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Khizerulla Sharief, Venkatesh Ks, Veeralokanadha Reddy M, Kiran B
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 128-130; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1c.140

Abstract:
Routine use of diagnostic ultrasound in pregnancy has led to the detection of urologic abnormality in many fetuses. The most common abnormality detected is hydronephrosis caused by the P.U.J. obstruction followed by multicystic dysplastic kidney [4]. Bilateral renal dysplasia or agenesis may be associate with oligohydramnios. However antenatal diagnosis of posterior urethral valves may be missed unless a scan is undertaken late in pregnancy. A cross sectional study was conducted on 500 school going children of both sexes. An informed consent was obtained followed by a visit to the institution. Children were subjected to physical examination, blood pressure recording and urine was collected and further analyzed. Culture repeated on cases with significant have shown the growth of same organism in 7 cases. Thus asymptomatic bacteriuria was taken as 1.4%.E. coli (42.8%) was the most common isolated organism followed by Klebsiella (28.5%).
Hajra Tabassum
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 72-78; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1b.131

Abstract:
Objectives . Effect of sepsis on platelet counts and their indices. . Monitoring of platelet count and their indices in neonatal sepsis in relation to specific organisms. . To identify organism involved in proven neonatal sepsis affecting platelet indices. Design: Prospective hospital based study. Setting: The study subjects are all neonates admitted in Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences and has proven sepsis. Method: The study was carried out over a period of one and half year from December 2019 to July 2020 at Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences. 100 cases were considered for this study after proper screening for CBC, platelet count and their indices like mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and CRP and blood culture in neonates admitted in our NICU with proven sepsis. Results: A total of 100 neonates with blood culture positive for bacterial cases were considered for the study. Early onset septicaemia (59%) was more common than late onset septicaemia (41%). Out of 100 cases 57% cases had growth of gram negative organisms, 40% had growth of gram positive organisms and 3% had growth of fungal. Tachypnea (27%), Lethargy (20%) and refusal of feeds (8%) were the commonest clinical presentation followed by, Fever (6%), convulsions (5%) and jaundice (5%). 60% neonates has thrombocytopenia of varying severity. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism associated with thrombocytopenia (43.3%%). MPV was high in 85% of cases and PDW was high in 96% of cases. Conclusion: The present study highlights the association of thrombocytopenia, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width with causative organism in proven neonatal sepsis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism causing thrombocytopenia in our NICU.
Amit Vatkar, Nisha Dolas, Kanmani K, Vijay Kamale
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 83-84; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1b.135

Abstract:
ASXL3 mutations were first identified in 2013 by Bainbridge et al. as a cause of syndromic intellectual disability in four children with similar phenotypes using whole-exome sequencing. The clinical features – postulated by Bainbridge et al. were developmental delay, severe feeding difficulties, failure to thrive and neurological abnormalities. To date, a total of nine individuals with BRPS have been published in the literature in four reports (Bainbridge et al., Dinwiddie et al, Srivastava et al. and Hori et al.). In this report, we describe an uncertain variant present in Exon 11 of ASXL3(+) heterozygous zygosity in a female child with clinical features: truncal muscular hypotonia with significant motor delay, profound speech impairment, intellectual disability and a characteristic dysmorphic facies phenotype (open mouth, full lips, depressed nasal bridge, metopic prominence, microcephaly (45.5.cm), with camptodactyly and dysplastic fingers). Hence, we are reporting a rare case of developmental delay.
Shramana Ray, Asha P Shetty
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 102-103; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1b.139

