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, Joanne C. Burgess
Published: 29 July 2021
Economics of the SDGs pp 15-37; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-78698-4_2

Abstract:
This chapter relates the current SDGs to their forerunner, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the systems approach to sustainability. We illustrate how each of the 17 SDGs can be characterized as a goal primarily attributed to the environmental, economic, or social system, as suggested by the basic principles of sustainability science. The systems approach is often captured in a Venn diagram, which depicts sustainable development as the intersection of the goals attributed to these three interlinked systems. One important insight is that attempting to maximize the goals for just one system may not achieve sustainability, because the impacts on the other systems are ignored. Analyzing such interactions is the foundation of our economic approach to assessing progress towards the SDGs.
Kelsey A. Roelofs, Ezekiel Weis
Published: 29 July 2021
Atlas of Orbital Imaging pp 1-8; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-41927-1_66-1

Abstract:
The orbital septum is a membranous tissue that extends from the tarsal plate to the orbital rim, where it fuses with the periorbita in a fibrous condensation known as the arcus marginalis. On imaging, evidence of pre-septal soft tissue swelling and inflammation in the absence of post-septal/orbital involvement is in keeping with the diagnosis of pre-septal cellulitis. CT is an adequate modality for assessing periorbital cellulitis. Administration of contrast is very helpful in cases of suspected infection as it optimizes visualization of pre-septal abscesses, and highlights intraorbital inflammation/infiltration. A pre-septal abscess would typically demonstrate a hypodensity in the subcutaneous space with adjacent rim enhancement. Thickening of the palpebral portion of the lacrimal gland may also serve as an adjunct imaging feature. Since CT would be the initial imaging modality used in most cases, exclusion of post-septal involvement can rely on more than “eyeballing,” as the IC fat measurements of Hounsfield units (HU) is very useful. Fat typically measures in the range of −50 to −150. Inflammation/edema results in asymmetric values between the involved and uninvolved orbits. Imaging in cases of pre-septal cellulitis may provide additional evidence as to the origin of infection, for example, concurrent sinus disease or evidence of an odontogenic source. We recommend obtaining imaging if there are any clinical or serum markers suggestive of orbital cellulitis, any clinical features or medical history suggestive of other causes (e.g., history of high-grade lymphoma such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma) or a lack of response to antibiotics over 48 h.
Journal of Combinatorial Optimization pp 1-16; doi:10.1007/s10878-021-00768-4

Abstract:
The existence of mining pools in Bitcoin enables the miners to gain more stable reward. However, it is proved that the pools are vulnerable for security attacks. A strategic pool manager has strong incentive to launch pool block withholding attack by sending some of her miners to infiltrate the other pools. The infiltrating miners try to find (partial) proof-of-work solutions but discard the solution that can actually create blocks. As it is hard to recognize malicious miners,these miners still get reward in the infiltrated pools. In this work, we revisit the game-theoretic model for pool block withholding attacks and propose a revised approach to reallocate the reward to the miners. Instead of proportionally allocating the reward to all miners, a pool manager deducts a fraction from the reward to award the miner who actually mined the block. Accordingly, we prove that, under our scheme, for any number of mining pools, no-pool-attacks is always a Nash equilibrium. Moreover, with only two minority mining pools, no-pool-attacks is the unique Nash equilibrium
Published: 29 July 2021
Applied Intelligence pp 1-36; doi:10.1007/s10489-021-02629-3

Abstract:
This article has four main objectives. These are: to develop the dynamic fitness-distance balance (dFDB) selection method for meta-heuristic search algorithms, to develop a strong optimization algorithm using the dFDB method, to create an optimization model of the coordination of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) problem, and to optimize the DOCRs problem using the developed algorithm, respectively. A comprehensive experimental study was conducted to analyze the performance of the developed dFDB selection method and to evaluate the optimization results of the DOCRs problem. Experimental studies were carried out in two steps. In the first step, to test the performance of the developed dFDB method and optimization algorithm, studies were conducted on three different benchmark test suites consisting of different problem types and dimensions. The data obtained from the experimental studies were analyzed using non-parametric statistical methods and the most effective among the developed optimization algorithms was determined. In the second step, the DOCRs problem was optimized using the developed algorithm. The performance of the proposed method for the solution to the DOCRs coordination problem was evaluated on five test systems including the IEEE 3-bus, the IEEE 4-bus, the 8-bus, the 9-bus, and the IEEE 30-bus test systems. The numerical results of the developed algorithm were compared with previously proposed algorithms available in the literature. Simulation results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method in minimizing the relay operating time for the optimal coordination of DOCRs.
Megan L. Van Horn,
Published: 29 July 2021
Methods in Molecular Biology pp 165-196; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-71612-7_6

