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Ilham Rizqi Aminudin, Sovian Aritonang
Published: 20 January 2023
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 4, pp 8-14; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v4.id222

Abstract:
The bulletproof vest material that is often used is a composite material. Composites are a mixture of two or more material elements, with different mechanical properties, which aim to obtain new materials that have better mechanical properties than the constituent materials. One alternative mixture of materials in composite materials is to use natural fibers as a substitute for kevlar fibers. In Indonesia, which has a tropical climate, natural fibers are very easy to obtain from various kinds of plants found in Indonesia. Along with the many plants obtained, a lot of waste is also produced because of this. So research was conducted on the utilization of the potential of natural fibers for alternative composites. With the experimental method, from the results of the experiment, the results obtained from the five natural fibers that have been discussed, namely pineapple leaf fiber, water hyacinth fiber, bark fiber, hemp fiber, and bamboo fiber, only pineapple leaf fiber has not met the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) standard, while the other four natural fibers have met the NIJ standard for bulletproof vests.
Mikhail Gorodnichev
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 195-190; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.149

Abstract:
The work is devoted to traffic flow simulation using agent-based modeling using distributed computing. The role of modeling traffic flows in the modern world is considered. The types of traffic flow modeling are considered. The developed software makes it possible to simulate the movement and interaction of vehicles.
Martin Harutyunyan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 217-226; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i2.id182

Abstract:
There are a lot of scientific and research reports dedicated to Armenian architecture from the ancient times to nowadays. There are many interesting and thoroughly researched reports of architectural and historical value done by not only Armenian but also foreign historians, architects, and engineers. Exploring Armenian architecture’s chronology and research reports, we noticed that after independence of the Republic of Armenia (since 1991) there are few scientific reports which include the stages of development of architecture of newly independent Armenia, the current state of the architectural heritage and their observance. So we decided to study that period trying to show the problems and essential events as well as to introduce that period by the stages of development also including some examples of architectural heritage.
Diah Indriati, Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto, Meli Fiandini, Risti Ragadhita, Teguh Kurniawan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 206-216; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i2.id184

Abstract:
Heat exchangers are used to transferring energy (heat), using fluids or gases, both hot and cold, from one area to another due to temperature differences. Almost all agricultural wastes serve as carbon products which are essential to produce graphene oxide, it is very possible to get graphene oxide by synthesizing it from agricultural waste which is expected to reduce the amount of waste on the earth. After carrying out the synthesis, it is necessary to test the characterization of the resulting product. The characterization stage requires a sintering process (20oC to 98oC) until the product is completely solidified. This research aims to design a heat exchanger that is highly effective in assisting the sintering process. For the design to be well-directed, several things must be done, such as calculating the main components (shell and tube) and designing a heat exchanger. Based on the TEMA standard and the use of simple calculations that refer to the attached calculation formula using Ms. Excel, hot and cold fluids used in this heat exchanger design are ethylene glycol and water. The length of the shell and tube as a whole is 5 m, the inner and outer shell diameters are 254 mm and 279.4 mm; the inner and outer tube diameters are respectively 22.09 mm and 25.40 mm. The calculation results show an excellent design effectiveness value of 86.14%. Continuous innovation in the design and materials of the heat exchanger can increase the effectiveness value to close to 100% so that it can help the graphene oxide synthesis process to make it cheaper and more efficient.
Tetyana Vasilyeva, Hanna Yarovenko, Dariia Babenko, Natalia Kalicheva, Nataliia Frolova, Nadiia Shylovtseva
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 145-164; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.148

Abstract:
The authors investigate the issue of modelling the balance of sustainable growth determinants based on determining the center of mass. They have identified the most relevant factors that characterize countries' social, economic, and political spheres, digital capability, and cybersecurity to determine sustainable development and growth. The research has been carried out based on empirical values of the selected 17 indicators for 127 world countries in 2018. As a result, the four–pole barycentric models were built as quadrangles, the vertices of which are composite targets formed by the determinants of the four spheres. The models' calculations were carried out taking into account three components: the values of the composite targets (as a geometric mean), the level of pairs balance (as the sum of opposite pairs of quadrilateral angles), and all four targets (as the distance between the actual and standard value of the center of mass). According to the analysis result of the first component, developed countries have the most effective targets (top five – Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and the Netherlands). Research of the results of the second component has revealed an imbalance in target pairs for most countries. Determinants of socio–political development are the most effective for developed countries. The economic sphere is most unbalanced for the least developed countries. Various determinants can cause an imbalance for developing and new industrial countries. The analysis of the center of mass distances revealed that not only developed countries could be balanced, but also developing, new industrial and the least developed, which indicates a balanced development of their determinants, which is pretty slow. New Zealand, Mauritius, South Africa and Mali were the most balanced in each country's sustainable growth group.
Swati Chitranshi, Braj Kishor Upadhyay, Akanksha Gupta
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 174-184; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.92

