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Marhaba Yakubbhai Mansuri, Srinidhi Cheeti, Deepika Davalath, Bibimariyam Nasyrlaeva, Vyshnav Rajagopal Menon, Poojan Parmar, Sitana Mamoun Mustafa Elnagar, Sudha Srivalli Konakanchi, Shafeena Vengasseri, Gauravdeep Singh, Rimsha Rahim Vohra, Marium Aisha Mangrio, Kamalpreet Singh Walia, Pallab Sarker, Saher Taufiq
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 5, pp 11-13;

Abhinav V Pathare, Anup B Chaudhary
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 5, pp 05-07;

Public health has the potential to make a unique contribution to the prevention of war by comprehensively designing prevention-focused programs, services, training, policies, and advocacy campaigns. This article has pointed out the relevance of public health in preventing and managing the war. This article, additionally, has also discussed the competencies in public health regarding war prevention and management. Therefore, although war undoubtedly is a multi-faceted and complex issue, the role of public health—practitioners, academics, policymakers, experts, and researchers—is indisputable. In order to maintain peace and harmony, it is time to participate together to downsize the public health consequences of war.
Amrit Pal Kaur Brar, Deepika Davalath, Deepa Kosuru, Taha Sajjad, Neelima Gaddam, Sudha Srivalli Konakanchi, Naghmi Mehmood, Bhavika Agrawal, Saher Taufiq
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 5, pp 32-34;

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The present study was conducted to assess effects of diabetes mellitus on interventional outcome in patients with non-ST-myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods: 78 patients who had DM and MI of both genders were enrolled and parameters such as mortality, cardiovascular readmission, and recurrent MI were recorded. We divided patients into 2 groups. Group I were STEMI and group II were MI patients without presentation of ST-segment elevation as NSTEMI. Results: Out of 78 patients, males were 40 and females were 38. BMI (Kg/m2) was 27.3 in group I and 27.5 in group II. The mean HR (bpm) was 71.4 in group I and 72.8 in group II. SBP (mm Hg) was 138.4 in group I and 140.2 in group II. DBP (mm Hg) was 76.2 in group I and 80.4 in group II. Hyperlipidaemia was seen in 30 in group I and 34 in group II, hypertension was seen in 22 in group I and 28 in group II. MI was seen in 8 in group I and 10 in group II, COPD was seen in 4 in group I and 3 in group II and stroke in 2 in group I and 3 in group II. Hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, MI and COPD were independently related with all-cause mortality. Conclusion: Multiple risk factors contribute to a higher incidence of composite outcomes in diabetic patients with MI. STEMI poses a greater threat to adverse events.
Abdullah H Bin Jwair, Abdullah S Al Oyaid, Mohammed S Al Ghoraibi, Mansour K Al Zahrani
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 5, pp 04-09;

Background: Family medicine is a medical speciality concerned with the entire health care of the individual and the family. It incorporates biological, clinical, and behavioral sciences and its scope is not limited by age, gender, organ system, or disease entity limitations. Family physicians serve important roles in many countries' primary care systems, although family medicine (FM) is still in its early stages in Saudi Arabia.Aims: To assess the level of knowledge and perception towards family medicine among general population in Saudi Arabia.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 382 participants form general population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The responses were collected through the administration of a questionnaire in cluster 1 primary health care centers. Respondents were selected by convenient sampling technique. Data analysis was carried out by using SPSS.Results: The study group consisted of 382 respondents. Females represented 56.5% of participants and 43.5% were males. More than sixty percent of participants were aged between 18-35 years. The mean knowledge and perception score of our participants was 15±2.3 points (Range 6 – 20) and 53.5 ± 5.8 points (Range 37 – 70) respectively. In addition, we found that most of respondents showed good knowledge about family medicine specialty (62%) and only 38% of respondents revealed poor knowledge. Finally, our results demonstrated that there was no significant association between the level of knowledge, not even perception and different socio-demographic variables.Conclusion: Our findings concluded that people from Riyadh in Saudi Arabia revealed good level of knowledge and perception regarding the specialty of family medicine. Further studies and interventional educational programs are recommended.
Rishman Kaur Tandi, Mohammad Hazique, Sana Rehman, Neelima Gaddam, Vivian Samuel Hana, Taha Sajjad, Naghmi Mehmood, Humaira Kauser
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 5, pp 35-37;

Sahil Garg, Puneeteshwar Singh Khela, Gurjot Singh, KaranVir Singh Gill
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 5, pp 10-12;

