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Shilpa Waghmare, Pratibha Verma
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 27-29; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i4a.211

Abstract:
Background and Objective: Noise pollution is one of the commonest occupational and environmental health hazard. The extent of damage to hair cells is determined by the intensity of noise to which a person is exposed, and the duration of noise exposure [1]. Prolonged exposure to high intensity noise >85dB(A) or more, for eight hours can lead to permanent hearing loss. This exposure can be reduced significantly by using simple ear protection devices. NIHL can be easily prevented through the use of simple and economical tools, but are not used by people due to different reasons.3Our study aimed at determining the relation between the duration of exposure to loud noise on the severity of noise-induced hearing loss. The subjects of our study were train drivers working in an extremely noisy environment for long hours, without using any ear protection tool. Materials and Method: This study involved 60 subjects, who were all train drivers. They were working in an extremely noisy environment for more than eight hours a day for more than ten years. The responses to brainstem evoked response audiometry were recorded and evaluated for severity of hearing loss. Result: 60% subjects reported positive for sensorineural deafness. 18.3% of the subjects were having mild degree of hearing loss, 23.3% were having moderate degree of hearing loss and 18.3% were having severe degree of hearing loss. Conclusion: It was found that the duration of exposure to noise has a positive correlation with the degree of severity of hearing loss (p
Okari Tamunoiyowuna G, West Boma, Aitafo Enekole J
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 30-35; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i4a.212

Abstract:
Background: Immunization which has been proven to be the most cost-effective intervention in promoting child health and as such one of the success stories in public health. They are safe and effective globally, but are usually not without adverse events occasionally.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out over one-year, among children aged 6weeks to 18months attending the Paediatric outpatient clinic in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH). A sample size of 370 children who met the inclusion criteria were recruited.Results: Of 370 mother-baby pair, 231(62.4%) mothers were aged 30-39years and attained tertiary education 250(67.6%). Most babies were aged 0-5months (58.1%) with M:F ratio of 1.06:1. Most of the mothers 158(78.6%) were told of possible Adverse events following immunization (AEFI) by the health workers prior to vaccination. AEFI was reported in 201(54.3%) children, majority were generalized reactions 170(84.6%) and none had rare adverse events. Most occurred at the 2nd immunization visit 158(78.6%), 1-11hours following vaccination (74.6%). The commonest AEFI were fever 169(84.1%) and swelling at the injection site 92(45.8%). Only 6(3.0%) mothers reported the AEFI incidence and 4(2.0%) were admitted in the hospital for fever following vaccination. No child with AEFI had their immunization schedule disrupted.Conclusion: There was a high incidence of AEFI in children attending the Paediatric outpatient clinic, with poor level of reporting of such incidence. Education of the public about AEFI, in addition to strengthening the country’s vaccination surveillance system, will improve its detection, reporting and monitoring, which are critical in managing vaccine reactions.
Konika Jain, Dharampal Singh Chouhan, Abhinav Jain
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 23-26; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i4a.210

Abstract:
Background: Anaemia is one of the most important factors influencing maternal morbidity and mortality and also the health of the newborn. It is a global health issue affecting nearly half of pregnant women. This study aimed to assess the association of maternal anemia with poor pregnancy outcomes.Methods: It was a cross-sectional study that included 2 study centers. As per inclusion/exclusion criteria, this study included 650 post-partum mothers. Using Stratified random sampling study participants were enrolled. Data were collected and analyzed in SPSS 23. Using statistical tests i.e., Chi-square, t-test, etc data was analyzed.Results: Anaemic mothers had a statistically significant association with low birth weight (χ2-9.099, p -0.003) and babies born dead (χ2-8.045, p -0.005). Using the student t-test, there was a significant mean birth weight difference of 114 gms of newborns among anemic and non-anemic mothers (p-0.003).Conclusions: Improving anemic status during pregnancy can reduce the burden of poor pregnancy outcomes.
Aymen Afifi, Mustafa Kofi
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 08-12; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i4a.208

