44; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-7247/067

Abstract:
The evaluation of chemical mixtures is a complex subject and follows several approaches. To strengthen the scientific basis of the toxicology of chemicals mixtures, studies have been carried out to determine the biological concepts and basic formulas of mathematics for the extrapolation of low doses. The extrapolation of these doses should be considered as a key issue in the assessment of potential health risks from exposure to chemical mixtures in the atmosphere, by-products of drinking water disinfection, or in recombinant additives ..., etc. Clearly, the intervention of biologists, biomathematicians and bioengineers in toxicology mixtures is essential for the development of this. Studies on complex mixtures use multidisciplinary knowledge. The risk of complex mixtures remains a challenge. Before the results of the toxicity test can be used to adjust the risk assessment calculations, it is important to assess the chemical composition and to understand the mechanism of chemical interactions observed in animals chronically exposed to low doses of chemical mixtures. The current development of exposure biomarkers allows the assessment of the internal dose of exposure to toxic substances, integrating all the media and pathways of contact, thus allowing a precise assessment of the risk to human health. Finally, it is time to initiate research projects related to this theme, and more particularly to the development of toxicological and eco-toxicological tests, to better study interactions at low doses. This will not only improve scientific knowledge, but also provide essential skills to increase safety against exposure to complex mixtures. A battery of tests seems essential to evaluate the toxic potential of the mixtures, and to better understand the different possible interactions between the substitutes. However, the toxicological and eco-toxicological and risk assessment models appear to be limited by, on the one hand, the non-specificity of the mechanisms of action but at stake, and on the other hand, their lack of representativeness of in vivo effects It would therefore be interesting and desirable for these tests to be better understood, in order to define and interpret the mechanisms of action of the mixtures. This bibliographic review aimed to provide some answers to the central question which is: the nature of the possible interactions between contaminants that can influence their toxicities.
Jsm Leung
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/086

Abstract:
The recorded history of China spanned over 47 centuries. Since the beginning of the first century epidemics of each dynasty had been duly, if incompletely, recorded. This study is an attempt to review the epidemics recorded from the beginning of the first century A.D., when epidemic records first appeared as a regular entry, to the beginning of the 20th century which marked the end of the last dynasty in Imperial China. No attempt is made to stratify the types of individual infections as such scientific knowledge was lacking. Rather, epidemics are treated as one subject, in the broadest sense, of massive and highly contagious infections, occurring wave after wave, affecting society, culture, governments and the rise and fall of empires dynasties. Some of the materials had been used in a previous article in this Journal but reused out of necessity. Yet, every attempt has been made to minimize excessive repetition.
Ahmad Reza Rahnemoon
Cancer Research and Cellular Therapeutics, Volume 6, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.31579/2640-1053/106

Abstract:
Immunophenotyping of leukemias and other hematological neoplasms has become one of the most relevant clinical applications of flow cytometry which remains an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, classification, staging as well as hematologic malignancies monitoring. It can provide quantitative data on a number of cell parameters for a large number of cells in the region of cells thousands per second which making it a powerful diagnostic tool. If immunophenotyping is more sensitive significantly, specific and objective than morphological studying, the latter remains the gold standard criterion for creating and establishing the blast percentage in presentation and post treatment together. Moreover, it is important that interpreters of flow cytometric data have the phenotypes exact knowledge of diverse normal cell populations, which can be one of the best tool in recognize deviations from normal as well as are able to discuss the potential clinical significance and knowing look of the flow cytometric findings.
Fanny Desai, Rajesh Korant
Cancer Research and Cellular Therapeutics, Volume 6, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.31579/2640-1053/104

Abstract:
Aim and objectives: Turnaround time is the main issue for formalin fixed-paraffin embedded-cell block diagnosis. The main objectives of this study were to develop fast and simple method of cell blocks preparation using frozen section technique, to develop a protocol of immunocytochemistry (ICC) on them and to evaluate its utility in clinical practice. Material and method: In this case series, we made frozen cell blocks (F-CB) from fine needle aspirates (FNA) and fluid samples using cryostat and performed ICC on them. Results were compared with histopathology diagnosis using Cohen’s Kappa agreement and Fisher Exact test. Results: Out of 25 cases, F-CB from FNA and fluid samples were made in 15 and 10 cases, respectively. ICC was performed on 20 cases. Only 40% of the cases had confirmed diagnosis on cytology smears. Addition of F-CB + ICC test could give a definitive diagnosis in 24/25 (96%) of cases. Conclusions: Newly developed method of frozen sectioning of cellblocks and ICC on them can give rapid and accurate cell block diagnosis.
Nasser Mikhail
Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Studies, Volume 3, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-8808/105

