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Manni Zhu, Jiamin Ou, Songdi Liao, Fei Yu, Menghua Lu, Qinge Sha, Junwen Liu, Hancheng Zhong, Zeyan Wu, Zhuangmin Zhong, et al.
Environmental Science & Technology; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c07744

Celia Pena-Bonhome, Desiree Fiaccabrino, Tamara Rama, Daniel Fernández-Pavón, Lily Southcott, Zhengxing Zhang, , , Brian O. Patrick, , et al.
Published: 20 January 2023
Vladimir Z. Turkevich, , Yixuan Zhao, , , Wilson A. Crichton, Nicolas Guignot, Hicham Moutaabbid, Ioannis Touloupas,
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.2c07176

Published: 1 January 2023
Abstract:
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthersthe University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education
, Ngoc Duy Trinh, Mehran Mostafavi
Published: 25 January 2023
Journal of Radiation Research; https://doi.org/10.1093/jrr/rrac105

Abstract:
Auger-emitting radionuclides have potential application in targeted radiotherapy, particularly for metastatic cancers. This possibility, especially, is stemmed from their characteristic short-range (a few μm) in biological systems allowing localization of high dose within small tumours. To explore this potential application, a Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit has been employed to simulate the energy deposition of different radionuclides in a water model. The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit has model packages to simulate the interaction of radiation with matter and with diverse applications such as studies in science and medicine. In this study, the Geant4-DNA package was used to simulate the radiolytic yields induced by some Auger electron-emitting (AE) radionuclides including; I-131, I-125 and Pd-103, In-111, Ru-97 and Rh-103 m in water model. The results showed that the transient yield of the radiolytic species is characterized by the kinetic energies of the emitted electrons. It was observed that almost all the radionuclides, except I-131, deposited more energy in their proximity thereby inducing a high density of spurs to interact in a short time. It is, therefore, important to consider the kinetic energies of the emitted particles in choosing a radionuclide for specified targeted radiotherapy. This means that apart from their toxicity, compatibility with chelator and carrier molecules, and method of production, we can predict radionuclides such as In-111, Ru-97, Pb-103 m and I-125 could be relevant for targeted radiotherapy for the treatment of metastasis lesions, or tiny tumours at the cellular level, and tumours after surgical resection.
Katie Wusik
Published: 1 January 2023
Abstract:
This chapter describes supervision delivery methods relevant to genetic counseling practice—live, self-report, remote, standardized patient, and peer supervision. It reviews advantages and challenges of each method, and it demonstrates application of delivery methods to various genetic counseling supervision situations. Live supervision is identified as the most common supervision delivery method in genetic counseling. Supervisors are encouraged to use a range of supervision delivery methods to meet each student’s evolving developmental and professional needs. Experiential activities provided in the chapter encourage reflection on the benefits and challenges of each supervision method and provide practice in mitigating some of the challenges.
Caroline Hall, Jordi Lanis, Alexander Dowdell, Emily Murphy, Sean Colgan
Published: 26 January 2023
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izac247.087