Karali Hf, Kong Sww, Chee Cc, Tan Jhk, Frances Ps, Panneerchelvam Ll, Semali Idn, Manokar Pl, Farhad Es
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 5, pp 55-60;

Aim: To explore and understand professional practice development through medical students’ observation of patient’s responses towards the medical students, illness, and hospital staff.Methodology: Semi-structured focused group discussions were conducted between 3rd September 2019 and 3rd May 2020 using non-probability purposive sampling. Three focused groups were conducted with fourth year medical students (n=19) to discuss about their third-year clinical placement experience. The focused group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis framework to label the concepts, attached code to the data, and the codes were subsequently grouped into similar themes. Themes that emerged from the interpretation of the coded data were identified. Results: Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) Student’s observation on patient’s responses towards students, illness, and staff; (2) Patient’s perspectives towards students; (3) Students were affected by the experience; and (4) Factors influencing patient’s responses to students, illness, and staff. The impact of patient’s behaviour has influenced students’ professional practice in two ways. The first impact is collaboration of students’ observation during clinical placement with what has been learned through the written curriculum. The second impact is through a hidden curriculum.Conclusions: The hidden curriculum has influenced our students’ learning through observation of new aspects and implementation of the learned written curriculum. Students can aspire medical educators, doctors, and medical staff to adopt approaches and attitudes that have a positive impact on students’ professional practice and to acknowledge that they are the role models for the new generation’s learning through the hidden curriculum.
Boma Awoala West, Josephine Enekole Aitafo, Tamunoiyowuna Grace Okari
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 5, pp 13-21;

Background: Adequate weaning confers both short and long-term benefits on a child’s health and well-being. Weaning practice is determined by a mother’s knowledge amongst other factors.Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study carried out from 1st of June - 31st of May 2021. Assessments were graded as good, fair and poor knowledge or practice. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23. Fishers’ Exact test was used to test for statistical significance, with P value set at
Karali Hf, Lam Jeh, Chee Jcc, Tan Jhk, Ching Yq, Chew Zy, Farhad Es
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 41-46;

Aim: Supporting Domestic violence and sexual abuse (DVSA) victims at education paradigm.Objective: To find practical methods of disclosing, identifying, and supporting DVSA victims in the education paradigm.Methodology: A phenomenological descriptive literature review study explores what is known from different authors about identification, influence, disclosure tools and support of DVSA victims to clarify the phenomenon, approaches of disclosure tools and victims’ support at education paradigm.Conclusion: Improving factual knowledge and awareness among students and teachers.National policies are mandating the teaching of violence prevention in the national curricula, allocation of budgets, and resources.The need for more comprehensive studies on this subject, educating educators about this paradigm, structuring effective practical disclosure aids, and raising funds and professionals for highly flexible individualised methods of victim’s support.RecommendationsTools chosen should consider the target population, screeners’ skills and experience, and the evaluation’s objective and context.Educators and healthcare providers must ensure that adequate referral and follow-up are provided to those identified through screening to ensure the efficacy of DVSA interventions.Teacher’s lack of confidence, conviction, and expertise could jeopardise the intended message; educator’s training is recommended.To establish DVSA forum at educational institutes, starting with the “digital generation” at tertiary education or secondary and lower educational levels. Students can write, discuss, share, and disclose at this forum anonymously. The details are accessed by a specialised individual who can implement policies and communicate with students who disclosed the information or are suspected of DVSA.
Alex Momanyi Oyagi, Olivia Chesikaw Kaptuya, Gloria Kouko Kayo, Philip Blasto Ooko
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 36-40;

Aim: To assess the pattern and quality of patient referral at a regional faith-based hospital in Western Kenya. Methods: A prospective non-randomized study of patients referred into and out of Litein hospital from 1st June through 31st December 2016. Results: A total of 4,683 patients were admitted during the study period, with 147 `received referral' cases and 106 `sent referral' cases noted, with a referral rate of 3.1%. The majority of the received referrals were formal in nature (76%), initiated by doctors or clinical officers (74%), and had patient/relative input regarding the hospital to refer to (70%). The referral notes were mostly structured (90%) and legible (83%). Advice from the health care professional in the referring facility (36%, n=53), perceived good quality of care (21%, n=31), and presence of a valid insurance cover (8%, n=12) were the main reasons indicated by the patients for choosing our facility. The “sent referrals” were mainly due to need for specialized care (89%) or for proximity to family members/home (6%, n=6). Only 9% of the patients/relatives indicated that there was a significant delay in the initiation and execution of their referral from AIC Litein hospital. The referrals were initiated, predominantly, from the surgical departments (62%, n=66). Conclusion: The referrals to Litein Hospital, while comprising a minority of the patients admitted, were predominantly formal in nature, mostly initiated by medical personnel with the family members involved in decision making regarding the facility to be referred to.
Swaroop N, Ajay Kumar Reddy Bobba
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 58-62;