Abstract:
Recently, there has been significant progress made in regard to chemical protocols for the detection and investigation of epitranscriptomic modifications, such as new breakthroughs in high-throughput sequencing methods, base-specific chemistries, and spectroscopy. Herein, we describe the development in methodology for probing epitranscriptomic modifications. We characterize the prevalent RNA modifications and the most important breakthroughs in epitranscriptomics. Further, a summary of the available approaches for detection is presented, with a strong focus on the newest methodology for each modification. We characterize analytical methods for the following modifications: N6-methyladenosine (m6A), 1-methyladenosine (m1A), 5-methylcytidine (m5C), 5-hydroxymethylcytidine (hm5C), 5-formylcytidine (f5C), 5-carboxycytidine (ca5C), inosine (I), pseudouridine (Ψ), and 2′-O-methylation (Nm). These are framed in the context of mRNA and other coding and non-coding RNAs. These epitranscriptomic modifications often determine the structure, life span, and function of RNAs, which are major regulatory molecules of cellular biology.
, John A. Scherpereel
The Palgrave Handbook of EU Crises pp 59-81; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-60052-5_3

Abstract:
Does turnover among members of the European Parliament (MEPs) affect the behavioral dimension of input legitimacy? We address this question by analyzing turnout in EP elections. We consider the theoretical connection between personnel turnover and voter turnout and outline four hypotheses. Two of the hypotheses derive from the populist critique of EU politics; the other two derive from the feminist critique. Analysis of election results from 1984 through 2019 provides no support for the populist-inspired hypotheses and limited support for the feminist-inspired hypotheses. Voter turnout (and, therefore, EU input legitimacy) is likely to be higher when voters have propelled more women to office in previous elections and when EP delegations become more gender-balanced.
Xie He, Guizhou Liu,
Published: 29 July 2021
SpringerBriefs in Economics pp 37-52; doi:10.1007/978-981-16-2990-7_3

Abstract:
As a sustainable and responsible investment (SRI), this research aims to measure the tail dependencies between investment in companies that have the highest environmental, social, and governance (ESG) rated performance and renewable energy companies based on the copula approach, which is crucial to monitoring systemic and extreme risks between two assets. Meanwhile, we evaluate whether renewable energy stock investors can effectively increase their portfolio performance by constructing a portfolio with the best ESG companies. The results reveal that tail dependence between ESG stocks and renewable energy stocks had been volatile during most periods. However, the strengthening trend could also be found when some extreme events occurred. On the other hand, we found that ESG stocks can effectively benefit renewable energy stock portfolios by improving risk-adjusted returns and lowering the standard deviation, value-at-risk (VaR), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR).
Dokumentarisches Interpretieren als reflexive Forschungspraxis pp 75-94; doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33515-1_5

Abstract:
Mathematikdidaktische Begabungsforschung und Praxeologische Wissenssoziologie weisen in ihrer jeweiligen Forschungstradition bisher keine diskursprägenden Berührungspunkte auf. Das Forschungsprojekt „Mathematisch begabte Kinder im Übergang von der Kita in die Grundschule“, welches Orientierungsrahmen der an Übergangsprozessen beteiligten sozialen Akteur*innen dokumentarisch rekonstruiert, begegnet vor diesem Hintergrund auch methodologisch einem Desiderat. Auf welche Weisen dann im Forschungsprozess Herausforderungen aufgeworfen und bearbeitet werden, ist Gegenstand dieses Beitrags. Anhand eines Auszugs aus einem Interviewleitfaden werden exemplarisch methodentheoretische und -praktische Aushandlungsprozesse zwischen fachdidaktischen Traditionslinien und methodologischen Prämissen nachgezeichnet, bspw. die Öffnung von Gesprächsimpulsen oder das immanente Nachfragen innerhalb eines Themengebietes.
Dokumentarisches Interpretieren als reflexive Forschungspraxis pp 177-195; doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33515-1_10