Abstract:
The study is aimed at the molecular identification of ravine soil fungal isolates and their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiling. Chambal ravines of Morena, located at latitude 26?5?N and longitude 78?0? E at an elevation of 177 meters. Ravine soil is marked for depleted nutrients. The isolates were identified by macroscopic and microscopic examinations followed by molecular identification the extracted fungal DNA was amplified for specific internal transcribed spacer primer (ITS1/ITS4). The products were sequenced and deposited in GenBank (NCBI), sequence similarity was checked and a phylogram was constructed. The isolates were identified and named Porostereum sp. HGBS16 and Neurospora sp. PAMS29. The VOCs/bioactive molecules were allowed to produce under static submerged fermentation. VOCs/bioactive molecules extracted with polar solvent and characterized by GCMS analysis. Besides playing an active role in communication, the obtained VOCs have other useful attributes of industrial and other beneficial uses. The prevailing compounds produced by Neurospora sp. PAMS29 is octasiloxane (50.32%) followed by the production of octadecane (42.67%) and cyclopentasiloxane (7.01%) whereas Porostereum sp. HGB16 displayed bicyclo (2.2.1) heptane-2-one (86.09%), followed by dodecane (6.09%) and tetradecane (4.05%). The VOC octadecane is reported as a pheromone, a chemical messenger which is useful for mating in fungi. The Presence of octadecane confirms that Neurospora sp. PAMS29 used Pheromones as the mating messenger. Both fungal extracts showed the presence of vitamin C under screening test and exhibited good DPPH free radical scavenging activity with 76.74±7.81 inhibition by Porostereum sp. HGB16 whereas Neurospora sp. PAMS29 showed 82.1±6.47 percent inhibition activity. Results showed that the VOCs produced by fungal isolates have the potential for industrial uses and can be used in body care products in place of synthetic polysiloxanes, though the D5 is already reported to be used in cosmetics. This study introduces new fungal strains and their VOCs to the microbial research domain. Simultaneously the isolates are producing vitamin C and also exhibited the DPPH free radical scavenging activities. Both isolates are aromatic therefore it can be used in the perfume industry. Concluding, this is the first attempt at molecular identification of ravine soil fungal isolates and exploration of their VOCs. These results supported that VOCs are not waste products, they are very useful products at a certain level.
Olivier Lefebvre
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 165-173; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.150

Abstract:
One uses the model which has been already presented in articles by the author: competition through prices (Bertrand competition), the demands being deduced from the consumers ‘utilities. One can highlight three phenomena: “Monopolistic competition”: The products sold are enough differentiated, each firm having its “garden”, its customers it keeps provided its price is not higher than the others’ prices. The criterium “buy and close down” profitable: when to buy and close down is profitable, the incentive to merge is stronger. It is a sign of saturated market. The “non-differentiating innovation”: One can model it. Each utility (u1, u2, u3) becomes (u1 + K, u2 + K, u3 + K), K > 0. One demonstrates, thanks to tractable examples, that non-differentiating innovation can trigger the criterium “buy and close down profitable”. The products are less differentiated than at the start (“monopolistic competition” the “buy and close down” being not profitable). It incites firms to choose disruption.
Leni Tria Melati, Timbul Siahaan, I Nengah Putra Apriyanto
Published: 21 December 2022
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 113-120; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id217

Abstract:
Because of their high lethality and easy way to produce, abrin and ricin are often used as bioweapons. Sources of raw materials for the abrin and ricin manufacture can be found in various regions, especially in tropical countries. Those make abrin and ricin have a greater chance to be used as bioterrorism agents. Furthermore, abrin and ricin have been classified as class B types of bioweapons used in bioterrorism. In this study, a virtual screening (a bioinformatics method) will be carried out on 100 compounds derived from Indonesian Plants. Thus it can be known, the compounds that have the potential to be used as biodefense agents against abrin and ricin. Finally, it is found that there are five compounds that have the best possibility as abrin inhibitors: procyanidin B4, ursolic acid, Corilagin, Vulgarin, and Gliberelic Acid. Whereas lanuginosine, xylonine, isovitexin, liriodenine, and procyanidin were found to have more potential as biodefense agents against ricin.
Mala Utami, Jonathan Ernest Sirait, Beny Budhi Septyanto, Aries Sudiarso, I Nengah Putra Apriyanto
Published: 21 December 2022
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 106-112; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id211

Abstract:
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have high popularity, especially in the military field, but are now also being applied to the private and public sectors. One of the UAV components that require high material technology is the wing. The latest material technology developed as a material for unmanned aircraft wings is a composite material that has high strength and lightweight. This research aims to identify composite materials that can be used for unmanned aircraft wing structures. The method used in this research is a qualitative method with a literature study approach. The results of this theoretical study show that some of the latest composite materials that have been developed into materials for unmanned aircraft wings are Laminar Composites with a sandwich structure. Laminar and sandwich composites consist of various constituent materials such as Balsa wood fiber-glass and polyester resin, microparticles, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer, polymer matrix composites reinforced with continuous fibers, Polymer matrix composites, E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy, Carbon/Epoxy, woven fabrics, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-carbon (ABS) laminated with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and uniaxial prepreg fabrics. Laminar and sandwich composite materials are a reference for developing unmanned aircraft wing structures that have resistant strength and lightweight.
Asrar Ahmed Baktayan, Ibrahim Ahmed Al-Baltah
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 156-190; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i2.id179

Abstract:
The lack of resource constraints for edge servers makes it difficult to simultaneously perform a large number of Mobile Devices’ (MDs) requests. The Mobile Network Operator (MNO) must then select how to delegate MD queries to its Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) server in order to maximize the overall benefit of admitted requests with varying latency needs. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Artificial Intelligent (AI) can increase MNO performance because of their flexibility in deployment, high mobility of UAV, and efficiency of AI algorithms. There is a trade-off between the cost incurred by the MD and the profit received by the MNO. Intelligent computing offloading to UAV-enabled MEC, on the other hand, is a promising way to bridge the gap between MDs' limited processing resources, as well as the intelligent algorithms that are utilized for computation offloading in the UAV-MEC network and the high computing demands of upcoming applications. This study looks at some of the research on the benefits of computation offloading process in the UAV-MEC network, as well as the intelligent models that are utilized for computation offloading in the UAV-MEC network. In addition, this article examines several intelligent pricing techniques in different structures in the UAV-MEC network. Finally, this work highlights some important open research issues and future research directions of Artificial Intelligent (AI) in computation offloading and applying intelligent pricing strategies in the UAV-MEC network.
Amel Bajrić, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 198-205; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i2.id170

