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Merve Küçük, Tulay Tikansak Karadayi
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 69-88; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i2.40

Abstract:
After the civil war in Syria, many refugees sought refuge to Turkey. It brought along many environmental problems such as sudden population growth and resource shortage. It is thought to design an ecological settlement that can produce its own energy and be self-sufficient as a solution due to the limited natural resources, in order to meet the need for shelter quickly in emergency situations. With this in mind, in order to create an ecological settlement, a sample and literature search was conducted and sustainable ecological settlement criteria were determined. As a place operation, the position is preferred in Turkey and that provides employment and by day increasing the number of refugees residing Kocaeli been selected. In line with the ecological settlement criteria, a survey was conducted to understand the accommodation problems and environmental awareness of Syrian refugees living in Kocaeli. Ecological living units are designed in line with the environmental, climatic and sociological data obtained. The units are placed in accordance with the physical environmental conditions of the plot chosen for ecological settlement. In the conclusion part, the applicability of the designed project has been evaluated in line with economic, sociological and ecological criteria and its positive and negative aspects have been discussed. In the sample area selected in this study, it is aimed to create an ecological residential area that provides energy, water and raw material conservation in accordance with environmental data, protects the ecosystem, and provides adequate comfort conditions for the users indoors. This study is intended to be a source for ecological settlement projects in order to create livelihoods for low-income groups and to stimulate agriculture, except in emergencies.
, Sencer Yeralan
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 114-122; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i2.42

Abstract:
Not only have Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) advanced in rapid succession, but society has embraced these developments and implemented them in daily life. This adoption has not only affected our way of conducting routine activities, but also significantly modified the way we do things as well as the things we now do. At this junction, rather than how engineering should improve ICT, the appropriate question seems to be “what should ICT engineers focus on? This question involves not only the prediction of future trends, but core engineering ethics, since any new ICT development is likely to affect societal activity. We present a recent study where we developed an approach to predict future trends and use it to guide our research plans. In that sense, the current study is a meta study, that is, a study to reveal what and how we should conduct future studies.
Vedat Asipi,
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 89-99; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i2.29

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare two different business models called business to business and business to consumer. The first model -business to business or B2B is defined as the transfer of goods and services between businesses or firms without the interference of consumers. The second model, business to consumer or B2C is customer-oriented in which the goods and services are sold immediately to customers in the market. This research focuses on the performance of these two business models in North Macedonia and Serbia. Our analysis tries to provide information regarding the countries’ development in different sectors within B2B and B2C models that are affected by specific indicators such as net salaries, total employment level, investment and exports, and research&innovation. Furthermore, besides the analysis of these indicators separately for each country, the paper will show the results and compare the performance differences among listed developing countries.
Aida Botonjic Karahusic, Nedim Begic, Edin Begic, Sabina Kusljugic, Damir Secic
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 108-113; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i2.45

Abstract:
Heart failure is defined as a clinical state, which occurs as a result of structural or functional damage of ventricle with consequential blood hypo perfusion of organs (reduced stroke volume of heart muscle and/or increased intracardial pressure in rest or during work activity). Therapeutical monitoring of patient is imperative, and it includes assessment of objective and subjective state of patient, which is often guide for optimizing of pharmacological treatment. The aim of paper is assessment of the room wall color influence as one of the factor for optimizing the therapeutic modality of patients with diagnosis of heart failure. Findings suggest that the influence of color in environment can be neutral, enabling or disabling, and this is the aspect of treatment that needs to be investigated further in future.
Fehim Findik, Kemal Ermiş
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 66-88; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i2.115

Abstract:
Thermal energy storage (TES) is an advanced energy technology that is attracting increasing interest for thermal applications such as space and water heating, cooling, and air conditioning. TES systems have enormous potential to facilitate more effective use of thermal equipment and large-scale energy substitutions that are economic. TES appears to be the most appropriate method for correcting the mismatch that sometimes occurs between the supply and demand of energy. It is therefore a very attractive technology for meeting society’s needs and desires for more efficient and environmentally benign energy use. In this study, thermal energy storage systems, energy storage, and methods, hydrogen for energy storage, and technologies are reviewed.
Merjem Begovic, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 119-125; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i2.116

