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Denise E Brennan, Colm O'Morain, Deirdre McNamara,
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, Volume 13, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.4291/wjgp.v13.i1.34

Abstract:
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Eradication rates have fallen, mainly due to antimicrobial resistance. Consensus guidelines recommend that first-line treatment is based on the local prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and that rescue therapies are guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). However, H. pylori culture is challenging and culture-based AST is not routinely performed in the majority of hospitals. Optimisation of H. pylori culture from clinical specimens will enable more widespread AST to determine the most appropriate antimicrobials for H. pylori eradication. To determine whether dual antrum and corpus biopsy sampling is superior to single antrum biopsy sampling for H. pylori culture. The study received ethical approval from the joint research ethics committee of Tallaght University Hospital and St. James’s Hospital. Patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were invited to participate. Biopsies were collected in tubes containing Dent’s transport medium and patient demographics were recorded. Biopsies were used to inoculate Colombia blood agar plates. Plates were incubated under microaerobic conditions and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori. Statistical analyses were performed using Graphpad PRISM. Continuous variables were compared using the two-tailed independent t-test. Categorical variables were compared using the two-tailed Fisher exact test. In all cases, a P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In all, samples from 219 H. pylori-infected patients were analysed in the study. The mean age of recruited patients was 48 ± 14.9 years and 50.7% (n = 111) were male. The most common endoscopic finding was gastritis (58.9%; n = 129). Gastric ulcer was diagnosed in 4.6% (n = 10) of patients, while duodenal ulcer was diagnosed in 2.7% (n = 6). Single antrum biopsies were collected from 73 patients, whereas combined antrum and corpus biopsies were collected from 146 patients. There was no significant difference in age, sex or endoscopic findings between the two groups. H. pylori was successfully cultured in a significantly higher number of cases when combined antrum and corpus biopsies were used compared to a single antrum biopsy [64.4% (n = 94/146) vs 49.3% (36/73); P = 0.04)]. Combined corpus and antrum biopsy sampling improves H. pylori culture success compared to single antrum biopsy sampling.
, Masaru Sasaki, Mohei Kouyama, Tatsuya Tazaki, Shinya Takahashi, Atsushi Nakamitsu
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, Volume 13, pp 15-33; https://doi.org/10.4291/wjgp.v13.i1.15

Abstract:
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors that originate from the gastrointestinal tract, mostly from the stomach. GISTs are derived from the myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal and are caused by several mutations in the c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor genes. Clinically, GISTs are detected by endoscopic and imaging findings and are diagnosed by immunostaining. Surgery is the first line of treatment, and if the tumor is relatively small, minimally invasive surgery such as laparoscopy is performed. In recent years, neoadjuvant therapy has been administered to patients with GISTs that are suspected of having a large size or infiltration to other organs. Postoperative adjuvant imatinib is the standard therapy for high-risk GISTs. It is important to assess the risk of recurrence after GIST resection. However, the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitor use will vary by the mutation of c-kit genes and the site of mutation. Furthermore, information regarding gene mutation is indispensable when considering the treatment policy for recurrent GISTs. This article reviews the clinicopathological characteristics of GISTs along with the minimally invasive and multidisciplinary treatment options available for these tumors. The future perspectives for diagnostic and treatment approaches for these tumors have also been discussed.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Here, we evaluated if visual barriers could reduce intraspecific agonism in an all-male group of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) living in a zoo. Crocodiles were monitored for nearly 100 h, and four “hotspots” of aggression within their exhibit were identified. Within these four locations, visual barriers were placed at the surface of the water with the goal of reducing agonism by targeting sight lines associated with their species-typical minimum exposure posture, where crocodiles submerge their body but maintain facial sensory organs above the water line. Crocodile behavior was then monitored for 226 h, evaluating both short- and long-term effects of the visual barriers. In both observation periods, intraspecific agonism was unaffected by visual barriers. However, crocodiles were more likely to be on land and closer together, after the barriers were installed, showing the barriers affected nonagonistic behaviors. Monitoring of such unintended effects is significant to ensure no welfare concerns are created in any exhibit or husbandry modification attempt. Additionally, time of day and temperature were significant predictors of behavior, highlighting the importance of such factors in the analysis of reptilian behavior. While ineffective at reducing agonism, this is the first published study evaluating exhibit design and behavior of crocodilians in zoos and aquariums. The methodologies and findings here should provide useful information for future behavioral and welfare studies of this understudied taxa.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Sustainability, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031250