Abstract:
Background: When children and young people present to healthcare environments, they are faced with a range of emotions, from fear to anxiety, all which are potentially exacerbated by unfamiliar surroundings, people and equipment. Age appropriate communication to the child during any procedure can make the child understand at their level about the procedure. The study aimed to assess the procedural communication techniques nurses uses during painful procedure of children in
Paediatric
ward of Aims, BBBSR. Method: The observational study was done on 60 events of blood sampling and intravenous cannulation among children in
Paediatric
Ward of AIIMS, BBSR using a Checklist for
Paediatric
Procedural communication. Purposive sampling technique was used. Result: Among all participant nurses 55 (91.6%) explained the procedure to the children before doing, 45 (75%) nurses avoided negative words during the procedure. 55 (91.6%) nurses gave choices and empower. 40 (66.6%) nurses allowed children’s independence and 15 (25%) nurses allowed to play and get familiar with certain equipment. Maximum nurses 50(83.3%) were used of distractor along with communication. Conclusion: Majority of the nurses used age specific communication techniques during procedures with the children.
Khizerulla Sharief, Venkatesh Ks, Veeralokanadha Reddy M, Kiran B
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 131-133; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1c.141

Abstract:
Pyuria is defined as more than 5WBCs/mm3 of urine and if this definition is taken into consideration it correlates in 90% cases of UTI. However, pyuria may be masked in significant infections due to Proteus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas due to disintegration of White Blood Cells caused by alkaline condition produced by these urease positive organisms. Children were subjected to physical examination, blood pressure recording and urine was collected and further analyzed. All children were advised to collect mid stream clean catch urine sample under strict aseptic precautions. The collected urine samples were tested for protein, blood and bacteria by dipstick method and microscopy rapid screening test like griess nitrate test was done. 95% of the children had no RBCs in urine. 2.8% showed 1-5 RBCs/ HPF. Significant hematuria (> 5 RBCs/ HPF) was seen in 2.2% of children.
Bopanna Km
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 22-24; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1a.122

Abstract:
Background: Neutropenia, usually defined as an absolute neutrophil count below 1.5 × 109/L, encompasses a wide range of diagnoses, from normal variants to life-threatening acquired and congenital disorders. The present study evaluated cases of neutropenia and fever in children. Materials & Methods: 104 children confirmed case of fever and neutropenia of both genders Were studied. Results: Age group 10-12 years had 14 boys and 8 girls, 12-14 years had 20 boys and 10 girls and 14-16 years had 30 boys and 12 girls. The main cause of neutropenia was bacterial in 54, viral in 20, fungal in 15, drugs in10 and autoimmune in 5 cases. The difference was significant (P<0.05). Out of 104 patients, 98 survived and 6 died. The difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Authors found that maximum cases were seen in boys and age group 14-16 years.
Vishal Jain, Anirudh Ghai, Bhagyashree Mohapatra, Shekhar Biswas, Vipra Bhagat
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 28-30; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1a.126

Abstract:
Neonatal liver abscess is an uncommon finding and very few cases have been reported till date. A 36+5 week near term neonate presented with clinical symptoms of sepsis, convulsion on day 3 of life and hepatomegaly with history of birth asphyxia, chorioamnionitis and oligohydrominos. The baby was diagnosed with liver abscess with left lung consolidation by radiological investigations and the abscess was aspirated under Ultrasound-Guided and treated with antibiotics. The liver abscess resolved on follow up and the baby was discharge healthy.
Hajra Tabassum
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 66-71; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1b.130

Abstract:
Background: Malaria is a disease of global importance and afflicts more than ninety countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical region. Metals such as iron and zinc are essential for different biological functions in human beings and are co-factors in most of the enzymes. However, data about significant variation of these micronutrients during infections in developing countries where we encounter malnutrition and infection problem together are limited. Objectives: This study was undertaken to quantify the serum levels of iron and zinc in malaria infected children and to compare it with that of controls and to correlate the levels with type of malaria, and outcome of illness. Methods: Thirty cases of proven malaria and 30 age and sex matched controls were recruited during the study period. Blood samples were obtained from each patients and controls, centrifuged and serum was analyzed for estimation of iron and zinc using spectrophotometer. Results: Mean serum iron among 30 cases was found to be 88.47 µg/dl, when compared to controls (97.47µg/dl), it was low. The mean serum zinc levels among 30 cases was 42.67µg/dl, which is statistically lower than among controls 57.43µg/dl. There was no difference between the types of malaria. Conclusion: The present study showed that there is significant reduction in the serum levels of iron and zinc in children admitted with malaria. It may suggest that the decreased levels of iron and zinc can be rectified by supplementing these metals in therapy. Further detailed studies are needed in this aspect.
Umesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Singh
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 141-143; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1c.144