Abstract:
In this paper, we have presented a new design of a multi resonance patch antenna with multiple slits. Slits are located on the three sides of the designed antenna. It is simulated in a planar 3D electromagnetic simulation program, called Sonnet Software, designed on the Aluminum (96%) substrate and operates at three frequencies with reflection coefficient (S11) values lower than -10 dB. Values for the operating frequencies are 4.14, 5.52, 9.24 GHz. Electric field theta polarized gains for these three frequencies are; 8.09, 8.35, and 8.39 dBs respectively. Cross polarization levels are well below -10 dB. A parametric study was conducted by changing the gap size and the dielectric thickness. As a result of the parametric study, it is seen that fabrication tolerances of the antenna are good enough.
Mustafa Indzic, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 102-109; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i2.110

Abstract:
In this paper, the design, and simulation of a High-Frequency Slitted Butterfly-shaped Inset Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna is studied. As its name says, the butterfly-shaped antenna is introduced with symmetric indentations at the top, bottom, and sides. Excitation was used at the bottom point of the antenna with inset and via feeding. An input match (S11) of -34.48 dB at the resonance frequency of 26.35 GHz with an electric field phi-polarized gain of 7.37 dB was obtained. Cross polarization level (electric field theta-polarized) is -20 dB. The 26 GHz band covers the 3.25 GHz of the spectrum between 24.25 GHz and 27.5 GHz and is being prioritized across Europe as the first high-frequency band for 5G. This high-frequency spectrum (known as ‘mmWave spectrum’), offers very high data capacity and speeds but with a limited range [1].
Ozge Buyukdagli, Sencer Yeralan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 89-101; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i2.112

Abstract:
Quite commonly, faculty performance evaluations use a weighted scheme. Individual faculty members are evaluated on a scale with respect to teaching, research, and service activities. These scores are then combined using pre-determined weights to obtain a combined score that is often used to compare different members. The presented study aimed to investigate the effects of selecting the weights on the individual scores and rankings. The interest is not on single faculty members, but rather on the systems aspects of the practice. That is, how do the weights affect the educational system as a whole? How sensitive is the evaluation system to the selection of the weights? In order to question the leverage, a decision-maker who determines the weights would have on the outcome of the rankings, the approach based on numerical examples and formal linear programming (LP) considerations is used.
Hassan Khalil Silman, Akbas Ezaldeen Ali
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 110-118; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i2.108

Abstract:
Worldwide, breast cancer causes a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis is important for treatment, but high-density breast tissues are difficult to analyze. Computer-assisted identification systems were introduced to classify by fine-needle aspirates FNA with features that better represent the images to be classified as a major challenge. This work is fully automated, and it does not require any manual intervention from the user. In this analysis, various texture definitions for the portrayal of breast tissue density on mammograms are examined in addition to contrasting them with other techniques. We have created an algorithm that can be divided into three classes: fatty, fatty-glandular, and dense-glandular. The suggested system works in a spatial-related domain and it results in extreme immunity to noise and background area, with a high rate of precision.
Kemal Temur, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i1.36

Abstract:
In this work, tri resonance multi slot microstrip patch antenna which operates at three center frequencies of 11 GHz, 11.9 GHz, 15.7 GHz is designed and simulated. As a commercial simulation tool, Sonnet Suites, a planar 3D electromagnetic simulator was used. Details of the simulation results are presented and discussed. As a result, an input match of -6.88 dB at the resonance frequency of 11 GHz, an input match of -37.12 dB at the resonance frequency of 11.9 GHz, an input match of -29.49 dB at the resonance frequency of 15.7 GHz were observed. The gain was observed as 8.25 dB at 11 GHz and 4.82 dB at 11.9 GHz. Also, the gain was observed as 7.07 dB at 15.7 GHz. The patch has several symmetric slots and it’s well known that slots change the current distribution of the patch antenna.
Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad, Ali Taha Ozdemir
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 52-68; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i1.32