Abstract:
Background: Alendronate is considered a safe drug with respect to kidney function when used per manufacturer recommendations. Objective: To describe reported cases of nephrotoxicity associated with alendronate. Methods: Pubmed search of English literature up to January 14, 2022. Search terms include alendronate, bisphosphonates, proteinuria, renal failure, adverse effects. Pertinent case reports, reviews, and guidelines of professional organizations are included. Results: Review of literature revealed 7 patients who developed nephrotoxicity likely due to alendronate therapy for osteoporosis. In 5 patients, kidney function was normal before starting alendronate. Five patients presented with nephrotic syndrome and had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on renal biopsy. Collapsing FSGS was specifically demonstrated in 2 patients. Nephrotoxicity was diagnosed as early as 2 weeks and up to 3 years after starting alendronate. No clear predisposing factors or patient demographic characteristics could be outlined in association with this adverse effect. In addition to discontinuation of alendronate, treatment consisted of glucocorticoids followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretics. In 4 of the 7 patients, renal function did not return to normal and 3 subjects required hemodialysis. Conclusions: Physicians should be aware that alendronate may be uncommonly associated with nephrotoxicity. Checking protein in urine 2 weeks after starting alendronate and periodically thereafter may help early diagnosis of this serious adverse effect.
Bon E, Maksimovich N.Ye, Dremza I.K
Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Studies, Volume 3, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-8808/108

Abstract:
Energy exchange in the cell is associated with mitochondria, which play an important role in vital processes. The Oxidative Phosphorylation System (OxРhoS), localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane, consists of five membrane enzymes. Four of the five protein complexes make up the "respiratory chain" and are involved in the transfer of electrons, which at three points is coupled with the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton gradient is used by the ATP synthase complex (the fifth enzyme complex) to phosphorylate ADP. The methods for studying the activity of the electron transport chain of mitochondria described in the article, especially their use in a complex, makes it possible to significantly detail the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders of cell energy exchange that occurs in various diseases, which will improve the prevention and correction of mitochondrial dysfunction.
Bon E.I
Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Studies, Volume 3, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-8808/103

Abstract:
Lysosomes are involved in cellular waste degradation and recycling, along with cellular signaling and energy metabolism. Lysosomal storage disorders occur due to the abnormality in genes which are encoding lysosomal proteins. This work aims to emphasize the usage of different lysosomal antibodies during the study of the structure and functions of lysosomes and the investigation of different types of pathological diseases related to lysosomal functions. This may present the characteristics of those antibodies according to a classification that mainly depends on the localization of their targets.
A. Hameed Khan
Cancer Research and Cellular Therapeutics, Volume 6, pp 01-16; https://doi.org/10.31579/2640-1053/102

Abstract:
This abstract describes the enormous advantages of redesigning existing microbial life in the Labs which will carry additional instructions not only to clean up our environmental pollution, but also to produce new food, new fuel, and new medicine to treat every disease known to mankind. Using the toolkit of genetic engineering developed during the completion of the Human Genome Project, we will manipulate microbial life in which we will splice essential amino acid codons in most consumable food such as Corn, Wheat and Rice Genomes to produce the most nutritious food for the bourgeoning population of the world. Similarly, new fuel could be produced by an organism called Methanococcus Jannachil which thrives near high temperature high pressure hydrothermal vents at the bottom of the sea floor by converting Carbon dioxide (a pollutant) to Methane (a fuel). To produce at the industrial scale, in plant genomes, we will splice not only the genes of herbal medicine (such as Artemisinin, Taxol, Reserpine, Belladonna etc.) to produce well-known herbal medicine, but also will insert genes to produce large scale antibiotics (such as Penicillin, Streptomycin, Neomycin, Kanamycin, Paromomycin, Apramycin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, Netilmicin, Gentamicin etc.). At every step of the transgenic genomes, we will confirm the spliced novel genes by using cheaper and faster nanopore gene sequencer. Current speed of developments guarantees humanity’s future survival across the Universe long before our Sun dies
Abhijeet Vishnu Puri
Published: 14 January 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/077