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified a loss of expression of creatine pathway proteins in mucosal tissue samples from inflammatory bowel disease patients. This is important as creatine is vital to ATP buffering in energetically active cells. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of decreased creatine kinase (CK) expression on mucosal inflammation by utilizing a whole body CK Brain and CK Mitochondrial knockout mouse (CKB/MitKO) in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of acute colitis. METHODS: CKB/MitKO and matched controls were administered 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 5 days and assessed by body weight loss, disease activity index, mucosal permeability, histology and inflammatory cytokine production by Mesoscale analysis. In subsequent experiments, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was given by intraperitoneal injection during the DSS experiment. We also analyzed transcriptional differences between CKB/MitKO and controls using a transcription factor array and western blot. Finally, we evaluated the impact of CK on the regulation of IFN-γ and transcriptional regulation of IFN-γ production in immune cells by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Loss of CKB/Mit did not result in detectable baseline inflammation or barrier dysfunction in CKB/MitKO mice as compared to controls. However, in the setting of the chemical irritant DSS, CKB/MitKO mice had significantly increased weight loss, disease activity, intestinal permeability, histologic inflammation and decreased colon length. While control mice treated with DSS had significant increases in mucosal IFN-γ, the CKB/MitKO mice had strikingly absent mucosal protein concentrations of IFN-γ. Although IFN-γ is commonly considered a pro-inflammatory cytokine, it has also been shown to help promote inflammatory resolution. Therefore, we proceeded to add back IFN-γ in DSS experiments and we identified significant protection from weight loss and histologic damage with the addition of IFN-γ. We went on to identify transcription factor differences between CKB/MitKO and control splenocytes that revealed a >40-fold increase in the hypoxia responsive factor, HIF-1a, in CKB/MitKO splenocytes. We confirmed a causative relationship between HIF-1 expression and IFN-γ by treating mouse splenocytes with a HIF stabilizer and identified that HIF stabilization results in a reduction of IFN-γ production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS: CK is an essential energetic regulator. Using CK knockout mice we have identified an important role for CK in regulating IFN-γ production, mediated at least in part by HIF stabilization. These findings support a novel role for CK in tissue protection by immune regulation during acute colitis. Better understanding the role of energetics and the creatine pathway in particular may provide novel therapeutic options in inflammatory bowel disease.
Megan McNicol, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, Grant Morris, Brendan Boyle, Jennifer Dotson, Hilary Michel, Ross Maltz
Published: 26 January 2023
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izac247.117

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Studies in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have demonstrated that a one-time switch from the originator to a biosimilar has not resulted in loss of response, increased side effects, or antibody development. Data describing non-medical switching is limited in adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes of one-time switches from the originator to a biosimilar in adolescents and young adults with IBD. METHODS: Patients with IBD that underwent a non-medical switch from infliximab originator to a biosimilar were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, physician global assessments (PGA), and laboratory values (albumin, hemoglobin, sedimentation rate (ESR), c-reactive protein (CRP), anti-TNF level, and anti-TNF antibody level) were recorded up to one year prior to the switch and up to one year after the switch. Rates of continuation on the biosimilar was reported at 6 and 12 months post-switch. Linear mixed effect models with random intercepts accounting for within patient correlation were used to compare continuous lab values before and after switching. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients completed a switch from infliximab originator to a biosimilar. The mean age at the time of the switch was 18 (+/- 2.86) years old. Fifty-three percent of those undergoing a switch were female, 74% had Crohn’s disease, and 96% were switched to the biosimilar infliximab-dyyb. At the time of the switch, 52 (98%) patients had quiescent disease activity based on PGA and 1 (2%) patient had mild disease. At follow up after receiving at least 2 biosimilar infusions, 51 (96%) patients had quiescent disease and 2 (4%) patients had mild disease based on the PGA. At 6 months post switch, 48 (90%) patients were still on the biosimilar. Three (6%) patients switched back to the originator due to worsening symptoms, one (2%) patient developed worsening psoriasis, and one (2%) patient had ongoing issues with IV access. Of the 33 patients who had a full 12 months of follow-up data, 91% (30/33) remained on the biosimilar, one patient switched back to the originator due to worsening symptoms, and two switched to adalimumab due to the development of psoriasis and an underlying social situation, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in albumin, hemoglobin, ESR, CRP, or anti-TNF levels when comparing pre- and post- switch values. The mean anti-TNF level prior to the switch was 17.3 ug/ml (95% CI: 13.7 -19.0) and 15.1 ug/ml (95% CI: 12.5 - 17.8) after the switch. No patients developed anti-drug antibodies or infusion reactions. CONCLUSION: A one-time non-medical switch to an infliximab biosimilar in an adolescent and young adult cohort had no significant effect on clinical remission rates, laboratory markers of inflammation, serious adverse events, anti-TNF levels, or anti-drug antibodies.
Elizabeth Novak, Erin Crawford, Heather Mentrup, David Fletcher, Meredith Flanagan, Corinne Schneider, Kevin Mollen
Published: 26 January 2023
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izac247.013