Abstract:
Background: Psychological distress is increasingly prevalent nowadays. Healthcare professionals (HCP) are highly vulnerable to stress, anxiety, and depression. Insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder. Primary care physicians have higher prevalence rate of insomnia. Different psychological coping strategies have effective role to get rid of potential stressors.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey study among residents that suffer from sleep disorders. Data for this study was collected via a questionnaire that ask how a person cope with stresses in his life. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed statistically using the Statistical Package for Social Studies. Results: 48.07% of the residents have a severe mental disorder, 21.03% have a moderate mental disorder. The highest prevalence of severe mental disorders was reported among Anesthesia, adult ICU residents and neurology ones. Conclusion: A high prevalence of psychological distress and insomnia was among the participated residents. Moreover, the resident’s utilization for coping strategies was low.
AL Hanoof AL Emran, Tarek Al Siad
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i4a.207

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally and Saudi Arabia is not an exception. As a result, diabetic foot complications are increasing. Such complications can be prevented by regular foot examination. We conducted this study aiming to assess the rate of physicians performing foot examination and education that is reported by diabetic patients and to explore the clinical and demographic variables that may affect physician performance in diabetic foot examination and education. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among diabetic patients at AL-Wezarat diabetic clinic, PSMMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected through a questionnaire that was previously used in a similar study, the questionnaire was translated into Arabic validated and distributed randomly to the sample population.Results: A total of 248 patients' medical records were analyzed, more than half (56.10%) were females, and 15.29% were smokers. Diabetic foot complications were prevalent among 76.23% of the participants, and the prevalence of foot ulcers was 7.26%. The majority of the respondents reported that their physicians examined their feet during the last year at 84.21%, and more than half (54.33%) said that the physicians examine their feet every visit. Inspection only was the most used method by 87.80%. The prevalence of diabetic foot was significantly higher among females at 61.6% compared to 38.4% among males. Similarly, the correlation was statistically significant with educational level, employment status and smoking. Conclusion: According to the current study findings, diabetic foot examination by family physicians is considered high, as reported by diabetic patients; however, the examination was mostly by inspection rather than specific tool examination. The reasons for such findings should be addressed in future studies in order to learn the causes and put solutions in place by health care authorities in order to help prevent diabetic foot complications.
Hamood Alturaigi, Mohannad Alshaya, Muhannad Aldubaykhi, Ali Almhawas, Khaled Alshehri
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i4a.209

Abstract:
Background: Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are particularly common in children and are a major source of antibiotic misuse, which leads to antibiotic resistance development. Aims: To assess the Knowledge and Attitude towards antibiotics use among mothers Attending pediatric clinics in King Saud medical city |(KSMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in pediatric clinics in KSMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March 2021 and August 2021. Desired population in this study was mothers of children aged ≤ 14 years Attending pediatric clinics in KSMC, Riyadh, they were selected via a convenient non-probability sampling technique. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaire and analysis was performed using (SPSS). Results: A total of 422 mothers participated in this study. 77.3% of the parents had poor knowledge of the use of antibiotics in children for URTIs, even though the majority of the participants (93.4%) considered physicians as the primary source of information. Only 17.3% of the participants strongly agreed that most of the URTIs are of viral origin and only 12.3% of the participants correctly know that antibiotics have side effects and 39.8% strongly agreed that the inappropriate use of antibiotics reduces their efficacy and drives bacterial resistance. Fever and ear ache were the most common reasons for which parents visited the physician. Additionally, mothers have child with history of chronic disease considered as have good knowledge compared to mothers not have child with history of chronic disease, with significant association (P = 0.007). Conclusion:The relationship between mothers and physicians is trusted, but Saudi mothers are insufficiently informed about antibiotics' use for URTIs, which results in inappropriate attitudes and practices. Educational interventions for both parents and physicians will reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and resistance.
Coker Ao, Olibamoyo O, Adewunmi Ao, Osakwe Va, Taiwo T, Alonge Ao
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2019.v2.i1a.09