Abstract:
Introduction: Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) and treatment are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and serious side effects of standard anti-TB drugs. An adjuvant therapy may facilitate the efficacy and downgrade the occurrence of side effects associated with long-term therapy. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of beta-sitosterol (BS) as adjuvant therapy to standard anti-TB drugs in children with TB. Methods: Children in the age range of 6 to 18 years who were diagnosed with TB are enrolled in this randomised clinical study. Enrolled childrens were divided into two groups to receive either BS or placebo. Sputum and blood samples were collected after every month to assess the level of infection (Positive or negative) and evaluation of different blood related complications, respectively. Adverse events were evaluated in each patient and noted. Results: BS adjuvant therapy resulted in an early negative test for TB as compared to placebo therapy. Significant difference was noted in the patients positive for TB test from month 3 to 6. Furthermore, the BS group showed greater improvements on radiological examination than the placebo group. Comparing the BS group to the placebo group, the BS group showed improvements in hemoglobin, haematocrit, neutrophil count, serum globulin, creatinine, and urea. The overall treatment completion rates were higher in the BS-therapy group than the placebo group with comparatively lower incidence for side effects such as hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: Adjuvant BS with standard anti-TB drug therapy had the same impact on early infection mitigation and side effect incidence as standard therapy in children aged 6 to 12. to 18 years. Treatment completion was higher in the adjuvant group than the placebo group and was also safer.
Kavita J Lall
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 1, pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2018.v1.i1a.93

Abstract:
Introduction: The neonatal outcome of pregnancy is dependent upon the optimal functioning of feto-maternal unit, thus the maternal health is a determinant of survival. Aim and Objective: of the study to correlation between demographic and socio-economic status of mother to birth weight of baby. And influence of maternal reproductive and antenatal factors on birth weight of baby. Material and Methods: This study was aimed with a view to evaluate 500 live births in relation to maternal and neonatal factors and correlation of anthropometric measurements. The incidence of beneficiaries availing the antenatal care facilities was also studied and their correlation with neonatal outcome was analysed. It is a random study based on interview of pregnant women admitted in the antenatal wards. Results: Total incidence of normal vaginal delivery constitutes 86.2% while abnormal labour constitute 13.6%. Vaginal delivery both normal and abnormal constitutes 90.6% while LSCS delivery is 9.4%. Forceps delivery is 3% and Breech delivery incidence is 1.4%. 39% had birth length < 47cm while 61 % had birth length > 47cm. 40.2% newborn had head circumference < 33 cm while 59.8% had head circumference > 33 cm. It is evident that 38.4% born babies having birth weight < 2.5 kg while 61.6% boom infant have birth weight > 2.5 kg. Mothers having gestational weight < 50 kg had incidence of 29.4% which indicate malnutrition. While 47.4% mothers had weight between 50-60 kg and 23.2% mothers had weight >60 kg. Discussion: Type of labour-Incidence of normal labour in this study was 90.6% and as compare to abnormal labour 13.6%. Aiyar et al. 1969 reported that the incidence of normal labour was 94% which is approximately coinciding with the present study. Incidence of low birth weight babies is 13.9% higher among mother with age group upto 20 years and suddenly drops to 3.6% in the age group of 21-25 years and thereafter it increase upto 30 years and thereafter it decreases with increase of maternal age. Conclusion: Out of 500 live births 90.6% were normal labour while 13.6% were abnormal labour of which 9.4% constituted LSCS delivery. There was slight female predominance of 56.8% while male child born were 43.2%. 20.4% were preterm, 75.6% were full term and 4% born were post term. Nearly one third babies had low birth weight, 38.4% while 61.6% had birth weight more the 2.5 kg.
Aashish Kumar, Sanjeev Nanda, Jagdish Kumar
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 1, pp 23-26; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2018.v1.i1a.92