Abstract:
Kyllinga triceps rottb is a member of the Cyperaceae family and is one of the world's most widely distributed medicinal herbs. This review aims to look into the published report on ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological activity, as well as the therapeutic potential of Kyllinga triceps rottb. An extensive literature is available in various recognized databases, including logical writing and scientific literature, as well as search engines such as Springerlink, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and BioMed Central, as well as relevant books, websites, scientific publications, and dissertations, was used to draft an up-to-date review. Phytochemical analysis of Kyllinga triceps species indicated the presence of essential phytochemicals like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, phenolics, steroids, terpenoids, and tannins, the basis of its valuable therapeutic properties. The pharmacological activities exhibited by Kyllinga triceps rottb are antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial, which are attributed to the presence of valuable bioactive phytoconstituents. Considering these facts, an attempt is made to give a thorough overview of ethnobotany, phytochemistry and the pharmacological activity of Kyllinga triceps rottb.
Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo
Published: 14 January 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-15; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/072

Abstract:
Schistosomiasis of the testis and other intra-scrotal contents is a very rare condition which can be encountered within Schistosomiasis endemic areas of the world. Because of global travelling and swimming in rivers within Schistosomiasis endemic areas of the world, intra-scrotal Schistosomiasis tends to be sporadically reported in all areas of the world in male children and adults. Intra-scrotal Schistosomiasis may manifest as (a) testicular mass that may be painless and thus simulate testicular tumour, other intra-scrotal Schistosomiasis may present as hydrocele, epididymal cyst or solid/firm epididymal mass, a mass on the tunica or extra-testicular parts of the scrotum, testicular/intra-scrotal discomfort / pain. The lesion could mimic epididymo-orchitis on very rare occasions. There would tend to be a history of travel to or return from a Schistosomiasis endemic region in patients who normally dwell within the non-Schistosomiasis endemic areas of the world. There may also be a history of a previous episode of haematuria in some cases. The levels of serum Beta-Human Chorionic antigen, Alpha fetoprotein and Lactate Dehydrogenase usually tends to be normal. Some cases of Schistosomiasis of the testis had been mis-diagnosed as testicular cancer and the diagnosis of Schistosomiasis had been established based upon the histopathology examination findings of Schistosoma within the orchidectomy testis, but if there is a high-index of suspicion for Schistosomiasis of the scrotal content based upon a patient dwelling within or having travelled to a Schistosomiasis endemic area supported by a history of haematuria and the tumour or tumoral mass is completely excised for frozen section pathology examination, then the diagnosis of Schistosomiasis of the testis would be confirmed and the rest of the testis can be saved from excision. If all cases of excised epididymal cysts and Tunica from hydrocele operations are submitted for histopathology examination, then incidental cases of Schistosomiasis of scrotal contents would be made. Complete treatment of Schistosomiasis of testis and or scrotal contents does include excision / biopsy of the lesion for pathology examination confirmation and utilization of anti-Schistosomiasis medicaments. Schistosomiasis of intra-scrotal/testicular contents may be responsible for infertility and azoospermia and if this is properly investigated, diagnosed and treated this could be ensued by resolution of infertility with resulting pregnancy of the spouse and the production of a baby and because of this, individuals who have azoospermia and infertility in Schistosomiasis endemic areas, a high index of suspicion would be required in other to establish the cause as well as treat the cause of the infertility. Treatment of intra-scrotal content Schistosomiasis does entail excision / biopsy of the lesion plus utilization of anti-Schistosoma medicament and Praziquantel is a common medication that tends to be given and this tends to yield good outcome.
SenDasgupta Chaitali, Kundu Shruti, Kar Sandeep Kumar, Goswami Anupam
Journal of Surgical Case Reports and Images, Volume 5, pp 01-08; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-1897/105

Abstract:
Objectives: Aim of the study was to compare central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) to see which of the two is better predictor of prognosis of patients undergoing off–pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG). Heart rate (HR), invasive blood pressures, and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) have also been recorded to see if they are independent predictors of prognosis in OPCABG patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 patients undergoing OPCABG were included in the study. Baseline values and intraoperative values of ScvO2, rSO2, HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), pO2 at different time periods were recorded. Post-operatively the patients were shifted to Intensive care unit (ICU) on elective ventilation, and time to extubation since shifting to ICU were noted. Results:The ScvO2 values after sternal closure (correlation coefficient r= -0.4821, P=0.0002), and on shifting to ICU (correlation coefficient r= -0.4575, P=0.0004) showed strong correlation with time to extubation. Similarly the rSO2 values after sternal closure (correlation coefficient r=-0.5198, P<0.0001) and on shifting to ICU (correlation coefficient r = -o.5498, P0.05). Conclusion:ScvO2 and rSO2 both have strong correlation with time to extubation and are capable of predicting prognosis in OPCABG patients.
Athanasia Bamicha, Evangelos D. Lolis, Alexandra Pentheroudaki, Sotirios Rousogiannis
Journal of Surgical Case Reports and Images, Volume 5, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-1897/099