Abstract:
In this work, design, analysis, and simulation of microstrip patch antenna for Sub-6 GHz application has been investigated. The research method is based on the Sonnet Suites software. The aim of the study was to design and analyze microstrip patch antenna for Sub-6 GHz antenna for 5G applications and usage. The antenna is designed with the help of using partial ground architecture. Design architecture consideration and analysis of different parameters and simulations were investigated. The antenna operates at 4.32 GHz and the results are compact design area of 21.5 x 36.9 mm2, reflection coefficient is of -18 dB, and the gain in the range from 4.30 to 4.32 dB.
Aida Imamović, Šaban Žuna, Ensar Mulaosmanović, Zijad Alibašić, Borut Kosec
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 191-197; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i2.id180

Abstract:
Tungsten belongs to group of refractory metal that possess extraordinary resistance to heat and wear and it is the heaviest engineering material. Because of its properties tungsten is used for special purposes. This paper presents the results of mechanical and microstructure research on the example of the characteristic heavy tungsten alloys 91W-6Ni-1.8Fe-1Co and 93W-5Ni-1.6Fe-0.3Co with different Ni/Co ratios. The proper Ni/Co ratio is important to obtain a favorable microstructure and mechanical properties of these materials. The distribution of the W, Ni, Co and Fe elements in tungsten phase and binder phase, which can influence on mechanical properties of tungsten alloys. The SEM analysis and mechanical results show that the alloy, which has Ni/Co within the given limits, posses a finer microstructure and better mechanical properties that is very important for the maintenance of the quality of tungsten alloys for special purposes.
Zairullah Azhar Azhar, Wahyu Sri Setiani, Khevinadya Ramadhani Runtu, Y. H. Yogaswara
Published: 1 December 2022
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 101-105; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id208

Abstract:
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a very fast-growing technology and has a huge impact on our daily life, including military performance. In the military, IoT known as the Internet of Military Things (IoMT) or Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) has the function create network communication to increase readiness in the military and can apply to all aspects of military asset management and uses the interconnection, real-time, and intelligent innovation of the IoT technology to build a military asset management system. The research purpose is to analyze the Military Asset Management System (MAMs) in Indonesian National Armed Forces. The research applies a qualitative research methodology. The literature review method and the interviews were used to obtain data and analyze to describe or explain the phenomenon of problems with the Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul (MRO) and Military Asset Management system (MAMs) in supporting the operation of the Alutsista Indonesian National Armed Forces. The research result shows that the integration of asset management in the Indonesian National Armed Forces is still not centralized, which it means needs more time to collect material asset data and of course, will impact the readiness of the military. In this case, Complex Aerial Mission Simulation (CAMS) can be a reference for Indonesian National Armed Forces to develop a Military Asset Management System (MAMs).
Alma Hudović Kljuno, Maida Halilovic
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 122-133; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.131

Abstract:
Due to its diverse cultural heritage and rich natural resources, Bosnia is lately becoming more popular among foreign visitors. Currently, many tourists are increasingly focusing on outdoor and rural tourism. To be able to fulfill their needs in terms of accommodation and activities, during the last several years many ethno villages are built throughout the country. The design of such artificial ethno villages often borders on kitsch and does not represent authentic architectural styles of the region. Some of them, as introduced in this paper, tend more towards mass tourism and luxury accommodation offers that are in contradiction to the idea of ecological ethno villages. On the other hand, many villages in the country are partly or entirely abandoned due to the population displacement into cities. This paper aims to compare the touristic offer and quality of the newly constructed ethno villages as a new form of rural tourism with existing, vernacular villages in the country. The research is a comparison study, also addressed by the analytical-historical method with the auxiliary method of the case study which incorporated recordings of site conditions. The focus of this research is the village Idbar and its prospects that offer a solid base for further development of ecological ethno tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which could potentially become one of the leading branches of rural tourism in the country.
Edin Jahic
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 111-121; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.121

Abstract:
This study analyzes the possibilities of preserving the form and renovating the historic mosque with a wooden porch and minaret, based on the Osman Cehaja Mosque in Tuzla as an example. The research is based on direct observation of property over several decades and a comparison of formal qualities with other relevant structures of a similar type and period. Except for its foundation, no information is available on its past or potential interventions. It is only reasonable to assert that it was originally covered with a wood shake. It is assumed that its appearance has not changed since the early twentieth century, based on a common memory. The mosque was renovated four years ago. Analysis of the previous and current appearances showed that the complete renovation did not compromise its form. In this respect, it is feasible to renovate the mahalle mosque with a wooden porch and minaret while preserving its historical character. More challenging cases may necessitate more extensive investigation, planning, and experience.
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 134-144; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.114

Abstract:
Any material that can be used in the construction of a building is called building material. Concrete, reinforced concrete, steel, aluminum, wood, tile, plaster, etc., known as building materials. Fire is a chemical event that occurs as a result of the combination of matter with heat and oxygen. Fire protection is the study and practice of reducing the undesirable effects of destructive fires. It includes the behavior, suppression and investigation of fire. In this study, building materials such as steel, concrete and wood were examined, and then the protection of building materials using fire resistant materials and fire systems was emphasized.
Ivan Okromtchedlishvili
Published: 17 November 2022
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 83-100; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id199