Abstract:
Aim: To know the effect of iron supplement in cognitive enhancement in children.Material and method: Participants at three randomly selected schools were given iron supplement either once weekly or twice weekly or daily for one year. The fourth was the control school. In our study School boys (n=142) in the age group of 7-14 years was participated.Results: iron supplementation given daily and twice weekly significantly improved cognition in most tests; the effect was not seen in once-weekly or control groups. In daily and twice weekly iron supplement groups, positive change in cognition test scores was relatively higher in boys with good compliance(>70% dose) vs. poor compliance; in anemic (hemoglobin1.1g/dL) vs. lower Hb gain. Conclusion: Twice weekly IFA supplementation is comparable to daily IFA in terms of beneficial effects on cognition in young adolescent girls.
Nihan Uygur Klc, Ozlem Erdede, Erdal Sar, Rabia Gnl Sezer Yamanel
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 85-89; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i2b.100

Thumjaa Annamalai, Ramya, Shafath Ahmed
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 2, pp 90-91; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2019.v2.i2b.39

Abstract:
Study of cord blood zinc level in term AGA & term SGA newborns
Parveen Banu M, Balachandran Cs, Chidambaranathan S
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 2, pp 87-89; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2019.v2.i2b.38

Abstract:
Febrile seizures are the most common seizures that occur in 2 to 5% of neurologically healthy children in the age group of 6 60 months.
Rini R Naik, Guruprasad Pednekar, Jagadish Cacodcar
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 2, pp 101-104; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2019.v2.i2b.42

Abstract:
Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder complicating pregnancy in India. Babies born to diabetic mothers are at increased risk of neonatal complications as well as long term complications with potential of developing type 2 DM in future.
Akshatha Sp
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 32-35; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i1a.57

Abstract:
Generally, the incidence of FS decreases markedly after 4 years of age (and the condition rarely occurs in children older than 7 years of age.
Karavadra B, Gunawardena I
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 155-157; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i1c.74

Abstract:
Memory problems and weight loss: A case report
Bhavani Kc, Virendra Kumar Gupta, Bhagwan Sahai Natani, Rupesh Masand, Chaman Ram Verma
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 28-31; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i1a.56

Abstract:
Comparative analysis of serum vitamin d level in under five aged children with acute lower respiratory tract infection: A casecontrol study
Anuja Rajoriya, Anand Aggarwal, Surender Singh Bisht, Amita Tyagi
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 69-72; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i1b.60

Deia K Khalaf, Yusra K Al-Rawi, Laith A Abdul Hadi
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 2, pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2019.v2.i2a.28

A Sailaja, I Bhaskar Naik, T Jayachandra Naidu, Mounika, B Manohar, Sivaramudu
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 2, pp 06-10; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2019.v2.i2a.27

Saiprasad Onkareshwar Kavthekar, Jinela DeSouza, Roma Abhay Chougale, Swati Saiprasad Kavthekar
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 2, pp 25-28; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2019.v2.i1a.24

Mehul Shah, Shreya Shah, Heena Patel, Ronaq Khanna
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 27-29; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i2a.86

Abstract:
Introduction: This study investigated the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on the incidence of ocular trauma in children. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we collected data of pediatric patients who presented with ocular trauma in the emergency department during the lockdown period (from 22 March, 2020, to 30 May, 2020). In addition, we collected data of patients presenting with ocular trauma during the same period in the previous year. We compared the number of patients who underwent ocular surgery and the number of
paediatric
patients with ocular trauma between these two periods. A confounding factor may be the absence of patients from different districts who could not travel to the centre due to travel restrictions. Results: Between 22 March, 2019, and May 2019, a total of 156 (17%) of total opd patients presented with ocular trauma, of whom 28(27.8%) required surgery. By contrast, between 22 March, 2020, and May 2020, a total of 92(33.9%) of total outdoor patients presented with ocular trauma, of whom 25(65.7) % required surgery. Conclusions: Covid-19 lockdown exerted a significant effect on the incidence of ocular trauma in pediatric population.
Mahesh Khanna Sa, Cs Balachandran, S Chidambaranathan, R Praveen Kumar
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 90-92; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i2b.101