Introduction: Mobile Phone Culture is most widely spreading in the present era. It has become an essential part of modern life and is playing a vital role in decreasing distance and increasing communication among people. Mobile phone has affected almost every field of life but its effects on students learning especially at college level are deep and are multidimensional. With the passage of time, the darker side of technology is also revealed. Mobile devices have both positive and negative effects on human health and behaviour. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using purposive 120 sampling among newly intake of undergraduate students in tertiary care teaching hospital. Those who were absent and, withdraw during data collection as well as uncompleted questionnaire were excluded in the study. A pilot study was administered to 120 undergraduate students who were not participating in the study. Result showed that the students did not have difficulty in understanding and completing the questionnaire. Then, actual study was carried out. Result: Result from this study found 45.0% of students spent 4-6 hours a day to use the smartphone. Meanwhile, 30% of the students spend more than seven hours on and this figure is quite worrying. This is because time allocation for smartphones more than 5 hours is inappropriate for a student who should prioritize academic issues and concentrate on learning rather than social issues as it will affect the academic achievement. The finding of this study showed that most of the students used smartphones to browse social networking sites. Conclusion: It was observed in our study that many students use mobile phones excessively and inappropriately. They are giving more preference for mobile phone usage than their health and academics. As mobile phone usage is highly prevalent among college students their impact on mental health and academic performance should be discussed and judicial use recommended.
Naif Alqahtani, Halimah Alhifzi, Hamad Alhothaily, Mohammad Alotaibi, Omar Alkenani
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 41-50;

Background: COVID-19 infection among healthcare workers is a major concern whenever a pandemic occurs. Health care professionals are the frontline in the war against this vicious outbreak which makes them at a higher risk of inquiring the infection than the general population. Use of Personal protective equipment (PPE) is considered a pivotal role in infection control measures. We aimed to study usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) among KSMC family medicine Residents to determine if the appropriate PPE were used by family medicine physician and to examine the factors that may determine inappropriate. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on Family Medicine Residents of KSMC, Riyadh. All levels of residency of family medicine specialty were included in this research. We used convenient non-probability sampling technique. Results: A total of 134 Family Medicine Residents of KSMC, Riyadh were finally enrolled in this study. 86% of junior and 90% of senior residents received formal training in hand hygiene in the last three years. Most of them know that the main route of cross-transmission of potentially harmful germs between patients is health-care workers’ hands when not clean. Higher percentage of junior cleaning their hands after each consultation compared to senior (98% vs 86% respectively, P = 0.009). There was no statistically significant difference between males and females residents about wearing surgical masks by suspected patients whilst in common areas or throughout the consultation, and 87% of both of them received formal training in hand hygiene in the last three years. There was a significant difference between males and females residents in their knowledge about the main route of cross- transmission of potentially harmful germs between patients (P = 0.006); a higher percentage of males know that the main route is health-care workers’ hands when not clean compared to females (58% vs 52% respectively, P = 0.006), also higher percentage of females using PPE in infection room when a patient confirmed to have Covid-19 when compared to males (97% vs 80% respectively). Conclusion: At the time of the study, most medical residents were knowledgeable, had a positive attitude, and good level of awareness was observed regarding PPE as it prevents their infection when fighting COVID-19 pandemic. Despite these findings, there were few gaps in resident’s knowledge in certain situations and this need to be addressed through more training courses regarding PPE and this which will significantly raise the level of knowledge and also will set better attitude and practices regarding PPE.
Otobo Daniel David, Okoro Ijeoma Ngozi
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 17-22;

Nigeria is a country of more than 200 million citizens. Amongst these, 40% live below the poverty line and earn less than $400 dollars annually. The laws in the country does not also affect all f her citizens equally. The large gap in equity in the nation has been seen to have a direct impact on the recent public health emergency, the covid-19 pandemic that occurred. With a lot of policies put in place to cub the spread and enhance control of the virus, the country had a lot of gaps and windows for her elite citizens. This did not just cause an introduction of the virus into the country; it also played a pivotal role in the pattern of spread in the country. The paper also went further to reflect the need for government office holders to have strong unbiased knowledge of medical emergencies (Epidemics and pandemics) and their implications. The public health implications of a fall in civilization and what impacts it can have in the prognosis of public health affairs in a nation. It creates a direct linkage between the impact of government policies, civil violence and most importantly Inequity.
Amal Ghzwany, Ahmed Al Selihem, Abeer Sharahili, Alhanouf Alazmi, Esra Alhwsawi
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 07-12;