Abstract:
The UV irradiation is a major DNA damaging factor in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana uses various repair pathways for these kinds of DNA lesions. One of them is the nucleotide excision repair pathway. The AtCUL4, ERCC1/UVR7 and CHR8 are vital proteins for nucleotide excision pathway and mutations in these proteins cause flaws in the repair mechanism. Two of these proteins play crucial role during DNA damage recognition and the other is involved in the excision of damaged bases. During NER processes, Arabidopsis uses different sets of proteins during the DNA damage recognition for transcriptionally active and genomic DNA. In order to get better insight into these proteins, we used bioinformatics tools to predict, analyze, and validate 3D structures of ERCC1/UVR7, AtCUL4 and CHR8. We also predicted the subcellular and sub-nuclear localization of proteins. Subsequently, we predicted the docking sites for each individual proteins and searched for interacting residues which mediate the protein-protein interactions.
Hamza Mesai Ahmed, Youcef Djeriri
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 17-29; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i1.28

Abstract:
This paper presents the active and reactive powers control of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the grid utility and driven by a wind turbine, this machine allowing a large speed variation and so a large range of wind is achieved. Traditionally vector control is introduced to the DFIG control strategies, which decouples DFIG active and reactive powers, and reaches good performances in the wind energy conversion systems (WECS). However, this decoupling is lost if the parameters of the DFIG change. In this direction, a robust control scheme based on the nonlinear input-output linearizing and decoupling control strategy for the rotor side converter (RSC) of the WECS is presented. Simulation results show that the proposed control strategy provides a robust decoupled control and perfect tracking of the generated active and reactive powers of the wind turbine driven DFIG with a low THD rate of the generated currents.
Merve Küçük, Fehim Findik
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i1.35

Abstract:
Today, the use of fossil-based fuels and construction activities on a global and regional scale have effective climatic and environmental consequences all over the world, leading to disruption of living spaces. For this reason, it is important that the structures have sustainable properties that will reduce environmental impacts throughout the entire life cycle. Millions of people go to various countries and become refugees due to world wars and migrations. Here, ecological settlements and the criteria for the settlement are needed in order to make these settlements healthy. The ecological settlements in Turkey (Gaziantep, Bursa and Eskisehir) as well as in the world (China, Germany and Spain), listed the criteria that are necessary for these places, are revised in this review article.
Fikret Veljovic, Avdo Voloder, Senad Burak, Benjamin Kulovac, Reuf Karabeg
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 46-51; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i1.34

Abstract:
Background: The subject of this research is the creation of an optimal school bench design with the aim of determining the most favorable posture of students while sitting, taking into account the relevant ergonometric and biomechanical characteristics of the human body. For the proposed model of the school bench which allows adjusting the different slopes of its surface, the corresponding computer model of the student and the table was first created, and then biomechanical and RULA analysis was performed in order to determine the maximum load in the lumbar part. Next, for each test subject of given weight, it was necessary to determine the amount of maximum load in lumbar zone L3/L4 for different slope angles and to determine the critical angles at which the maximum permissible load of 3400 N is reached. Methods: The analysis is performed on a total of 5 subjects of the same height (180 cm) and various weights (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 kg). The task is to determine at which weight and at what angle of the workbench with standard height will not exceed the permissible loads of the spine, specifically referring to the L4/L5 vertebrae whose stresses should not exceed 3400 N. The CATIA software package (Dassault Systèmes, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) is used for the analysis. By knowing the anthropometric and work environment data with ergonomic design and analysis, the following analyzes were made: biomechanical analysis, rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) and carry analysis (an option from CATIA software). Results: The proposed school bench design allows for flexible adjustments to its worktop, that is, changing its tilt. This allows students of different body masses to have an optimal position at work that does not compromise their maximum permissible load in the L4/L5 spinal column (3400N). Conclusions: The proposed ergonomic design of the desk will result in students being adequately positioned during their activities at school with the minimal risk of permanent deviations and other health problems.
Amina Puran, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 38-45; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i1.37

Abstract:
In this work a high gain dual resonance patch antenna is designed and simulated. Analysis is done while changing geometry and dielectric thickness. Main advantage of this type of antenna is its compact structure. Due to its dual characteristics it is very demanding in the communication industry which makes designing and analysing of this type of antenna more alluring. Values for S11 parameters are: -10.97dB and –30dB for 4.94GHz and 7.38GHz, respectively. Gain exceeds 8.85dB and 6.59dB for 4.94GHz and 7.38GHz, respectively. Characteristic impedance of the feed line is 50?.
, Akbas Ezaldeen Ali
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 41-49; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i2.104