Abstract:
Klassischerweise hebt die dokumentarische Interpretation von Einzelinterviews auf Analysen der Zugzwänge des Erzählens, des Textsortengebrauchs sowie der sequenziellen Hervorbringung propositionaler Gehalte ab. Anders als in der Rekonstruktion von Gruppendiskussionen erweisen sich interaktive Diskursbewegungen in der Analyse tendenziell als nachgeordnet. In diesem Beitrag möchte ich eine diskurs- und adressierungsanalytische Akzentuierung in der dokumentarischen Interpretation von Einzelinterviews diskutieren und auf diese Weise die Bedeutungshervorbringung im Interview und damit die Erzählpraxis selbst entlang von Adressierungen und Positionierungen fokussieren. Die methodologischen Überlegungen werden schließlich methodisch an zwei Sequenzen aus einer Interviewstudie angewandt, in der studienleitende Orientierungen von Sportlehramtsstudierenden rekonstruiert werden. Abschließend werden Impulse für die methodische Bearbeitung von Einzelinterviews zur Diskussion gestellt.
Published: 29 July 2021
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/app11156969

Abstract:
We investigated the generation of proton- and alpha-induced nuclear cross-section data in the production of Indium-111 (111In) for application in nuclear medicine. Here, we are interested in three reaction channels, which are 109Ag (α, 2n), 111Cd (p, n) and 112Cd (p, 2n), in the production of 111In. A random forest algorithm was used to generate nuclear cross-section data by using an experimental nuclear cross-section from the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data (EXFOR) database as input. Hence, reasonably accurate regression curves of nuclear cross-section data could be produced with the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 set as the benchmark.
Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 395-429; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.016

Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 37-67; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.003

, Florian Fitzal, Gabriel Rinnerthaler, Guenther G. Steger, Sigrun Greil-Ressler, Marija Balic, Dietmar Heck, Raimund Jakesz, Josef Thaler, Daniel Egle, et al.
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 385, pp 395-405; doi:10.1056/nejmoa2104162

Abstract:
For postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor–positive breast cancer, the most effective duration for adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor remains unclear.
Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 369-394; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.015

Brenna L. Hughes, Rebecca G. Clifton, Dwight J. Rouse, George R. Saade, Mara J. Dinsmoor, Uma M. Reddy, Robert Pass, Donna Allard, Gail Mallett, Lida M. Fette, et al.
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 385, pp 436-444; doi:10.1056/nejmoa1913569

Abstract:
Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy carries a risk of congenital infection and possible severe sequelae. There is no established intervention for preventing congenital CMV infection.
Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 68-99; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.004

Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 197-232; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.009

Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 547-562; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.024

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 385, pp 477-478; doi:10.1056/nejmc2108129

Abstract:
To the Editor: In their review article, Benzing and Salant (April 15 issue)1 suggest that glomerular permselective dysfunction and albumin filtration depend on the decreased ability of podocyte foot processes (effacement) to offer buttressing force to counteract a glomerular transmembrane pressure of 40 mm Hg, with less compression of the glomerular basement membrane. We think that this hypothesis neglects the role of the subpodocyte space surrounding the filtration membrane,2 which may increase during pathologic conditions. We recently found in rats that the transmembrane pressure, in the presence of the subpodocyte space, is much lower than the assumed 40 mm Hg, . . .
Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 100-133; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.005

Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 544-546; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.023

Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 470-500; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.019

Eric J. Rubin, Lindsey R. Baden, Stephen Morrissey
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 385; doi:10.1056/nejme2112684