Background: Elderly people need to care services in particular to maintain a high quality of life and health status. Managing the health needs of geriatric patients is part of the continuity of care family physicians provide to their patients. Aims: to assess physicians' attitude, perception and practice toward depression in elderly in primary care sitting.Methodology: A cross- sectional study to assess primary health care physicians' attitude and perceptions and practices toward depression in elderly patients in primary health care centers of King Saud medical city in Riyadh, kingdom of Saudi Arabia using self-administrated questionnaire Results: We received 210 responses to our questionnaire with response rate of 100% where 51% of them were females. PHC physicians routinely screen for sleep disturbance (79%), loss of interest or pleasure (79%), sad mood (72%), and decreased energy (63%) in order to diagnosis of depression. Moreover, we found that 56% of physicians would use clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of geriatric depression. Furthermore, the main barriers to adequate diagnosis and treatment of elderly depressed patients were rejection of patients to treatment (22% of them indicated it as major problem) and difficulty for access to mental health care in our community (19% of them indicated it as major problem).Conclusion: we found that most of the physicians in Riyadh show high positive attitude toward depression of elderly however, there are some limitations in knowledge about symptoms of depression and restriction to guideline.
Arshied Hussain Bhat
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 56-58;

Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is considered a common disease in the general population of Western countries. The present study was conducted to assess the risk factors of GERD in patients. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted on 216 patients. A questionnaire was designed and all the subjects were advised to respond to it. Data such as type of analgesics used, number of meals per day, most types of food, most types of drinks, smoking, family history of GERD was recorded. Results: Out of 216 patients, males were 102 and females were 114. The risk factors were spicy food in 167, tea use 180, more than 3 meals a day in 57, analgesic use in 45, salt use 128 and intake of fiber free diet in 157 patients. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Authors found that the risk factors for GERD was spicy food, tea use, more than 3 meals a day, analgesic use, salt use and intake of fiber free diet.
Arshied Hussain Bhat
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 139-141;

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted to assess complications in type II diabetes mellitus patients. Results: Age group
Nandini Rc, Prakruthi Ar, Dh Ashwath Narayana
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 29-31;

The goal of immunization is to protect the individual and the public from vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Vaccines are usually safe and effective. However, like any other pharmaceutical products, adverse events may occur occasionally following vaccination. The adverse events following immunization (AEFI) surveillance in India was started with the launch of Universal Immunization Program (UIP) in 1985 and intends to ensure the quality and safety of vaccines. A descriptive study was conducted at maternal and child health hospital involving infants and their mothers who delivered at the centre. The sample size was arrived by using the formula n=4pq/d2 where prevalence “p” was taken as 55% (Measles vaccination at MCH hospital which is the least among all the vaccinations). With precision of 5%, using the above mentioned statistical formula which considers 95% confidence limits; the sample size was estimated to be 110. Most of the study subjects 60 (54.5 %) belonged to the nuclear family followed by 25 (22.7%) to three-generation family and 25 (22.8%) to joint family. Majority of subjects 47 (42.7%) belonged to lower middle class followed by 30 (27.3%) upper middle class, 22 (20%) upper lower class and 11 (10%) were upper class according to Modified Kuppuswamy socio-economic status classification 2016.
Anupama P, Radha Y Aras, Jeram Parmar, Abhay Nirgude
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 01-04;

In industrialized societies, blood pressure increases steadily during the first two decades of life. In children and adolescents, bold pressure is associated with growth and maturation. Blood pressure “tracks” over time in children and between adolescence and young adulthood. In the United States, average systolic blood pressure is higher for men than for women during early adulthood, although among older individuals the age related rate of rise is steeper for women. A pilot study was conducted with a sample size of 60 participants, taking twenty participants from each of the above mentioned villages. The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 9.2% in the pilot study. Based on the pilot study appropriate changes were made in the initial questionnaire and a final questionnaire was prepared and used for the study. In this study, 77.7% of participants with hypertension were in Stage 1 category in this study. It can be inferred that with increasing age there was a higher prevalence of Hypertension. There is a statistically significant association between Age and Blood Pressure status.
Yazid Mohammed Alotaibi, Mubarak Faihan Aldajani, Saad Al Battal
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 32-39;

Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common acute complications of the treatment of type 1 diabetes. As children spent major part of their daytime at school, the role of school personnel in recognizing and managing diabetic emergencies such as hypoglycemia is very critical for children safety at school. Objective: To assess the level of knowledge about hypoglycemia and its management among teachers of boys’ primary schools in Riyadh. Additionally, evaluate the experience with hypoglycemia recognition and management among them. Methods: Observational cross-sectional study was conducted between January and December 2020 among primary school teachers. Approximately 20 teachers were conveniently recruited from each school. The schools were randomly selected to represent the five geographic regions of Riyadh. Administrative and other auxiliary school employees were excluded. The data were collected using a structured study questionnaire. This included data on socio-demographic characteristics of teachers, knowledge questions about hypoglycemia, previous experience with hypoglycemia, and related health education and training received. Results: A total 404 teachers were included in this analysis. All teachers were Saudi males and the majority (68.1%) of teachers were above the age of 30 years. The majority (64.4%) of teachers had more than 10 years of working experience. The mean knowledge score about hypoglycemia among the study teachers was 77.2%. The majority of teachers were aware that low blood sugar is dangerous (99.0%), need immediate care (99.8%), may be caused by increased dose of treatment (89.1%), and can lead to serious complications including death (77.2%). Only 21.0% of teachers were aware of the first aid measures for low blood sugar. More than half (54.2%) of the teachers have seen a colleague who suffered from low blood sugar. Only 22.6% the teachers who have seen a colleague who suffered from low blood sugar were able to help; by calling emergency (52.6%) or giving him candy (43.9%). Approximately 71% of the teachers have been provided with health education about low blood sugar. However, the majority (89.1%) of teachers believed they need training to deal with low blood sugar conditions. The preferred methods of such training included workshops (48.6%), lectures (36.7%), brochures (12.8%), and mobile messages (1.9%). There was significantly higher knowledge score among teachers who have been provided with health education about low blood sugar. There were no significant associations between knowledge score and socio-demographic characteristics of teachers. Conclusions: We are reporting fair knowledge about hypoglycemia but limited knowledge and skills to manage it among primary school teachers. There is urgent need for diabetes related educational programs targeting teachers working in primary schools to improve their knowledge and confidence in dealing with diabetic emergencies such as hypoglycemia.
Abdulrahman S Alhumaid, Ayla Tourkmani, Mostafa Kofi
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 23-28;

Background: Identification of population at risk of NAFLD necessitates knowledge about associated conditions, screening strategies, in addition to a time investment to perform an evaluation. Furthermore, knowledge about management strategies including self-management and appropriate referral is a key to reducing further morbidity and excess mortality.Objectives: To assess the knowledge, awareness of management strategies, attitudes, and perceptions regarding NAFLD, and the barriers to providing care for patients diagnosed with NAFLD.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey among family physicians at Primary Health Center at Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected through a self-administrated questionnaire that contains questions that measure the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice barriers, besides the demographic data. The questionnaire was taken from another study after taking the author's permission.Results: A total of 160 family physicians participated in the current study, 56.58%were males, and the qualifications were mostly (60.87%) SBFM. The overall mean (±SD) score of the knowledge level was 5.12, indicating a poor knowledge level. The total mean score differed significantly only by the number of years passing out faculty. More than half (53.9%) of the participants reported screening obese and diabetic patients for NAFLD, and 61.3% refer NAFLD patients to a gastroenterologist. Only 6.2% of the participated physicians know the NAFLD prevalence in Saudi Arabia, and less than one-quarter (23.6%) know who they should screen for NAFLD. Lack of patients compliance and lack of physician confidence were the main barriers to NAFLD management among the participated physicians, by 62.1%, and 43.5%, respectively.Conclusion: Overall, the knowledge level about NAFLD among the participated physicians is poor, which highlights the need for a better understanding of NAFLD and the best way forward would be continuous medical education of clinicians on this subject.
Abhishek Kumar, Ashish Kumar Sharma, Priyanka Sahu
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 14-17;