Abstract:
We have previously shown that mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption of mitochondrial biogenesis contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor–gamma Coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) is the primary regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and mice undergoing experimental colitis, the transcript and protein levels of PGC1α are reduced, which is concomitant with a decrease in mitochondrial function, derangement of mitochondrial structure, and an increase in oxidative stress. Further, mice lacking PGC1α in the intestinal epithelium develop severe disease during acute and chronic colitis models. PGC1α is primarily activated via deacetylation by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Thus, we hypothesized that decreased NAD+ in the intestinal epithelium during inflammation renders SIRT1 unable to activate PGC1α, resulting in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we show that levels of deacetylated PGC1α (active) are decreased within the intestinal epithelium of patients with UC (n=4), implying that Sirt1 may be inactivated within diseased tissue. We also found a decrease in the intestional NAD+ levels in UC patients (n=10; p<0.001)). Similar to findings in humans, we show that not only are the levels of deacetylated PGC1α (active) decreased within the intestinal epithelium during murine models of DSS colitis (n=10; p<0.001) and infectious (Citrobacter rodentium-induced) colitis (n=10; p<0.001), but both the transcript and protein levels of Sirt1 are also decreased in mice undergoing experimental colitis (n=10 per group per model). We further found a decrease in intestinal NAD+ levels in colitic mice (n=8; p0.05), there was a 1.5-fold increase in the intestinal mRNA levels of the NAD+-consuming DNA-repair enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) in mice undergoing experimental colitis (n=8; p<0.001), as well as a dramatic increase in the enzymatic activity of PARP1 in DSS-subjected intestinal tissue relative to controls. Treatment of mice undergoing experimental colitis with an NAD+precursor [nicotinamide riboside (NR), 500 mg/kg/day] decreased the severity of colitis (n=10; p<0.001), restored mitochondrial function (p<0.001), and increased active PGC1α levels (p0.05) undergoing experimental colitis, suggesting that the therapeutic effects of NR require active PGC1α. Thus, future therapeutic approaches targeting the activity of PGC1α, and in turn mitochondrial health, may complement the treatment for IBD and improve outcomes in patients.
Published: 27 January 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Energies
Energies, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031341

