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Ahmed S. Nori, Ansam O. Abdulmajeed
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 79-91; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i2.id131

This paper is presenting design and implementation of Threefish block cipher on grayscale images. Despite the fact that Threefish block cipher is one of the best secure algorithms, most studies concerning Threefish have focused on hardware implementation and have not commonly been applied on image encryption due to huge amount of data. The main contribution here was to reduce the time and the amount of data to be encrypted while maintaining encryption performance. This objective was achieved by encrypting just the most significant bits of image pixels. A 256-bit plain text blocks of the Threefish was constructed from 2n most significant bits of the pixels, where 0
Mustafa Indžić, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 73-78; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i2.id132

In this paper, the design, simulation, optimization and testing of a Microstrip Hybrid 10 dB Wideband Coupler was done. The aim of the project was to introduce a new coupler design and to achieve stable operation for as wide bandwidth as possible. For this proposed design simulated results are as follows: 3.8 GHz Bandwidth and Coupling Amplitude balance of 1 dB across it. Coupler is then produced using LPKF ProtoMat 104s machine and it is tested with Vector Network Analyzer at Istanbul Technical University.
Muamer Bučo, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 68-72; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i2.id133

In this paper, we will present a planar geometry design for a 6dB compact microwave coupler, and will further explore and discuss the results of an electromagnetic simulation in Sonnet® Suites™ Electromagnetic simulation software. Being a compact coupler, the device features a minute circuit footprint size, while still observing the limitations of the production technologies involved in manufacturing it. The technology utilized in the paper is a 4 port microstrip copper trace on a production-friendly and extremely economical FR4 dielectric substrate. The circuit shows excellent performance in a 1.8GHz bandwidth (3.9GHz – 5.7GHz), with a loss of 6dB on the coupled port. A further advantage of this geometry is a very linear and predictable change in the S-parameter values as a result of small linear changes in the geometry
Alan Catovic
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 16-25; doi:10.37868/dss.v1.id72

The literature survey, related to the initial velocity of fragments for HE ammunition is presented. The basic Gurney model for fragment initial velocity, that can be used for different munition configuration, is presented. The research we performed using the Gurney method for a different projectile types is given.
, Erwin Trgo
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 26-33; doi:10.37868/dss.v1.id145

The increased global demand for weapons is growing fast both military and civilian grade equipment. The defense industry is experiencing an increase in its trades and production over the globe. Currently global market trade of arms is about US$ 1.9 trillion, with a trend of increase. This paper investigates global trends in defense through analysis of global defense spending and R&D activities with the focus to Bosnian defense industry perspectives. It was observed that Bosnian defense industry has potential to be one of the key players of the national innovation system through which the national R&D output would make notable positive impact on the national economic performances.
Amel Becic
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 34-43; doi:10.37868/dss.v1.id148

Smart city is one of the most exiting industries of 21st century. For this research paper the development of smart cities and its application is explored. The key results in this paper concerns what impact does industry 4.0 have on smart cities and with technological advancements what does the future look like for smart cities, how will they develop and how will they look in future. For this research the lastest research papers written on topic of smart cities were used, with industry 4.0 and research on integration of industry 4.0 into smart cities. The main result of this paper is to show the reader exactly what is smart city, what is industry 4.0 and how are they connected through modern cutting edge technologies.
Ammar Trakic
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 1-15; doi:10.37868/dss.v1.id63

Armor-piercing ammunition is primarily used to combat against heavy armored targets (tanks), but targets can be light armored vehicles, aircraft, warehouse, structures, etc. It has been shown that the most effective type of anti-tank ammunition in the world is the APFSDS ammunition (Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot). The APFSDS projectile flies to the target and with his kinetic energy acts on the target, that is, penetrates through armor and disables the tank and his crew. Since the projectile destroys target with his kinetic energy, then it is necessary for the projectile to have the high impact velocity. The decrease in the velocity of a projectile, during flight, is mainly influenced by aerodynamic forces. The most dominant is the axial force due to the laid trajectory of the projectile. By knowing the axial force (axial force coefficient), it is possible to predict the impact velocity of the projectile, by external ballistic calculation, in function of the distance of the target, and to define the maximum effective range from the aspect of terminal ballistics. In this paper two models will be presented for predicting axial force (the axial force coefficient) of an APFSDS projectile after discarding sabot. The first model is defined in STANAG 4655 Ed.1. This model is used to predict the axial force coefficient for all types of conventional projectiles. The second model for predicting the axial force coefficient of an APFSDS projectile, which is presented in the paper, is the CFD-model (Computed Fluid Dynamics).
Benjamin Rudalija
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 44-52; doi:10.37868/dss.v1.id149

With new century we have new revolution which is Industry 4.0. That industry is helping companies to create smarter products together with services in such way that companies will reduce costs and they will increase efficiency. In that operation, human factor is crucial for the application. One of the benefits of the Industry 4.0 is the Smart factory that makes a solution. That is leading to the automated procedures. Also, it is leading to the uncomplicated setup including simple installation and sometimes very high rate of scalability. All of this features will help companies in the manufacturing process and further optimization their own processes. In the end, it will boost up their efficiency from the aspect of manufacturing. With digitalization of major industries, almost 5 million workplaces can be lost by 2020. In the same time, it will stop really fast the market demand for product which are produced using outdated technologies. Because of that, such production would be shut down because of higher costs and inefficiency in the first place.
Funda Yetgin Baykal
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 71-77; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.58

The Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) is among the core international instruments for environmental protection. It appears to be excessively economy-focused at initial sight. To evaluate the moral validity of this, I visited four different justification possibilities: 1. Economically preferable equals environmentally preferable; 2. Economic development is a satisfactory aim; 3. Environmental problems arise from economic goals; 4. The economy represents the power needed for solutions. After evaluating each of these, I confirmed that the focus of the PPP on the economy does not allow for sufficient protection of Nature, as also expressed in the literature.
Deniz Durmus
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 34-43; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.51

Complexity and complexity economics are relatively new fields of science, both of which started at the beginning of the 1980s. As it had emerged, questions have been raised regarding complexity’s applicability on human-involved systems and its predictive powers. Economics has been in the spotlight in recent years within the framework of complexity, since economics is one of the most well-established fields in social sciences. Within this framework, the field is referred to as complexity economics. While in its early years, complexity economics research had distanced itself from the reductionist neoclassic tradition of economics that has been identified by its use of, and reliance on, descriptive equations. One of the salient feature of complexity economics is its somewhat unorthodox approach to economic systems, as in its emphasis on non-equilibria. However in recent years, the proponents have become more assertive that complexity economics needs to be more modest and symbiotically co-exist with well-established mainstream economics. Although we focus on economics under the prism of complexity, our underlying interest is in the investigation of how other disciplines, such as industrial engineering and operations research, may benefit from a similar complexity-oriented perspective. Keywords: Complexity, complexity economics, mainstream economics, equation-based economics, non-equilibrium
Admel Husejinovic, Mirela Husejinović
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 23-33; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.52

In this study we investigate the level of adoption of internet banking in Bosnia and Herzegovina across gender, age group and education levels. Data is collected true the google forms questioner. We use descriptive statistics and inferential statistics to test out hypothesis in SPSS 22. We find out that some of the main reasons of not adopting internet in providing some of the banking services are security issue and that clients do not find reason for use of internet banking. Study suggests that significantly lower transaction cost and faster transaction process are important reason for increase in internet banking adoption by clients in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also, we find out that null hypothesis regarding distribution of internet banking adoption across gender, age group and education level cannot be rejected.
Mubina Sasic, Sehabbedin Taha Imeci
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 44-52; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.55

This project contains basic information, design, 3D projection, simulation, and analysis of Microstrip Bandpass Filter. The filter was composed of the feed lines connected to the two ports with the parallel coupled lines between them. The separation between these elements is reduced to the minimum for the purpose of reducing the error. Ultimately, the microstrip bandpass filter was designed with a 400 MHz bandwidth. We end up with these result: at the 4.43 GHz, S11 parameter is -9.868 dB and S22 is -1.808 dB, while at the 4.83 GHz, S11 is -9.995 dB and S22 is -1.826 dB.
Sarac Yesilada Yuksel
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 53-57; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.54

Considering the relationship between the environment and morality, discussion of the matter of values is inevitable. Although there is no consensus on the intrinsic and instrumental characteristics of the value, the condition of talking about environmental ethics is that the environment carries not instrumental but intrinsic value. The problem of subjectivity of this value creates an ontological problem. Given that the value of what is valued depends on the preferences, interests, and attitudes of the valuers, it can lead to anthropocentric environmental ethics, which is an abusive approach style by environmental policymakers. On the other hand, the understanding that value is independent of the preferences, interests, and attitudes of the subject brings an objective approach but this makes it difficult to base environmental ethics on values ??and adds scientific aspects to environmental approaches. Scientific aspects are already discussed under some concepts such as sustainability, biodiversity, ecology, and environmental management. However, grounding these concepts on moral values ??and the formation of environmental ethics depends on emphasizing not only the scientific and objective but also its subjective side. This study explained the possibility of meeting the universality criterion in objective conditions despite the subjectivity of values because the way environmental ethics is adopted by everyone is only a universal environmental ethic.
Sevgi Günes-Durak
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 58-63; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.56

Microplastics are less than 5 mm in length and are polymer chains containing carbon and hydrogen atoms. It poses a direct and indirect danger to all living things in the ecosystem. It is found in products such as microplastics, synthetic clothes, plastic bags and bottles, some cleaners, health and beauty products, toothpaste and causes both soil and water pollution from wastewater systems and solid waste. This situation not only threatens the life of creatures living in aquatic ecosystems such as rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans but also penetrates the human body through the food chain, causing various health problems, especially cancer. As with all environmental pollutants, microplastics need to reduce pollution at the source. In this research, treatment methods applied to remove microplastics that cannot be prevented at source from the water ecosystem were investigated and evaluated. According to the results, in wastewater treatment plants, the highest efficiency of microplastic removal is provided by membrane bioreactors. However, by imitating the microplastic removal capabilities and structures of living things in nature, studies on the discovery of new methods of microplastic removal can also be conducted.
Abderrahmane Khechekhouche, Abderrrahim Allal, Zied Driss
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 16-22; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.49