Abstract:
Due to the social stigma associated with mental illness, to avoid the sigma, individuals with mental illness opt to seek help from variety of sources before eventually accessing professional mental health care.
Pulkit Chaturvedi, Aastha Doshi, Deepika Balodi, Ekta Singh, Sofia Shams, Devanshi Raijada, Vishwa Shah, Ayushi Pathak, Gaurav Jawariya, Soumya Vardhan
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 38-40; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i3a.203

Abstract:
Background: Health care workers are a part of
community
that provides health care services. They facilitate people from primary preventions to complex treatment procedures. In the course they often neglect their own health prospects especially oral health. The attitude regarding oral health in health care workers in India is a cause of concern. The aim of the study is to assess the oral health needs of the health care workers in Udaipur, India and to utilize data to be used as a guideline for improvements in their oral health care and improving their quality of life. Methodology: A written oral health case history format was prepared and was carefully examined on all willing participants for the study along with dental indices recording related to dental caries and tooth wear. The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS 21 software. Results: 87.5% of the health care workers were suffering from dental caries. Also, 16.3% had root stumps in their oral cavity of the teeth which were lost due to caries. Also, 17.5% participants had grossly decayed teeth due to caries. Noticeably, attrition of teeth was also noticed in 65% of the participants. These findings can be attributed to the amount of sugar present in food, lack of oral hygiene and poor oral health habits. Conclusion: Their knowledge regarding oral health care habits needs improvement. They are the people who can themselves apply and guide others to maintain good oral habits. Efforts should be established by caretakers to instill oral health education in health care workers.
Otobo D Daniel, Adefila Jacob, Edugbe E Adikpe, Yonni Johnson, Mesak Daniel, Ishiola M Adewale, Omoruyi Anita, Ezejiofor L Ugochukwu, Okpe Paschal, Okau Uloko, Tanko O Halima
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 23-27; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i3a.201

Abstract:
The poor participation of youths in politics and governance in Africa may be as a result of the indigenous African believe that wisdom is associated with the aged and thus the elderly makes for best leaders. This has led to a lot of African nations with the worlds youngest populations as her majority being led by some of the world’s oldest leaders. Like Nigeria for example. In the aspect of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR), we have old and unamended policies that no longer seek to favour the mental, physical or social sexual and reproductive wellbeing of the younger and younger African populace. The aim of this study was primarily to listen to what some African Youths proposed for the improvement of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in their Countries. This was done by using a validated data tool in a randomized cross-sectional study amongst 80 participants from over 11 African countries. The results showed that majority of the correspondents wanted to implement policies to improve Comprehensive Sexual Education,
Community
advocacy/awareness engagements and government policies amendments, respectively. Other areas mentioned were; improved Family planning services and, Human and reproductive health rights. While the two people said they were going to scale down SRHR and Do nothing concerning SRHR, respectively in their countries. No one made mention of improving any aspect concerning the LGBTQ
community
, what so ever.
Otobo Daniel David, Okoro Ijeoma Ngozi
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 13-16; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i3a.199

Abstract:
Alternatives to illegal migrations: The need to migrate out of Nigeria has almost been seen as the surest bet to getting a better life. Many Nigerians try to attain this fit by all means possible. Even illegally. In 2015, 23,000 Nigerians crossed the Mediterranean Sea to Europe and in the first 9 months of 2016, 22,500 had crossed. In the 1990s, more men migrated than women, however the reverse is becoming the case in the 21st century. The general prevalence of illegal migration is constantly increasing. Due to the illegality of this act, a lot of people migrating illegally lose their lives and properties in the process. Others never get to where they are going. While the rest are kidnapped and trafficked into prostitution. Especially the women and girls. With reasons ranging from family and friends’ pressure, to search for greener pastures or even escaping from the law, More Nigerians die on the seas, illegally migrating than other African nations.
Rajeet Kumar, Anita Thakur
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 18-20; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i2a.190