Background: The metabolic syndrome is characterized by clustering of various interlinked risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, pro inflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. The present study was conducted to assess MetS among known population. Materials & Methods: 280 subjects of metabolic syndrome (MetS) of both genders age ranged from 20-70 years were included. Body mass index (BMI), hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL- C), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were estimated. Results: The mean BMI (Kg/m2) in males was 50.3 and in females was 48.1, SBP (mm Hg) was 128.4 in males and 126.4 in females, DBP (mm Hg) was 84.2 in males and 80.4 in females, TG (mg/dl) was 146.2 in males and 132.2 in females, cholesterol (mg/dl) was 185.2 in males and 186.2 in females, HDL-C (mg/dl) was 40.8 in males and 43.6 in females, LDL-C (mg/dl) was 118.2 in males and 116.0 in females and FBS (mg/dl) was 102.4 in males and 98.4 in females. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). Age >40 years had 3.4 times, BMI (>25 Kg/m2) had 4.6 times, cholesterol (>200mg/dl) had 1.5 times, hypertension had 2.31 times and diabetes had 5.39 times risk of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors was high among male adults.
Sanjev Dave, Anuradha Dave, Rajesh Jain
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 19-22;

Introduction: Due to COVID-19 related lockdown-the various impacts across the Globes have been seen as reported in literature. Rationale of study: In Past 6 Months the lifting of complete lockdown by governments all across the world is now compelling laboratories in all kinds of settings such as academic and industrial that they must open if they have to survive in this World. But real question is How to open in best way? Research Question: Can Companies like Agilent provide Sufficient Solutions for lab opening in Post Lockdown Era? Results: This article elucidates the various impacts of Lockdown on Research Labs due to COVID 19; such as scenarios of limited access to customers & markets, the need for 24-hour operation support, economic uncertainty due to Lockdown, working with Reduction in on-site staff, increased remote working and disruption to supply chains after Lockdown. Conclusion: COVID-19 Lockdown impact is far from trivial and Role of Agilent Company in offering advices on some of the good practices to overcome lockdown impact on Labs can be adopted.
Chrestos Panagiotis Psalidas, Anastasios Kottaras, Dimitrios Lytras, Paris Iakovidis, Georgios Leptourgos, Konstantinos Moutaftsis
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 29-31;

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to paralysis and premature death within an average of 3-5 years from the onset of symptoms. Therapeutic exercise helps to slow down the onset of muscle weakness. The aim of this review is to describe recent research data on the applications of therapeutic exercise in patients with ALS. The Google Scholar and PubMed databases were searched with the following keywords: motor neurone disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, exercises, rehabilitation. Both clinical trials and reviews were included in the review. In conclusion, the application of therapeutic exercise helps to better compensate the deficits and to minimize the muscle weakness and atrophy caused by the disease. Exercises such as aerobics and flexibility and mobility exercises help maintain work ability and endurance and prevent lack of use in the upper and lower limbs.
Leena Salunkhe, Vasundhara Ghaorpade, Rahul Salunkhe, Nihal Mali
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 24-28;

Background: With the increase in internet usage in today’s time, the incidence of internet addiction has also increased. College students are especially vulnerable to internet, because of availability of time, unlimited access, limited parental supervision and the psychological and developmental characteristics of young adulthood. Objective of this study is to identify internet addiction among urban and rural youth population. Method: This cross sectional study was carried among urban and rural population in the locality of Sangli district, Maharashtra, India. A total of 200 students having an access to internet were selected by simple random sampling. Young’s Internet addiction scale, consisting of 20-item, based upon five-point Likert scale was used and subjects were classified accordingly. Result: The prevalence of internet addiction among urban population is 65% while in rural population is 70%. Mild IA was common among both populations while severe IA is seen more in rural population. As far as gender is considered, the prevalence is similar in male and female sample. The addicts use internet preferably for social media and social purposes. Conclusions:In this study, Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is used which is a simple and easy tool to assess Internet addiction among urban and rural youth population. It is necessary to adopt multi-sectoral approach to improve education among urban and rural youth population.
Sourav Bansal, Harjeevan Kalra, Nitin Soni
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 21-23;

Mucormycosis, caused by a group of moulds called mucormycetes, is a rare but potentially fatal infection if inadequately treated. It is often referred to as the so-called black fungus, the incidence of mucormycosis has risen more rapidly during the second wave compared with the first wave of COVID-19 in India. We reported a case of mucormycosis in a 50 years old male patient.
Bratati Banerjee, Ekta Arora, Pallavi Singh, Nidhi Budh, Puneet Mishra
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 40-43;