This work is a comparative study between the various advanced technologies of diagnosis of induction motors published recently and to make a classification of these diagnostic techniques according to their sensitivities from experimental results of stator short-circuit faults between stator turns. By using the logarithmic FFT spectrum, we can discover the best method to detect faults in their early stages so that we can predict their faults and anticipate breakdowns that can be dangerous for people or the economy.
Celalettin Basyigit, Mehmet Hanifi Alkayis, Mutlu Irem Kartli
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 64-70; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.57

Migration is generally defined as a period of time or permanent settlement of people by moving from a place of origin to another place. Throughout history, humanity has migrated due to natural disasters, religion, poverty, wars and this migration has caused urbanization with population growth. With the increase in population, irregular and excessive migration, decrease in resources, unplanned urbanization, infrastructure problems, wastewater lines, drinking water lines, rainwater collection lines, power lines, and natural gas pipelines cannot be delivered to desired places, traffic, and excessive waste generation increased. Therefore environmental pollution and health problems arise in cities. Today, due to the adverse environmental impact of all these, people have become more sensitive and have tended to find solutions to the problem with areas such as sustainable structures, recycling, and reuse of waste. In this study, the studies and gains made with the recycling aggregate used are evaluated in order to produce solutions for environmental pollution caused by the construction sector.
Putera Nik Aiman Mustaqim Othman, Othman Inayatullah
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 29-37; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.129

Carbazole, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a hazardous compound and a pollutant that can mainly be found in the petroleum industry. This pollutant can be treated in many ways and one of it is known as bioremediation. A method of using degrading-cell-organism, Thalassospira profundimaris, that is able to consume the pollutant as its food source and produce metabolite, harmless substance in exchange, splits into two ways which are using the cell as free cell and the other is using it as immobilized cell. There are many factors that are affecting the performance of the cell degradation. In this study, initial concentration of carbazole and agitation speed parameters have been tested and kinetic models built based on the results of this study. This study found that in term of initial concentration of carbazole, the performance of degradation cell is better on immobilized cell but not so significant based on kinetic models built. However, addition of good mixing quality enhanced the degradation performance significantly when the agitation speed is in range of 100 revolution per minute (rpm) and below.
Rozan Khader, Derar Eleyan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 23-28; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.124

The term internet of thing (IoT) has gained much popularity in the last decade. Which can be defined as various connected devices over the internet. IoT has rapidly spread to include all aspects of our lives. For instance, smart houses, smart cities, and variant wearable devices. IoT devices work to do their desired goals, which is to develop a person life with his/her minimal involvement. At the same time, IoT devices have many weaknesses, which attackers exploit to affect these devices security. Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) are considered the most common attacks that strike IoT security. The main aim of these attacks is to make victim systems down and inaccessible for legitimate users by malicious malware. This paper objective is to discuss and review security issues related to DoS/DDoS Attacks and their counter measures i.e. prevention based on IoT devices layers structure.
Ahmet Faruk Karakebelioglu, Ozkan Eren, Hasan Koten, Huseyin Alp
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 44-48; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.id123

Many problems have been seen in cities because of increasing vehicle density. One of these problems is vehicle density in parking lots. People look for empty parking areas and they spend too much time. While people look for empty parking areas, CO2 (carbon dioxide) emission and energy consumption increase due to density in parking lots. We worked to solve these problems by doing Magnetic Car Park Sensor. Magnetic Car Park Sensor is the system which detects cars in car parks. After cars detected with the system, the system sends information to center server and we can see information data in the system interface. The system helps people to find empty parking lots. As people find empty car park areas fastly, energy consumption and CO2 emission are decreased significantly.
Sehabeddin Taha Imeci, Haris Ackar, Faruk Matoruga
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 38-43; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.id130

The paper presents an upgraded configuration of compact T-shaped microstrip patch antenna design, simulation, fabrication, and test on 1.6mm FR-4 substrate. The microstrip patch antenna is simulated using Sonnet Software. The proposed design is developed to be used as a transmitting antenna operating at 2.4 GHz radio signals with bandwidth ranging from 2.2 GHz to 2.6 GHz, and with input, match S11 less than -27 dB on 2.4 GHz frequency. The gain of the proposed antenna is 7.28 dB. The antenna was fabricated and measured results match with simulated in terms of frequency but measured S11 is lower due to lossy dielectric FR-4.
Gökberk Kemal Oğuz
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 1-10; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.118

In recent years monetary narrowing impact more on Turkey and developing countries. Therefore, the importance of industrial policy and technology management in developing countries has widely increased. Production and design strategies have to be planned carefully. Thus, evidently monetary narrowing and undesired exchange rate fluctuation affected investment and the cash flow in numerous sectors such as finances, funding, industry, service industry, agribusiness, livestock, building trade, research, and development, etc. In this context, this situation broadly hit the research, prototyping, manufacturing and testing phase of the microstrip patch antennas. Today, patch antennas have widely utilized in telecommunication systems. Hence, this growth has increased interest in studies. As it is in every project, cost and efficiency are an essential part of the project design. Therefore, the ratio of cost is more important for Turkey and developing countries due to undesired exchange rate fluctuation, tax, financial obligations, and unexpected world events (e.g. COVID-19 pandemic). Commonly, the microstrip patch antenna comprises particular parts such as a radiating patch on top of the double-sided laminate and ground plane and feeding point located below the double-sided laminate. Therefore, microstrip patch antenna components play a significant role in patch antenna radiation characteristics. Moreover, specifications of the double-sided laminate, such as relative permittivity (or dielectric constant) and real physical thickness, are essential elements on the patch antennas radiation characteristics. Generally, high-quality dielectric substrates are developed and manufactured by western originated companies. Thus, the dielectric substrate with high-grade characteristics is hard to find for Turkey and developing countries. Importing is the only option and quite costly. Choosing a domestic dielectric substrate is inevitable, however insufficient for many cases. In this study, difficulties in microstrip patch antenna production and prototyping in Turkey are analyzed.
Arda Şahin, Mehmet Zübeyir Ünlü
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 11-14; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.119

