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Catherine D'Ignazio
Identifying Information and Tenor in Texts, Volume 23, pp 6-18; https://doi.org/10.1075/idj.23.1.03dig

Abstract:
Working with data is an increasingly powerful way of making knowledge claims about the world. There is, however, a growing gap between those who can work effectively with data and those who cannot. Because it is state and corporate actors who possess the resources to collect, store and analyze data, individuals (e.g., citizens, community members, professionals) are more likely to be the subjects of data than to use data for civic purposes. There is a strong case to be made for cultivating data literacy for people in non-technical fields as one way of bridging this gap. Literacy, following the model of popular education proposed by Paulo Freire, requires not only the acquisition of technical skills but also the emancipation achieved through the literacy process. This article proposes the term creative data literacy to refer to the fact that non-technical learners may need pathways towards data which do not come from technical fields. Here I offer five tactics to cultivate creative data literacy for empowerment. They are grounded in my experience as a data literacy researcher, educator and software developer. Each tactic is explained and introduced with examples. I assert that working towards creative data literacy is not only the work of educators but also of data creators, data publishers, tool developers, tool and visualization designers, tutorial authors, government, community organizers and artists.
Isabel Meirelles, Katherine Gillieson
Identifying Information and Tenor in Texts, Volume 23, pp 3-5; https://doi.org/10.1075/idj.23.1.02mei

Carla G. Spinillo
Identifying Information and Tenor in Texts, Volume 23, pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.1075/idj.23.1.01spi

Christian Licoppe
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 351-386; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.3.03lic

Abstract:
This paper analyses the organization of ‘openings’ in Skype video-mediated conversation. It uncovers order in their apparent complexity by showing the relevance of a particular sequential adjacent pair organization, the appearing/noticing sequence, and its particular instantiation as an appearance-for-the-first-time greeting. The paper shows how this is a crucial resource in establishing a joint video interactional frame for the parties involved. This accounts for the occurrence of some specific phenomena in Skype openings, such as multiple greetings, and for the use of greetings which reflexively index their being occasioned by an appearance and related greeting, such as the French ‘coucou’, even when these do not occur at the start of Skype calls. When analysed this way, Skype openings, though complex, can be seen as an accomplished ‘dance of appearances and multiple greetings’.
, Sean Rintel, Rod Watson, Kenton O’Hara
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 319-350; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.3.02har

Abstract:
This paper identifies salient properties of how talk about video communication is organised interactionally, and how this interaction invokes an implied order of behaviour that is treated as ‘typical’ and ‘accountably representative’ of video communication. This invoked order will be called an interrogative gaze. This is an implied orientation to action, one that is used as a jointly managed interpretative schema that allows video communication to be talked about and understood as rationally, purposively and collaboratively undertaken in particular, ‘known in common’ ways. This applies irrespective of whether the actions in question are prospective (are about to happen) or have been undertaken in the past and are being accounted for in the present or are ‘generally the case’ – in current talk. The paper shows how this constitutive device also aids in sense making through such things as topic management in video-mediated interaction, and in elaborating the salience of the relationship between this and the patterned governance of social affairs – viz, mother-daughter, friend-friend – as normatively achieved outcomes. It will be shown how the interrogative gaze is variously appropriate and consequentially invoked not just in terms of what is done in a video call or making such calls accountable, but in helping articulate different orders of connection between persons, and how these orders have implications for sensible and appropriate behaviour in video calling and hence, for the type of persons who are involved. This, in turn, explains how a decision to avoid using video communication is made an accountably reasonable thing to do. The relevance of these findings for the sociology of everyday life and the philosophy of action are explored.
Laura Rosenbaun, Christian Licoppe
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 419-446; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.3.05ros

Abstract:
Showing material objects by bringing them to the camera or turning the camera toward them are pervasive practices in domestic and recreational video-mediated communication (VMC). We here discuss a set of specific showing practices characteristic of digitally embedded video-mediated settings, which may be called ‘digital showings’. These involve participants’ collaboration to retrieve a digital object so as to ensure a shared perceptual experience on screen of said object. We draw on data from multiparty Google Hangouts On Air (HOAs) to show that while digital and material showings share an overall sequential organization, the former display the emergence of unique collaborative practices that at times become collective performances of computer literacy. We focus on three instances of digital showings: (a) screenshares of pictures – showing an image by sharing one’s screen; (b) screenshares of videos – showing a running video by sharing one’s screen; and (c) link-share showings – showing by sharing the link to a showable content that may be independently retrieved while experienced jointly.
, Rod Watson, Jill Palzkill Woelfer
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 447-474; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.3.06har

Abstract:
Digital technologies are likely to be appropriated by the homeless just as they are by other segments of society. However, these appropriations will reflect the particularities of their circumstances. What are these appropriations? Are they beneficial or effective? Can Skype, as a case in point, assuage the social disconnection that must be, for many, the experience of being homeless? This paper analyses some evidence about these questions and, in particular, the ways communications media are selected, oriented to and accounted for by the homeless young. Using data from a small corpus of interviews, it examines the specific ways in which choice of communication (face-to-face, social media, or video, etc.), are described by these individuals as elected for tactical and strategic reasons having to do with managing their family relations. These relations are massively important both in terms of how communications media are deployed, and in terms of being one of the sources of the homeless state the young find themselves in. The paper examines some of the methodical ways these issues are articulated and the type of ‘causal facticity’ thereby constituted in interview talk. The paper also remarks on the paradoxical problem that technologies like Skype provide: at once allowing people in the general to communicate but in ways that the homeless young want to resist in the particular. The consequences of this for the shaping of communications technology in the future are remarked upon.
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 235-256; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.2.03hau