Abstract:
The continuing spread of SARS-CoV-2 remains a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. What physicians need to know about transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of Covid-19 is the subject of ongoing updates from infectious disease experts at the Journal.
Allison Kratka, Nicholas Yozamp, Anand Vaidya, Ellen Marqusee
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 385; doi:10.1056/nejmimc2035901

Abstract:
A 27-year-old man presented to the emergency department with weakness in both legs that was so severe he could not stand. He reported having several similar episodes of leg weakness during the preceding 6 months that had resolved spontaneously within 30 to 60 minutes. . . .
Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 322-328; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.013

Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 501-504; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.020

Maurice Yolles, Gerhard Fink
A Configuration Approach to Mindset Agency Theory pp 335-368; doi:10.1017/9781108974028.014

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 385, pp 480-480; doi:10.1056/nejmx210008

Abstract:
The Number Needed to Prescribe — What Would It Take to Expand Access to Buprenorphine? (Perspective, N Engl J Med 2021;384:1783-1784). In the final paragraph (page 1784), the first sentence should have read, “The number needed to treat with buprenorphine to prevent one death in the year after overdose is 52.6 — lower than the number needed to treat for nearly any medication that we have embraced without hesitation,” rather than “The number needed to treat to prevent one death from OUD with buprenorphine is less than three.” The article is correct at NEJM.org.
Pamela J. Goodwin
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 385, pp 462-463; doi:10.1056/nejme2109356

Abstract:
Advances in the diagnosis and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer have led to improved outcomes, with the large majority of women who have operable cancer today expected to be alive and recurrence-free in 5 years. However, women with hormone-receptor–positive breast cancer remain at constant annual risk of recurrence for at least 20 years after diagnosis.1 Researchers who are investigating the extension of adjuvant hormonal therapies beyond the typically prescribed 5 years — often involving aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women — have provided some evidence of benefit, particularly among women who received only tamoxifen during the first 5 years and in . . .
Cristiana Marinho-Soares, Maria Pulido-Valente
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 385, pp 450-450; doi:10.1056/nejmicm2033023

Abstract:
Pain in the right armpit developed in a 26-year-old woman 2 days after a normal vaginal delivery. Examination revealed an axillary mass that was consistent with polymastia.
Devika Duggal, , Steven K. Huprich
Depression and Personality Dysfunction pp 123-144; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-70699-9_5

Abstract:
Depressive disorders have a major impact on social functioning. In uncomplicated, episodic depression (i.e., major depressive disorder), transient symptoms of social withdrawal and loss of interest in activities are common functional impairments. However, in more complex forms of depression, social dysfunction can be chronic and pervasive, often leading to more severe and intractable functional impairments. This chapter presents a scoping review of the empirical literature that examines the impact of complex depression on five domains of social functioning: occupational functioning, romantic and sexual relationships, leisure activities, affiliation and attachment, and social support networks. Two case studies are presented that illustrate social dysfunction in two predominant forms of complex depression: chronic depressive disorders (CDD) and depression with personality disorder (DPD). These two forms of complicated depression encompass a range of complex depressive disorders as CDD focuses on persistent and non-remitting forms of depression (including dysthymia, pervasive depressive disorder, depressive personality disorder, and double depression), while DPD relates to episodic depression in the presence of co-occurring personality pathology. The limitations of included studies and the need for treatment development (e.g., lack of treatment studies, need for a focus on social dysfunction as a treatment target) for further investigation are discussed.
Fukun Gui
Encyclopedia of Ocean Engineering pp 1-14; doi:10.1007/978-981-10-6963-5_332-1

Jigyasa Nayak, Jasdeep Kaur, Akash Tayal
Communications in Computer and Information Science pp 203-218; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-82322-1_15

Abstract:
This paper illustrates an automatic seizure detection framework that is based on discrete wavelet transforms (DWT), non-linear and statistical features, and support vector machines (SVMs). Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals possess non-linear and rhythmic properties in different frequency bands. Thus, the non-linear features are widely used to advance epileptic seizure detection models and achieve promising results. This research work aims to consider multiple non-linear features so that if the information is missed by one non-linear measure, it can be captured by another. The non-linear features are further combined with the statistical features as statistical features help get better epileptic seizure classification accuracy. All features are calculated on D(2), D(3), D(4), D(5), and A(5) wavelet sub-bands, then combined into a single vector and classified using SVMs. The intended approach’s accomplishment is assessed with respect to terms sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, tested at the University of Bonn and Neurology and Sleep Centre datasets.
Vildan Aytekin, Mareike Brunk, Ronja Giesen,
Dokumentarisches Interpretieren als reflexive Forschungspraxis pp 117-134; doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33515-1_7