The main objective of this study is to have noise component of a speech signal eliminated and compressing it by storing the locations and durations of silence regions. The separation between voiced, unvoiced, and silence regions are done by using the Short Time Energy (STE) and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) methodologies. All operations in this study have been performed by using the User Interface (UI) developed on MATLAB®. These operations include voice recording, playing the recording, eliminating the unwanted regions, playing the modified recording, saving of original and compressed files and loading the recording compressed.
Lina Muhammad Al-Ghamdi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 15-22; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.121

Social media provide opportunities for organizations to reach the largest amount of people by measuring the general perception of the consumer and knowing his/her feelings and some of his reactions towards brands and products. On the other hand, these organizations as well as people are keen to preserve the privacy of their data, which will only be achieved by using applications and techniques of artificial intelligence. This scientific paper aims to analyze and discuss the impact of using artificial intelligence applications with their various technologies on social media through the method of critical analysis and evaluation that was applied to previous recent studies that dealt with the impact of artificial intelligence on social media. Then, this paper conducted a critical review of these studies coming up with findings, conclusions and special recommendations on the subject. This resulted in the fact that studies agree on the great role that artificial intelligence plays in social media platforms in terms of preserving the privacy of the user and organizations and in terms of marketing and increasing the profits of organizations. Moreover, companies that do marketing through social media using artificial intelligence has benefited three times more than other companies that do not. In addition, artificial intelligence contributes to the preservation and security of privacy and data of users and digital owners in social networking sites, and contributes to increasing the profits of companies that use marketing through social media platforms based on artificial intelligence techniques, as their revenues increased by 10%, costs decreased, and productivity and logistic networks improved. This study recommended working to develop the mechanism of artificial intelligence in social media platforms, conducting more studies on the contribution of artificial intelligence in increasing the revenues earned by social media platforms, reducing the costs of social media creation and management, and finally the necessity for the commitment of social media companies to apply artificial intelligence techniques to maintain user privacy.
Didem Gökçe
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 54-60; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.id136

The quick improvement of nanotechnology permits a wide range of utilization of engineered nanoparticles, such as personal care products, medicals, optics, electronics, and automobiles. The nanoparticles manufactured from Ag, Au carbon-nanotube, ZnO, SiO2, TiO2, Cu, Ni, and magnetic ferrites are among the generally utilized in products. The nanoparticles are produced and utilized in large quantities and release into marine and freshwater ecosystems during production, use, discharge, treatment, and deposition. Those particles with a mean size of 1 nm - 100 nm are of potential environmental risks because of their particular qualifications and high reactivity although their great economical values. Based on the studies, the size, shape, and surface physical and chemical characteristics of the nanoparticles show the level of aggregation, solubility, structural and chemical composition, the importance of the use of nanoparticles, and their toxicity with biological systems. Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse impacts on tissue, cellular, genetic materials, and protein- enzyme levels due to their unique physical and chemical qualifications. In this study, the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms and aquatic ecosystems were evaluated.
Nesli Aydin
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 61-67; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.id138

As a result of Turkey's economic growth, industrial development has accelerated across the country and this has ultimately led to the environmental sector and waste management gaining importance. In Turkey, where there is a depletion of natural resources, the expansion of energy demand, and the orientation in environmental technologies, waste is no longer a problematic issue that needs to be eliminated; but it has become a source of raw materials whose processing and recycling can be achieved with today's technology. In the scope of sustainable development, the waste hierarchy includes the three priority targets. These are prevention of waste production, reuse, recycling, or recovery respectively. The method for non-recoverable wastes is landfilling with energy recovery if possible. In this context, this study aims to investigate the electricity generation potential of the solid wastes disposed at the Edirne Solid Waste Landfill Facility. When the amount of waste to be sent to the facility, which was assumed to have a 20-year economic life, increases by 5% in parallel with the population profile, it is seen that electricity production will go up rapidly until 2040. However, the results of the study present that the potential of methane production will fall as the stored waste age increases so that a significant decrease in electricity production should be expected from 2045 onwards. Once it is considered that the facility continues to produce electricity for a hundred years beyond 2040, the electricity generated from the facility will contribute to the electricity network and provide the avoidance of approximately 25 thousand tons of CO2 on a national basis.
Ibrahim Uyanik, Oktay Özkan, Hamdi Mihçiokur
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 49-53; doi:10.37868/sei.v3i1.id137