Abstract:
Biological diversity is declining globally. The current national environmental policies that many countries around the globe have adopted and are implementing have not halted biodiversity loss as expected. This is also happening in several European peripheral areas that constitute important “biodiversity hotspots” for the numerous species, habitats and ecosystems they host. Among these biodiversity hotspots, the Overseas Territories (OTs) of the United Kingdom (UK) represent important areas for academic investigation, particularly at this moment. The recent exit of the UK from the European Union will imply a net drop in financial contributions made available for the UK’s OTs. This adds to the limitations and constraints imposed upon those territories by their geographical isolation and small scale, as shown by the case of Saint Helena. The article provides insights on the role of policy resources in the analysis of public policies. It, then, focuses on biodiversity policy in St Helena under various angles: relations with the UK, organisational arrangements within the island, the legislative framework and its execution for the protection of biodiversity. Finally, the article discusses the major challenges faced in the development and implementation of Saint Helena’s biodiversity policy with an emphasis on the role of tangible and intangible resources. It concludes with a set of recommendations tailored around the specific case of Saint Helena but also applicable to other OTs.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Vimentin is a type of intermediate filament (IF) and one of the first filaments expressed in spermatogenesis. Vimentin plays numerous roles, consisting of the determination of cell shape, differentiation, cell motility, the maintenance of cell junctions, intracellular trafficking, and assisting in keeping normal differentiating germ cell morphology. This study investigated the vimentin expression in two populations of undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia. We examined vimentin expression in vivo and in vitro by immunocytochemistry (ICC), immunohistochemistry (IMH), and Fluidigm real-time polymerase chain reaction. IMH data showed that the high vimentin expression was localized in the middle of seminiferous tubules, and low expression was in the basal membrane. ICC analysis of the colonies by isolated differentiated spermatogonia indicated the positive expression for the vimentin antibody, but vimentin’s expression level in the undifferentiated population was negative under in vitro conditions. Fluidigm real-time PCR analysis showed significant vimentin expression in differentiated spermatogonia compared to undifferentiated spermatogonia (p< 0.05). Our results showed that vimentin is upregulated in the differentiation stages of spermatogenesis, proving that vimentin is an intermediate filament with crucial roles in the differentiation stages of testicular germ cells. These results support the advanced investigations of the spermatogenic process, both in vitro and in vivo.
Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57365-6_289-1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Magnesium-based composites have recently been studied as biodegradable materials for preparing orthopedic implants. In this article, the graphene oxide (GO) and GO-Cu nanosystem has been homogenously dispersed as a reinforcement in the matrix of Mg-Zn (MZ) alloy using the semi powder metallurgy (SPM) method, and subsequently, the composite has been successfully manufactured using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. GO and GO-Cu reinforced composite displayed a higher compressive strength (~55%) than the unreinforced Mg-Zn sample. GO and GO-Cu dual nanofillers presented a synergistic effect on enhancing the effectiveness of load transfer and crack deflection in the Mg-based matrix. Besides, the GO-Cu dual nanofillers displayed a synergistic influence on antibacterial activity through combining the capturing influences of GO nanosheets with the killing influences of Cu. However, electrochemical and in-vitro immersion evaluation showed that Cu-GO reinforcement had a slightly negative effect on the corrosion behavior of the Mg-Zn sample, but the incorporation of GO enhanced corrosion resistance of the composite. Moreover, MZ/GO and MZ/GO-Cu nanocomposites showed acceptable cytotoxicity to MG-63 cells and revealed a high potential for use as an orthopedic implant material. Based on the research results, MZ/GO-Cu nanocomposite could be used in bone tissue engineering applications.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Forests, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020164