Abstract:
Using audio-recorded data from second language (L2) English conversations-for-learning between an L2 user of English and a first language (L1) user of English (the researcher), this study analyzes cases in which the L1 user avoids initiation of repair. In each case, the L2 user appears to have misunderstood something said by the L1 user. Instead of initiating repair in next turn on the L2 user’s talk, or in third position on his own talk, the L1 user goes along, at least briefly, with the direction set by the L2 user. Often, the L1 user, sooner or later, returns to the misunderstood talk. Avoidance of repair initiation is one way in which the L1 user contributes to the construction of the L2 user as interactionally competent to participate in conversations-for-learning.
Kevin McKenzie
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 257-300; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.2.04mck

Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the way that laughter is employed to manage threats to interlocutor affiliation in talk among humanitarian aid workers as they describe their professional activities in settings of armed conflict. I first set out to situate my analysis within the tradition of work in ethnomethodology and conversation analysis (EM), exploring how that approach differs in significant ways from work in pragmatics and related traditions of discourse analytic research. Unlike the latter approaches, EM examines laughter for the intelligibility it is deployed by speakers to furnish, so that the presumption of laughter’s revelatory nature which characterizes a pragmatically-oriented analysis is seen as a participant resource for rendering the situated significance of actions visible by and for the involved parties of a given episode of interaction. Following this, I examine talk from open-ended interviews with aid agency operatives who work in Israel and the Palestinian Territories, exploring how laughter is employed to manage threats to interlocutor affiliation where the potential accusation of opportunism arises in accounts of personal job satisfaction as against the legitimacy otherwise afforded with an appeal to altruism and self-sacrifice. Where speakers attend to the criticism of humanitarian activity for its significance in affecting outcomes of warfare, the management of these different demands is accomplished in reflexive work to ironize their own and others’ formulations of motivation for pursuing humanitarian work.
Ana Belén Cabrejas-Peñuelas
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Abstract:
The present study analyzes the discursive strategies of manipulation in the political genre of a discourse in Parliament with an aim to convince the audience that the Prime Minister and his party are innocent of receiving illegal cash donations from a slush fund run in the party. For that purpose, we have usedVan Dijk’s (2006)scheme of strategies of manipulation at several levels of discourse (content, lexis, topics, syntax, rhetoric, and order of discourse). Findings of the study show that the Prime Minister’s speech presents characteristics of ideological discourse, since it follows a general strategy of positive in-group and negative out-group presentation, which has an overall legitimating function. At other levels of discourse, the denial of controversial actions is made manipulative by following strategies of emphasis of our positive and their negative actions with the final aim of self-legitimating himself and his discourse. The discourse is further made manipulative by using appropriate contextual constraints and defensible semantics of representation.
, Nicole Stein,
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 173-206; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.2.01bre

Abstract:
Departing from a short overview on pragmatic gestures specialized for the expression of refusal and negation, the article presents first results of a study on those gestures in Savosavo, a Papuan language spoken in the Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific. The paper focuses on two partly conventionalized gestures (sweeping and holding away) and shows that speakers of Savosavo use the gestures in a very similar way as speakers of German, English or French, for example. The article shows how a linguistic and semiotic analysis might serve to uncover proto-morpho-semantic structures in a manual mode of communication and contributes to a better understanding of the conventional nature and cross-linguistic distribution of gestures. Moreover, by examining partly conventionalized gestures in a small, little known and endangered language, it presents a particular approach to the analysis of multimodality in the field of language documentation.
Changsong Wang
Language and Linguistics, Volume 18, pp 647-698; https://doi.org/10.1075/lali.18.4.04wan

Abstract:
In this paper, some mysteries and asymmetries of the Chinese potential de construction are investigated. It is shown that a morphosytnactic approach is conducive to accounting for these puzzles. First we explore the possibility of taking de and its negative counterpart -bude as functional heads (cf. Tsai 2001; T. Wu 2004). It is proposed that bude could be a functional head with the negative potential (i.e. impossible/impermissible) meaning. This could be evidenced by both empirical data and theoretical deduction. It is argued that bu in V-bu-R, which is distinct from the normal pre-verbal negative morpheme bu, is actually bude. This helps to explain why the negative potential meaning is involved in V-bu-R. Meanwhile, V-de/bude and V-de/bu-R are both assumed to be formed through Morphological Merger (cf. Marantz 1988; Embick & Noyer 2001, 2007, etc.). Meanwhile, we have discussed some asymmetries observed between V-de/bude and V-de/bu-R and some paradigmatic asymmetries between potential V-de construction and its negative potential V-bude construction. It is assumed that these syntactic asymmetries may be due to some morphological operations related to de and bude.
, Ao Chen,
Language and Linguistics, Volume 18, pp 622-646; https://doi.org/10.1075/lali.18.4.03liu