Abstract:
Background: Large bowel obstruction due to pancreatic tail carcinoma is extremely rare. Case report: We present a case of large bowel obstruction and cecal perforation due to carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas. Conclusion: Despite of the poor prognosis of the cases reported so far, our patient is alive and disease free 12 months after emergent aggressive surgical therapy and adjuvant therapy.
Sara Kazkaz, Zubaria Altaf, Pocholo Isidro, Almunzer Zakaria
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/085

Abstract:
This study is a retrospective, descriptive review of all cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempts at Al Wakra Hospital (AWH) conducted for one year i.e. 1st Jan 2020 to 31st Dec 2020. AWH is a 329-bedded, multispecialty secondary care facility, part of Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Qatar’s Governmental Healthcare organization in Qatar. In 2020, AWH had 11,862 inpatient admissions which are inclusive of Adult, Pediatric, Neonatal, Geriatric populations. There were also 1,184 admissions to the different Intensive Care Units (Medical, Surgical, Pediatric, and Neonatal). AWH has a Rapid Response Team (RRT) and Code Blue (CPR) team which is responsible for the respective codes. Code Blue team comprises one ICU Physician, one Respiratory Therapist, one Registered Nurse, all trained in Advanced Life Support. All CPR attempts were documented and recorded in CPR Record Sheets which were reviewed and the Electronic Medical Records (Cerner) were sourced for data gathering. One copy of CPR record sheets was kept in Cerner (Patient File) and one was sent to the Quality department for review/audit. After obtaining the list of CPR attempts over 2020, patients were identified, and medical records reviewed. The parameters recorded were demographic information, location, comorbidities and other relevant history, duration of CPR, initial CPR outcome, patient disposition, patient status on disposition (quality of life), etc. All these variables were considered to support the objective of this study i.e. to perform a descriptive analysis of in-hospital CPR. Based on the analysis of 110 patients for whom CPR was done, the percentage of immediate survival on the initial CPR was 53.64%. However, only 8.18% were eventually discharged to home while 11.82% were discharged to other HMC facilities.
Jochanan E. Naschitz, Natalia Zaigraykin, Elena Zlotover, Faisal Neime, Natalia Starikov, Ygor Yalonetski, Gregory Leibovitz
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/087

Abstract:
Vitamin K is essential for clotting factors II, VII, IX and X to be released in their active form. Under vitamin K deficiency a coagulopathy may develop that is marked by prolongation of the prothrombin time (PT). Patients receiving enteral feeding which does not cover the daily vitamin K requirements might be predisposed to develop a bleeding diathesis. Yet, current guidelines do not recommend monitoring the PT in patients receiving enteral feeding. In the present cross-sectional study, we assessed the prevalence of a prolonged PT in patients receiving long-term enteral feeding with one or a combination of the enteral formulas Osmolite®, Jevity®, Easymilk®. Sixty residents in long-term geriatric care received exclusively enteral feeding for a median 27 months (average 34.7, SD 29). The median daily vitamin K supplied by enteral feeding was 63.5 mcg (average 8.3, SD 17.2), i.e. less than the 150 mcg recommended by the Food and Drug Administration. In 57 patients the PT-INR was 0.9 - 1.2 (normal); the PT-INR was prolonged to 1.4 in 3 patients. There were 6 episodes of major bleeding and 4 episodes of minor bleeding during the study period, unrelated to prolonged PT and distributed at random along the time of enteral feeding. Accordingly, long-term vitamin K-deficient enteral nutrition did not affect vitamin K-dependent coagulation. This may argue against the need to regularly monitor the PT in patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition
YePeng Li, Jingjing Zhao, Bo Yang
Cancer Research and Cellular Therapeutics, Volume 6, pp 01-08; https://doi.org/10.31579/2640-1053/114