Abstract:
Since 2008, spruce bud blight (Gemmamyces piceae (Borthw.) Casagr.) has been spreading epidemically in forest stands of the Czech Republic’s Ore Mountains. This fungus, with a disjunct Holarctic range, injures buds, especially of Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.). Damaged buds do not sprout, and, in case of a stronger attack, the tree does not recover its assimilation apparatus and may die. Within the past few years, there has been a huge spread of this fungus throughout the mountain range. This paper summarizes the biology of G. piceae, its host plants, and presents the first findings from the massive outbreak of G. piceae. In 2015, an increase in damage was detected on Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). The course of the G. piceae epidemic had been monitored in 25 permanent research plots over the course of 11 years. In the case of Colorado blue spruce, stands aged 10–60 years were attacked, with 60% of buds damaged on average. The intensity of damage to Norway spruce buds was around 25%. Norway spruce infestation varied significantly depending upon the age of the stand (GLMM: p< 0.01). In the age class of 31–60 years, on average 80% of individuals were infested. In older stands, only 42% of trees were infested, and no infestation was found in individuals younger than 15 years. In Colorado blue spruce, the distribution of the pathogen was continuous, whereby all individuals in the research plots were affected, and, with the exception of a few trees, the infestation was lethal or resulted in a significant reduction of the assimilation apparatus. The development of damage on Colorado blue spruce can be characterized as continuous growth.
, Meghan Buckley, Robin M. Ciocca, Jennifer L. Sabol, Sharon L. Larson, Ned Z. Carp
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06492-1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030842

Abstract:
The in-line determination of chemical parameters in water is of capital importance for environmental reasons. It must be carried out frequently and at a multitude of points; thus, the ideal method is to utilize automated monitoring systems, which use sensors based on many transducers, such as Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE). These devices have multiple advantages, but their management via traditional methods (i.e., manual sampling and measurements) is rather complex. Wireless Sensor Networks have been used in these environments, but there is no standard way to take advantage of the benefits of new Internet of Things (IoT) environments. To deal with this, an IoT-based generic architecture for chemical parameter monitoring systems is proposed and applied to the development of an intelligent potassium sensing system, and this is described in detail in this paper. This sensing system provides fast and simple deployment, interference rejection, increased reliability, and easy application development. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method that takes advantage of Cloud services by applying them to the development of a potassium smart sensing system, which is integrated into an IoT environment for use in water monitoring applications. The results obtained are in good agreement (correlation coefficient = 0.9942) with those of reference methods.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Religions, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel13020107

Abstract:
The Zimbabwean crisis has been on-going since the year 2000. The various ecumenical bodies of the church in Zimbabwe have been voicing their concerns to the state through meetings and pastoral letters. While the church has been touted as a critical player in conflict resolution and peacebuilding, concerns about the church have been raised. One of these has been the issue of a divided organization that has failed to speak with one voice. With the coming into power of the so called ‘Second Republic’, hopes were raised that the state would be willing to have the crisis resolved. However, the crisis has just worsened, and the church has again been forced to break its silence. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the pastoral letter that was issued by the Zimbabwe Catholic Bishops Conference on 14 August 2020, titled ‘The March is not Ended’, which sought to respond to the crisis in Zimbabwe. The paper seeks to establish what religious groups can achieve in the event that they set aside their differences for the common good in conflict situations. Data for the paper were gathered through the issued pastoral letter, as well as the responses to it on online media.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030839

Abstract:
During the last decade vessel-position-recording devices, such as the Vessel Monitoring System and the Automatic Identification System, have increasingly given accurate spatial and quantitative information of industrial fisheries. On the other hand, small-scale fisheries (vessels below 12 m) remain untracked and largely unregulated even though they play an important socio-economic and cultural role in European waters and coastal communities and account for most of the total EU fishing fleet. The typically low-technological capacity of these small-scale fishing boats—for which space and power onboard are often limited—as well their reduced operative range encourage the development of efficient, low-cost, and low-burden tracking solutions. In this context, we designed a cost-effective and scalable prototypic architecture to gather and process positional data from small-scale vessels, making use of a LoRaWAN/cellular network. Data collected by our first installation are presented, as well as its preliminary processing. The emergence of a such low-cost and open-source technology coupled to artificial intelligence could open new opportunities for equipping small-scale vessels, collecting their trajectory data, and estimating their fishing effort (information which has historically not been present). It enables a new monitoring strategy that could effectively include small-scale fleets and support the design of new policies oriented to inform coastal resource and fisheries management.
Fandong Meng, Yubai Li, , Yan Li, Ruifeng Zhao, Yunsheng Zhang
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-021-02733-3

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , Alhaji M. Kamara
Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40516-021-00162-2

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Micromachines, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13020166