Abstract:
Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the leading cause of unintentional injuries, accounting for the greatest proportion of deaths from unintentional injuries. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder among patients with history of road traffic accident. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with history of road traffic accident were enrolled. A Performa was made and complete history was taken for obtaining information pertaining to demographic and clinical details. Psychiatric assessment of the patients was done for assessing the psychiatric illness and incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Also patients with history of presence of any malignant neoplasm were excluded. All the results were recorded and analysed by SPSS software. Results: Out of 50 patients enrolled, psychiatric illness was present in 42 percent of the patients. Among these 42 patients with psychiatric illness, 47.62 percent of the patients had post-traumatic stress disorder, 28.57 percent of the patients had anxiety and the remaining 23.81 percent of the patients had depressive disorder. Conclusion: Post-traumatic stress disorder is significant prevalent among patients with history of road traffic accident.
Maria Karypidou, Dimitrios Lytras, Anastasios Kottaras, Paris Iakovidis, Andreas Fotios Tsimerakis
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 35-38; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i2a.195

Abstract:
Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is the most common neuropathic syndrome affecting approximately 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes. One of its main clinical manifestations is neuropathic pain, which significantly complicates the daily life of patients and leads to a low quality of life related to health. The aim of this review is to describe research data on the means of electrotherapy used and their effects in the treatment of pain in patients with DPN. The PubMed, PEDro, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were searched in English with the following keywords: Diabetic Painful Neuropathy, Low-level Laser Therapy, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, and Electromagnetic Fields. The review included 10 clinical studies published in the period of 2004-2019. Discussion-Conclusions: Low-power lasers, pulsed electromagnetic fields and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) are treatment options for treating neuropathic pain in patients with DPN and are considered safe, effective, with minimal side effects compared to medication. However, diabetic neuropathic pain remains a challenge for health scientists. Although there is scientific evidence for the contribution of electrotherapy to its treatment, more focused research is needed.
Georgios Gioglou, Anastasios Kottaras, Dimitrios Lytras, Paris Iakovidis, Anna Giannakoudaki, Konstantinos Moutaftsis
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 32-34; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i2a.194

Abstract:
Stroke is the second most common cause of death in the world and is one of the leading causes of disability and dependence of older adults for care. Acupuncture for the treatment of stroke has been used in China for thousands of years and is constantly gaining ground in the medical
community
of the western world. The aim of this review is to describe through recent research data the efficacy of acupuncture in improving the functioning of individuals after a stroke. Data for both the upper and lower limbs were included in this work. The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the following keywords: Stroke, Acupuncture, disability, Rehabilitation. Both clinical studies and systematic reviews were included in the review, with nine articles included in total. In conclusion, the application of acupuncture seems to have a positive effect on the treatment of motor disorders after a stroke. The results of this review show that acupuncture can contribute and provide significant benefits in improving motor and functional limitations that occur after a stroke and is able to improve the functional level of patients.
Gm Masud Parvez, Jannatul Ferdous Tonu, Rawshon Ara, Saddam Hossain, Umar Faruque, Ratna Khatun, Anika Tahsin Mim, Shaila Sharmin, Sumiya Akter
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i1a.187

Abstract:
Background: Gastrointestinal disease is a burden both for developed and developing countries. This diseases has long term complications and responsible for generation of other diseases.Aims and objectives: This work was designed to identify the age at which this disease first occurred, duration of disease, major complications like burning feelings, stool in blood, ulcer etc. Relationship between lifestyle and food habits with prevalence of disease was also assayed.Materials and methods: The data was collected from July to November 2020 by directly interviewing the patients.Results: This data was collected from 1176 patients, of them 53.74% are male and 46.25% are female. It was found that 60% of patients are taking treatments from directly supervision of physicians. This study revealed that 20.66% respondents first suffered from GI disease at 11-20 years old. Most of the patients of this study needs long time treatment and 30.27% patients are taking treatments for 1-3 years, and 25.43% for 3-6 years. Twenty nine percent of our study sample have experienced malnutrition, 83% have experienced stomach pain and 54% have experienced nausea. The food habit of patients shows that more than 70% of participants have habit of taking soft drinks, 79% have habit of street food and 43.54% participants are drinking about 2 liters of waiter daily.Conclusion: Gastrointestinal disease has a wide range of complications to the patients and disciplined lifestyle should be practiced to avoid this types of disease.
JamalA Selan, Jwaher A Almulhem, Ranyah N Aldekhyyel, Jehad Y Saleh
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 4, pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2021.v4.i1a.186