Abstract:
Objective Puerarin is a form of isoflavones obtained from Pueraria lobata. It stimulates hepatic metabolic function and lowers serum ALT, AST, and total-bilirubin level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of puerarin on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CNE1 cells and preliminarily explore its possible mechanism. Materials and Methods CCK8 method was used to detect the proliferation activity of puerarin on NPC CNE1 cells and IC50 was calculated. CNE1 cells were treated with 0 μmol/L puerarin (containing equal volume of DMSO solution) as control group and 1000 μmol/L puerarin (IC50 concentration) as experimental group. Colony formation assay, Scratch-wound test and Transwell invasion assay were used to detect the clone formation ability, migration and invasion ability of puerarin on CNE1 cells. Then, RNA Sequencing was used to detect the changes of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and signaling pathways after puerarin was applied to CNE1 cells. Results The inhibitory effect of puerarin on the proliferation activity of CNE1 cells was enhanced with the increase of concentration, and IC50 was calculated as 1000 μmol/L. Compared with the control group, the treatment of CNE1 cells with 1000 μmol/L puerarin could inhibit the clone formation, migration and invasion of CNE1 cells (P<0.05). A total of 379 DEGs were found by RNA sequencing, including 295 down-regulated genes and 84 up-regulated genes (padj<0.05). The significant differences in biological functions of differentially expressed genes were mainly distributed in “negative regulation of growth”, “angiogenesis”, “regulation of peptidase activity”, “positive regulation of vasculature development”, “digestion”, “positive regulation of angiogenesis”, “negative regulation of peptidase activity”, “extracellular matrix” and “Golgi lumen” (padj<0.05). Conclusion Puerarin could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of NPC CNE1 cells, and its mechanism might be related to the inhibition of angiogenesis and cell growth.
Jesús Cuéllar Álvarez, Sady Hisleydi Fariña Gutiérrez, Isabel Muñiz Casas, María Dolores Rodríguez Calvo
Published: 14 January 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-04; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/078

Abstract:
Background: To improve the life styles from the Cuban community context of family health is a reality linked with the medical sciences. Objective: To characterize the educational methods as prevention in Cuban’s families’ consumers of alcohol. This process embraced the period of September 2018 to June 2019. The qualitative methodology was used, with a descriptive and traverse study. The universe the 45 families of studies, selected in an intentional way. Methods: Observation, interview and revision of clinic history. Results: The most frequent causing lifestyles of family dysfunction were the daily ingestion of alcoholic drinks. Conclusions: The Cuban’s families present difficulty in the family relations. The addiction to the alcohol is related with the tolerance and consumed by day that it generates in the life style from the family.
Bekralas H, Habchi N
Cancer Research and Cellular Therapeutics, Volume 6, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2640-1053/105

Abstract:
Grisel syndrome, also known as nasopharyntic torticollis is a combination of a torticollis and nasopharingitis, describes first time in 1830 by bell and taken over by grisel in 19305which descibed two observations in two children complicated renopharyngitis since this syndrome bears his name.characterized clinically by sudden probing and radiographically by an enucleation of the atlas innon traumatic dislocation- rotating position . physiopathologically is caused by the inflammatory contracture of the prevertebral muscles whose origin could be a spontaneous or post opérative infection of the NTE area.This acute febrile torticollis is a rare affection mainly affects the child with an estimated age range between 8 months to 12 years, few cases are reported by literature concerning adults.Diagnosis should be realized early in order to avoid neurological restoration which cannot be carried out with certainty that other diagnoses of febril torticollis are eliminatedThe treatment is simple, the prognosis is often favorable with an adequate and early attitude directed towards the causal agent while restoring the spinal stabilit.
K. Khalfi, N. Habchi, I. Ikhlef, M. Djaafer
Cancer Research and Cellular Therapeutics, Volume 6, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2640-1053/107

Abstract:
In Waldenström's disease, direct involvement of the nervous system by tumor infiltration is rare and exceptional, forming Bing-Neel syndrome, which groups together the central neurological damage of this disease. It is associated with neurological manifestations with confusion, temporo-spatial disorientation or motor impairment.The bing and Néel syndrome must be differentiated and discussed in the face of affections of the central nervous system such as multiform glioblastomas or multifocal leukoencephalopathies as well as primary brain lymphoma.
Kalyani Singh
Published: 25 February 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/082