Abstract:
The hydraulic system of a powered roof support performs two functions. The first function is to control the powered roof support in the extraction wall. The second function is to protect against adverse overloads resulting from rock mass pressing directly on the powered roof support. This damaging phenomenon is prevented by the protection of the powered roof support, with a safety valve built into the hydraulic system or directly into the prop. However, the third function proposed by the authors based on the research results is to minimize leaks. These leaks usually develop in the props or in the hydraulic system. The authors propose implementing changes to the hydraulic system for this purpose. The change consists of replacing the existing support block with a double block with charging. Tests were carried out in real conditions, that is, a mining wall. Tests in the mining wall were carried out on the powered roof support’s leaking prop. As a result of charging, the actual load capacity of the prop increased by about 10–50% in relation to the load capacity before charging. The use of a double block with charging ensured that the pressure in the under-piston space of the prop was maintained at a minimum of 250 bar. The results allowed us to determine the usefulness of the proposed solution and eliminate its disadvantages—the designated direction of research and development on the powered roof support allowed us to expand its functionality by minimizing leaks.
Published: 27 January 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Cancers
Abstract:
Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) enzymes, producing signaling phosphoinositides at plasma and intracellular membranes, are key in intracellular signaling and vesicular trafficking pathways. PI3K is a family of eight enzymes divided into three classes with various functions in physiology and largely deregulated in cancer. Here, we will review the recent evidence obtained during the last 5 years on the roles of PI3K class I, II and III isoforms in tumor biology and on the anti-tumoral action of PI3K inhibitors in preclinical cancer models. The dependency of tumors to PI3K isoforms is dictated by both genetics and context (e.g., the microenvironment). The understanding of class II/III isoforms in cancer development and progression remains scarce. Nonetheless, the limited available data are consistent and reveal that there is an interdependency between the pathways controlled by all PI3K class members in their role to promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration and metabolism. It is unknown whether this feature contributes to partial treatment failure with isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors. Hence, a better understanding of class II/III functions to efficiently inhibit their positive and negative interactions with class I PI3Ks is needed. This research will provide the proof-of-concept to develop combination treatment strategies targeting several PI3K isoforms simultaneously.
Published: 27 January 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Electronics
Abstract:
Antennas with quasi-hemispherical radiation patterns are preferred in many wide−area wireless communication systems which require the signals to uniformly cover a wide two−dimensional region. In this work, a simple but effective beamwidth broadening technique based on an antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna (ALTSA) is first proposed and then experimentally verified. Compared with most of the reported designs, the proposed antenna can significantly widen beamwidth and achieve a quasi-hemispherical radiation pattern without increasing the overall size and structural complexity. Only two rows of subwavelength metallic elements (eight elements in total) are simply and skillfully printed at specified positions on the dielectric substrate (relative permittivity εr = 2.94 and thickness h = 1.5 mm) of a general ALTSA whose peak gain is 11.7 dBi, approximately 200% half-power beamwidth (HPBW) enlargement can be obtained in all cut-planes containing the end-fire direction at the central frequency of 15 GHz, and the HPBW extensions in different cut-planes have good consistency. Thus, a quasi-hemispherical beam pattern can be acquired. Thanks to the simplicity of this method, the antenna size and structural complexity do not increase, resulting in the characteristics of easy fabrication and integration, being lightweight, and high reliability. This proposed method provides a good choice for wide−beam antenna design and will have a positive effect on the potential applications of wide-area wireless communication systems.
Published: 27 January 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Molecules
Abstract:
Globally, dental caries is one of the most common non-communicable diseases for patients of all ages; Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is its principal pathogen. Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei) shows excellent anti-pathogens and immune-regulation functions in the host. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of L. paracasei ET-22 on the formation of S. mutans biofilms. The living bacteria, heat-killed bacteria, and secretions of L. paracasei ET-22 were prepared using the same number of bacteria. In vitro, they were added into artificial-saliva medium, and used to coculture with the S. mutans. Results showed that the living bacteria and secretions of L. paracasei ET-22 inhibited biofilm-growth, the synthesis of water-soluble polysaccharide and water-insoluble polysaccharide, and virulence-gene-expression levels related to the formation of S. mutans biofilms. Surprisingly, the heat-killed L. paracasei ET-22, which is a postbiotic, also showed a similar regulation function. Non-targeted metabonomics technology was used to identify multiple potential active-substances in the postbiotics of L. paracasei ET-22 that inhibit the formation of S. mutans biofilms, including phenyllactic acid, zidovudine monophosphate, and citrulline. In conclusion, live bacteria and its postbiotics of L. paracasei ET-22 all have inhibitory effects on the formation of S. mutans biofilm. The postbiotics of L. paracasei ET-22 may be a promising biological anticariogenic-agent.
Published: 27 January 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Energies
Energies, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031338