Abstract:
This paper examines the nature of categorical perception (CP) effects in Mandarin and Dutch adult listeners through identification and discrimination tasks using lexical tonal contrasts and through the CP index analysis. In identification tasks, Mandarin listeners identify tones in accordance with their native tonal categories whereas Dutch listeners do so based on acoustic properties. In discrimination tasks, Dutch listeners outperform Mandarin listeners especially in tonal steps on the continuum falling within the Mandarin tonal category boundary, whereas Mandarin listeners display high sensitivity in discrimination of stimuli falling across the native boundary. The CP index analysis shows a higher degree of CP in Mandarin (categorical perception) than in Dutch (psycho-acoustic perception) listeners.
Robert Blust,
Language and Linguistics, Volume 18, pp 577-621; https://doi.org/10.1075/lali.18.4.02blu

Abstract:
Beginning with publications in the early 1980s there have been attempts to use syntactic data to determine the highest-order subgroups of Austronesian. These efforts fall into two categories: those which claim that the voice affixes of Philippine-type languages originally had exclusively nominalizing functions, and those which claim that the affixes themselves were innovated after the separation of Rukai from the ancestor of all other Austronesian languages. Although these ideas lay dormant for some years, recently both have been revived in renewed efforts to show that the Austronesian family tree is not ‘rake-like’ in its highest nodes, but shows extensive embedding of subgroups that can be justified by successive layers of syntactic innovations. This paper questions the methodological soundness of both types of arguments on the grounds that they appeal to negative evidence, and logically any such appeal can do no better than reach an inference of indeterminate status rather than the positive conclusions that have been proposed.
Guglielmo Cinque
Language and Linguistics pp 521-576; https://doi.org/10.1075/lali.18.4.01cin

Abstract:
In this article I would like to revisit one aspect of the structure of the functional sequence of the clause in light of certain recent developments, in particular Kayne’s (2016) proposal that all heads are necessarily silent. I will also discuss the possibility that (certain) silent heads may be endowed with single features that denote complex notions taking progressive aspect as a case in point.
Lorenzo Mastropierro,
English Text Construction, Volume 10, pp 78-105; https://doi.org/10.1075/etc.10.1.05mas

Abstract:
In this paper, we explore the potential of a corpus approach to study translated cohesion. We use key words as starting points for identifying cohesive networks in Lovecraft’s At the Mountains of Madness and discuss how these networks contribute to the construction of literary meanings in the text. We focus on the role of repetition as a key element in establishing cohesive networks between lexical items. We specifically discuss the implications of our method for the analysis of cohesion in translated texts. A comparison of Lovecraft’s original novel and a translation into Italian provides us with a nuanced understanding of the complex nature of cohesive networks. Finally, we discuss the broader issue of applying models and methods from corpus linguistics to corpus stylistic analysis.
Isabel De León OlIvares
Published: 15 March 2022
Journal: Memorias
Memorias, Volume 31, pp 98-121; https://doi.org/10.14482/memor.31.9918

Abstract:
Maya Deren (1917-1961) fue una cineasta de mediados del siglo XX que llegó a ser considerada la “madre” del cine experimental y de vanguardia de los Estados Unidos, gracias a filmes como Meshes of the Afternoon (1943), At Land (1944), Ritual in Transfigured Time (1946). Entre 1947 y 1954, esta artista realizó cuatro viajes a Haití que le permitieron adentrarse en el conocimiento de la religión vudú, dando por resultado diversos trabajos. En primer lugar, un libro sobre la religión haitiana titulado Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti, publicado en 1953, y, en segundo lugar, un material fílmico de casi 9 horas que, si bien Deren nunca dio a conocer en vida, salió a la luz pública en 1981 a manera de documental. En este trabajo se examinan algunas de las representaciones e interpretaciones que sobre el vudú construyó y legó esta cineasta pionera, en función de las cuales se inscribió dentro de una corriente más amplia de revalorización del vudú que tuvo en el libro Ansi parla l’Oncle (1928), del escritor haitiano Jean Price-Mars, un momento fundacional.
Milena Medina Pérez, Ilianet Mora Turro
Published: 15 March 2022
Journal: Memorias
Memorias, Volume 31, pp 151-191; https://doi.org/10.14482/memor.31.9922

Abstract:
El estudio acerca de las logias de la sociedad tunera durante el período neocolonial, parte del análisis del contexto que tiene lugar en la ciudad. Este y sus condiciones forman parte de los elementos característicos de las relaciones que desde el orden político, económico y social permiten comprender la vida cultural de la época. La misma está determinada por las relaciones entre las diferentes instituciones cívicas, religiosas, fraternales, políticas, de instrucción y recreo con el entorno local.
Pedro L. San Miguel
Published: 15 March 2022
Journal: Memorias
Memorias, Volume 31, pp 214-228; https://doi.org/10.14482/memor.31.9924