Abstract:
In diesem Beitrag steht das für die Dokumentarische Methode charakteristische vergleichende Vorgehen im Fokus. Ausgehend von methodologischen Überlegungen zur Bedeutung einer vergleichenden Perspektive werden der Ertrag sowie das forschungspraktische Vorgehen beim Vergleichen anhand zweier Schulleitungsinterviews exemplarisch demonstriert. Die beiden Interviews zur Umsetzung von Inklusion werden in den Schritten der Formulierenden und Reflektierenden Interpretation vergleichend analysiert. Abschließend werden die zentralen Erkenntnisse sowie der Mehrwert eines vergleichenden Modus herausgestellt.
Ulrike Dinger, Christina A. Löw, Johannes C. Ehrenthal
Depression and Personality Dysfunction pp 171-192; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-70699-9_7

Abstract:
Self-criticism has been identified as a core dimension of depressive experience. At the same time, the ability to regulate self-esteem and maintain a realistic and positive view of the self is an important aspect of personality functioning. Thus, the functional domain of self-criticism overlaps with both depression and personality dysfunction. The chapter will first provide an overview of commonalities and differences between self-criticism, depression, and personality dysfunction. Empirical studies are reviewed to shed light on the overlap as well as the unique aspects of the three constructs. A particular focus will be placed on the impact of personality dysfunction from a perspective of the Structural Integration Axis of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis System (OPD-2), which highly overlaps with the levels of functioning from the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders. Secondly, we review clinical theory and empirical research on self-criticism as a predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The findings demonstrate that pronounced self-criticism has a meaningful impact on the treatment process and needs to be addressed specifically and adaptively for successful outcomes.
, John A. Scherpereel
The Palgrave Handbook of EU Crises pp 85-106; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-60052-5_4

Abstract:
This chapter examines whether turnover among European commissioners, ministers in the Council of the EU, and members of the European Parliament affects throughput legitimacy in the EU. Theoretically, we expect turnover in all three institutions to slow down decision making. EU institutions present new entrants with steep learning curves. We expect this reality to increase systemic uncertainty and delay the legislative process. Empirically, we find that the effect of turnover varies by institution: while increasing quantities of turnover in the Commission and the Council are associated with decision-making delays, similar phenomena in the EP are associated with more efficient decision making. Turnover in the Commission and the Council can undercut throughput legitimacy; there is no evidence for such an effect in the Parliament.
Satish R. Jondhale, R. Maheswar, Jaime Lloret
Advanced Controllers for Smart Cities pp 1-19; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-74061-0_1

Abstract:
The continuous technological upgradations in the RF (radio frequency), processors, nanotechnology, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) domains have fostered the growth of wireless sensor networks (WSN), which in turn allowed to develop a wide range applications based on it, for instance, the technological breakthrough in the semiconductor industry stimulated to produce low-power, low-cost, and small-sized processors with high computational capacities. Speaking in more clear words, the miniaturization of sensing and computing devices enabled the development of tiny, low-cost, and low-power sensors, controllers, and actuators. Basically WSNs consist of a large number of tiny and low-cost sensor nodes that are networked via low-power wireless communication links. These networks allow to closely observe ambient environment of interest at an economical cost much lower than other possible technological solutions. Each sensor node in WSN has sensing, communication, and computation capabilities. By exploiting appropriate advanced mesh networking protocols, these nodes form a sea of connectivity that covers the physical environmental area under observation. In WSN the transmitting node opt out possible communication paths by hopping sensed data of interest from node to node toward its destination. Although the capability of single sensor node is minimal, the composition of hundreds or thousands of such nodes offers very high new technological possibilities for wide variety of applications. The power of WSN lies in the possibility of heavy deployment of large numbers of tiny nodes, which can assemble and configure on their own. Stating in simple words, these nodes have networking capability, which facilitates coordination, cooperation, and collaboration among them to meet the requirements of the underlying application. The WSN can also provide a robust service in hostile or inaccessible environments, wherein human intervention may be too dangerous or almost not possible. This new technology is exciting with unlimited potential for numerous application areas, including environmental, medical, military, transportation, entertainment, crisis management, disaster relief operations, homeland defense, and smart spaces. It is envisioned that in the near future the WSN will be an integral as well as essential aspect of our lives.
, Roberta Magnotti
Arts Therapies in Psychiatric Rehabilitation pp 3-19; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-76208-7_1