Abstract:
The way to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public spending, which is a top priority for any government in any country, implies the introduction of Performance-Based Budgeting (PBB). One of the more advanced government-wide performance budgeting systems that uses performance information systematically in the preparation of the government budget is program budgeting. It is important to keep in mind that without systematic development and use of program performance information and adequate and effective performance indicators, program budgeting in the defense sector does not make sense as a tool to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the defense resource management process. Only by defining and tracking success can it be known if the defense organizations and units perform efficiently and effectively. In this article, data envelopment analysis (DEA) was considered as an excellent mathematical programming tool that can be used to measure, evaluate, and analyze the efficiency of the defense organizations, in particular of the infantry battalions of the infantry brigades under the Eastern and Western Commands of the Georgian Defense Forces (GDF), on the delivery of readiness. A sample DEA model was proposed to measure the efficiency of the abovementioned units. Some recommendations to facilitate the use of the DEA and other statistical tools to measure and evaluate the performance of the GDF units were also proposed.
Nadine Zammit,
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 101-110; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.117

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to put forward a holistic, less subjective, method to value built heritage. Based on 37 seminal publications issued from 1903 to date, 24 value typologies were identified, classified and incorporated in a heritage value grid developed from the Nara Grid. This grid allows for a multi-layered valorization of aesthetic, socio-cultural, economic and informational values with respect to six heritage dimensions, namely, (i) design, (ii) materiality, (iii) function, (vi) location, (v) tradition and techniques, and (vi) spirit and memory. This formed the basis of a mathematical formula, the Heritage Value Calculation, to compute the heritage value of a given building. The resulting final value is useful in the scheduling of such sites.
Furqan Abdul Rais Zordi, Siswo Hadi Sumantri, M. Adnan Madjid
Published: 2 November 2022
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 67-73; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id202

Abstract:
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is still experiencing internal political turmoil between the Tutsi and Hutu tribes. Therefore, the United Nations through the Security Council established The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) to monitor the peace process after the Second Congo War. Several approaches must be applied so that the mission carried out is able to reconcile the conflicting actors. The purpose of this research is to find out the obstacles faced in the MONUSCO mission and their solutions. The method used in this research is to use a literature study to test the credibility of the data found. The peace mission carried out by MONUSCO can be said to be quite successful despite facing several strategic and operational challenges. The use of cultural intelligence and prospect theory in pre-mission training should be done in order to increase the success of the mission.
Abderrahmane Khechekhouche, Abdelkader Bellila, Ali Sadoun, Imad Kemerchou, Belgacem Souyei, Nafila Smakdji, Abdelmonem Miloudi
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 95-100; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.102

Abstract:
Solar distillation is an environmental technique that uses solar energy to treat polluted water. In this context, two solar stills of the same size (0.5 x 0.5 m) were exposed to the sun i.e., under the same weather conditions to see the effect of small iron parts on the production of pure water. The results showed that the modified solar still SSM which contained iron pieces had an improvement rate of 23.46% compared to the reference solar still SSR.
Majidul Bhuiyan
Published: 13 September 2022
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 58-66; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id184

Abstract:
Airpower played a vital role in shaping the result of the Second World War. As a British colony, the Indian Sub-continent was targeted by Imperial Japan. The Japanese Forces came up to Myanmar (the then Burma) and their next target was the Indian sub-continent. Due to the geographical location Bangladesh (the then Bengal) was on the front line of British defense; as it was strategically important for Japan to occupy Bangladesh. As such, Bangladesh air space was highly contended by the belligerents. To support air operations, a good number of airfields were prepared by the British-led forces in the then Bengal. However, after the war, most of those airfields were abandoned. British left the region in 1947 and Bengal became part of Pakistan. Economic, strategic, and political factors did not permit the maintenance of those airfields and most were left as it was. Only Tejgaon airfield was used by Pakistanis for both civil and military aviation purposes. After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, an effort was made to revive some of those airfields.
Elmedina Avdibasic, Amanzholova Saule Toksanovna,
Published: 23 August 2022
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 32-49; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id188

Abstract:
Cybersecurity is an important topic for Industry 4.0, which will face a lot of non-traditional challenges before it can be fully implemented to help society. The objective of the study is to recognize recent cybersecurity trends, newly occurring threats and challenges as well as their potential solutions. The articles reviewed in the paper are found through science direct, Scopus, Semantic scholar and google scholar. After reviewing them, ideas from articles were grouped together to show how different articles had similar thoughts. Through the analysis of 70 articles, it was found that cybersecurity still needs a lot of improvement in order to efficiently implement Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), especially since many articles underline the need for security-by-design approach, followed by regular updating. Key challenges are lack of awareness and security experts, increased cybercriminal and the fact that the chain is as only as strong as its weakest point. Some of the most important solutions include incorporating security into design, stronger encryption, regular updates to patch vulnerabilities and good prevention and detection mechanisms. Once cybersecurity challenges are overcome, Industry 4.0 will be able to bloom to its full extent.
Mervisa Halilović-Alihodžić
Published: 1 September 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 37-41; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id194

Abstract:
Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a powerful molecular cytogenetic approach for identifying chromosomal abnormalities. CGH allows researchers to scan whole genomes for changes in DNA copy numbers. Starting in 2004, the array CGH became an irreplaceable method for the detection of gene mutations in people with congenital and developmental abnormalities, such as intellectual disability, dysmorphic characteristics, developmental delay, or several congenital deformities without an obvious syndrome pattern. This review focuses on the evolution of array CGH technology and its use in molecular diagnostics and its advantages over older cytogenetic tools. This review further highlights special arrays developed in the past decade which detect small intragenic copy number changes as well as large DNA segments for the region of heterozygosity.
Adna Smajkan
Published: 1 September 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id192

Abstract:
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular technique used for the detection of specific DNA sequences within the chromosome. It relies on the complementary binding between the fluorescently labeled probe and the target sequence. This paper describes how this method was first developed, and the basic principle and the procedure behind it. Furthermore, it covers the basic applications of FISH, including its use in microbiological diagnostics, diagnosis of solid tumors, diagnosis of hematological malignancies, evaluation of sperm and diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome, along with its applications in plants.
Ilma Kotorić
Published: 1 September 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id190