Abstract:
High-temperature processes, such as packaging and annealing, are challenges for Radio-Frequency Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (RF MEMS) structures, which could lead to device failure. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch and the material’s creep effect affect the fabrication and performance of the MEMS, especially experiencing the high temperature. In this paper, the Thermal–Mechanical-Stress-Creep (TMSC) effect during thermal processes from room temperature (RT) to 200 °C is modeled and measured, in which an Au-cantilever-based RF MEMS switch is selected as a typical device example. A novel Isolation-Test Method (ITM) is used to measure precise TMSC variation. This method can achieve resolutions of sub-nanometer (0.5 nm) and attofarad (1 aF). There are three stages in the thermal processes, including temperature ramping up, temperature dwelling, and temperature ramping down. In different stages, the thermal–mechanical stress in anchor and cantilever, the grain growth of gold, and the thermal creep compete with each other, which result in the falling down and curling up of the cantilever. These influencing factors are decoupled and discussed in different stages. The focused ion beam (FIB) is used to characterize the change of the gold grain. This study shows the possibility of predicting the deformation of MEMS structures during different high-temperature processes. This model can be extended for material selection and package temperature design of MEMS cantilever in the further studies.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030844

Abstract:
Porous germanium is a promising material for sensing applications in the mid-infrared wavelength range due to its biocompatibility, large internal surface area, open pores network and widely tunable refractive index, as well as its large spectral transparency window ranging from 2 to 15 μm. Multilayers, such as Bragg reflectors and microcavities, based on porous germanium material, are designed and their optical spectra are simulated to enable SF6 gas-sensing applications at a wavelength of 10.55 µm, which corresponds to its major absorption line. The impact of both the number of successive layers and their respective porosity on the multilayer structures reflectance spectrum is investigated while favoring low layer thicknesses and thus the ease of multilayers manufacturing. The suitability of these microcavities for mid-infrared SF6 gas sensing is then numerically assessed. Using an asymmetrical microcavity porous structure, a sensitivity of 0.01%/ppm and a limit of detection (LOD) around 1 ppb for the SF6 gas detection are calculated. Thanks to both the porous nature allowing gases to easily infiltrate the overall structure and Ge mid-infrared optical properties, a theoretical detection limit nearly 1000 times lower than the current state of the art is simulated.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Background: Understanding the factors affecting humoral immune response to COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare workers (HCWs) is essential to predict their level of protection. Vaccination elicits antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S). Aim: To investigate the factors associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S antibodies among vaccinated HCWs. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 143 vaccinated HCWs, with or without a history of previous COVID-19 infection (clinically, radiologically, or by laboratory results) from different departments. Socio-demographic, clinical, as well as vaccine-related data, were recorded. Serum samples were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies. Results: Vaccination provoked an immunogenic response, where the overall anti-S positivity was 83.9% (95% CI: 77.8–90.0%). The response was not affected either by the age or gender of HCWs. Out of the 143 HCWs, 46 (32.1%; 95% CI: 24.4–39.9%) reported a previous history of COVID-19 infection, and seropositivity was significantly higher among them (p = 0.002), and it was associated with the frequency of infection (p = 0.044) and duration since diagnosis of COVID-19 infection (p = 0.065). They had higher median anti-S titers (111.8 RU/mL) than those without infection (39.8 RU/mL). Higher seropositivity was observed with Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine (AZD1222) (88.9%; 95% CI: 83.1–95.0%) than Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV) (67.7%; 95% CI: 50.3–85.2%), and with receiving two doses of vaccine (92.3%; 95% CI: 87.1–97.5%). Conclusions: Antibody positivity was significantly affected by the previous history of COVID-19 infection, type of vaccine, the number of doses received, and duration since vaccination.
Xiaona Pang, Min Cao, Jiahui Qin, Xianjun Li,
Published: 22 January 2022
Journal of Porous Materials pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10934-021-01181-2

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, K. Chrissafis
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-021-11163-w

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Pancreatic colloid carcinoma is an uncommon and unique malignancy possessing a significantly more favorable prognosis than that of ordinary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Accurate diagnosis of this rare entity is thus important for leading the ensuing optimal treatment. Herein we report a case of colloid carcinoma of the pancreas with a series of imaging findings and pathologic assessments. Being familiar with these radio-pathological features makes early diagnosis possible prior to operation.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Sustainability, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031243