Abstract:
Background: In the light of the major healthcare transformations taking place in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), more focus is placed on promoting patient engagement to improve the quality of healthcare services provided. There is limited research that explores the factors related to the use of patient portals in KSA, which support patient engagement. We aimed to investigate factors that contribute to the use of a specific patient portal system, implemented at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, KSA among chronically ill patients in an outpatient setting.Method: A cross-sectional study was performed in the adult outpatient clinics. We included five main outcomes: self-reported portal use, participant characteristics, patient activation levels, e-Health literacy scores, and the availability of internet access at home. We used descriptive analyses, univariate and multivariate logistic regression to analyze the data.Results: A total of 403 patients (81% response rate) participated in our study. More than 50% of the participants were female, younger than 55 years, educated, with monthly family income less than 10, 000 SR. Most of the participants reported at least one form of internet connection. A total of 212 (52.6%) participants were users of the portal. Patient activation measure scores were at level 3 or below for the majority of participants (66%) and e-Health literacy scores were at a moderate to a high level for 276 (69%) of participants. Portal use was more likely among males (OR = 2.182, p = 0.00), with two or more forms of internet connections (OR = 5.586, p = 0.037), and with moderate to high levels of e-Health literacy (OR = 2.028, p = 0.003) (OR = 2.309, p = 0.022). There was a positive correlation between e-Health literacy scores and patient activation levels (R = 0.321, p = 0.000). Conclusion: Patient portal use was significantly influenced by certain factors, including gender, level of e-Health literacy and availability of internet. There is a tremendous opportunity to improve the use of patient portal by focusing on methods to increase the level of patient activation and e-Health literacy scores.
Mohammad Saleem Sharoo, Roohi Sharma, Zahid Gillani
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 126-128; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2019.v2.i3b.171

Abstract:
Background: Good clinical practice guidelines are prepositions for healthcare providers to generate reliable clinical trial data. The present study was conducted to assess impact of education intervention on knowledge, attitude and awareness of good clinical practice among health care. Materials and Methods: 140 health care providers (Doctors, dentists, nurses) of both genders were given a self-administrated questionnaire was constructed regarding the role of participant as health care provider and knowledge about GCP guidelines. Response was recorded before and after the training. Results: Awareness regarding principles of declaration of Helsinski at pre- training session and post training session found to be knows very well in 7 and 12 respectively, mostly know it in 11 and 5 respectively, know to some degree in 20 and 58 respectively and don’t know in 62 and 25 respectively. There was significant difference in response and perception of the subjects at pre- training and post training sessions (P
Mohammad Saleem Sharoo, Roohi Sharma, Zahid Gillani
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 203-205; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2019.v2.i2c.172

Abstract:
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are described as 'a response to a medicament which is noxious and unforeseen and which happens at dosages ordinarily utilized for the diagnosis, prophylaxis or treatment of a disease or for the alteration of physiological function. The present study was conducted to assess impact of educational intervention on knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacovigilance among
interns
. Materials and methods: 280 dental
interns
of both genders were given a questionnaire related to knowledge, attitude towards pharmacovigilance. The questionnaire (pre-KAP) was administered and subjects were asked to submit the completed questionnaire. Results of each response were recorded. Results: Out of 280 subjects, males were 110 and females were 170. Pre-KAP value was less as compared to post KAP value in each question. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). There was significant difference in pre and post KAP attitude value (P< 0.05). Conclusion:
Interns
had insufficient knowledge, attitude and practice regarding pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions, however post KAP response found to be good.
Palle Lokhnath Reddy, Aluka Anand Chand
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i2a.147

Abstract:
Health status appraisal of under five children in the urban health center at a particular area in Hyderabad City
Palle Lokhnath Reddy, Aluka Anand Chand
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 14-21; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i2a.145

Abstract:
Comparative study on prevalence of anemia and menstrual health problems among urban and rural adolescent girls
Palle Lokhnath Reddy, B Nagendra Naidu
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i2a.146