Abstract:
Nucleic acid analogues are used in protein synthesis, as their effects on gene expression are confirmed, and play a crucial and important role during transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes in the cell. Due to the many remaining challenges associated with genetic engineering, current research mainly focuses on new materials such as peptide nucleic acids [PNA] and locked nucleic acids [LNA]. PNAs and LNAs have been developed to mimic the chemical characteristics of DNA and RNA and to show improved properties. They represent synthetic DN/RNA analogues in which the phosphodiester backbone is replaced with unchanged aminoethylglycine units, being very resistant to enzymatic degradation by proteases and nucleases. This review summarizes the application of nucleic acid analogues in the inhibition of gene expression in bacterial genomes, as well as the usage in the development of high-performance affinity biosensors.
Abas Sezer
Published: 1 September 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 7-11; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id191

Abstract:
Advances in technology opened many doors, increased opportunities in various research fields, and helped create tools and devices required for many analyses. One of them is microarray technology. It is widely used in numerous research areas including infection biology, detection of small noncoding RNAs, microarray-based gene expression profiling, and many more. Microarray implementation in molecular diagnostics and their use as diagnostic devices are considered a step closer to precision medicine. Further advances in microarray technology can potentially help with the identification of new pathogens, improvement in medicine, and better drug delivery.
Abdelbasset Bedda Zekri, Riadh Ajgou
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 97-103; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id168

Abstract:
The millimetre wave (mmWave) is alleged as an important element invention to respond to the rapid increase in wireless demand for mobile traffic using its huge bandwidth. However, channel modeling remains difficult due to its high dependence on weather conditions and the positioning of the antenna for communication in direct visibility line-of-sight (LOS). Co-polarization and cross-polarization (X-pol) are two main events in the direction of the radiation element for wave transmission; where the wanted direction of wave transmission denotes the co-pol and the orthogonal propagation of the intended direction represents X-pol. This work investigates the effect of the polarization on a statistical channel modeling at 28 GHz, 38 GHz & 73 GHz mmWave channel using NYUSIM Model.
Vincent Ani
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 127-145; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i2.id156

Abstract:
This paper presents an algorithm for the study, sizing, simulation and data analysis of complete integrated PV/Wind/Hydro-Battery systems. It is a computer program developed for determining and sizing of renewable-based energy system that can be used for electric power supply at any given time. This tool is used in sizing the integrated PV/Wind/Hydro-Battery for sustainable power supply at Nkanu-West local government secretariat. The program calculates the optimum configuration of the system according to the weather data as well as the period of operation of solar cells. From the simulation results, it was shown that the source and load characteristics are effectively sized and the supplied energy is efficiently and rationally utilized. The structural analysis of the program is described in details through data flow diagrams. The proposed sizing tool is validated with HOMER software and the program can be adapted for application in any area.
Sarah Sarac, Benjamin Durakovic
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 87-94; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i2.91

Abstract:
In the past three years, the COVID-19 became a global health issue and had huge impact on education. This study investigates and compares the student performances after transition from face-to-face learning environment to online learning environments as a result of the spread of the pandemic. Data is collected from a large Bosnian public university and analyzed using statistical tools. In this study student success is defined as passing the course. The results showed that there is significant difference in the performances of students, and it is dependent on learning environment. Particularly, students who attended online classes have significantly higher-grade point averages.
Mohamad Abouchi, Suleyman Basturk
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 146-155; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i2.id161

Abstract:
Historically, the engine crankcase has been made of gray cast iron due to that material's' high machinability, damping ability, thermal conductivity, and sensible cost. Despite these advantages and the long-term use of gray cast iron, the vehicle manufacturers predominately use cast aluminum as material of choice for the engine block due to aluminum’s density being almost a third of that of gray cast iron, and the aluminum engines have the same durability as gray cast iron while weighing considerably less. However, due to the low wear resistance of aluminum, efforts are needed to improve internal working surfaces such as the use of cast iron cylinder liners or the application of a protective coat is applied to the aluminum surface to increase its resistance. The purpose of this study is to examine which ring materials have the lowest friction with the Twin Wire Arc (TWA) aluminum cylinder liner. An Ansys simulation model accomplishes the experimental work. The steel ring material obviously had the lowest friction with twin wire arc spray aluminum cylinder liner as opposite to the cast iron material which was the worst.
Mohammed Ali Hadi, Ibrahim Ahmed Al-Baltah, Ammar Thabit Zahary
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 112-126; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i2.id163

Abstract:
Looking at the evolution of mobile phones, communications technology, and the Internet, one can see a clear shift in their usage in the past decade as mobile payment has become an important research area in the field of information technology. However, many financial institutions have adopted mobile payments. Except that only a limited number of clients are used. Several information systems theories/models have been proposed to examine the factors that could influence user adoption. However, the literature on the field is still in its infancy. This paper, reviews and systematically analyzes the existing mobile payment acceptance and adoption literature that include UTAUT/TAM as a theoretical model to reveal mobile payment adoption research's current situation. The current study also provides a basis for future researchers in the mobile payment adoption study, as it provides a summary of related literature in the field, the models used, and the factors that have an impact on customer intent. Accordingly, the UTAUT, TAM models, with their extensions, are one of the models most used in examining and understanding the necessary factors that could influence mobile payment applications' adoption. The research revealed that 37 factors most commonly than a literature review on factors of adoption mobile payment applications since 2015. It was found that the factors of perceived trust and perceived risks are among the most critical factors in which the models are expanded, as they have an impact on the customer's acceptance of any new technology innovation. Therefore, emphasis must be placed on the factors of perceived trust and perceived risks to increase the applicability of UTAUT, TAM models to the mobile payment context.
Yitong Niu, Andrei Korneev
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 104-111; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i2.id162