Abstract:
Conde arriba, Conde abajo, una crónica visual en blanco y negro con altos contrastes realizadas por Pedro L. San Miguel. Fotografías cuyo protagonista es la vida misma, el reflejo, la semejanza, el recuerdo, la metáfora. Se anticipa al momento en el flujo constante de la vida y lo capta en un suspiro, en una fracción de segundos. Sorprendien- do a la vida misma, la transparencia de lo cotidiano, una historia dentro del cuadro, tratando de crear fotografía con sus propias pe- culiaridades más allá de lo anecdótico, reconociendo en la realidad el ritmo de las líneas, las texturas, los gestos, los sueños y hasta los miedos.
Laura Muñoz Mata
Published: 15 March 2022
Journal: Memorias
Memorias, Volume 31, pp 39-74; https://doi.org/10.14482/memor.31.9923

Abstract:
El trabajo analiza el discurso visual promovido por la revista National Geographic a lo largo de varias décadas del siglo XX durante las cuales se desarrolló la industrialización azucarera bajo la égida del capital estadounidense. Las fotografías publicadas, utilizadas aquí como documentos históricos, son viñetas que dan cuenta de un proceso que inicia con la promoción del espacio para el cultivo, muestra las condiciones propicias para desarrollarlo, el crecimiento de la producción, sus elevados niveles de exportación y la decadencia de la actividad.
Antonino Vidal Ortega
Published: 10 May 2022
Journal: Memorias
Memorias, Volume 31, pp 5-5; https://doi.org/10.14482/memor.31.9905

Abstract:
Estimados lectores, en esta ocasión iniciamos el año con un número elaborado por un nutrido grupo de investigadores mexicanos que centran la atención de sus estudios en el mar Caribe.
Johanna Von Grafenstein
Published: 15 March 2022
Journal: Memorias
Memorias, Volume 31, pp 193-213; https://doi.org/10.14482/memor.31.9900

Abstract:
The paper proposes a re-reading of the actions and writings of the US merchant William Davis Robinson in the context of the 18th and 19th Centuries ́ travel literature examined in recent decades by certain authors. It is based on the concept “travelers of revolutions” by which we understand individuals who are in a country, region or city temporarily, who see themselves as visitors or external observers, and describe and analyze a given political or social process of transformation with an external glance and write for an external audience. The paper analyzes two texts: A Cursory View of Spanish America published by the author in 1815 and Memoirs of the Mexican Revolution published in 1820, and argues that Robinson’s Memoirs can indeed be understood as travel writing sympathe-tic to the “Mexican revolution”; while the other one is an informed description of the available resources and commercial possibilities with Mexico and the countries of South America, once they had gained their independence, as well as a manifesto proclaiming the United States as leader and guardian of free-dom in this hemisphere, in opposition to European powers, such as Spain and Great Britain.
Pedro L. San Miguel
Published: 10 May 2022
Journal: Memorias
Memorias, Volume 31, pp 8-38; https://doi.org/10.14482/memor.31.9881

Abstract:
Urgidos por orientarse en ese tortuoso laberinto que es América Latina, los intelectuales, emulando a Teseo, han recurrido a sus propios “hilos de Ariadna” —una diversidad de conceptos y teorías— para poder desentrañar los misterios de tan insondable región. Aunque sería pretencioso abarcar el universo de acercamientos conceptuales a América Latina, no resulta improcedente explorar una muestra de tales aproximaciones, tratando de identificar sus principales fundamentos epistemológicos, discursivos y éticos. Por ende, en este ensayo examino unas pocas obras que ejemplifican, cada una de ellas, una manera particular de concebir la historia de América Latina. Las nociones centrales en cada una de estas obras son, en orden de aparición: el Ser, que es otra forma de nombrar la identidad; la historia, entendida como historiografía; y, finalmente, la idea de la revolución, conceptuada con frecuencia como destino ineluctable de América Latina. Mi objetivo es ofrecer miradas críticas a nociones que han actuado como virtuales “hilos de Ariadna” en la comprensión del devenir de América Latina.
Jaddiel Díaz Frene
Published: 15 March 2022
Journal: Memorias
Memorias, Volume 31, pp 122-150; https://doi.org/10.14482/memor.31.9888

Abstract:
En este artículo se intenta reconstruir los usos sociales de la literatura de cordel desde las experiencias de los Naite, una familia de negros y mulatos que ha vivido durante más de dos siglos en la Sierra del Rosario. Las hojas y folletos que estos campesinos compraron y consumieron, entre 1940 y 1959, representan una valiosa puerta de entrada para pensar el impacto de la cultura impresa en el mundo rural. En un primer apartado se estudian asuntos cómo la circulación de los textos y las prácticas para divulgarlos y apropiarlos, para luego pasar a analizar los melodramas conocidos como novelas en décimas. Por último, indagaremos en los impresos con espinelas sobre sucesos políticos, compuestas por poetas callejeros que se ganaban la vida narrando los últimos sucesos.
Donají Morales Pérez
Published: 15 March 2022
Journal: Memorias
Memorias, Volume 31, pp 75-97; https://doi.org/10.14482/memor.31.9884