Abstract:
In this article, the authors present the results of research undertaken in relation to the situation regarding renewable and non-renewable energy reserves in the European Union, as well as the way in which this energy is consumed. The general view presented regarding energy resources around the world is that oil, natural gas and coal are being exhausted at an alarming rate and if we continue to exploit these oil resources at our current pace, we will see a massive depletion in energy resources over the next 41 years. The authors also focus on representing the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption, demonstrating that it has shown a slight decrease in the European Union. The resources and consumption of renewable and non-renewable energy were analyzed in close interdependence with these indicators under study, such as final energy consumption, renewable energy and total energy production, in order to give a correct interpretation of how these resources are used. At the same time, starting from the fact that the world economy is currently facing a cluster of crises (pandemic, financial-economic, energy, general resources), it was deemed important to highlight the fact that the total production of energy demonstrated an oscillating trend during this period.
Published: 27 January 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Metals
Abstract:
Titanium alloys have been widely used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent properties, such as light weights, high strengths, and corrosion resistance. In this research, the element diffusion between tungsten–cobalt cemented carbide and Ti6Al4V was analyzed using thermodynamic solution theory. First, it was observed that W, Co, and Ti elements diffused under a high temperature and high pressure. Then, by analyzing the diffusion of the different elements, it was found that the amount and depth of the W and Co elements diffusion from the cemented carbide increased with increases in the Co element content and the WC grain size, while the diffusion of the Ti element decreased with increases in the Co element content and decreases in the WC grain size. It was also found that the diffusion amount and depth of the elements increased with increases in the holding temperature and holding time. Finally, the milling experiment was conducted, and an analysis of the cutting-edge section found the existence of Ti in the cemented carbide substrate, which proved the occurrence of the diffusion phenomenon. No Co was found during a chip analysis, but the W element was there. The higher hardness of the WC grains caused the W element to etch onto the chip surface during the milling experiment.
Published: 27 January 2023
by MDPI
Journal: Applied Sciences
Applied Sciences, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031619

Abstract:
This paper aims to provide essential guidance for the crashworthiness design of cutting energy-absorbing structures for subway vehicles. By investigating tool failure with experiment and numerical approaches, a new energy-absorbing tube structure was proposed and optimized to improve the crashworthiness and reliability of the cutting energy-absorption structure. The impact test results revealed that multiple failure modes occurred in the tool. Mechanical wear occurs mainly in the middle of the cutting edge, while the tool’s tip failure is primarily due to thermal wear. Impact forces were no longer stable due to tool failure. The simulation results of the established tool-tube thermal–structural coupling finite element model were consistent with the tests. The temperature distribution indirectly validated the failure modes in different tool areas. By eliminating the tearing-type fracture mode, the proposed new structure effectively reduced the high temperature of the tool’s tip, better maintained the uniform temperature of the cutting edge, and smoothed changing of the cutting force. Finally, the Kriging surrogate model and NSGA-II algorithm were utilized to obtain the tool’s minimum steady-state temperature (STT) and maximum mean average cutting force (MCF). The optimal solution determined by the minimum distance method is STT = 514 K, MCF = 131 kN.
Published: 27 January 2023
by MDPI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032477

Abstract:
Synucleinopathies are a set of devastating neurodegenerative diseases that share a pathologic accumulation of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn). This accumulation causes neuronal death resulting in irreversible dementia, deteriorating motor symptoms, and devastating cognitive decline. While the etiology of these conditions remains largely unknown, microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have been consistently implicated in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies. Microglia are generally believed to be neuroprotective in the early stages of α-syn accumulation and contribute to further neurodegeneration in chronic disease states. While the molecular mechanisms by which microglia achieve this role are still being investigated, here we highlight the major findings to date. In this review, we describe how structural varieties of inherently disordered α-syn result in varied microglial receptor-mediated interactions. We also summarize which microglial receptors enable cellular recognition and uptake of α-syn. Lastly, we review the downstream effects of α-syn processing within microglia, including spread to other brain regions resulting in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in chronic disease states. Understanding the mechanism of microglial interactions with α-syn is vital to conceptualizing molecular targets for novel therapeutic interventions. In addition, given the significant diversity in the pathophysiology of synucleinopathies, such molecular interactions are vital in gauging all potential pathways of neurodegeneration in the disease state.
Thomas Müller
Published: 25 January 2023
Info Neurologie + Psychiatrie, Volume 25, pp 51-51; https://doi.org/10.1007/s15005-022-3140-4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Zhao-Yu Pan, Hong-Qian Liu, Yu-Pei Zhuang, Hai-Bo Tan, Xiao-Ya Yang, Hao-Jie Zhong,
Published: 20 January 2023
Experimental Biology and Medicine; https://doi.org/10.1177/15353702221147561