Abstract:
Worldwide, breast cancer causes a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis is important for treatment, but high density breast tissues are difficult to analyze. Computer-assisted identification systems were introduced to classify is fine needle aspirates (fna) , with features that better represent the images to be classified as a major challenge. This work is fully automated, and it does not require any manual intervention from user. In this analysis, various texture definitions for the portrayal of breast tissue density on mammograms are examined within addition to contrasting them with other techniques. We have created an algorithm that can be divided into three classes: fatty, fatty-glandular and dense-glandular, The suggested system works in a spatial-related domain and it results extremely immunity to noise and background area, with a high rate of precision.
Fatih Karadeniz, Özgür Ege Aydoğan, Emin Abdullah Kazancı, Erhan Akdogan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 41-65; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i1.106

Abstract:
The number of cerebrovascular and neuromuscular diseases is increasing in parallel with the rising average age of the world’s population. Since the shoulder anatomy is complex, the number of rehabilitation robots for shoulder movements is limited. This paper presents the mechanical design, control, and testing of 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) grounded upper limb exoskeletal robot. It is capable of four different therapeutic exercises (passive, active assistive, isotonic, and isometric). During the mechanical design, the forces to be exposed to the robot were determined and after the design, the system was tested with strength analysis. Also, a low-cost electromyograph device was developed and integrated into the system to measure muscular activation for feedback and instantaneously muscle activation control for the physiotherapist during the therapy. The system can be used for rehabilitation on the shoulder and elbow. A PID controller for position-controlled exercises was developed. The test results were presented in terms of simulation and the real system for passive exercise. According to the test results, the developed system can perform the passive exercise and can be used for other therapeutic exercises as well.
Azra Yildiz, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 26-33; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i1.40

Abstract:
Due to the inhomogeneous structure of microstrip directional couplers, i.e. partly dielectric substrate, partly air, they mostly present property of poor directivity and low coupling level. The high directivity is achieved by a capacitive compensation by gap coupling of open stub formed in a sub-coupled line. Nevertheless, these couplers have the advantage of easy fabrication, lightweight, and incorporation with other microwave devices and are validated via design using Sonnet software. The main goal was to obtain coupling around -30 dB, meaning that almost all power is passed to the output, with a wide band; from around 3.5GHz to nearly 9GHz. Desired values have been obtained, including isolation and input match reaching -70 dB.
Anwaar A. Al-Dergazly
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i1.102

Abstract:
This paper introduces a prospective material for photonic laser applications. Different high purity samples of olive oil were subjected to a spectrophotometer to determine the absorption spectra. The transmission behavior of olive oil is about (44.28) % at a wavelength of 532 nm, while it is (62.94) % at 1064 nm. Then, the nonlinear optical properties represented by the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient are determined using a highly sensitive method known as the Z-scan technique. Z-Scan experiment was performed using 1064 nm CW Nd: YAG and 532 nm SHG Nd: YVO4 lasers. n2 = 3.99×10-6W/cm2 and ? = -0.0017 m/W for 1064nm wavelength and n2 = 2.45×10-7W/cm2 and ? =-7.26×10-4 m/W for 532nm wavelength. This paper gives simulation results for a liquid-core optical fiber (LCOF) filled with olive oil. The nonlinear propagation constant and group velocity dispersion (GVD) properties are estimated. The simulation of the generation of LCOF is also obtained. The calculations show that LOCF can provide huge nonlinear parameters and a large span of slow varying GVD characteristics in the visible and infrared region, which have potential applications in optical communications and nonlinear optics. The material is olive oil which is classified as an organic compound, having good nonlinear optical properties making it a potential candidate to be for photonic applications.
Amina Puran, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 18-25; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i1.41

Abstract:
In this work, a dual-band meandered line bandpass filter is designed and simulated. The analysis is done while changing specific parameters, which includes mostly geometry and some material characteristics like dielectric thickness and metal types. This filter has a compact structure which is one of the main benefits. It has many applications in the industry and that is what makes work on it very interesting. Values for the S11 parameter are -20.70dB and -41.72 dB for 4.9GHz and 5.5GHz, respectively. Values for S12 parameter are -0.03dB and -2.91e-4dB for 4.9GHz and 5.5GHz, respectively.
Nidaa Al-Janaby, Anwaar Al-Dergazly
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i1.27