Abstract:
En 1948, cuando Truman Capote tenía veintitrés años y recién había publicado la novela que lo lanzó a la fama, realizó un viaje a Haití. Su llegada coincidió con el escenario de la posguerra, el cambio en la relación con Estados Unidos y lo que se conoce como los años dorados de Haití cuando el arte primitivo de este lugar capturó el interés internacional. Como resultado de dicha experiencia Capote escribió un cuento que a su vez se tradujo en un musical que permite establecer un vínculo entre la vida y la obra de este escritor con el Caribe. A la distancia, una carta y el encargo de un relato corto que motivó ese viaje se conjugan con la producción literaria para mostrar no sólo el alcance de los hechos sino la manera en la que el mundo estaba más próximo y era más pequeño de lo que había sido hasta entonces.
Mirella Moreira Cruz Gonçalves Santana, José Arthur Gomes de Souza, Ana Luíza De Aguiar Rocha Martin
Jornal de AssistÊncia FarmacÊutica E Farmacoeconomia, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22563/2525-7323.2016.v1.n3.p.38-47

Abstract:
O envelhecimento populacional é uma realidade à maioria dos países, inclusive o Brasil. Agregado a essa realidade constata-se a prática da polifarmácia. Método: Estudo transversal descritivo e quantitativo, com coleta de dados realizada por meio de entrevistas baseadas em um questionário com perguntas sobre o uso de medicamentos. Resultados: Os idosos, na sua maioria do sexo feminino, faziam uso de 3,25 medicamentos em média. Os medicamentos mais prescritos apresentavam ações sobre o sistema cardiovascular (45%) com destaque para hidroclorotiazida (8,9%), captopril (5,0%) e enalapril (4,6%). Mais da metade dos entrevistados afirmaram praticar a automedicação, principalmente para alivio da dor (90,7%). A maioria declarou nunca ter buscado orientação farmacêutica e desconhecia os efeitos decorrentes do uso de medicamentos. Conclusão: A polifarmácia é uma prática frequente entre idosos e a automedicação e prescrições inadequadas podem agravar esse problema. A atuação do farmacêutico é de extrema importância, pois é o profissional adequado para orientar sobre o medicamento, podendo produzir resultados satisfatórios.
Mariana Aguiar Moraes Pires, Pablo De Moura Santos
Jornal de AssistÊncia FarmacÊutica E Farmacoeconomia, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22563/2525-7323.2016.v1.n3.p.31-37

Abstract:
Na maioria dos casos, necessita-se de uma prescrição para obter o acesso a medicamentos. Para que a segurança e efetividade dos medicamentos não sejam comprometidas, a prescrição médica deve estar isenta de erros. Objetivo: Determinar a ocorrência e as características dos erros de prescrição e aprazamento em um hospital do interior da Bahia, para propor estratégias para a prescrição racional. Método: Estudo observacional, descritivo e quantitativo. Foram analisadas as prescrições médicas dos pacientes admitidos no período de 1º/08 a 30/09/2013. Resultados: Em 1,2% dos casos, não foi possível a identificação do sexo do paciente; o nome completo do paciente não apareceu em 4,3% das prescrições; em 34,2%, não constava o número do leito e nenhuma das prescrições continha o número de registro do paciente. Em 1,9% das prescrições, a data e via de administração estavam inadequadas e não traziam a identificação do prescritor. 79,8% dos medicamentos constavam com nomenclaturas inadequadas; 15,2% e 4,3% das prescrições continham, respectivamente, a concentração e a forma farmacêutica dos medicamentos impróprias; 22,6% das prescrições continham siglas e 12,1% dos aprazamentos eram inadequados. Conclusão: A ocorrência de erros de prescrição e aprazamento é elevada no hospital estudado e suas consequências são potencialmente graves. Em vista desses resultados, implantaram-se estratégias para promover a prescrição racional, visando minimizar a ocorrência de erros de medicação no contexto da prescrição.
Márcio Machado, Anna Goulart,
Jornal de AssistÊncia FarmacÊutica E Farmacoeconomia, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22563/2525-7323.2016.v1.n3.p.10-19

Abstract:
Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis de aderência e persistência de indivíduos com esclerose múltipla (EM) tratados com terapias de plataforma no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Metodologia: Foi analisada uma coorte retrospectiva, onde a fonte de dados primária foi o DATASUS, utilizando as bases públicas disponíveis e anonimizadas. Para o mapeamento do indivíduo único foi feito um relacionamento determinístico a partir de informações disponíveis, que considera equivalentes os registros iguais em determinada chave. Foram incluídos os indivíduos: a) “naïve” ou recém diagnosticados com EM (CID10 G35); b) iniciando tratamento com: Avonexâ, Betaferonâ, Rebifâ ou Copaxoneâ; c) acompanhados por 13 a 18 meses (janeiro/2013 a setembro/2014). A aderência foi medida do pelo MPR (do inglês Medication Possession Ratio), onde MPR>0,8 foi considerada “aderente”. A persistência foi definida como o tempo em meses do início da terapia até o primeiro período >30 dias de espaço entre terapias. Resultados: O número total de indivíduos foi de 1.052, sendo Avonexâ (N=351, 33,4%); Betaferonâ (N=145, 13,8%); Copaxoneâ (N=264, 25,1%); e Rebifâ (N=292, 27,8%). O MPR>0.80 foi significativamente superior (p=0,0253) no grupo Avonexâ (71,8%) versus Betaferonâ (58,6%), Copaxoneâ (65,5%), e Rebifâ (63,7%). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na persistência terapêutica entre as terapias. Discussão: Os resultados apresentados nesta análise longitudinal retrospectiva de indivíduos com EM tratados com terapias de primeira linha (plataforma) no SUS, condizem com aqueles identificados na literatura cientifica. Conclusão: De um ponto de vista da aderência e persistência terapêutica, Avonexâ mostra-se superior ou, no mínimo, equivalente às terapias de primeira linha no SUS.
Déborah Meassi Santana, Fernanda Giacomini Bueno, Ligiane De Lourdes Da Silva
Jornal de AssistÊncia FarmacÊutica E Farmacoeconomia, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.22563/2525-7323.2016.v1.n3.p.20-30