Abstract:
With the increasing concern about the environment, renewable energy development is imminent, and biomass utilization is an essential part of it. In many regions (e.g., Southeast Asia), palm kernels are a very economical feedstock for biomass energy production. However, the collection and transportation of palm kernels are complicated, which is not conducive to the further development of this industry. This paper analyzes the current situation of collection and transportation of palm kernels in Southeast Asian countries using basic analysis methods. Meanwhile, the characteristics of palm fruit bunches as biomass fuel and its transportation and handling methods are briefly introduced and analyzed concerning the fuel demand of biomass power generation projects. The shortcomings of the current methods were identified, and relevant directions for improvement were proposed. It is hoped that it can improve the transportation efficiency of palm fruit bunches as a feedstock for biomass power generation and provide a reference basis for the collection and transportation of palm fruit bunches biomass.
Hamza Bećirspahić, Haris Basarić, Tarik Namas,
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id187

Abstract:
This paper presents the design and the development of an EOD robot, with MVP characteristics. The design is based on a solid base structure with an arm manipulator attached to the base. The overall dimensions of the robot are 590x860x340 mm and it weighs 55kg. The robot is capable of towing heavy objects as well as lifting sensitive objects. The robot has a maximum horizontal reach of 1400 mm and a vertical reach of 1200 mm. The robot is tested according to guidelines developed in the U.S.A., as much as the conditions allowed. Briefly, the results can be summarized as follows: the setup time for the robot is 10 minutes, it can reach speeds up to 8 km/h, it has a towing capacity of 40kg and the maximum communication reach is 20 meters. Among successful tests, the weaknesses were also found which act as a guide for future designs and developments. These weaknesses are what MVP concepts are actually developed for.
Erol Terovic, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 15-21; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id185

Abstract:
This research paper highlights the process of designing and simulating a novel antenna. Our antenna is meant to be used in 5G applications (sub-6 Ghz). Simulating and designing was done using the Sonnet Suites software. The substrate used in our antenna is 1.55mm thick FR-4 substrate, that has a εr of 4.4. The antenna center frequency is 4.06 GHz. At the center frequency, S11 is -39.46 dB. Furthermore, the antenna has an E- of 5.75 dB, and E- of -9.99 dB. This antenna can be used in devices that use 5G technologies. This antenna has the benefit of being cheap to produce, while boasting good performance during operationThis research paper highlights the process of designing and simulating a novel antenna. Our antenna is meant to be used in 5G applications (sub-6 Ghz). Simulating and designing was done using the Sonnet Suites software. The substrate used in our antenna is 1.55mm thick FR-4 substrate, that has a εr of 4.4. The antenna center frequency is 4.06 GHz. At the center frequency, S11 is -39.46 dB. Furthermore, the antenna has an E- of 5.75 dB, and E- of -9.99 dB. This antenna can be used in devices that use 5G technologies. This antenna has the benefit of being cheap to produce, while boasting good performance during operation.
Fehim Findik
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 67-76; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.84

Abstract:
Our planet is in danger for a number of reasons such as population growth, excessive energy consumption, and global warming that followed, the inability to manage waste and reduce water consumption. For sustainability, green concrete is defined as the use of waste materials and high-sustainability concrete that does not harm the environment in the production process. Proper green building should be energy efficient and use recycled aggregates. The emergence of sustainable structures in this way will reduce the need for fossil fuels, which is the main reason for universal heating. The environment can be perfectly sustainable only with zero use of non-renewable resources and a limited rate of regeneration and controlled use of renewable resources. This study considers the concept of environmentally friendly green concrete, which can be used instead of the traditional cement used in buildings that are being built due to the growing population. It was examined what needs to be done for the sustainable design of buildings and it was pointed out that in that way the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will be reduced. The use of green concrete for sustainable design and environmental protection was highlighted and several examples from around the world were highlighted.
Hind B. Ali, Dalia R. Alazawi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 76-81; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id159

Abstract:
The impact of 3D printing parameters is critical for expanding the application of technology in the design and construction. The effect of bonding layers on the compressive strength of the material is investigated in this research by variation of the layer thickness and print speed. Cube specimens with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.05 to 0.3mm and print rates of 40mm/s, were tested on compression with the DARTEC test equipment. It was found that layer thicknesses of 0.05mm and 0.15mm have similar elastic properties while the 0.15mm layer can take additional load after initial plastic deformation. Layer thickness of 0.30mm has significantly lower elastic zone load capacity, but the stress in plastic zone continue to grow. The findings are of great importance for in explaining the S-N curve in order to enhance part manufacture.
Ali Sadoun, Abderrahmane Khechekhouche, Imad Kemerchou, Mokhtar Ghodbane, Belgacem Souyei
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 61-66; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.80

Abstract:
Solar energy is an abundant energy in the earth globe. Solar distillation is one of the techniques that uses this energy to obtain portable water from ground or salt water. The purpose of our experimental study is to show that the blocks of natural carbon, that is to say the remains of a fire, can serve as an element for improving the performance of a solar still. For this, two similar solar stills were used, one is taken as reference SSR and the other modified still SSM contains carbon block. The results show that there is an improvement rate of 8%.
Rocksana Akter, Kamal Hossain, Shibly Anwar, Kalimur Rahman
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 82-96; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id157