Abstract:
In this research, a fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was prepared. The sensor of SPR was configured using a gold thin layer at the end of a cleaved optical fiber by a sputtering technique. The source of white light was utilized to produce a series of wavelengths and excites surface plasmon resonance at the fiber tip. The SPR sensor was immersed into media with different refractive indices in the range of 1 to 1.58, including their similar plasmon resonance wavelength shifts that were saved by the optical spectrum analyzer. Experimental results that were obtained show there is a redshift when increasing the refractive index of solutions and sensitivity reach 298nm/ RIU, and resolution 4.31x?10?^(-4).
Sejla Dzakmic, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v2i1.26

Abstract:
This paper presents a design of a dual resonance high-frequency bandpass filter using the Sonnet EM Simulator. The filter prototype is enhanced by adding the short stub in the center of the design. A parametric study shows the impact of choosing appropriate configuration characteristics. This is a dual resonance bandpass filter design, with center frequencies 7.8 GHz and 9.3 GHz. Performed input match S_11 at first resonance is-28.87 dB and insertion loss S_21 is -0.05 dB. The obtained results at second resonance are S_11=-8.97 dB and S_21=-2.74 dB. Due to its characteristics, this is a high-Q medium bandwidth dual resonance bandpass filter. The design is simulated and planning to be fabricated with 0.36 mm thickness and dielectric constant ?_r=1. This paper benefits from its compact size and simple geometry over the similar filters found in the literature.
Israa Al-Barazanchi, Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed, Madya Safiah Binti Sidek
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 98-105; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i2.69

Abstract:
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) have risen as a key innovation for providing real-time patient health care and diagnosing many life-threatening diseases. The principle adopted by health service providers is providing convenience for patients in need of health care, allowing them comfortable with the movement and constant monitoring with a reduction in health care costs. This study presented the basic concept and general background of the main WBAN system with applications. The current models for on-body and embedded WBANs, sensor node features, and sensor schemes for information via negation are used in the WBAN.
Israa Al-Barazanchi, Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed, Madya Safiah Binti Sidek
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 84-97; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i2.85

Abstract:
Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) refers to a group of small intelligent electronic devices placed on the human body to monitor its vital signals. It provides a continuous health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal daily life activities through the health care applications. Due to the strong heterogeneous nature of the applications, data rates will vary strongly, ranging from simple data at a few Kbits/s to the video stream of several Kbits/s. Data can also be sent in bursts, which means that it is sent at a higher data rate during the bursts. This study covers the main requirements of communication technologies that are used in WBAN comprise of two major parts. The first part, which presents the short-range classification, gives a specialized outline of a few standard wireless technologies that are short-ranged. These are introduced as contenders for intra-BAN communications for communications inside a Body Area Network (BAN) and between the elements.
Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed, Israa Al Barazanchi, Madya Safiah Binti Sidek
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 67-83; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i2.29

Abstract:
Cloud computing has the capabilities of powerful processing and scalable storage with the ability of offline and online data analysis and mining of the collected sensed data from body areas networks. Cloud computing can be considered as the main enabler for modern manufacturing industries. Cloud computing can efficiently serve key areas of manufacturing by aspects of the pay-as-you-go business model, scaling up and down production according to certain demands, more customized solutions, and flexible deployments. In cloud manufacturing, the distributed sensors and resources can be managed in centralized architecture that allows cloud users to request more specific product design, testing at all the stages of the product. This study covers the main points of Integrating Both Wireless Sensors Networks and Cloud Computing Infrastructure and gives a view of the various advantage and disadvantages of methods in integration.
Senad Burak, , Nedim Begic, Faris Kadic
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 112-120; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i2.71

Abstract:
Background: Sedentary behavior carries the risk of musculoskeletal problems, especially in the lumbosacral region of the spinal column. According to modern lifestyle, this has begun to be a public health issue. Objective: To point to the health risks of working at the computer and present an ergonomic analysis of the typical and improved position of workers in front of the computer, thereby reducing the chances of emergence occupational diseases. Results: Changing the position of the subjects led to a change in lumbar pressure from 2,818 N/m2 to 351 N/m2. Software analysis of the changed position indicates that this position is acceptable, both for the lumbosacral region of the spine and for the abdominal muscles. Conclusions: A change in body position will decrease lumbar moment and the load on the lumbosacral region of the spine. Work chair with lumbar support, the right desk height, setting the appropriate position of the monitor, selecting the optimal keyboard and mouse, dividing the workspace into appropriate zones, as well as changing lifestyle and habits should be part of the management of people who spend most of their working time in a sitting position.
Admel Husejinović
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 106-111; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i2.83