Abstract:
Intestinal mucosa barrier injury and immunity imbalance contribute to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are essential for normal intestinal homeostasis. Nevertheless, the relationship between ILC3s and CKD remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship linking ILC3s to clinical indicators among patients with renal dysfunction. The levels of circulating ILC3s and dendritic cells, as well as their subsets, in patients with renal dysfunction and healthy controls were determined through flow cytometry. The levels of human plasma granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as the levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and uric acid. The results revealed that the proportion of peripheral ILC3s was significantly decreased in patients with renal dysfunction. This reduction was positively associated with the levels of eGFR, and inversely associated with the levels of BUN and uric acid. Similarly, the percentage of circulating C-C motif chemokine receptor 6-positive (CCR6 +) ILC3s was also obviously reduced, and demonstrated positive and negative associations with the levels of eGFR and BUN, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of CCR6 + ILC3s correlated positively with those of GM-CSF, as well as type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1s), which also decreased in parallel with kidney function. Thus, the reduction of ILC3s, particularly CCR6 + ILC3s, was related to worsening kidney function in patients with renal dysfunction. This effect may delay renal function impairment by regulating cDC1s via the secretion of GM-CSF, indicating that CCR6 + ILC3s may serve as efficient biomarkers for evaluating kidney function.
Philip Thompson, Andrea Caban, Erik Singer
Published: 20 January 2023
Science Advances, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.add7434

Abstract:
The maturation of HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) into a cone-shaped lattice capsid is critical for viral infectivity. CA can self-assemble into a range of capsid morphologies made of ~175 to 250 hexamers and 12 pentamers. The cellular polyanion inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) has recently been demonstrated to facilitate conical capsid formation by coordinating a ring of arginine residues within the central cavity of capsid hexamers and pentamers. However, the kinetic interplay of events during IP6 and CA coassembly is unclear. In this work, we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the molecular mechanism of capsid formation, including the role played by IP6. We show that IP6, in small quantities at first, promotes curvature generation by trapping pentameric defects in the growing lattice and shifts assembly behavior toward kinetically favored outcomes. Our analysis also suggests that IP6 can stabilize metastable capsid intermediates and can induce structural pleomorphism in mature capsids.
Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science; https://doi.org/10.1177/23998083231153401

Abstract:
In the United States, the rise in hypertension prevalence has been connected to neighborhood characteristics. While various studies have found a link between neighborhood and health, they do not evaluate the relative dependence of each component in the growth of hypertension and, more significantly, how this value differs geographically (i.e., across different neighborhoods). This study ranks the contribution of ten socioeconomic neighborhood factors to hypertension prevalence in Chicago, Illinois, using multiple global and local machine learning models at the census tract level. First, we use Geographical Random Forest, a recently proposed non-linear machine learning regression method, to assess each predictive factor’s spatial variation and contribution to hypertension prevalence. Then we compare GRF performance to Geographically Weighted Regression (local model), Random Forest (global model), and OLS (global model). The results indicate that GRF outperforms all models and that the importance of variables varies by census tract. Household composition is the most important factor in the Chicago tracts, while on the other hand, Housing type and Transportation is the least important factor. While the household composition is the most important determinant around north Lake Michigan, the socioeconomic condition of the neighborhood in Chicago’s mid-north has the most importance on hypertension prevalence. Understanding how the importance of socioeconomic factors associated with hypertension prevalence varies spatially aids in the design and implementation of health policies based on the most critical factors identified at the local level (i.e., tract), rather than relying on broad city-level guidelines (i.e., for entire Chicago and other large cities).
Julia A. Nuckols, Gintautas Silinskas, , Terhi-Anna Wilska
Published: 20 January 2023
Abstract:
In this study, we examine the prevalence of income and career concerns among emerging adults in three different welfare states during COVID-19: Finland ( n = 309), Sweden ( n = 324), and the United Kingdom ( n = 343). This study also delves into how factors such as one’s self-perceived financial situation, generalized mistrust, loneliness and socio-demographics are related to emerging adults’ income and career concerns. Results showed that individuals from the United Kingdom were more likely to experience increased income and career concerns than those in Finland and Sweden. Our results also suggest that income concerns were associated with one’s current financial situation, future financial situation, childhood financial situation, and loneliness. Also, career concerns were related to generalized mistrust, loneliness, and age. For both country-specific and general analyses, loneliness emerged as the most important for increased income and career concerns for emerging adults in all three countries.
Luciana Stein e Silva, Cibele da Silva Barbosa Machado, Rafael Linden, Marina Venzon Antunes, Laura Cé da Silva, Carlos Alberto Yasin Wayhs, Edison Capp, Sandro Luís Ribeiro Ness
Published: 19 January 2023
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice; https://doi.org/10.1177/10781552231151693