Abstract:
Since the nineteenth century, many authors debated the role of art to understand psychopathology and psychopathology to understand artistic works, although a specific role of art as a therapeutic approach in psychiatry is recognized with scientific evidence only by the end of the twentieth century. Art therapies are currently defined as various forms of psychological therapy employing different artistic media (painting, graphics, sculpture, dance, theatre, music, etc.), using both expressive and receptive communication modalities. Visual art therapy currently qualifies as a well-established rehabilitation technique, grounded on solid and precise principles, in which the attention to the production of patients is not related to diagnostic classifications, but rather focus on the creative process considered and used within an individualized therapeutic project. The available scientific evidence on visual art therapy tend to show that this form of art therapy is indicated for patients with major psychiatric disorders only as a part of integrated treatment. However, to date, many studies have provided evidence in favor of the idea that visual art rehabilitation programs may be beneficial in inducing a reduction of negative and affective symptoms, in particular for patients with schizophrenia and major mood disorders. The aim of this chapter is to provide, without leaving aside an historical perspective, a vivid picture of what recent research in the field of mental health care is highlighting as more relevant in the field of visual art therapy and to point out the limitations of the current implementation of visual art therapeutic programs, in order to finally shed some light on the directions to be taken by the discipline in the future.
Sabrina Arcaro, Janio Venturini
Operations and Basic Processes in Steelmaking pp 97-137; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-78988-6_6

Abstract:
Ceramic processing can be defined as the set of operations by which, from one or more starting materials, parts with desired shape and structure are obtained. The advent of materials science and the development of new technologies allowed ceramic products to be inserted in the most diverse sectors of the industry. This chapter covers the fundamental concepts involved in the various stages of ferrite processing, from the dispersion of particles to the consolidation of a bulk or thin film.
Gabriela Wagner
Arts Therapies in Psychiatric Rehabilitation pp 61-64; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-76208-7_6

Abstract:
This contribution on the review of Music Therapy in Psychiatry written by Windle and Carr, covering history, current evidence, and future directions in western culture was carried out considering the Benenzonian model-oriented system of ideas and practice on music and non-verbal therapy. The authors analyzed a great number of evidence-based studies on the effects of music therapy as a psychosocial intervention on people with mental illness in different inpatient settings. Windle and Carr’s contributions to a taxonomy of music therapy interventions are valuable and clarifying. From the methodological point of view, the research findings contribute to scientific professional training in EBMT. The questions asked, invite the readers to reconsider their own ideas, knowledge, and related practices in the field of mental health to facilitate a new synthesis. Despite the similarities among the artistic expression specialties that allow to the symbolization of predominantly non-verbal intrapsychic processes all over the world, the “art-based practices” differs greatly according to the culture where the therapeutic process is realized, the training and the status of the professional music/art therapist in that context, and the incidence of the patient’s culture when making the diagnosis of mental health problems.
Arts Therapies in Psychiatric Rehabilitation pp 155-157; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-76208-7_21

Abstract:
This essay responds to Sajnani’s chapter and forwards the dialogue by discussing empirical research considerations in the profession of drama therapy. The CoActive Therapeutic Theater model is presented as a potential viable form of how drama therapy is being manualized which would allow for the work to be replicated and studied through quantitative measurements.
Yingpeng Xie,
Published: 29 July 2021
Methods in Molecular Biology pp 411-422; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-71612-7_15