Abstract:
Objetivo: Avaliar a utilização de medicamentos potencialmente inapropriados (MPIs) para idosos em um hospital público e identificar se existe correlação entre sua prescrição e a polifarmácia. Metodo: Estudo observacional, transversal, em um hospital público de média e alta complexidade. Dados coletados a partir de formulário de coleta estruturado, tendo como fonte os prontuários eletrônico e impresso. O período analisado foi de junho de 2014 a maio de 2015. Para a avaliação das prescrições de MPIs ­utilizaram-se os critérios de Beers, versões 2012 e 2015. Resultados: Avaliaram-se as prescrições de 226 pacientes, dos quais 60,2% eram do sexo masculino. A média de idade foi de 71,1 anos e a média de dias de internamento, de 9,1. A prevalência da polifarmácia foi de 78,3%. 81,4% dos pacientes receberam pelo menos um MPI, segundo o critério de Beers de 2012, e 81,9%, segundo o critério de 2015. Os principais MPIs prescritos foram a metoclopramida, o cetoprofeno e a insulina. Não houve associação entre a prescrição de MPIs e a polifarmácia. Conclusão: Verificou-se alta frequência de utilização de MPIs no hospital. Não houve diferença estatística quando comparada a prevalência de MPIs pelas versões de 2012 e 2015 do critério de Beers. Os estudos sobre o uso de medicamentos pelos idosos são ferramentas importantes na avaliação da qualidade do serviço de saúde prestado a essa população.
Kevin C. Klement
Russell: the Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.15173/russell.v36i1.2886

Abstract:
I present and discuss three previously unpublished manuscripts written by Bertrand Russell in 1903, not included with similar manuscripts in Volume 4 of his Collected Papers. One is a one-page list of basic principles for his “functional theory” of May 1903, in which Russell partly anticipated the later Lambda Calculus. The next, catalogued under the title “Proof That No Function Takes All Values”, largely explores the status of Cantor’s proof that there is no greatest cardinal number in the variation of the functional theory holding that only some but not all complexes can be analyzed into function and argument. The final manuscript, “Meaning and Denotation”, examines how his pre-1905 dis­tinction between meaning and denotation is to be understood with respect to functions and their arguments. In them, Russell seems to endorse an extensional view of functions not endorsed in other works prior to the 1920s. All three manuscripts illustrate the close connection between his work on the logical paradoxes and his work on the theory of meaning.
Published: 7 October 2022
Russell: the Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.15173/russell.v35i2.2777

Abstract:
At the height of the Sino-Indian border dispute in 1962, Bertrand Russell, as “a lifetime friend of India” (Unarmed Victory, p. 88), appealed to Prime Minister Nehru for peace. Yet for the first 75 years of Russell’s life, India had not been an independent, developing state whose non-aligned diplomacy he could (usually) admire, but rather an economically and stra­tegically vital part of the British Empire. Thus Russell’s fraternal bond with India was formed during its protracted struggle against British rule. The central purpose of this article is to reconstruct Russell’s occasionally contorted connection with that historic contest, and it will do so by drawing on a wealth of neglected textual material. More than simply fleshing out a significant but overlooked chapter in Russell’s political life, this assessment of his decades-long association, as participant and observer, with the campaign for Indian independence also strives to capture the complex essence of his thinking on questions of empire generally.
César Augusto Viloria Núñez, Paul Sanmartín Mendoza, Karen Avila Hernández, Daladier Jabba Molinares
Published: 2 June 2022
Journal: Salud Uninorte
Salud Uninorte, Volume 32, pp 337-351; https://doi.org/10.14482/sun.32.2.8954

Abstract:
Este artículo presenta una revisión del concepto de Internet de las Cosas y su aplicación en el área de la salud, centrándonos en las soluciones que existen actualmente para el manejo de la salud orientada al hogar. El internet de las cosas aplicado al campo de la salud, permitirá que muchas personas, independientemente de su clase social, utilicen los servicios que por medio de estas tecnologías se podrían ofrecer y que en muchos países ya se están empezando a implementar. Teniendo en cuenta que en las próximas décadas, el modelo de asistencia médica se transformará del presente hospital-céntrico que comúnmente conocemos a un modelo de salud totalmente centrado en el hogar, donde en el hogar se tendrá menor intensidad laboral y costo operacional. El servicio de salud en el hogar permite el aprovechamiento de la tecnología IoT, llamado muy a menudo como Salud IoT. Esto suena prometedor para la industria del sector salud y las TIC en general, porque permite personalizar el servicio sanitario, acelerando su evolución.
, Amy J. Hatcher, Section On Breastfeeding
Published: 15 December 2022
Journal: Pediatrics
Pediatrics, Volume 139; https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-0647