Introduction: As various emerging and re-emerging diseases have occurred over time; this era is traversing through another pandemic of novel coronavirus. Management of COVID-19 focusses on spreading awareness to the community regarding methods of transmission and preventive strategies for COVID-19. Thus, capacity building of frontline workers plays a key role in the management of COVID-19. Methodology: A training evaluation study was carried out on ASHA and Anganwadi Workers at the Rural Health Training Center, Barwala for a duration of two months. Pretest and post test were conducted to assess the impact of the training sessions. Paired t test for difference between means for pre- and post-intervention sessions and Fisher’s Exact Test for proportion of subjects with and without correct knowledge were applied. Results: Comparison of Mean scores obtained by the group of participants in Pre-Test and Post-Test assessments came out to be statistically significant. An improvement of 15.5% was observed post training sessions, though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The training sessions evaluated in this study were successful in raising awareness of the group of participants and helped to bridge the gap remaining after government endeavor.
Joud G AL Darsoni, Norah A AL Shehri
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 09-14;

Aim: To assess maternal awareness of developmental milestones, and some of the factors that affects her level of knowledge. In addition, to address some of the sources they seek for information. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the knowledge of developmental milestones exhibited by 358 mothers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: A large majority of the women (84.6%) scored poorly in terms of knowledge, and there was a clear connection between educational levels and knowledge levels. Other variables - such as age, occupation, marital status, income, number of children- had no influence on the scores.Conclusion: Mothers in Saudi Arabia have poor knowledge of developmental milestones and this stems from the relationship between mothers and healthcare professionals. One way of tackling this issue is to ensure that all new parents are provided with evidence-based educational resources - for example, leaflets - as well as information on children's development, either by nurses or doctors.
Chandani Ashok Kumar
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 239-244;

Background: Psychosocial stress has been implicated as a risk factor for high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Medical students experience a relatively high level of professional and personal stress, with adverse consequences on academic performance, competency, professionalism, and health. This may result in altered behavior pattern and dietary habit resulting in weight change. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and association between perceived stress and body mass index. Methods: A Cross sectional study was done on 613 students in a medical college. Standardised PSQ-14 was used to calculate PSSI. Weight and height were measured by standard techniques, BMI was calculated and analysed with perceived stress. Results: The prevalence of perceived stress was 57.7% and high stress was reported among female and final year students. Academics and curriculum was the most common cause of stress, and positive coping mechanisms were used by the students to relieve stress. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% and 9.5% respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between perceived stress and BMI. Conclusion: The prevalence of stress was high and a significant association was found between stress and BMI. It is important to identify the sources and symptoms of stress among medical students in order to facilitate early detection and treatment, which can prevent physical and psychological morbidities later in life.
Chethana Kv, Yuvraj By
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 235-238;

Introduction: Health Care Utilization overall, and for maternal health specifically has improved in India. The progress has been attributed to NRHM, that has increased the number of community health workers and resulted in more institutional deliveries. Motherhood is the basis of family life. Antenatal Care (ANC) is a pivotal factor for safe motherhood. Mothers who had not received good ANC were found to be more at risk of having Low birth weight babies. Aims 1. To assess the utilization pattern of ANC services 2. Association between the socio demographic factors and the utilization pattern Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Urban Field Practice area, KIMS, Koppal. 327 women who delivered in one year were interviewed between 1st October 2018 to 30st September 2019 by using pre designed and semi structured questionnaire. House to house visit was done to obtain information about the antenatal care utilization and socio demographic factors. The data was entered in excel Results: Out of 328 study participants, majority 282(86%) had their ANC Checkup at Urban Health Centre, 273 (83.3%) had early antenatal registration during first trimester, 267 (81.7%) received IFA tablets. Conclusions: Due to the implementation of NRHM and the frequent monitoring of ANM and ASHA workers, our results have shown better ANC services utilization pattern in our study area.
Aastha Pandey
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 45-48;

Breast feeding and complementary feeding are known to play a crucial role in the growth and development of an infant. Various Global agencies recommend that Infants should be exclusively breast fed for 6 months and appropriate complementary feeding should be started at the age of six months without discontinuing breastfeeding. Though there are many awareness programmes of the Government, there are still many wrong practices and myths associated with infant feeding. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge about breast feeding and complementary feeding in pregnant women. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the Field Practice area of a Medical College In Maharashtra. There were 80 pregnant women in the 10 adopted villages. 58 women were interviewed for the study by the principal investigator after obtaining consent, with the help of a pretested, IYCF questionnaire formulated by Breast feeding Promotion Network of Results: Out of the 58 women interviewed, all were married and majority 50, (86.20%) were housewives. 46(79.31%) belonged to joint families. 32(55.17%) were primigravida and 26 (44.87%) were multigravida.93% had knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding but only 72% knew the correct time of initiation.57% felt that pre-lacteal foods should be given. 47% knew correct age of giving complementary foods but variety of foods to be given was not known. Myths regarding complementary foods are prevalent. 60% believed that bottle feeding should not be given. Level of education has a positive impact on infant feeding practices. Recommendations: Education regarding infant and young child feeding practices should be given to all pregnant women and also to their family members
Alaa AlAhmari, Turkiah Alotaibi, Ghada Al-Arfaj, Mostafa Kofi
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 30-38;