Abstract:
Knowledge of gestational age of newborn babies may modify the details of their care. Though gestational age is usually calculated from the date of mother’s last menstrual period this date is not known with certainty in large majority of pregnancy. In others there may be misleading information especially when the menstrual cycle is irregular, when conception is shortly after a previous pregnancy or when the mother was taking oral contraceptives shortly before conception. Hence the need of multiple modalities to confirm the gestational age and the reliability of modalities is a major concern. Our study is undertaken to compare the correlation of gestation age assessment by three methods viz., gestational age assessment by last menstrual period dates, gestational age assessment by last trimester ultrasound and gestational assessment by post-natal assessment of modified Ballard score. This study is a prospective study conducted in a rural medical college hospital. Total of 150 term babies were enrolled in the study. Duration of the study was two years. The gestational age of the neonates was calculated by all 3 methods and the correlation was assessed. The study concluded that the modified Ballard score overestimates the gestational age and the third trimester ultrasound underestimates the gestational age.
Anupama Pandey, DivyaRani Dc
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 131-134; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i2c.104

Abstract:
The spectrum of organisms that cause neonatal sepsis changes over time and varies from region to region. It can even vary from hospital to hospital in the same city. This is due to the changing pattern of antibiotic use and changes in lifestyle. Gram negative organisms were the most common cause of neonatal sepsis in Europe and America in the 1960s. A prospective hospital based study over a period of one year was carried out at neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital, a tertiary care centre. At least 20% deliveries require nursery admission. All neonates born at the hospital and presenting with signs and symptoms of sepsis or born to mothers with potential risk factors for sepsis were investigated for sepsis. All the neonates diagnosed to have culture positive sepsis or clinical sepsis with multidrug resistant organisms were included as study cases. The most common organism was CONS accounting for 32.79% followed by Klebsiella species (16.39%) Staph aureus (14.75%). All the CONS positive cultures were non MDR (100%). Whereas 70% of the Klebsiella species and 100% of the Staph species were MDR.
Vidhyadhara Naik Tl, Sanjaya Kumar Jena, Nihar Ranjan Mishra
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 157-161; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i2c.111

Abstract:
Background: The worldwide incidence of CH ranges from 1 in 3000 to 1 in 4000 live newborn. However, varied incidence has been found from state, regional, and national screening programs.Objective: to know the incidence of Congenital Hypothyroidism and associated congenital anomalies in this part of the country, which is necessary to understand the burden of congenital hypothyroidism to the society.Setting: Primary serum TSH measurement in screening neonates with backup thyroxine (T4) determination in infants with high TSH levels (>20mIU/L). TSH and FT4 were estimated by Chemi Luminescence Immuno Assay (CLIA) method using reagent moonblind, INC.Result: Serum TSH of screened neonates ranged between 0.16mIU/L and 80.32mIU/L, Mean ± SD of sTSH being 5.80±3.96mIU/L. Out of 2212 screened newborns, 9 newborns had sTSH value >20mIU/L. out of 9 recalled newborns, 3 had persistently elevated sTSH >20mIU/L. Making incidence of Congenital hypothyroidism of 1:737 in our study. In a study carried out at Israel found 15.6% cases of Congenital Hypothyroidism were associated with congenital anomalies majority being cardiac anomalies.Conclusion: In our study we found a higher incidence of 1 in 737, when compared to estimated national incidence of congenital hypothyroidism. Our study reported significant number of neonates with sTSH value >10mIU/L indicating iodine deficiency prevalent in this part of country.
N Sathyadith, M Sucindar, S Ramesh
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 97-103; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i2b.103