Abstract:
A functional assessment of rural ICDS projects in particular district
Aswani Patchala, Phanindra Dulipala, Jagannath Rao D
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 52-57; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i3a.165

Abstract:
Background & Objectives: India is on its march towards having the most number of diabetics worldwide and is aptly called the „diabetic capital‟ of the world. Limited information on the problem of diabetes in rural area has necessitated the need for this study to find the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk factors associated with it along with the compliance in known diabetics. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted was conducted in Guntur, a rural field practice area of Katuri Medical College, Guntur during 1st January 2017 to 31st October 2018. A quick enumeration survey was done to identify the 6,992 participants aged 20 years and above of whom a sample of 1364 respondents were selected by systematic random sampling and were evaluated for diabetes, its risk factors and compliance. Results: Present study revealed the prevalence of diabetes as 6.52%. Diabetes was found to be significantly associated with increasing age in both the genders, in employed respondents, vegetarians, smokers, positive family history of diabetes, higher BMI, central obesity and among hypertensives. Only 39.76% diabetics knew their diabetic status and the overall compliance of diabetes were found to be 13.48%. Interpretation & Conclusion: Higher prevalence of diabetes similar to Indian average found in this village along with very poor compliance of diabetes is a matter of concern and has to be addressed in this economically backward villages of rural area by regular screening and motivation to modify the risk factors responsible and improve the compliance to reduce the possible complications of the disease.
Aswani Patchala, Phanindra Dulipala, Jagannath Rao D
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 53-58; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i2a.166

Abstract:
Background: Domestic accidents are worldwide health problems. Domestic accidents have not so far been recognized to the same extent as traffic and work-related injuries, largely because they have not been effectively counted. Very few studies are available regarding domestic accidents in India, and there is no study available from the rural areas. Hence the present study was undertaken with an aim to assess the prevalence of domestic accidents in a rural
community
. Aim & Objective: To assess the prevalence of domestic accidents in a rural
community
. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the rural field practice area of Katuri Institute of Medical Sciences, Guntur. Totally 5419 individuals were selected from 30 clusters using Cluster Sampling Technique. In each cluster, 178 individuals (some clusters had more than 178 individuals) were surveyed by house-to-house visit. Information about domestic accidents among the family members in the past one year was obtained by interviewing the head of the family or responsible adult informant using a pre-tested structured proforma. The data was compiled and analyzed. Results: Among 5419 individuals, 2748 (50.9%) were males and 2671 (49.1%) were females. Prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural
community
was found to be 9.6%, majority (21.8%) of domestic accidents are observed in children 1-4 years of age. Most common domestic accidents reported were falls (43.2%). Majority (44.1%) of domestic accidents occurred in the morning hours. Commonest place for occurrence of domestic accidents was kitchen (46.5%). Majority (53.6%) was treated at home and complete recovery was observed in 91.9% of domestic accident cases. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural
community
was 9.6 %. Falls were the most common domestic accidents.
Barathalakshmi J, Sivapragasam R
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 229-234; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i1d.155

Abstract:
Background: Tobacco kills more than 1million annually in India. 266.8 million people are current tobacco users and a substantial number of people exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of CVDs. Its high time to address the burdens caused by tobacco usage. Objective: To assess the epidemiological pattern about the tobacco usage and factors associated with it in the rural area of Puducherry. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study done in the field practicing area of Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of medical sciences from April to June 2019 with sample size of 200.A pre tested structured questionnaire was used to assess the sociodemographic and tobacco usage domains. Mean, proportions and chi square test was used to analysis the collected data with SPSS version 21. Result: The mean age of the study group is 45.8±15.2 yrs. In our study 28% of the population belonged to 16 to 35 yrs,42.5% of them belonged to 35 to 55 yrs and 29.5% belonged to 55 yrs and above.60.5% were male and 39.5% were female. In our study highly significant association was found between gender and type of tobacco usage (smoking type vs smokeless type)and p value is
Harsh Vardhan Chawla, Nikita Singh, Arun Kumar, Sangeeta Bhattacharya
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 245-248; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i1d.158