Abstract:
The main objective of this research is to measure the efficiency of commercial banks operating in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period 2016-2017. An analysis is conducted of over 12 banks that had positive overall profit lost at the end of 2016 and 2017 years published by the Banking Agency of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with two input and three output parameters is used for efficiency measurement. Each bank’s efficiency is presented for the 2016 and 2017 years. For an observed period, large banks showed more efficiency than small banks. Based on the results shown in this research and features used in this model there is a significant difference in the relative efficiency of the top two banks and the rest of the 10 banks.
, Osman Gürsoy
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1, pp 78-83; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i2.4

Abstract:
To study the phylogeny and taxonomy of samples from complex environments Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based 16S rRNA sequencing , which has been successfully used jointly with the PCR amplification and NGS technology. First step for many downstream analyses is clustering 16S rRNA sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Heuristic clustering is one of the most widely employed approaches for generating OTUs in which one or more seed sequences to represent each cluster are selected. In this work we chose five random seeds for each cluster from a genes library, and we present a novel distance measure to cluster bacteria in the sample. Artificially created sets of 16S rRNA genes selected from databases are successfully clustered with more than %98 accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.
, Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1, pp 64-71; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i2.12

Abstract:
Islamic manuscripts, documents, and religious books go way back in the early ages. These have been preserved at Balkans in the library named Gazi Husrev-beg, Library in an extensive manner. The premises are situated in the vicinity of a mosques complex called Sarajevo where the massive collection is articulated and catalogued in a brand new manner. It has a rich database in learning the Ottoman Empire and more specifically the Balkans in precision. The library was officially started in 2014 stating to be a state-of-art for the aspirers, researchers, historians, archeologists and every enthusiast as well as for general public. This research paper is devised in order to formulate a structure for library management system that can help preserve the age old assets like books, manuscripts, journals, articles, DVDs, etc. Everything is electronically managed and stored in a peculiar format. In order to keep a note on the entire system, the structure is beneficial to students, professors, librarians, public visitors etc. The process of issuing a given entity (book, or journal, or manuscript or anything from the library) and returning is kept a digital track and predefined penalty is cited to the individual if the returning of entity is late, or damaged, or misplaced. To maintain this procedure in a manual format might be confusing and tedious. To overcome the stress of maintaining this manually, a data structure is prepared, and algorithms are formed to get access of the library from multiple places of Gazi Husrev-beg Library.
Ada Adilović, Jasmin Šutković
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i2.5

Abstract:
Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala ABA biosynthesis genes (NCED2 and NCED3) in silico interactome analysis
Abderrahmane Khechekhouche, Nabil Elsharif, Imad Kermerchou, Ali Sadoun
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1, pp 72-77; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i2.3

Abstract:
The distillation of water has become a necessity to reduce the demand for drinking water and many of the poor regions in the world do not have the means to have this technique therefore they use solar distillation, which is a simple economic and environmental technique . This technique suffers from low productivity, which is why researchers are trying to improve solar stills. In this work we show the choice of prototype distillers and we also show the technique of the study followed by researchers in this field.
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1, pp 48-63; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i2.1

Abstract:
The effectiveness of a firm mostly depends on the capability of the managers to obtain flexible credits for the implementation of sustainable innovations. The aim of this study is focused on the impact of access to credit on process innovations in SMEs. Data from the manufacturing and the service sectors of the economies of Africa and the Middle East are collected from the World Bank’s Enterprise Survey database. The survey employs random sampling to select firms in each country and they are stratified based on the number of employees. The sampled observations are scaled down from 136,887 to 33,977 firms covering 53 countries due to the scope of this research. The factors of access to credit are the independent variables of this research: the working capital from a commercial bank, overdraft facility, lines of credit, external auditing of accounts, and working capital from suppliers. The dependent variable is process innovation. The results show that there are significance levels of p-values below 1% although some of the Pearson correlation coefficients of the independent variables with the dependent variable are not too high. The factors of access to credit used in the regression model have a significant impact on process innovation. The findings from the analysis help the policy directions of managers.
Abdülkadir Çakır, Ertuğrul Furkan Kurmuş
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1, pp 41-47; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i1.10