Abstract:
Background: Mechanical ventilation refers to artificial methods used for supporting ventilation and oxygenation. With the advent of mechanical ventilation, the intensive care for pediatric patients have witnessed high success rates, better management of complications and improved outcomes with reduced mortality and morbidity rates. This study was done to assess the preceding risk factors, indication, clinical profile and outcome of mechanically ventilated children from rural population admitted in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Prospective observational study of critically ill cchildren between 2 months and 12 years of age who required mechanical ventilation in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital. The data collected includes epidemiological profile, risk factors, clinical, laboratory and mechanical ventilation profile. Results: A total of 70 children required mechanical ventilation .The mean ± SD age of the participants was 2.05 ±2.4 years. Bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis (n=20, 28.6%) and the most common indication for mechanical ventilation among the study participants was severe respiratory distress (n=23, 32.9%).The most common complication observed among the study participants was Ventilator associated pneumonia (n=21, 30%). Overall, majority of the participants survived (n=44, 62.9%) while 26 (37.1%) participants expired in this study. Conclusion: Majority of the children were less than 1 year of age from poor socio economic status. Respiratory causes like bronchopneumonia and bronchiolitis were the common conditions requiring mechanical ventilation. More analytical studies are needed in future, to estimate the long term sequelae and outcome in mechanically ventilated children.
Chayan Chakma, Karan Joshi
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 138-142; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i2c.106

Abstract:
Background: Beta-thalassemia major is one of the most severe life-long transfusion-dependent anemias. Clinical features vary from those due to disease itself to those due to consequences of transfusions or chelation therapy, especially affecting the growth and development of these patients. Method: A total 37 patients (aged 2 years to 15 years) were included for this cross sectional study to assess the effect of transfusion and chelation therapy on growth and development of transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients (TDT) in a rural setting of central India. Data and blood reports were collected from January 2019 and was analyzed using SPSS v 22.0 applying non-parametric Man-Whitney U test and Chi Square test for independence of attributes. Findings: Only 5 (13.5%) were adequately transfused maintaining pre-blood transfusion hemoglobin level ≥9gm% and all of them did not have growth retardation. A total 29 patients were under chelation therapy, and 28 (96.55%) were found to have serum ferritin level ≥1000mg/dl. Growth retardation was diagnosed among 17 (45.94%) of the patients, whereas a range of 5-12% of them were having Intelligence Quotient (IQ) or Social Quotient (SQ) <80% as assessed by Seguin form board test, Draw-a-man Test and Vineland Social Maturity Scale. 7 out of 17 patients who were below 6 years of age, were diagnosed as suspects by Denver Developmental Screening tool. Conclusion: A significant number of transfusion-dependent Beta-thalassemia patients were having inadequate transfusion and chelation therapy which affect their growth and development variably (positively corelated if P
Gonesh N Mevundi, Harsha Sangolgikar
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 143-146; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i2c.107

Abstract:
Background: Sepsis is a common complication in the neonatal intensive care unit and is a major cause of neonatal mortality. Objective: To identify organism involved in proven neonatal sepsis affecting platelet indices. Setting: The study was carried out over a period of one and half year from December 2015 to July 2017 at Sangmeshwar and Basaveshwar Hospital attached to M.R. Medical College, KALABURAGI. 100 cases were considered for this study after proper screening for CBC, platelet count and their indices like mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and CRP and blood culture in neonates admitted in our NICU with proven sepsis.Result: A total of 100 neonates with blood culture positive for bacterial cases were considered for the study. Early onset septicaemia (59%) was more common than late onset septicaemia (41%). Out of 100 cases 57% cases had growth of gram negative organisms, 40% had growth of gram positive organisms and 3% had growth of fungal. Tachypnea (27%), Lethargy (20%) and refusal of feeds (8%) were the commonest clinical presentation followed by, Fever (6%), convulsions (5%) and jaundice (5%). 60% neonates had thrombocytopenia of varying severity. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism associated with thrombocytopenia (43.3%). Conclusion: It was concluded that neonatal sepsis was common in males. Gram positive organisms were the predominant causative agents of septicaemia 40% as compared to gram negative organisms 57% and fungal sepsis 3%. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism responsible for thrombocytopenia.
R Poovendhan, M Sucindar, S Ramesh
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 93-96; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i2b.102