In this study, we discussed how can be the management hierarchy and management process in a university campus. Erciyes University is in the middle of the Anatolia Region that has about 60.000 population. The university has faculty /institutional administrations and hospital-related buildings and research centers. It has an area of about 20 m2 for each person on the campus. The university is responsible in terms of legislative directives that are in operation. The waste directive is published by the university in 2017 that shares the responsibilities and distributes the tasks for each unit on the university campus. In Turkey, zero waste projects and zero waste legislation are also in operation by 2019. The importance of waste management strategy is important for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that is published by the United Nations and put in consideration of Times Higher Education (THE) which is one of the most confidential ranking systems for universities. There is also, environmental assessment system for university campuses, the Green-Metric. One of the grading subjects of the Council of Higher Education (YÖK) in Turkey is the zero waste strategy on the campus. Therefore, the operation of a zero-waste strategy gains importance.
Sercan Saray, Tanzer Satır, Neslihan Dogan-Saglamtimur
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 6-15; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.48

Effective communication in the sea and ocean can only be achieved through a common language. Maritime professions in Turkey for many years have been seen as an important area of employment. Maritime vocational and technical high schools are also seen as educational institutions that play an important role in this field. In this study, it has been aimed to define the level of general and Maritime English education provided by the maritime vocational high schools, the problems and deficiencies of education, and what must be done to improve the education quality. A questionnaire was conducted to 200 graduates of maritime vocational high schools in order to determine the efficiency, deficiencies and issues that need to be improved. The results of the survey were analyzed by SPSS and made meaningful. For analysis, t-test was used to evaluate numerical data between two independent groups and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used to evaluate numerical data between more than two independent groups. After the One-Way ANOVA Test, Tukey Test was used as a complementary Post-Hoc analysis to determine the differences. Finally, Pearson correlation method was used to evaluate the continuous numerical variables used in the research. As a result of the research, it has been seen that Maritime English education in vocational high schools is far from meeting the needs of today's world and the maritime sector. It was observed that the graduates felt this inadequacy heavily on ships and experienced the effects of this deficiency in all of their professional life. As stated in the survey results, it is thought that the Maritime English educators with sea experience will increase the motivation of the students. Programs sourced from the field need to be reorganized. Also, it will be beneficial to rearrange the requirements of the seafarer educators for giving English lessons.
Adoum Mahamat Baraka, Kanita Šabanović, Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 21-36; doi:10.37868/bes.v1i1.id114

Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two POLE2 homologs known as polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit A (POLE2A) and polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit B (POLE2B). They play a very important role in DNA repair mechanisms. In this study, bioinformatics tools were used to understand DNA repair mechanisms in A. thaliana in which POLE2A and POLE2B proteins are involved. Through interactome analysis of POLE2A and POLE2B homolog proteins in A. thaliana, their additional roles in DNA repair were explored. The most important proteins that are participating in DNA repairs, like MSH2, MSH5, PCNA1, PCNA2, PRL, and CDC45 were identified as interactors of both POLE2A and POLE2B. The three-dimensional structure of POLE2 proteins was identified to decipher the complexity of NER, GG-NER, MMR, TFIIH, and TC-NER repair mechanisms through the identification of docking sites. The interaction complex of POLE2A and POLE2B with six proteins was confirmed and found to have a significant role in DNA repair processes and UV-B tolerance. The interactome analysis of POLE2A and POLE2B performed here once again confirms the complexity of the DNA repair mechanism in plants.
Amar Čosić, Ajdina Karić, Kanita Šabanović, Jasmin Šutković, Ahmet Yildirim
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 14-20; doi:10.37868/bes.v1i1.id112

The Bosnian and Herzegovinian market lacks data about the percentage of genetically modified soy products placed on the domestic market. There has been research on the issue of the presence of GMO products in our domestic market, but neither of the results is used as a reference for this occurrence. Therefore, this research topic tends to contribute to this issue, by examining genetically modified soy in processed food. The sample of seven products containing soya is examined by the methods of DNA isolation and real-time PCR for CP4 EPSPS. The results showed positive results for the presence of CP4 gene in certain products without an appropriate label. This mislabeling was confirmed since a couple of samples were labeled as GMO-free but contained CP4 gene, indicating GMO product.
Esma Zajimović, Jasmin Šutković
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 44-50; doi:10.37868/bes.v1i1.id116

Felis Catus is a small carnivorous mammal and it is considered to be the only domesticated species among Felidae family. The purpose of this work is to genetically characterize cat breeds from Bosnia and Herzegovina and to compare them to one unknown completely different cat. To achieve this, samples of 20 cats that belong to the European Shorthair Cat (ESH) breed have been collected, plus the target subject. Further, for the genetic microsatellite characterization, the DNA material was isolated from each cat, in order to compare them to the sample taken from an unknown cat breed that will be referred to as the subject of this research. Genetic diversities within and between populations were be analyzed using 5 microsatellite markers. The obtained results showed that the subject cat genetically differs from other ESH breed cats, where the observed heterozygosity patterns within the cat breeds showed minimum but expected genetic variety among the analyzed cat species.
Azra Alimanović, Jasmin Šutković
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 37-43; doi:10.37868/bes.v1i1.id115