Abstract:
Introduction: The handling of antineoplastic drugs should follow strict supervision and safety rules to minimize the occupational exposure risks to professionals involved. The external surface contamination of drug vials is recognized as a health risk. So, our goal was to determine if there is residual contamination on the vials and containers surface of the antineoplastic drugs doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CP). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Samples were collected using a uniform sampling procedure on the inner surfaces of the packages/boxes and the outer surfaces of the vials. The analyzes were executed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Results: A total of 209 samples were analyzed, 66 of CP and 143 of DOX. CP levels were detected in nine samples (13.63%), three were below the lower limit of quantification (LLQ) and the other six had contamination levels ranging from 1.24 to 28.04 ng/filter. DOX levels were detected in 36 samples (25.17%), two were below the LLQ and the others had levels between 1.32 and 664.84 ng/filter. The majority of samples with residual contamination were in vials (80.0%), however, boxes also showed contamination. Conclusions: The results revealed the presence of residual contamination in the vials and packages of CP and DOX drugs. Although the residues found in each sample are small, special care should be taken in the handling and disposal of the antineoplastic drugs. The use of personal protective equipment is fundamental while handling the vials and packaging of cytotoxic drugs.
Samuel O Afari,
Published: 20 January 2023
International Journal of Aeroacoustics; https://doi.org/10.1177/1475472x231152608

Abstract:
A high-fidelity simulation of two in-line counter-rotating propellers in hover, and in forward flight conditions are performed. Near field flow and acoustic properties were resolved using Hybrid LES-Unsteady RANS. Far-field sound predictions were performed using Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings formulation. The two-propeller results in hovering are compared with that of the single propeller. This enabled us to identify the aerodynamic changes resulting from the proximity of the two propellers to each other and to understand the mechanisms causing the changes in the radiated sound. We then considered the forward flight case and compared it with the corresponding hovering case. This enabled us to identify the aerodynamic changes resulting from the incoming stream. By examining the near acoustic field, the far-field spectra, the Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, and by conducting periodic averaging, we were able to identify the sources of the changes to the observed tonal and broadband noise.
D Vignesh Kumar, S Arulselvan, , C Veera Ajay, P Balamurugan
Published: 19 January 2023
Abstract:
Hybrid metal matrix composites are gaining more importance in recent years. In this current investigation, aluminium alloy (AA7075) composites have been prepared with nano tungsten carbide (WC) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as reinforcements using stir casting method and investigated. The nano tungsten carbide particles were added into the matrix in the proportions 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%, and molybdenum disulfide was added in the constant proportion of 5 wt.% to the molten metal. The prepared Al-hybrid composite samples were tested for their hardness, compression and tensile strength. Microstructure examination has also been performed to understand the distribution pattern of nano tungsten carbide and molybdenum disulfide particles in the base matrix by scanning electron microscope. From the results, it was found that there was steady improvement in composite properties when compared with the base metal while adding WC and MoS2. Thus, the prepared AA7075/MoS2/WC composites were guaranteed for high strength, hardness and exceptional microstructure stability. Dry sliding wear behavior on AA7075/MoS2/WC composites was investigated with the aid of pin-on-disc apparatus. Grey Relational Analysis tool was employed to identify the optimal setting of process variables, which results in lower wear rate and COF. The significance of factors such as sliding distance, sliding velocity and load on the wear characteristics was investigated by means of ANOVA. ANOVA results unveiled that load was the majorly influencing factor in attaining optimal wear characteristics. The tested samples have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy and reported.
Taeyoung Park, , , J. Jill Suitor,
Published: 20 January 2023
Journal of Applied Gerontology; https://doi.org/10.1177/07334648231151937