Abstract:
In this work, to clarify the impact of electric bicycle drivers’ risky driving behavior on driving safety, we used multiple regression analysis methods combined with a questionnaire survey of residents of the city of Guilin, China. We studied the impact of the two dimensions of safety knowledge and safety attitude on risky driving behavior, and identified the differences in the impact of these two dimensions from the perspective of personal characteristics. Through modeling analysis, we found that “responsible attitude” and “group behavior attitude” explain 62.4% of the variation in aggressive behavior; 48.5% of the variation in negligent behavior is caused by “age”, “safety knowledge” and “responsible attitude”; and 52% of the variation in violations is caused by “age”, “violation attitude” and “group behavior attitude”. The results show that “group behavior attitude” affects the occurrence of aggression; that safety knowledge has a significant negative impact on unintentional negligence but has no significant effect on deliberate violations and aggression; and that the difference in risky driving behavior is mainly manifested in “age”, “gender”, “violation” and “accident experience”.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031227

Abstract:
Two key concerns exist in contemporary cancer chemotherapy in clinic: limited therapeutic efficiency and substantial side effects in patients. In recent years, researchers have been investigating a revolutionary cancer treatment technique, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed by many scholars. A drug for photodynamic cancer treatment was synthesized using the hydrothermal method, which has a high efficiency to release reactive oxygen species (ROS). It may also be utilized as a clear multi-modality bioimaging platform for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) due to its photothermal effect, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When compared to single-modality imaging, multi-modality imaging delivers far more thorough and precise details for cancer diagnosis. Furthermore, Au-doped up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have an exceptionally high luminous intensity. The Au-doped UCNPs, in particular, are non-toxic to tissues without laser at an 808 nm wavelength, endowing the as-prepared medications with outstanding therapeutic efficacy but exceptionally low side effects. These findings may encourage fresh effective imaging-guided approaches to meet the goal of photodynamic cancer therapy to be created.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Diversity, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14020076

Abstract:
Non-indigenous species (NIS) are one of the major threats to the native marine ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea. Halophila stipulacea was the only exotic seagrass of the Mediterranean until 2018, when small patches of a species morphologically identified as Halophila decipiens were reported in Greece. Given the absence of reproductive structures during the identification and the taxonomic ambiguities known to lead to misidentifications on this genus, we reassessed the identity of this new exotic record using DNA barcoding (rbcL, matK and ITS) and the recently published taxonomic key. Despite their morphologic similarity to H. decipiens based on the new taxonomic key, the specimens showed no nucleotide differences with H. stipulacea specimens (Crete) for the three barcodes and clustered together on the ITS phylogenetic tree. Considering the high species resolution of the ITS region and the common morphological variability within the genus, the unequivocal genetic result suggests that the Halophila population found in Salamina Island most likely corresponds to a morphologically variant H. stipulacea. Our results highlight the importance of applying an integrated taxonomic approach (morphological and molecular) to taxonomically complex genera such as Halophila, in order to avoid overlooking or misreporting species range shifts, which is essential for monitoring NIS introductions.
Haipeng Guo, Dongmei Wei, Rui Liu, Chao Zhang, Song Jiang, Weijia Wang, Hongzhe Hu, Lijuan Shen,
Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13105-021-00870-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sampriti Kataki, Krithika Nityanand, , Sanjai K. Dwivedi, Dev Vrat Kamboj
Environmental Science and Pollution Research pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17974-6

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 22 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
To control unmanned aerial systems, we rarely have a perfect system model. Safe and aggressive planning is also challenging for nonlinear and under-actuated systems. Expert pilots, however, demonstrate maneuvers that are deemed at the edge of plane envelope. Inspired by biological systems, in this paper, we introduce a framework that leverages methods in the field of control theory and reinforcement learning to generate feasible, possibly aggressive, trajectories. For the control policies, Dynamic Movement Primitives (DMPs) imitate pilot-induced primitives, and DMPs are combined in parallel to generate trajectories to reach original or different goal points. The stability properties of DMPs and their overall systems are analyzed using contraction theory. For reinforcement learning, Policy Improvement with Path Integrals (PI2) was used for the maneuvers. The results in this paper show that PI2 updated policies are a feasible and parallel combination of different updated primitives transfer the learning in the contraction regions. Our proposed methodology can be used to imitate, reshape, and improve feasible, possibly aggressive, maneuvers. In addition, we can exploit trajectories generated by optimization methods, such as Model Predictive Control (MPC), and a library of maneuvers can be instantly generated. For application, 3-DOF (degrees of freedom) Helicopter and 2D-UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) models are utilized to demonstrate the main results.
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