Two SMN (survival motor neuron) genes are presented in the human genome: SMN1, which present the telomeric gene whose homozygous deletion or mutation like gene conversion, causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and SMN2, the centromeric version whose copy number modulates the phenotype of SMA These genes are commonly detected by Polymerase Chain reaction-based methods, and these are MLPA (Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification), qPCR (quantitative Polymerase chain reaction) and PCR-RFLP (Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism). This paper reviews the current standing of the most common PCR methods used in the detection of spinal muscular atrophy genes. MLPA, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP currently represent the most common methods of choice for the detection of mutations, especially for deletion and duplication mutations.
Nawaf AlMarzouki
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 1-5; doi:10.37868/hsd.v3i1.47

Aim: To evaluate the awareness about glaucoma among adults and its related health problems in Jeddah, Western region of Saudi Arabia and to assess the relationship between the awareness and knowledge about glaucoma across the socio-demographic characteristics. This will help to develop educational and screening programs of glaucoma which could help in early detection and diagnosis of the disease therefore reducing its sight threatening outcomes. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study which included a sample of 608 adults in June 2019. Participants took part filling in the online multiple choice sociodemographic and glaucoma awareness questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the participants was 28.3 years ±11.4 with (59.2%) males and (40.8%) females. The majority of the respondents 70.9% were single and the majority had a bachelor's degree. Overall, 66.3% of the participants had knowledge about glaucoma, whereas 33.7% had no previous knowledge about glaucoma. Significant association between higher educational level and awareness of glaucoma was (P= 0.024). Females and age group (?40) also showed significant associations with glaucoma awareness (P=
Merjema Ikanović, Mevlan Iseni, Muhamed Adilović, Altijana Hromić-Jahjefendić
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 100-107; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i2.46

Clean water is essential to our existence and problems might arise when it becomes contaminated with different pathogens, which might pose a threat to human health. Tap water is generally considered drinkable since it passes different forms of disinfection during processing. Some households have additional disinfection procedures, the most common one being the usage of charcoal filters, in order to further clean the tap water from both undesirable solvents and microorganisms. In the first independent study of this kind, we have tested tap water for bacteria from five different locations in Sarajevo, and we have tested the efficiency of charcoal filter in trapping of bacteria. According to regulations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, there should be 1 colony forming unit (CFU) per 50ul of water sample, which was satisfied in only one location from Sarajevo, while one had significantly higher levels (6.7, p val. 0.0148). Overall, the charcoal filter has decreased the number of bacteria in the water, with the exception of one sample.
Merve Küçük, Tulay Tikansak Karadayi
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 69-88; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i2.40

After the civil war in Syria, many refugees sought refuge to Turkey. It brought along many environmental problems such as sudden population growth and resource shortage. It is thought to design an ecological settlement that can produce its own energy and be self-sufficient as a solution due to the limited natural resources, in order to meet the need for shelter quickly in emergency situations. With this in mind, in order to create an ecological settlement, a sample and literature search was conducted and sustainable ecological settlement criteria were determined. As a place operation, the position is preferred in Turkey and that provides employment and by day increasing the number of refugees residing Kocaeli been selected. In line with the ecological settlement criteria, a survey was conducted to understand the accommodation problems and environmental awareness of Syrian refugees living in Kocaeli. Ecological living units are designed in line with the environmental, climatic and sociological data obtained. The units are placed in accordance with the physical environmental conditions of the plot chosen for ecological settlement. In the conclusion part, the applicability of the designed project has been evaluated in line with economic, sociological and ecological criteria and its positive and negative aspects have been discussed. In the sample area selected in this study, it is aimed to create an ecological residential area that provides energy, water and raw material conservation in accordance with environmental data, protects the ecosystem, and provides adequate comfort conditions for the users indoors. This study is intended to be a source for ecological settlement projects in order to create livelihoods for low-income groups and to stimulate agriculture, except in emergencies.
, Sencer Yeralan
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 114-122; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i2.42

Not only have Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) advanced in rapid succession, but society has embraced these developments and implemented them in daily life. This adoption has not only affected our way of conducting routine activities, but also significantly modified the way we do things as well as the things we now do. At this junction, rather than how engineering should improve ICT, the appropriate question seems to be “what should ICT engineers focus on? This question involves not only the prediction of future trends, but core engineering ethics, since any new ICT development is likely to affect societal activity. We present a recent study where we developed an approach to predict future trends and use it to guide our research plans. In that sense, the current study is a meta study, that is, a study to reveal what and how we should conduct future studies.
Vedat Asipi,
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 89-99; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i2.29

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare two different business models called business to business and business to consumer. The first model -business to business or B2B is defined as the transfer of goods and services between businesses or firms without the interference of consumers. The second model, business to consumer or B2C is customer-oriented in which the goods and services are sold immediately to customers in the market. This research focuses on the performance of these two business models in North Macedonia and Serbia. Our analysis tries to provide information regarding the countries’ development in different sectors within B2B and B2C models that are affected by specific indicators such as net salaries, total employment level, investment and exports, and research&innovation. Furthermore, besides the analysis of these indicators separately for each country, the paper will show the results and compare the performance differences among listed developing countries.
Aida Botonjic Karahusic, Nedim Begic, Edin Begic, Sabina Kusljugic, Damir Secic
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 108-113; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i2.45