Abstract:
Despite the significant stress of family caregiving, caregivers’ needs and risks are often overlooked in healthcare settings. This study examined the factors associated with primary care physicians’ perceived responsibility to identify and address caregiver needs and risks. Using a national random sample of U.S. primary care physicians ( N = 106), multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations of physicians’ perceived responsibility to assess caregivers’ needs with experiential similarity (personal experience with caregiving), structural similarity (being older and female), and secondary exposure variables (time seeing older adults in the outpatient setting). Most (76.5%) physicians felt responsible for identifying caregivers’ needs and risks. In multivariable models, physicians who had personal experience with caregiving were four times more likely than those without it to feel responsible for identifying caregivers’ needs and risks and assessing caregivers’ mental health concerns. Thus, physicians may benefit from educational interventions that immerse them in caregivers’ lived experiences.
Sheena L. Gilbert, Emily M. Wright
Published: 20 January 2023
Abstract:
Prior research that is grounded in social disorganization theory has found that community characteristics impact victimization. Despite the robust literature using social disorganization theory, very few studies have used this theory to examine violence and victimization in Indigenous communities. The following study examined counties in 14 states that fully or partially contained reservation land ( N = 251) to determine the applicability of this theory to a unique population. Findings indicate that social disorganization theory can be used to predict victimization in Indigenous communities. In addition, a more culturally tailored model (i.e., Indigenized model) predicted victimization slightly better than the traditional model, however, the difference between the models was not significant. We conclude with a discussion of our findings and offer future directions for research.
Shirlee W. Tan, Sharon G. Cohen, Matt A. Wilson, Tory P. Johnson, Jessica A. Ivers
Published: 20 January 2023
Abstract:
Spice consumption, along with other environmental factors, can contribute to pediatric lead poisoning. Although public health efforts have increased awareness of contamination of spices, false assumptions regarding the safety of home-prepared spices have emerged. Here, we present the clinical features, family beliefs, and environmental toxicology of 3 spice-associated pediatric lead poisoning cases.
Ronald J. Dionisio,
Published: 20 January 2023
Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership; https://doi.org/10.1177/15554589221150415

Abstract:
Schools in the United States continue to be vastly inequitable, particularly in disciplinary practices for Black and Latinx students. This case examines one school’s attempts to alleviate disproportionate disciplinary practices. Teachers are encouraged to interrogate themselves, practices, and policies through equity professional learning to create better outcomes. As the school attempts to unlearn harmful punitive approaches to discipline, facilitators met with resistance from staff members, and inequities remain and even worsen. This case asks readers to consider the challenges leaders face when implementing professional learning to minimize disproportionality in discipline and grow staff capacity for culturally responsive pedagogy and restorative practices.
Published: 20 January 2023
Abstract:
Objective: To provide a brief clinical research update and commentary advice on the practical psychiatric care of patients suffering workplace bullying. Conclusions: While there is empirical research on the prevalence and impacts of workplace bullying, there is a relative dearth of clinical research into psychiatric patient care. Accordingly, we provide commentary on practical considerations that assist in psychiatric care planning and delivery.
Wymann Shao Wen Tang, Jessica Qing Hui Wong, Sarah Wye Kit Chan, Priscilla Ng, Kok Yang Tan, Daniel Jin Keat Lee
Published: 20 January 2023
Anz Journal of Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1111/ans.18207

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