Abstract:
Energy generated from renewable sources is not available at any time or any location. To make this available at any time, energy storage plays an important role. Many energy storage systems have been developed but none of them has exactly the features needed by all applications. A single energy storage technique is not always suitable for every application. This study investigated energy storage and energy main storage methods include mechanical energy storage, thermal energy storage, magnetic energy storage, fuel cells and hydrogen storage as well as batteries. In terms of buildings, proper orienteation combined with a storage methos will increase efficiency of strage technology, which requires a preliminarily study and cost analysis.
Ömer Faruk Ulusoy, Erkan Pektaş
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1, pp 33-40; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i1.9

Abstract:
Energy efficiency is a set of measures to prevent the loss of energy in gas, steam, air and electricity, to reduce energy demand by recycling and evaluating various wastes, or to reduce production by advanced technology, more efficient energy resources, advanced industrial processes, and energy recovery. The International Energy Agency announced that world energy consumption increased by 45% since 1980 and would be 70% higher by 2030 [1]. The energy policy of the future will be on saving, energy efficiency and renewable energy trilogy. Today, with the industrial revolution, the environmental problems and the damages caused by the world we live in today have reached the dimensions that threaten human health and ecological balance. Considering that the energy consumed in the world is in buildings, every measure that reduces energy consumption is very important in terms of improving life conditions. For this purpose, the importance of renewable energy sources in the design of energy architecture principles in energy efficiency and sustainable environments is stated.
Nouha Farhat, Zahide Inal
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i1.6

Abstract:
Thermal energy storage plays an important role in fosil fuel preservation. Buildings are significant contributor to energy consumption. To redce building energy demand, novel technologies for thermal energy storage are introduced. This paper reviews these technologies with special focus on renewable energy sources such as solar energy storage systems its benefits. It for found that heat storage is mostly implemented in heat storage tanks, is suitable for space heating (low temperature heat), have capacity to reduce building energy demand.
Enes Örnek
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1, pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i1.7

Abstract:
In the historical process, human being, who has been in constant relationship with the environment that he lived in, has shaped and changed nature according to his own wishes since the day he was there. This form of development was firstly introduced in the form of protection and struggle, and later became permanent and organic by discovering the need for accommodation. Nowadays, the demand for sustainable design, products and services is growing, and the awareness of the importance of energy and fuel savings is increasing. Vernacular structures are constructed with the most suitable materials and components depending on the climatic characteristics they are in. Space organization and orientations are still depending on climate and land conditions have been created in the right way. In this paper, Vernacular Safranbolu Houses were examined in terms of sustainability, and energy efficiency properties were investigated. The layout of the houses, the planning features, the materials used in the houses and the materials resources in the region were examined. Considering the Safranbolu houses within the framework of sustainability, it can be said that these houses provide sustainability conditions in terms of planning and environment. Most of the houses have passive architectural planning features and applications that can be an example of sustainable architecture of sustainable life. The characteristics of these houses can be used in today's buildings.
Hasan Ikbal Altintas
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 1, pp 21-32; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v1i1.8

Abstract:
This research paper examines the concept of zero energy house in details. A lot of literature was revised to define the zero-energy house and identify its application worldwide. Furthermore, several key trends triggered by zero energy houses were reviewed and mentioned to indicate at the importance of this hot topic of 21st century. Besides, issues and challanges facing this concept were discussed. Technological, economical, instiutional barriers are only few of many barriers discussed in this research paper that have huge impacts on the concept of zero energy houses. Later on, two different studies conducted in distinct locations were examined. The first study used TRNSYS building sofware along with the lumped capacitance building model to investigate the thermal performance of net zero energy house for the sub-zero temperature areas. It aimed at creating the net zero cost-effective energy house for the ares with sub-zero weather conditions. The findings have shown that there is a good tendency for the construction of zero energy houses. The second study aimed to design a zero-energy house in Brisbane, Australia by using the EnergyPlus 8.1 building simulation sofware. Energy performance, potential energy savings and financial feasibility of zero energy house was analyzed. After a thorough investigation, results have shown that designing a zero-energy house in Brisbane sounds like an attractive and possible choice. From the financial aspect, it seems that building a zero-energy house would definetely pay off.
, Amar Cosic
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 24-33; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i1.96