Abstract:
Mineral fillers provide a significant role in the Marshall properties of hot mix asphalt for paving applications. The article's goal is to assess the suitability and effectiveness of two minerals (coal dust and wood powder ash) used as fillers in asphalt concrete. Chemical composition test using X-ray fluorescence indicated a high content of SiO2, Fe2O3, and Al2O3, which encouraged us to select the coal dust and wood powder ash as mineral fillers for further investigation. A total of 90 cylindrical Marshall Specimens, made with different percentages (i.e., 4%-8%) of coal dust, wood powder ash, and conventional stone dust filler were prepared to assess the performance of individual filler within the asphalt concrete mix. And after that, volumetric characteristics such as density, stability-flow test, air void, and voids in mineral aggregates have been analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of every sample and, afterward, to find out the optimum asphalt content. Finally, the optimum asphalt content for every filler material was ascertained, and subsequently, Marshall properties were checked again to assess the optimum filler content in the mix that satisfy all the standard criteria. The overall Marshall properties for both fillers were within the acceptable limits. Though the optimum asphalt content was higher for coal dust than wood powder ash and stone dust, the wood powder ash showed better durability than coal dust. All mixtures have been found to have better resistance to deformation, fatigue, and moisture-induced damages; however, 4% coal dust and 6% wood powder ash satisfied most of the Marshall criteria than other percentages.
Sabaa S. Radhi, Zainab S. Al-Khafaji, Mayadah W. Falah
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 42-52; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.82

Abstract:
Maintaining the optimum temperature in the living quarters is the key to a comfortable stay. Due to the lack of a central heating system or in the event of its insufficiency, they resort to the installation of additional heat sources. There is a wide range of devices on the market with different operating principles, hence the difficulty of which is better - a convector or infrared heater. A comparative analysis of devices will help you make the right choice. Asking the question of which is better a convection heater or an infrared heater, one must decide on its role in heating the house. It is better to use them as additional equipment with an existing heating system. One of the effective sources of additional heating are infrared radiators. Its principle of operation is based on infrared radiation, which provides a quick and qualitative increase in temperature in any part of your apartment. Today, more and more people prefer infrared radiators. From the usual electric convector, they differ in that they heat not the air in the room, but hard surfaces (floors, walls) and objects, and these, in turn, leak heat into the surrounding space. So, the entire room is heated up unnoticeably.
Yitong Niu, Linqian Jiao, Andrei Korneev
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 53-60; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.81

Abstract:
With the increase of harmful substances and greenhouse gases that need to be discharged from the traditional thermal power in industrial production in China, the phenomenon of climate warming is becoming more and more prominent. Clean energy will continue to increase in China's future energy consumption structure and market share, hydropower, nuclear power, and other energy as China's main clean energy, the future in China still has a huge market development and use of space. The new policies further adopted by the central bank of China include: continuously optimizing the structure of reasonable credit fund allocation and risk fund application for electric power enterprises to enhance the return rate of assets of electric power enterprises; continuously supporting the development of smart grid and strengthening the linkage between network and electric power; reasonably and categorically guiding the source of clean utilization of electric power, actively supporting large hydropower generation and solar and nuclear power generation, and investing funds in a controlled manner to support large thermal power generation, promote the upgrading of the thermal power generation industry structure, cautiously guide funds into large biomass power generation, wind power generation and small and medium-sized micro-hydro power, strictly control small and medium-sized thermal power, as soon as possible to withdraw from the implementation of the national preferential policies for small and medium-sized power industry management system, energy conservation and reduction of harmful emissions of environmental gases of enterprises is not possible to meet the standards and there are financial risks business efficiency situation Small and medium-sized electric power enterprises that continue to seriously deteriorate.
Ajla Pleh, Lejla Mahmutović, Altijana Hromić-Jahjefendić
Published: 30 June 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id178

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of some phytochemicals by using an H2O2 scavenging assay. Betaine, Allantoin and Nicotinamide were put to the test. Even though hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is not intrinsically reactive, it can be transformed into the extremely reactive and harmful hydroxyl radical (HO), which is then able to interact with nucleotides in deoxyribose nucleic acid and in that way trigger breakage of the strand resulting in carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, etc. Antioxidants aid in the protection of cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species that are known to induce oxidative stress. Excessive production of these reactive oxygen species in the human body is associated with many chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, etc. The effective way to minimize levels of oxidative stress is the ability to scavenge these reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, phytochemicals are able to act as antioxidants, and in that way play a vital role in the prevention of disease caused by oxidative stress. The ability of a compound to scavenge H2O2 is a good predictor of its potential antioxidant function. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay was determined using the Ruch et al., 1989 method, and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. In conclusion, our samples had marvellous H2O2 scavenging activity and possessed good antioxidant capability, and were compared with the ascorbic acid (vitamin c) as standard natural antioxidant/ as reference antioxidant. The samples were also able to scavenge H2O2 in a concentration-dependent way, according to our results
Nadia Islam
Published: 30 June 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id182

Abstract:
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women and the second largest cause of mortality in the entire population worldwide. This review investigated how breast cancer is patho-physiologically associated with obesity which is defined by body mass index ≥30 kg/ and metabolic syndrome which leads to type 2 diabetes in pre and postmenopausal women. It also addressed the controversy relating the definition of BMI. The biological markers in breast cancer currently in use are ER, PR, HER2, uPA, and PAI-1. This study looked into future of predictive and prognostic biomarkers, such as exosome by altering interaction of distant cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment and the breast cancer progress.
Minel Salkičević
Published: 19 January 2022
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id183