Background: Workplace bullying is considered one of the most occupational stressors. It is widely prevalent worldwide, and healthcare settings are not an exception. Over the past few years, numerous Studies have been produced across the globe about how widespread bullying is as a behavior. One of the main areas of investigations is bullying of healthcare workers. Workplace bullying can have serious implications and significant consequences for those who are exposed like less job satisfaction, ineffective teamwork and poor communication, unnecessary leaves, reducing staff commitment to the organization, burnout, Depression and quitting.Since there is no study done in the Middle East before on bullying among postgraduate trainee we aimed in our study to measure the prevalence of bullying among residents in Saudi Arabia. And to identify the types and sources of bullying behavior faced during training years to establish roles and policies to prevent bullying based on the result of the study. As well as encourage the residents to report workplace bullying to eliminate bullying behavior in the field of healthcare.Objectives: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of workplace bullying targeting residents. Also, it aims to identify the influencing factors and consequences of workplace bullying. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey study, 500 doctors were surveyed using a self-administrated electronic questionnaire. The completed questionnaires are 419 which accounts for 83.8% response rate. Statistical analysis using the index of job satisfaction, descriptive statistics, and logistics regression was employed. The results were obtained using SPSS package version 23.Results: The estimated prevalence rate of experiencing any bullying was 70% among the sampled residents. The estimated prevalence for persistent bullying was 20 – 50%. The job satisfaction index was 55 (54.15, 55.88, p-value = 0.023). Colleagues, supervisors and team leaders are considered the main sources of bullying. The logistic regression identified certain hospital (OR = 0.07), the second-year of residency (OR = 2.17), working more than 8 hours (OR = 2.17), and on-call days per months per each day (OR = 1.13).Conclusion: Bullying among residents is a silent epidemic. Policies, awareness campaigns, and monitoring programs should be employed to effectively tackling the problem.
Nanthini Saravanan, K Kannan, S Rajini
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 09-13;

A study of breast feeding practices among rural women
Randa Bin Madhi, Abuobaida Khugali, Mostafa Kofi
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 01-08;

Online health information seeking among patients in primary health care settings, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Barathalakshmi J, Ponmalar M, Sriram S, Tamilselvi V
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 14-17;

Study on violence against doctors and its impact on career selection
Ola Alalmai, Mostafa Kofi
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 46-52;

Primary health care physicians, workplace violence, primary health care, violence, Saudi Arabia
Anusha Dvb, Manoj Patruni, Pooja Chouhan, Gopa Raju A, Sanagavarapu Venkata Sai Moudgalya
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 41-45;

Study to assess the knowledge and perceptions on COVID-19, among RVM hospital staff, Siddipet district, Telangana state, South India
Kp Joshi, Deepak Jamadar
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 01-05;

Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding COVID-19 among medical students – A cross sectional study
Chetana Singode, Ramesh K, Gangadhara Goud T
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 225-228;

A study on obstetric profile of antenatal mothers in a community: Cross sectional study
Rajesh R Kulkarni
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 223-224;

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most prevalent cause of death and disability in both developed as well as developing countries.
Muhammed Muntazeem G, Varadaraja Rao Ba, Ajeet Eti, Basanth Kumar Patil, Prakash Kengal
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 177-182;

Sanjana Chetana Shanmukhappa, Rahul R Abraham, Shalini Chandan
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 164-167;

Since its advent in the 17th century, vaccines have come a long way in preventing diseases
Neha Choudhary, Sonika Sangra, Akash Narangyal
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 109-111;

Risk assessment for non- communicable diseases among out patients visiting urban health centre in Jammu region: A cross sectional study
Deepika Nagaraj, Naveen Ramesh
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 86-90;

Teachers play a vital role in the society by helping students acquire knowledge and moral values.
Arshied Hussain Bhat
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 183-185;

Kannan K, Ponmalar M, Rajini S, Kavya K, Kavya Shree P, Kabith Vajan A
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 168-171;

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