Abstract:
Infertility is a defined as failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sex. It affects millions of people of reproductive age worldwide and has an impact on their families and communities. Having babies gives an unparalleled satisfaction to parents and lack of baby may make one’s life miserable at times. Here we are presenting a case where a lady who got pregnant and gave birth to a child just following Dilatation & Curettage and Hydrotuabtion (tubal flushing) when other measures like diagnostic laparoscopy and IUI failed. Dilatation and curettage and tubal patency test/ hydrotubation (D & C & TPT} was an old diagnostic procedure before the advent of ultrasonography and laparoscopic technique. It is an easy, minor operative procedure to evaluate the condition of uterus and tubes. Examination under anesthesia gives information regarding parametrium also to a considerable extent.
Ashish Gujrathi
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/084

Abstract:
Advancements in technology and the approach of innovation by healthcare companies led to considerable improvements in pain management devices over the past years. From management of chronic pain to reliving post-operative pain, innovative devices have been making their way into the world. Leading device manufacturers have been developing and launching their new products that would relive and manage different kinds of pain. From knee braces to cap-sized neuromodulation devices, new products have been launched to help people improve the quality of their lives. Some of the products are in the development stage, while some have been commercialized and launched. The trend of innovation is expected to bring breakthrough devices in the coming years.
Asghar Karbord, Mohammad Masoud Mahmoudi, Kourosh Alimohammadbeik, Parnia Toudehfallah, Fatemeh Karimi Rouzbahani, Mahyar Mahmoudi
Published: 14 January 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/079

Abstract:
Background Intensive care includes the care of patients with life-threatening diseases, under the supervision of the most skilled personnel with advanced equipment and facilities, which includes all sensitive care related to the patient's life. Complications of hospitalization in special wards include foot drop, deep vein thrombosis and atrophy, and decreased muscle strength. The aim of this study is working on approaches for preventing Foot drop, deep vein thrombosis and atrophy and decreased muscle strength. Methods This project started with a new researcher idea then by searching in the scientific content of articles and book, the title and proposal the project was compiled with opinion of the supervisor. Then model of the device was designed in collaboration with graphic & mechanical engineers Fianccy. The main tool was invented by the researchers. Results Results of this study and other surveys can be one of the most effective ways to prevent prevent ankle foot drop, deformity of the toes, muscle atrophy, improve blood flow from the lower to the upper and monitor vital signs and maintain the strength of the foot muscles. Also using orothesis can decrease it significantly. Besides, modifying the preventive policies such as producing instruments like Removable orthosis is recommended.
Mojtaba Ehsanifar, Mehravar Rafati, Jie Wang
Published: 25 February 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/081

Abstract:
Some of the recent researches show that air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), including fine particles (PM<2.5μm, PM2.5) and very fine particles (PM <0.1μm, PM 0.1) can reach the brain and affect CNS health. Neurological complications with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been observed. The aim of this review the relationship between air pollutants exposure and COVID-19 was focused on the role of airborne aerosol particles in the prevalence of the disease, as well as the neurological effects of COVID-19. It is not yet clear how the virus is transmitted from one sick person to another and why it is so transmissible. Viruses can be probably transmitted through speech and exhalation aerosols. Findings show that SARS-CoV-2 aerosol transmission is possible. Spike (S) proteins of SARS‑CoV‑2 determine tissue tropism using an angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor type2 (ACE-2) to bind to the cells. ACE-2 receptor is found in the tissues of the nervous system. Neurological disorders that occur with COVID-19 can have many pathophysiological backgrounds. Some are the result of a direct viral attack on tissues of the nervous system, others appear to be an autoimmune process post-viral, and still others appear to be the result of systemic and metabolic complications associated with critical illness.
Ahmad Reza Rahnemoon
Cancer Research and Cellular Therapeutics, Volume 6, pp 01-11; https://doi.org/10.31579/2640-1053/110

Abstract:
Hematopoiesis is regulated by a diverse cellular of BM microenvironment which supports stepwise multi-potent stem cells differentiation as well as maturation of progenitors and precursors into mature blood cells. Some imbalances between virus inherent transforming abilities and the host immune system can lead into the various diseases development. In this case, hematopoietic dynamics are perturbed during inflammation that we want to know exactly about the HSC niche interaction in the situation which can occur as a result. Here we discuss about some infections have deleterious effects injuring hematopoietic stem cell , inefficient hematopoiesis and also destruction of the cells and then can go to the remodeling of bone marrow microenvironment and ultimately change to malignancy. So it is important to demonstrate a BM microenvironment critical role in the response to infection.
Sayan Bhattacharyya, Amitabha Dan, Dipak Pal
Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Studies, Volume 3, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-8808/104