Heart failure is defined as a clinical state, which occurs as a result of structural or functional damage of ventricle with consequential blood hypo perfusion of organs (reduced stroke volume of heart muscle and/or increased intracardial pressure in rest or during work activity). Therapeutical monitoring of patient is imperative, and it includes assessment of objective and subjective state of patient, which is often guide for optimizing of pharmacological treatment. The aim of paper is assessment of the room wall color influence as one of the factor for optimizing the therapeutic modality of patients with diagnosis of heart failure. Findings suggest that the influence of color in environment can be neutral, enabling or disabling, and this is the aspect of treatment that needs to be investigated further in future.
Merjem Begovic, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 119-125; doi:10.37868/sei.v2i2.116

In this paper we have presented new design of multi resonance patch antenna with multiple slits. Slits are located on the three sides of the designed antenna. It is simulated in a planar 3D electromagnetic simulation program, called Sonnet Software, designed on the Aluminum (96%) substrate and operates at three frequencies with reflection coefficient (S11) values lower than -10 dB. Values for the operating frequencies are 4.14, 5.52, 9.24 GHz. Electric field theta polarized gains for these three frequencies are; 8.09, 8.35 and 8.39 dB’s respectively. Cross polarization levels are well below -10 dB. A parametric study was conducted by changing the gap size and the dielectric thickness. As a result of the parametric study, it is seen that fabrication tolerances of the antenna are good enough.
Fehim Findik, Kemal Ermiş
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 66-88; doi:10.37868/sei.v2i2.115

Thermal energy storage (TES) is an advanced energy technology that is attracting increasing interest for thermal applications such as space and water heating, cooling, and air conditioning. TES systems have enormous potential to facilitate more effective use of thermal equipment and large-scale energy substitutions that are economic. TES appears to be the most appropriate method for correcting the mismatch that sometimes occurs between the supply and demand of energy. It is therefore a very attractive technology for meeting society’s needs and desires for more efficient and environmentally benign energy use. In this study, thermal energy storage systems, energy storage and methods, hydrogen for energy storage and technologies are reviewed.
Mustafa Indzic, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 102-109; doi:10.37868/sei.v2i2.110

In this paper, design and simulation of a High Frequency Slitted Butterfly-shaped Inset Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna is studied. As its name says, butterfly-shaped antenna is introduced with symmetric indentations at the top, bottom and sides. Excitation was used at the bottom point of the antenna with inset and via feeding. An input match (S11) of -34.48 dB at the resonance frequency of 26.35 GHz with an electric field phi-polarized gain of 7.37 dB were obtained. Cross polarization level (electric field theta-polarized) is -20 dB. The 26 GHz band covers the 3.25 GHz of spectrum between 24.25 GHz and 27.5 GHz and is being prioritized across Europe as the first high frequency band for 5G. This high frequency spectrum (known as ‘mmWave spectrum’), offers very high data capacity and speeds but with a limited range.
Ozge Buyukdagli, Sencer Yeralan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 89-101; doi:10.37868/sei.v2i2.112

Quite commonly, faculty performance evaluations use a weighted scheme. Individual faculty members are evaluated on a scale with respect to teaching, research, and service activities. These scores are then combined using pre-determined weights to obtain a combined score that is often used to compare different members. The presented study aimed to investigate the effects of selecting the weights on the individual scores and rankings. The interest is not on single faculty members, but rather on the systems aspects of the practice. That is, how do the weights affect the educational system as a whole? How sensitive is the evaluation system to the selection of the weights? In order to question the leverage a decision maker who determines the weights would have on the outcome of the rankings, the approach based on numerical examples and formal linear programming (LP) considerations is used.
Hassan Khalil Silman, Akbas Ezaldeen Ali
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 109-118; doi:10.37868/sei.v2i2.108

Worldwide, breast cancer causes a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis is important for treatment, but high-density breast tissues are difficult to analyze. Computer-assisted identification systems were introduced to classify by fine needle aspirates FNA with features that better represent the images to be classified as a major challenge. This work is fully automated, and it does not require any manual intervention from user. In this analysis, various texture definitions for the portrayal of breast tissue density on mammograms are examined within addition to contrasting them with other techniques. We have created an algorithm that can be divided into three classes: fatty, fatty-glandular and dense-glandular. The suggested system works in a spatial-related domain and it results with extreme immunity to noise and background area, with a high rate of precision.
Kemal Temur, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 30-37; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i1.36

In this work, tri resonance multi slot microstrip patch antenna which operates at three center frequencies of 11 GHz, 11.9 GHz, 15.7 GHz is designed and simulated. As a commercial simulation tool, Sonnet Suites, a planar 3D electromagnetic simulator was used. Details of the simulation results are presented and discussed. As a result, an input match of -6.88 dB at the resonance frequency of 11 GHz, an input match of -37.12 dB at the resonance frequency of 11.9 GHz, an input match of -29.49 dB at the resonance frequency of 15.7 GHz were observed. The gain was observed as 8.25 dB at 11 GHz and 4.82 dB at 11.9 GHz. Also, the gain was observed as 7.07 dB at 15.7 GHz. The patch has several symmetric slots and it’s well known that slots change the current distribution of the patch antenna.
Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad, Ali Taha Ozdemir
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 52-68; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i1.32