Abstract:
The landscape of breastfeeding has changed over the past several decades as more women initiate breastfeeding in the postpartum period and more hospitals are designated as Baby-Friendly Hospitals by following the evidence-based Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The number of births in such facilities has increased more than sixfold over the past decade. With more women breastfeeding and stays in the maternity facilities lasting only a few days, the vast majority of continued breastfeeding support occurs in the community. Pediatric care providers evaluate breastfeeding infants and their mothers in the office setting frequently during the first year of life. The office setting should be conducive to providing ongoing breastfeeding support. Likewise, the office practice should avoid creating barriers for breastfeeding mothers and families or unduly promoting infant formula. This clinical report aims to review practices shown to support breastfeeding that can be implemented in the outpatient setting, with the ultimate goal of increasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the continuation of any breastfeeding.
, Jiahong Yan, Bang Lan, Lin Yu, Yue Liu, Yang Wu, Kai Liang, , Guanghui Hu, Hanxuan Xian
Published: 31 July 2022
Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1080/24701556.2017.1284109

Abstract:
There are many areas in the world where the ground water has been contaminated by arsenic. MnO2 is one of the most cheap materials which can both adsorb arsenic and oxide arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)]. In this study, the Ultra-long α-MnO2 nanowires with the (1 1 0) surface are used to remove As(III) and As(V) in solution under different conditions. The adsorption kinetics for both As(III) and As(V) are fitted well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. For example, the pseudo second-order adsorption kinetic constants are 0.076×103 g μg−1 min−1 and 0.077×103 g μg−1 min−1 at pH 7 for As(III) and As(V), respectively. At the same time, the Langmuir model is better than the Freundlich model to describe the adsorption equilibrium isotherms. For example, the maximum adsorption capacity values of the α-MnO2 nanowires obtained from the Langmuir model are 1.012×103 μg g−1 and 1.158×103 μg g−1 at pH 7 for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The adsorption capacities of the α-MnO2 nanowires are affected by the pH values and increased with the arsenic initial concentration. Furthermore, the As(III) oxidation rate can be denoted by the pseudo zero-order kinetic model and is related with the O2 concentrations, the different light sources, the initial concentrations of the As(III) and the pH values. For example, the pseudo zero-order kinetic equation is y = −0.90x+163.6 with 4 L min−1 of O2, dark condition, 0.2×103 μg L−1 of As(III) and at pH 7. At last, the oxidation mechanism is investigated and the oxidant in this reaction should be related with O2 not the Mn(II). Besides its special structure and easy separation ability, it is a promising material to remove arsenic in water.
Weihua Zhu
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 144-170; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.1.06zhu

Abstract:
In this paper, we adopt Kádár and Haugh’s (2013) discursive-interactional approach to argue that extended concurrent speech for floor taking or topic switching can be perceived as normal and qiàdàng (appropriate). Spontaneous mundane conversations and interviews in Mandarin were collected and transcribed by means of interactional sociolinguistic methods. A close analysis was conducted on participants’ responses to the extended concurrent speech for floor taking or topic switching and their retrospective thoughts. Results show that the participants did not view the speech as inappropriate. They produced the speech to achieve relational goals, clarify things, collaborate on a topic, claim participatory rights or display high involvement. They enjoyed conversing around a trivial topic in informal settings. This challenges the argument of long overlapping, floor taking or topic switching as problematic in the literature. The findings indicate the importance of embracing different perspectives from varying sources to understand perceptions of turn-taking mechanisms in Mandarin conversation. This study can contribute to our understanding of interpersonal pragmatics and the conventional views/norms that might cause communication misunderstanding in cross-cultural contact.
Dániel Z. Kádár
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 33-56; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.1.02kad

Abstract:
In this paper I examine Chinese perceptions of (in)appropriateness and offence from a cross-cultural pragmatic point of view, by exploring (in)appropriate evaluations in the context of a major social offence, and the influence of Confucian ideology on people’s evaluative tendencies. By doing so, I aim to contribute to pragmatic understandings of Confucianism as an ideology that underpins evaluative attitudes in Chinese culture. On the theoretical level, I argue that one needs to carefully examine dimensions of ideologies that underlie evaluative tendencies, and also the ways in which ideologies are invoked, rather than making sweeping claims. I believe that is possible to adopt ‘ideology’ as an analytic notion in interpersonal pragmatics and (im)politeness research, but only if the influence of ideology on interpersonal interaction and evaluative tendencies is captured with the aid of qualitative and quantitative evidence, that is, only as far as one avoids using a certain ideology as an umbrella term to analyse culturally-situated data.
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 115-143; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.1.05unu

Abstract:
This study explores metapragmatic comments in Nigerian quasi-judicial public hearings, involving interactions between complainants, defendants and a hearing panel, with a view to investigating their forms, features, distribution and functions. The data are analysed quantitatively and qualitatively from a discourse-pragmatic framework that incorporates Verschueren’s theory of metapragmatics, Mey’s pragmatic act theory, Grice’s Cooperative Principle and conversation analysis. Four types of metapragmatic comments are used: speech act descriptions, talk regulation comments, maxim adherence/violation related comments and metalinguistic comments. Their distribution and functioning are shown to be partly predictable from properties of the speech event, while they also co-determine the nature and development of the analysed hearings.
María José Serrano
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 87-114; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.1.04ser