Abstract:
The novel coronavirus had emerged in 2019 from the Hubei province in China. Now the world is facing the third and fourth waves of the pandemic caused by this virus. These are due to the new mutants and variants of the virus that have emerged over time due to various reasons. It is important to keep oneself updated about these mutants and variants.
Mariano Votta, Maira Cardillo
Published: 14 January 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/074

Abstract:
Healthcare, well-being, and a healthy lifestyle are vital for all of us. In this regard, the engagement of European citizens is key to improve the health system and it is necessary to provide a leading role to the people, the communities, intermediate bodies such as Patients' Advocacy Groups (PAGs), citizens organizations involved in healthcare issues and, more generally, to all actors that promote health as a common good. European institutions struggle to translate into concrete actions the many times highlighted principle relating to the involvement of actors of the civil society and PAGs in the management of health issues. The need to close the gap between the principles affirmed and the real involvement is even more serious when discussing about the management of serious cross-border threats to health. In line with its standing point, the civic organization Cittadinanzattiva [1], being deeply involved in health issues that promote civic participation in the policy-making activities both at the national level in Italy and, through its EU branch Active Citizenship Network (ACN) [2], also at the EU level, is working – of course not alone – to promote civic participation in the drafting and implementation process of National Recovery and Resilience Plans (NRRPs), with relevant political goals already achieved. As the Conference on the Future of Europe (CoFoE) [3] is approaching, emphasizing the great contribution of civil society to the success of the EU recovery plans is urgent and essential, now more than ever.
Said Said Elshama
Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Studies, Volume 3, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-8808/109

Abstract:
Quality management in medical education is not restricted to teaching and learning but also includes providing services to students. Many international, regional, and national organizations adopt global standards for quality improvement in medical schools. So, accreditation is considered an instrument to reach these global standards for continuous improvement in the performance of this medical institution. The accreditation process is usually representative, responsive, and appropriate to an institution accredited type depending on a peer review. It is carried out by accreditation organizations depending on specific criteria (national or regional or global standards). It is a certificate for proving the quality for a specific time and a guarantee for the graduate quality of medical schools that are acquiring a good reputation. However, the adoption of quality management in medical education is considered one of the contemporary challenges that are still faced many obstacles.
Philip Catalá-Lehnen
Journal of Surgical Case Reports and Images, Volume 5, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.31579/2690-1897/098

Abstract:
Foot injuries make up a not insignificant proportion of sports injuries, but the kind of frequency varies depending on the sport. According to the 2018 Sports Report of the Verwaltungs-Berufsgenossenschaft (VBG), basketball accounted for 7.4 % of foot injuries
Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo
Published: 25 February 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-24; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/071