Abstract:
Explosively formed projectile (EFP) is a self-forging shape charged structure having very high penetration ability compared to conventional kinetic energy projectile. The penetration capability of an EFP is strongly dependent on various design parameters. The main parameters can be roughly divided into geometric and material parameters used in the warhead configuration. The present research is an effort to study the effect of metal casing thickness, type of metal used for casing, explosive type, liner thickness, type and configuration on the formation of EFP. Effectivness of an EFP is studied in terms of final velocity and shape of formed penetrator. The study is carried out by performing a number of simulations by using explicit finite element (FE) hydrocode ANSYS/Autodyn.
Amina Karić, Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad
Published: 30 June 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 19-30; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id180

Abstract:
DNA molecule is found in every cell in a living organism and function as an instruction manual for growth, development, as well as any other processes that happen. As the cell divide, it needs to copy its DNA. During the copying, an error can occur, which can lead to a disease. However, there are different error repair mechanisms that are searching for an error, and repairing it. This study focused on 2 proteins involved in DNA repair mechanism, RPA32B and RPA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Throughout multiple in silico approached, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, 3D visualisation, combination and interaction, we confirmed that the RPA2 and RPA 32b are involved in DNA replication, meiotic recombination and DNA repair mechanism.
Azra Alimanović
Published: 30 June 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id179

Abstract:
Viruses are extremely small obligate molecular parasites that can be seen only with an electron microscope. In plant pathology there are the organisms named plant viral vectors whose task is to transmit pathogens. Transmission of vector can be mechanical and insect that present two pathways which allow the spreading of plant virus particles. Plant virologists with other association in molecular biology and plant pathology nominated top 10 viruses based on scientific and economic importance. This paper reviews the current standing of most known antiviral defense mechanism called RNA silencing and most known molecular diagnostic method in plant pathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Nedim Tabaković,
Published: 23 August 2021
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 63-78; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id170

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to address key features and the wave of new technologies that Industry 4.0 brings to Aerospace and Defense Systems. This research paper enthusiastically depicts what the future of the Aerospace and Defense industry could be while also providing information about those braves enough to already step into the world of all around digitalization. With this approach, the aim is to interconnect every step of the operation towards creating a mostly perfect environment which cuts off any human mistake and guarantees increase in revenue stream and customer satisfaction. The main method of implementation of Industry 4.0 to many industries is digitalization. Digitalization is the digital upgrade to any company or industry which, when applied correctly, guarantees nothing but success in revenue streams and customer service. This process is a complex blend of many modern technologies and implementing such a hefty upgrade might be problematic to those who have been surviving on very old business models for tens of years. Industry 4.0 is a fast-changing environment and those who are quickly adapting to this wave of change are setting themselves for success. The primary goal of this research paper is to provide an insight into the world of technology Industry 4.0 offers and how that technology could help Aerospace and Defense create a portal to the future.
Ajdin Jašarević, Marko Hočevar, Gašper Rak
Published: 17 October 2021
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 96-111; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id175

Abstract:
This paper describes the process of 3D analysis of two water currents with method of photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is used in fields such as architecture, engineering, police investigation, preserving cultural heritage, military and geology. This method can be used in military to reconstruct a site with traces of shrapnel or various projectiles. In our case we tried to measure height of turbulent flow, where two currents collided at the angle of 90°. In first section we introduce our problem and method. Second section describes method of photogrammetry and basics of torrential flows. In third section we describe our experiment. Fourth section describes the course of getting 3D model. In fifth section we analyze results and in sixth section, a conclusion is given.
Tarik Sabanovic
Published: 15 September 2021
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 79-85; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id172

Abstract:
This paper describes the computer dynamics of fluids, which was used to determine the influence of certain geometrical characteristics of the projectile on the coefficient of drag force. The first section is an introduction and describes the projectile, the aerodynamic forces acting on the projectile with special reference to drag. The second section was reserved for a review of projectile parameters that affect drag, primarily the slenderness of the ogive and the frustum, and the shape of the ogive, and the angle of the frustum. This section also defines drag in more detail. The third section describes the mathematical model of fluid in supersonic flow and gives the equations for the mathematical model, used in simulations and software package Ansys fluent. This section was also reserved for describing the emergence of a physical model and the verification of the numerical simulation model. The fourth section presents and describes the model of CFD analysis of 5.56 mm projectiles: SS109, M855, L110, and M856, and the comparison of projectiles by geometry. The fifth section comprises the analysis of the results. In the sixth section, a conclusion is given.
Roman Kmeť
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 53-62; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id168

Abstract:
Crime mapping information systems are currently a commonly used tool by public authorities, primarily for the police, security forces and services, local and regional government, as well as for the inhabitants of a certain territory. The main idea of ​​creating these systems is to monitor and evaluate the current security situation, which is significantly affected by the active or passive activities of the police or other entities dealing with security issues. An important part is also the knowledge of the security situation on the part of the population, in which a certain state of security can evoke a feeling of security and vice versa.
Kerim Krnjic
Published: 12 October 2021
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 86-95; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id173

Abstract:
In the last twenty years, high energetic materials have changed significantly. Several factors have influenced the development of these materials, which include new operational requirements such as insensitive ammunition (IM), as well as factors in the availability of new materials and new production techniques, safety assessment, and modeling. All this enables more efficient use of materials and a more detailed understanding of the processes involved in the application of new technologies. This work presents new insensitive secondary high explosives such as TATB, FOX-7, GUDN, NTO, and others that are in different stages of development. A review of these explosives is given and their stability, reliability, and specific application are described. Energy materials are known to be chemical compounds or mixtures that contain significant amounts of energy and it has been shown that successful design of new energetic materials with customized performance properties and increased stability is possible. The properties of new insensitive energetic materials must be further researched and improved before they can be used in new or existing systems. Insensitive ammunition testing is a vital component of many national IM programs. The international community has established requirements for testing the insensitivity of materials and developed six unique tests based on testing the response of the material to the effects of heat, impact, or shock.
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