Abstract:
The cognitive properties of morphosyntactic choices are at the base of any usage, patterns and tendencies they could possibly reveal; thus, by means of the cognitive properties of salience and informativeness, variation in second-person and usted must be considered as inherently meaningful, implying that each form conveys a different meaning that is used to pursue concrete communicative goals in discursive interaction. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of and usted and their syntactic variants (preverbal, postverbal and omitted) reveals that these forms are unevenly distributed across different textual genres and socioprofessional affiliations of speakers. It may be concluded that and usted contribute toward shaping the different communicative styles on the basis of the cognitive dimensions of objectivity and subjectivity, respectively. Considering these pronouns as meaningful choices by themselves, this study attempts to go beyond the traditional approach that treats them as terms of address, delving into the discursive and cognitive traits which underlie such a variation.
Dongmei Cheng
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 27, pp 1-32; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.27.1.01che

Abstract:
Speech act studies are increasingly likely to use retrospective verbal protocols to record the thoughts of participants who produced targeted speech acts (e.g., Cohen & Olshtain, 1993). However, although communication is always a two-way street, little is known about the recipients’ perceptions of speech acts. In academic communication at universities, it is critical for students to gain awareness of the socio-cultural norms as well as knowledge of appropriate linguistic forms in interacting with instructors. Therefore, gathering perceptual information from instructors, the recipients of many speech acts such as apologies, serves an important role in realizing successful student-instructor communication. Targeting instructors’ perceptions, two forms of an online survey were created via surveygizmo.com, with one including 12 spoken apologies and the other including 12 emailed apologies. An equal number of native (NS) and nonnative English speaking (NNS) students produced these apologies. The 150 instructors who responded to the survey gave significantly higher ratings to apologies made by NS students than to those made by NNS students. An analysis of instructors’ explanations after the ratings showed that both sociopragmatic and pragmalinguistic knowledge (Thomas, 1983) were valued in the successful realization of apologies, with the majority of instructor explanations addressing the sociopragmatic aspects of apology productions. In their comments on highly-rated student apologies, instructors appreciated the fact that students took responsibility in apologizing, offered worthy explanations, and delivered the messages with minimum grammatical mistakes. Poorly rated apology messages did not contain sufficient or valid evidence, inconvenienced the instructors through inappropriate requests, and usually had multiple grammatical mistakes. This study provides useful source of information to be used in university classrooms that can orientate novice learners towards socio-cultural expectations and appropriate lexical markers to be employed in making successful apologies in academic settings.
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Abstract:
The phenomenon ofmisunderstandingis a recurrent feature of everyday life – sometimes a source of frustration, sometimes a site of blame. But misunderstandings can also be seen as getting interactants out of (as well as into) trouble. For example, misunderstandings may be produced to deal with disaffiliative implications of ‘not being on the same page,’ and as such they may be deployed as a resource for avoiding trouble. This paper examines misunderstanding as a pragmatic accomplishment, focusing on the uses to which it is put in interactions as a practice for dealing with threats tointersubjectivity: the extent to which persons are aligned in terms of a current referent, activity, assessment, etc. A multimodal discourse analysis of audio and video recordings of naturally-occurring talk inspects moments in which misunderstandings are purported or displayed (rather than overtly invoked) as well as how such misunderstandings are oriented to as simply-repairable references, versus inferential matters more misaligned and potentially fraught. Rather than being a straightforward reflection of an experience of trouble with understanding, misunderstanding may also be collaboratively produced to manage practical challenges to intersubjectivity.
Susan Berk-Seligson, Mitchell A. Seligson
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 26, pp 583-607; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.26.4.03ber

Abstract:
This study offers new insights into the complex and underexplored nature of reported threats. Combining the theoretical framework of speech act analysis with the concept of reported speech, the study finds six categories of reported threats, uncovering ones that have been overlooked by existing scholarship thus far. The texts presented are derived from audio-recordings of 847 interviews carried out in four Central American countries: El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, and Panama between 2010 and 2014. References to threats and threat narratives came from school teachers, community leaders, police officers, clergy, and members of municipal violence prevention committees. The interpretation of indirect and implicit threats are made in the social context of communities under siege, that is, under constant attack by local gangs, many of whom are connected to national gangs and international narcotrafficking cartels. The credibility of the different types of threats is evaluated, using Goffman’s (1981) insight into the complexity of speaker roles in face-to-face interaction.
Published: 6 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 26, pp 653-674; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.26.4.06led

Abstract:
Studies in CDA have revealed the nature of the marketized language that now infuses universities and other public institutions, but there is no comprehensive study as to how this language enters the everyday practices of the university through different levels of steering documents and meetings. In this paper, taking one example from a corpus of data from a larger project on New Public Management in Sweden, we show how successively more detailed documents are created by professional administrators in order to present vision statements, that are first operationalized into strategies and then into more concrete ‘activities’ for the subject level that are related to bundles of performance indicators. These documents re-contextualize practices of teaching and research in line with marketized goals, yet do so through consistent lack of clear agency, causality and process. A number of linguistic and multimodal resources are deployed in a chain of interrelated documents legitimizing this process as one made by careful, technical, management expertise, although the result is a fragmentation of the actual interconnected processes that comprise university work.
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