Abstract:
Various tumours of primary malignant tumours of the kidney exist bot the most common type of primary malignant tumour of the kidney is renal cell carcinoma (clear cell carcinoma of the kidney tend to be encountered most often globally. The biological behaviour of a kidney tumour tends to depend upon the size of the tumour, the histological grade and stage of the tumour. Most kidney tumours that are very small (less than 7 cm) and localized to the kidney of low-grade histopathology pattern tend not to be aggressive or develop further so these days a number of patients who have small low-grade / low stage renal tumours tend to be offered expectant management of regular periodical radiology imaging and if there is any subsequent evidence of increase in the size of small localized kidney tumours, then patients who have these tumours tend to be offered treatment of curative intent. Larger localised kidney tumours that are clear cell / renal cell carcinoma tend to be treated by surgical complete excision of the tumour with the undertaking of partial nephrectomy or radical complete nephrectomy, Individuals who have locally advanced tumours tend to be treated by means of radical nephrectomy plus excision of the lymph nodes within the para-renal and para-aortic region plus adjuvant radiotherapy plus / chemotherapy. Some of the treatment options that have been used form the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma do include surgery, immunotherapy, targeted treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Some of the systemic font-line treatment options which are available include: immune check point inhibitor based combination (IBC) treatment with the inclusion of pembrozulimab / axitinib, nivolumab / pilimumab, as well as avelimab / axitinib. It has been iterated that with unusual exceptions, the utilization of monotherapy with vascular growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors or mTOR inhibitors have been considered not to be appropriate options of treatment with regard to the front-line setting. Some of the immunotherapy strategies that are utilized do include: cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T as well as natural killer cells and administration of antibodies or recombinant proteins which either co-stimulate cells or bloc the so-called immune checkpoint pathways. The success of many immunotherapy treatment options recently, including monoclonal antibody blocking of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) as well as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), had boosted the development of immunotherapy and this has been ensued by description of new therapeutic targets and schemes that combine various immunology agents at a fast pace. Despite the confirmed efficacy of frontline IBC in the treatment of renal cell carcinomas, majority of the patients would eventually require the need to undergo additional options of treatment and based upon this oncologists have been advised to take into consideration this knowledge carefully when they are switching to other forms of treatment, especially with regard to situations of intolerable drugs or apparent progression of disease. Considering that the biological behaviour of kidney malignant tumours depend upon the size, the histological cell type, the histological grade and stage of tumour, oncologists and urologists have tended to use different treatment options in the management of advanced / metastatic kidney tumours. There are many common side effects of the various immunotherapy treatment options that are common and there are also rare and serious side effects and complications associated with immunotherapy which clinicians and patients need to know about. Various immunotherapy options have been used over recent years in the management of various malignant kidney tumours but it does appear that immunotherapy tends to be beneficial to the management of high risk kidney tumour groups when as well as in the setting of advanced / metastatic kidney tumours.Nevertheless, Immunotherapy does tend to be associated with a number of side effects including nephropathy and it is important for clinicians to be aware of all the complications and complications associated immunotherapy of advanced / metastatic tumours of the kidney. Considering that radical surgical excision of localised tumours tends to be very effective and associated with good long-term prognosis, it would not be very necessary under most circumstances in utilizing immunotherapy to treat such cases. However, immunotherapy has been demonstrated to be associated with improved prognosis when compared with treatment of advanced / metastatic kidney tumours that had been undertaken earlier when immunotherapy was not available. Even though there is evidence to suggest the usefulness of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancers side effects and common as well as rare complications do occur and because these complications and side effects tend to be non-specific, a high index of suspicion would be required to quickly establish the diagnosis. Side effects of PD-1 inhibitors could include fatigue, cough, nausea, itching, skin rash, loss of appetite, constipation, joint pain, high blood pressure abdominal pain and diarrhoea. More serious side effects occur less often, but are possible. These drugs work by removing the brakes on the body’s immune system. Sometimes the immune system starts attacking other parts of the body, which can cause serious problems in the lungs, intestines, liver, hormone-making glands (like the thyroid), kidneys, the nervous system or other organs. In some people these side effects can be life threatening. Other possible side effects include: flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, muscle aches), nausea, low blood pressure, fluid build-up within the lungs, breathing difficulties, kidney damage, heart attacks, intestinal bleeding, rapid heartbeat, mental changes, neurological side-effects within the central and peripheral nervous...
Neha Jain, Ajay K. Pillai, Nisha Mishra, Ishtiyak, G.V Reddy, Saksham Nahar
Published: 25 February 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/080

Abstract:
Gorlin Goltz syndrome also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused due to mutation in patched (PTCH) tumor suppressor gene present in the 9q chromosome. Gorlin goltz syndrome display diversified odontogenic as well as systemic manifestations. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is mandatory to decrease morbidity and mortality. Here we present a subtle case report of a 17-year-old boy who presented with multiple odontogenic keratocysts of the mandible and maxilla which upon further examination was diagnosed as Gorlin Goltz Syndrome.
Wei Liu, Yuan Lu, Shi-Hua Zheng
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-04; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/088

Abstract:
Acute Hepatitis E (AHE) is an acute self-limiting disease caused by Hepatitis E virus infection, which is mostly transmitted through the digestive tract. A few patients can lead to severe hepatitis and liver failure. Alpha fetoprotein is a sensitive serological marker of primary liver cancer. AFP may increase in different degrees in patients with gastrointestinal tumors, endodermal sinus tumors and germ cell carcinoma originating from endoderm. In addition, serum AFP can also be elevated in varying degrees in non-neoplastic acute and chronic liver diseases. We here report a case of Acute Hepatitis E with elevated serum AFP, and discuss the clinical characteristics and significance of elevated AFP in Acute Hepatitis E through literature review.
Jsm Leung
Published: 25 February 2022
Clinical Research and Clinical Trials, Volume 5, pp 01-13; https://doi.org/10.31579/2693-4779/075

Abstract:
Beginning from December 2019, the present COVID-19 has ravaged the world for almost two years. While it appears to have peaked in many countries, it is still not under control in other areas. Worse still, new mutations of the virus continue to drive new waves of infection which manage to break through natural and human measures of defence.
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