The UV irradiation is a major DNA damaging factor in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana uses various repair pathways for these kinds of DNA lesions. One of them is the nucleotide excision repair pathway. The AtCUL4, ERCC1/UVR7 and CHR8 are vital proteins for nucleotide excision pathway and mutations in these proteins cause flaws in the repair mechanism. Two of these proteins play crucial role during DNA damage recognition and the other is involved in the excision of damaged bases. During NER processes, Arabidopsis uses different sets of proteins during the DNA damage recognition for transcriptionally active and genomic DNA. In order to get better insight into these proteins, we used bioinformatics tools to predict, analyze, and validate 3D structures of ERCC1/UVR7, AtCUL4 and CHR8. We also predicted the subcellular and sub-nuclear localization of proteins. Subsequently, we predicted the docking sites for each individual proteins and searched for interacting residues which mediate the protein-protein interactions.
Hamza Mesai Ahmed, Youcef Djeriri
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 17-29; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i1.28

This paper presents the active and reactive powers control of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the grid utility and driven by a wind turbine, this machine allowing a large speed variation and so a large range of wind is achieved. Traditionally vector control is introduced to the DFIG control strategies, which decouples DFIG active and reactive powers, and reaches good performances in the wind energy conversion systems (WECS). However, this decoupling is lost if the parameters of the DFIG change. In this direction, a robust control scheme based on the nonlinear input-output linearizing and decoupling control strategy for the rotor side converter (RSC) of the WECS is presented. Simulation results show that the proposed control strategy provides a robust decoupled control and perfect tracking of the generated active and reactive powers of the wind turbine driven DFIG with a low THD rate of the generated currents.
Merve Küçük, Fehim Findik
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 1-16; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i1.35

Today, the use of fossil-based fuels and construction activities on a global and regional scale have effective climatic and environmental consequences all over the world, leading to disruption of living spaces. For this reason, it is important that the structures have sustainable properties that will reduce environmental impacts throughout the entire life cycle. Millions of people go to various countries and become refugees due to world wars and migrations. Here, ecological settlements and the criteria for the settlement are needed in order to make these settlements healthy. The ecological settlements in Turkey (Gaziantep, Bursa and Eskisehir) as well as in the world (China, Germany and Spain), listed the criteria that are necessary for these places, are revised in this review article.
Fikret Veljovic, Avdo Voloder, Senad Burak, Benjamin Kulovac, Reuf Karabeg
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 46-51; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i1.34

Background: The subject of this research is the creation of an optimal school bench design with the aim of determining the most favorable posture of students while sitting, taking into account the relevant ergonometric and biomechanical characteristics of the human body. For the proposed model of the school bench which allows adjusting the different slopes of its surface, the corresponding computer model of the student and the table was first created, and then biomechanical and RULA analysis was performed in order to determine the maximum load in the lumbar part. Next, for each test subject of given weight, it was necessary to determine the amount of maximum load in lumbar zone L3/L4 for different slope angles and to determine the critical angles at which the maximum permissible load of 3400 N is reached. Methods: The analysis is performed on a total of 5 subjects of the same height (180 cm) and various weights (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 kg). The task is to determine at which weight and at what angle of the workbench with standard height will not exceed the permissible loads of the spine, specifically referring to the L4/L5 vertebrae whose stresses should not exceed 3400 N. The CATIA software package (Dassault Systèmes, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) is used for the analysis. By knowing the anthropometric and work environment data with ergonomic design and analysis, the following analyzes were made: biomechanical analysis, rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) and carry analysis (an option from CATIA software). Results: The proposed school bench design allows for flexible adjustments to its worktop, that is, changing its tilt. This allows students of different body masses to have an optimal position at work that does not compromise their maximum permissible load in the L4/L5 spinal column (3400N). Conclusions: The proposed ergonomic design of the desk will result in students being adequately positioned during their activities at school with the minimal risk of permanent deviations and other health problems.
Amina Puran, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 38-45; doi:10.37868/hsd.v2i1.37

In this work a high gain dual resonance patch antenna is designed and simulated. Analysis is done while changing geometry and dielectric thickness. Main advantage of this type of antenna is its compact structure. Due to its dual characteristics it is very demanding in the communication industry which makes designing and analysing of this type of antenna more alluring. Values for S11 parameters are: -10.97dB and –30dB for 4.94GHz and 7.38GHz, respectively. Gain exceeds 8.85dB and 6.59dB for 4.94GHz and 7.38GHz, respectively. Characteristic impedance of the feed line is 50?.
, Akbas Ezaldeen Ali
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 41-49; doi:10.37868/sei.v2i2.104

Worldwide, breast cancer causes a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis is important for treatment, but high density breast tissues are difficult to analyze. Computer-assisted identification systems were introduced to classify is fine needle aspirates (fna) , with features that better represent the images to be classified as a major challenge. This work is fully automated, and it does not require any manual intervention from user. In this analysis, various texture definitions for the portrayal of breast tissue density on mammograms are examined within addition to contrasting them with other techniques. We have created an algorithm that can be divided into three classes: fatty, fatty-glandular and dense-glandular, The suggested system works in a spatial-related domain and it results extremely immunity to noise and background area, with a high rate of precision.
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