Abstract:
Background: Wheezing is more common in children less than five years due to small calibre airways and compliance of children lung. In the present study we have studied the prevalence and risk factors of episodic and multi trigger wheezer in children aged less than five years presenting to rural tertiary care hospital at Chidambaram, Tamilnadu.Methods: Children aged 6 months to 60 months presented with wheeze attending Raja muthiah medical college and hospital, Chidambaram from October 2018 to March 2020 were the target population. Children who are all satisfied the inclusion criteria after obtaining ethical and informed parental consent selected as study population. A structured pro forma was used to obtain data which includes epidemiological profile and risk factors of study population. Results: In this study among 119 study population, 76 children were multi trigger wheezer and 43 were episodic wheezer. In multitrigger wheezer group among biological triggering factor children with family history of asthma (14.47%), indoor triggering factor house dust (18.42%) and outdoor triggering factor smoking (28.95%) were the most prevalent risk factor for wheezing in children aged less than five years. Conclusion: In this rural population, multitrigger wheezer are more prevalent than episodic wheezer in children aged less than five years. In this study Outdoor triggering factor smoking is responsible for wheeze in more children aged less than five years.
Rachan Reddy K, Girija G, Ravichander B
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 11-14; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1a.117

Abstract:
Transport of seriously ill children to tertiary centres, under controlled conditions has a direct effect on morbidity and mortality. Poor transport is one of the iatrogenic factors and it is a neglected global issue, especially in the developing world, results in significant annual mortality, as we have scarce and inaccessible facilities and under developed communication system. Data including demographic parameters and transport details were recorded in a structured proforma. Most of the babies who are transported are appropriate for gestational age (71%) and remaining are small for gestational age. The incidence of hypothermia in SGA babies was 86% when compare to AGA babies (61%). Whereas the effect of hypoxia and capillary filling time was more in AGA babies (14%) when compare to SGA babies (3%).
Vs Anjankumar, K Sivaramudu, I Bhaskar Naik, T Jayachandra Naidu, R Chandhan Reddy, R Neha
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 3, pp 180-185; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2020.v3.i1c.91

Abstract:
Introduction: Malnutrition is the gravest single threat to the world public health. Under nutrition is one of the most concerning health and development issues in India. The main aim was to describe the clinical profile of children aged less than 5 years diagnosed as Severe Acute Malnutrition and outcome of treatment at Nutrition Rehabilitation center. Methods: A descriptive study conducted among 378 subjects for 1 year. Data collection was done on detailed history and examination of the subjects including anthropometry and analysed. Results: The majority of children (51.32%) were of <12 months. Males contribute major proportion in (56.08%). Rural children are about 61.90 %, where most of the children belong to lower economical status (51.86%).Most children recovered 87.30 % and were no deaths during study. Conclusion: There is a need to improve access to health care and need for chain of nutritional care at different levels of the community.
Sirish Bhupathi, Manil Shah, Rinam Doshi
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics, Volume 4, pp 01-03; https://doi.org/10.33545/26643685.2021.v4.i1a.114

Abstract:
Introduction: Congenital malaria occurs through vertical transmission of parasites from mother during pregnancy/perinatally during labour. Presence of maternal antibody may delay symptoms upto 3-6 weeks after birth.Case Representation: A 21days neonate presented with not accepting feed, excessive crying, fever since 2days. On examination baby was pale, lethargic, febrile, hepatosplenomegaly+. Peripheral smear-rings & trophozoits of P. vivax, diagnosed as congenital malaria with neonatal sepsis. IV. Ceftriaxone, IV. Amikacin started. Chloroquine was given.Discussion: This case shows importance of considering congenital malaria as differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in neonates with history of malaria during pregnancy. Mechanisms for congenital transmission of malaria include maternal transfusion into fetal circulation at delivery/during pregnancy. Sometimes mother might had mild episode malarial during the 9th month of pregnancy, resolved spontaneously, and remained undiagnosed. The time of onset of symptoms in congenital malaria can vary from immediately after birth to few weeks. The drug of choice for congenital malaria remains chloroquine.
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