Abstract:
The modification and secondary structure of messenger RNA (mRNA) are tightly associated with its functions to control many intracellular events and biological processes. In the past decade, rapid development of high-resolution sequencing techniques enables the detection of chemical modifications and structures onto various types of RNA, especially the low-abundance mRNA. Unlike the rapid progress made in eukaryotes, studies on the modifications of prokaryotic mRNA remain limited. Here, we review bacterial N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and RNA G-quadruplex (rG4), which are two recently studied mRNA modifications or structures in bacterial mRNA. This chapter includes their occurrences, topological patterns, and potential regulatory functions in bacterial mRNA. Although the role of m6A in bacterial mRNA is still illusive, experiments have shown that rG4 can regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. We also discuss the different characteristics of m6A and rG4 between eukaryotic cells and bacteria.
, Shawna K. Metzger
The Palgrave Handbook of EU Crises pp 35-58; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-60052-5_2

Abstract:
This chapter examines the attitudinal dimension of input legitimacy in the EU. It investigates the relationship between personnel turnover in the European Parliament (EP) and citizens’ attitudes toward the EP since the start of direct elections in 1979. European citizens generally see the EP as a “second-order” institution whose importance pales in comparison with that of national institutions. At the same time, the EP is characterized by high levels of personnel turnover, with many of its members exiting the legislature prior to the end of their elected mandate. We address whether nationally divergent patterns of turnover affect the ways that citizens view the EP. We find some evidence that early exit from the EP negatively affects the attitudinal dimension of input legitimacy. We find, however, that this effect has weakened as the EU has grown larger.
Paul Onubi Ayegba, , Abdulkareem Abubakar, Nurudeen Yusuf
Published: 29 July 2021
Colloid and Polymer Science pp 1-12; doi:10.1007/s00396-021-04851-4

Abstract:
Drag reduction (DR) by additives in single- and two-phase fluid transport has enormous engineering and economic benefits. An ample amount of work has been done with regards to understanding the mechanism of DR for developed flows in straight conduits. There is however a limited understanding of the effects of drag-reducing agents (DRAs) on under-developed flows in bends and more so for liquid–liquid two-phase flows in and around the bend. This study therefore investigates the influence of U-bend on polymer drag reduction and flow patterns for oil–water two-phase flows. The ranges for oil and water superficial velocities tested were \(0.04\le {U}_{so}\le 0.950 {m}/{s}\) and \(0.13\le {U}_{sw}\le 1.10 {m}/{s}\), respectively. The test section consists of \(19-{mm}\) ID clear polyvinyl chloride straight tubes and return bend (\(R=100 {mm}\)). Measurements were carried out for developed flow upstream of the bend, at the U-bend and at two under-developed flow sub-sections downstream of the bend. The addition of polymer imposed partial or complete flow stratification in all test sections. In all test sections, drag reduction increased with flow rate of water and reduced with oil fraction in the region of strong turbulence. For high mixture velocities, DR upstream of the bend was highest while the least was recorded at the bend. The highest DR upstream of the bend, in the U-bend and at the two downstream under-developed flow sub-sections were 40%, 34%, 28%, and 29%, respectively.
Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Volume 14, pp 1-13; doi:10.1007/s12517-021-08046-7

Abstract:
Earthquakes are an inevitable event, and the frequency of them is increasing in recent years. Various countries carry out seismic microzonation and specific site studies in order to reduce the possible future effects of earthquakes. For doing so, subsurface information is needed, but seismic site classifications given by many researchers did not include such information. So in this study, subsurface information like sediment thickness obtained from boreholes of Uttarakhand was used for seismic site classification. Also, various correlation studies were conducted between parameters of horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) curve, seismic parameters, and aquifer parameters. Some of the correlation studies have been carried out for the first time like resonance frequency with water table depth and for amplitude with aquifer depth. In total, all these correlation studies provide a basis for future studies in the Uttarakhand region.
, Thambo Nyathi
Published: 29 July 2021
Natural Computing Series pp 171-184; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-72069-8_10