Abstract:
The aim of this paper was to compare two business models, namely business to business and business to customer. The first model is oriented towards the delivery of intermediate goods ordered by an immense foreign market leader that is outsourcing a part of its business. The second model is consumers oriented and is more about innovation and the creation of goods ready to be immediately sold on the market. Bosnia is a developing country, and often a place for establishing B2B businesses. However, we are lacking in innovation, our own know-how, and the creation of challenging business opportunities. It also faces the problem of brain drain; therefore, it is in a need of a plan for retaining the youth within the country. The analysis aimed to show how the boosting jobs and living standards in Bosnia, are affected by the investments, exports, and salaries within the B2B and B2C companies. The results showed that Bosnia has a significant potential for raising living standards, employment and salary, if investments are directed towards innovations, knowledge-intensive and B2C businesses instead of labor-intensive investments.
Amina Krdžalić, Lejla Hodžić
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i1.34

Abstract:
This article reviews Industry 4.0, its emerging phase, implementation, challenges, benefits, etc. It combines various fields where it has any influence and leaves some changes and where it requires some adaptation. Papers from the last 4 years are taken and analyzed, what is written about this topic in various countries with different backgrounds and economic development. Industry 4.0 affects the production environment by introducing new technologies which require a better-educated workforce so it affects education and requires some changes in curricula and ways of teaching. It brings new challenges and asks for a new approach from management to be able to handle fast and big changes in the business environment and to implement such innovation in production effectively.
Emina Džaferović, Ajla Sokol, Ali Abd Almisreb, Syamimi Mohd Norzeli
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 43-48; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i1.36

Abstract:
Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm became particularly popular in the last couple of years in such a way that the devices are present in almost every home across the globe. Using cheap components one can connect any device to the internet and enable information collecting from the environment, making everyday life a lot easier. Even though it does bring multiple advantages to the table, at the same time it brings certain challenges and vulnerabilities that need to be addressed. In this paper we focus on Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks and we provide a review of the current architecture of Internet of Things which is prone to these.
Azra Yıldız, Šejla Džakmić, Mohammed Ahmed Saleh
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 57-66; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i1.93

Abstract:
Current 4G - the fourth-generation wireless communication, which exists in most countries, represents an advance of the previous 3 generation wireless communication. However, there are some challenges and limitations, associated with an explosion of wireless devices, which cannot be accommodated by 4G. Increasing the proliferation of smart devices, the development of new multimedia applications, and the growing demand for high data rates are among the main problems of the existing 4G system. As a solution, the wireless system designers have started research on the fifth-generation wireless systems. 5G will be the paradigm shift that could provide with ultra-high data rate, low latency, an increase of the base station capacity, and the improved quality of services. This paper is a review of the changes through the evolution of existing cellular networks toward 5G. It represented a comprehensive study associated with 5G, requirements for 5G, its advantages, and challenges. We will explain the architecture changes – radio access network (RAN), air interfaces, smart antennas, cloud RAN, and HetNet. Furthermore, it discussed physical layer technologies, which include new channel modes estimation, new antenna design, and MIMO technologies. Also, it discussed MAC layer protocols. The article included three kinds of technologies: heterogeneous networks, massive multiple-input and output, and millimeter-wave. Finally, it explained the applications, supported by 5G, new features, various possibilities, and predictions.
, Hana Hadžo Mulalić, Nina Mučibabić, Refija Numanović
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 49-56; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v1i1.94

Abstract:
The previous existing mobile technologies were only limited to voice and short messages, organized between several network operators and service providers. However, recent advancements in technologies, introduction, and development of the smartphones added many features such: high-speed processors, huge memory, multitasking, screens with large-resolution, utile communication hardware, and so on. Mobile devices were evolving into general-purpose computers, which resulted in the development of various technological platforms, operating systems, and platforms for the development of the applications. All these results in the occurrence of various competitive offers on the market. The above-mentioned features, processing speed and applications available on mobile devices are affected by underlying operating systems. In this paper, there will be discussed the mobile operating systems and application development platforms.
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