Abstract:
COVID-19 is a novel respiratory disease which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), broke out in the end of winter season in 2019 in China and became a pandemic. Characteristically there is rapid local spread and very high systemic inflammatory response in the patients. Apart from high morbidity and mortality there has been tremendous social and financial impact in the entire world. A possibility exists that maintaining vitamin D sufficiency can increase the antimicrobial activity in the respiratory lining epithelium and inhibit the exaggerated cytokine inflammatory cascade thereby promoting repair of the respiratory epithelium. To date, no definitive treatment or preventive measure is available for COVID-19 other than symptomatic and supportive care. By various mechanisms vitamin D is antimicrobial, immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory. These beneficial effects can be utilized as a measure for providing protection to the
community
at large in outbreak situations, when the population is susceptible. There is a high possibility that vitamin D supplementation in population at risk as well the cases of COVID-19 has a key role in prevention and control. Hence, it is believed that oral vitamin D may be helpful in population at risk and cases to prevent and control COVID-19, during and prior to the development of active disease for boosting favorable immune response and relevant trials must be conducted to test this hypothesis.
Chandan Mal Fatehpuria, Ankit Bhagora, Yogprakash Bairwa, Gl Bunkar, Pratap Bhan Kaushik
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 150-153; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2019.v2.i3c.94

Abstract:
Geriatrics is the science that deals with the study of diseases and their treatment peculiar to the old age. Elderly population has special health problems that are basically different from those of adult or young.
Rajesh R Kulkarni
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 123-125; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2019.v2.i3b.93

Abstract:
The Government of India announced that the Rs 500 and Rs. 1000 denominated currency notes will cease to be legal tender.
Neeta Mishra, Achchhadita Mishra
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 105-108; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i1b.123

Abstract:
Nocturnal Enuresis also called bedwetting is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control starts developing in children.
Hassan Haseeb Abed, Ahmed
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 26-29; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i1a.111

Abstract:
The quality and duration of sensory and motor block and decrease postoperative pain is important in the caesarean section and patient's content satisfaction.
Ayesha K Rahman, Jamil Raazi, Azmat Karim
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 43-47; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i1a.115

Shreetesh Mishra, Gagan Garg, Ankit Singh
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 72-74; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i1b.116

Abstract:
Diabetes Mellitus and Thyroid Disease are common endocrine disorders in the general population.
Sujatha N, Brunda Nk
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 81-85; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i1b.118

Abstract:
ICDS is the World`s largest
community
based outreach program running all over the country, which offers a package of health, nutrition and education services to children below the age of 6 years, pregnant and nursing mothers.
Kritika Bansal
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 75-80; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i1b.117

Abstract:
Health risks are often exacerbated by poor sanitation. Sanitation is practically related to safe water and is a way of life.
Nesreen F Mohamed, Sobhy A Sobhy, Abeer E Mohamed, Rasha M Farghaly, Mostafa Af Abbas, Lamiaa E Fiala
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 3, pp 100-104; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2020.v3.i1b.122

Abstract:
Biomedical waste management has emerged as an issue of major concern.
Nisar Ahmad Ganai, Rouf Hussain Rather, S Mohammad Salim Khan
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 17-19; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2019.v2.i1a.04

Abstract:
Cesarean section rate and pattern of indications in a tertiary care maternity hospital in Kashmir: A cross-sectional analytical study
Uroosa Farooq Allaqband, Anjum B Fazili, Rohul Jabeen Shah, Darakshan Ali, Walied K. Balwan
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 48-52; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2019.v2.i1a.10

Abstract:
WHO defines a safe injection as 'one that does not harm the recipient, does not expose the healthcare worker to any avoidable risks and does not result in any waste that is dangerous to the
community
.
Suoud Jemal, Mulusew Zeleke, Simachew Tezera, Suleyman Hailu, Ahmedzakir Abdosh, Mensur Biya, Seida Abduljelil
International Journal of Advanced Community Medicine, Volume 2, pp 30-36; https://doi.org/10.33545/comed.2019.v2.i1a.07

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