Abstract:
Data classification provides effective solutions to various real-world problems in areas such as disease diagnosis, network intrusion detection, and financial forecasting, among others. Classification algorithms such as induction algorithms, e.g., ID3, and genetic programming are used to produce classifiers. The design of these classification algorithms is time-consuming, requiring many person hours, and is an optimization problem. This chapter examines the automated design of genetic programming as a classification algorithm. The study compares the performance of genetic algorithms and grammatical evolution in automating the design of genetic programming for classifier induction. The performance of the classifiers produced by automated design is compared to that produced by manually designed genetic programming algorithms for binary and multi-class classification in various areas including network intrusion detection and financial forecasting. The automated design required less design time and produced classifiers that performed better than the manually designed classifiers. Grammatical evolution was found to produce better-performing classifiers for binary classification and genetic algorithms for multi-class classification.
Arts Therapies in Psychiatric Rehabilitation pp 65-67; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-76208-7_7

Abstract:
Music therapists employed in mental health in Denmark have increasingly performed RCT and pilot studies for coming RCT studies during the last years. The Danish Health System does not allow any treatment to be recommended in the National Guidelines, unless it is proved that international evidence based results are replicable in the Danish Health System. In Denmark, music therapy treatment and research in psychiatry have primarily been developed with people suffering from schizophrenia, with people suffering from personality disorders, with traumatized refugees, in forensic psychiatry, and in depression-related insomnia. In clinical practice of music therapy in Denmark, much emphasis is on the therapist/client relationship, which is regarded as outmost important. Thus music improvisation, -listening, and -performing grows out of the quality of the relationship. Danish music therapists are not trained in one specific music therapy approach. They are trained to work in a flexible way towards the needs of the client within an integrative clinical practice form based on a psychodynamic theoretical platform with many new theory tracks added-on. When music listening is applied without a music therapist being present, we consistently call the activity “music medicine” and not music therapy.
Pedro Morais, Hironori Adachi, Jonathan L. Chen,
Published: 29 July 2021
Methods in Molecular Biology pp 505-526; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-71612-7_19

Abstract:
Pseudouridylation is perhaps the most common epitranscriptomic modification among over 170 known chemical RNA modifications. Pseudouridine (Ψ) is highly conserved in various stable RNAs of all organisms. RNA pseudouridylation can be catalyzed by an RNA-independent mechanism by which stand-alone enzymes, known as pseudouridine synthases, recognize the substrate and catalyze the U-to-Ψ conversion reaction. Alternatively, pseudouridylation can be catalyzed by an RNA-guided mechanism, where a guide RNA (box H/ACA RNA), which is complexed with four core proteins (Cbf5/NAP57, Nhp2, Gar1, and Nop10), site-specifically directs the conversion of target uridine into a Ψ. Here, we discuss the underlying mechanisms of pseudouridylation as well as the methods for the detection of this modification. We also discuss pseudouridylation-linked diseases and potential clinical applications of this RNA modification.
Priti Thakur, Manasses Jora, Ruoxia Zhao, Gwenn Parungao, Scott Abernathy, Patrick A. Limbach,
Published: 29 July 2021
Methods in Molecular Biology pp 555-592; doi:10.1007/978-3-030-71612-7_21

Abstract:
Quantitative characterization of the identity and location of nucleoside modifications (added posttranscriptionally) in RNA molecules is the first step for associating them to biochemical functions and disease. This chapter examines the ways to reduce the RNA complexity for accurate identification and quantification of modifications in transfer RNA (tRNA). These analytical methods are organized under three subsections. (1) RNA purification: We will contrast the classical and the affinity-based purification methods for tRNA enrichment. (2) Modification detection and abundance: Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods involving high-energy collision dissociation and chromatographic retention time-based assignment will be compared. Ways to compute the relative abundance and application of multiple mass filters to document absolute amounts with external vs internal calibration for computing changes will be discussed. (3) Site-specific quantification: Relative quantification of modifications in the sequence context through isotope-labeling and signature oligonucleotide digestion products during RNA modification mapping will be examined. Thus, we will discuss a range of methods suitable for characterization of hypomodifications in tRNA (or any other RNA) in this chapter.
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