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Milan Tripathi
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 89-96; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.71

Abstract:
Image denoising is a crucial topic in image processing. Noisy images are generated due to technical and environmental errors. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider image denoising an important topic to study, as it also helps to resolve other image processing issues. However, the challenge is that the classical techniques used are time-consuming and not flexible enough. This article compares the two major neural network architecture which looks promising to resolve this issues. The AutoEncoder and UNET is now the most researched subject in deep learning for image denoising. Multiple model architectures are designed, implement, and evaluated. The dataset is preprocessed and then it is used to train and test the model. It is clearly shown in this paper which model performs the best in this task by comparing both models using the most used parameters to evaluate image quality PSNR and SSIM.
Martin Harutyunyan
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 148-153; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.72

Abstract:
In Yerevan, as well as in a number of other Armenian cities, gardens were designed and constructed mainly during the Soviet era, and most of them were transformed, distorted and devastated in the first decade of the period of independence. In the last decade, a unique number of gardens/parks have been built or reconstructed in Yerevan. The city of Yerevan needs this kind of investigation. To observe and analyse the current state of gardens and parks, architectural and design structures as well as compositional design issues and problems concerning Yerevan’s gardens and parks can be the first study in the Armenian history of design and architecture We still do not have any information about similar research efforts in the given sphere carried out in the countries neighbouring Armenia and other foreign countries. This article presents the right process of modernization and/or construction of gardens/parks based on the study of the best models envisions and requires application and implementation of different tools of compositional design and modification not only in the design proper of gardens/parks, but also in the external design and aesthetic nuances of the adjacent surrounding, leaving any compositional design setup unchanged.
Silvia Duranková, Richard Kalavsky, Jarmila Bernasovská
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 121-129; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.61

Abstract:
Geopathogenic zones are defined as inhomogeneities in the Earth's crust that emit electromagnetic radiation. These zones can also affect people without awareness and perception. Currently, the animal and plant kingdom as well as the human population live in a time with many electronic devices that can also affect us to some extent. Therefore, geopathogenic zones (GPZ) can also be one of the theoretical triggers of various diseases. The study aimed to determine the theoretical occurrence of geopathogenic zones and their effect on plants, animals, and the human body. Theoretically approach the occurrence of geopathogenic zones. In this study, data were obtained by using an anonymous questionnaire. A total of 202 respondents participated in the study, of which 56 were men and 146 women. The questionnaire consisted of 34 questions divided into 5 sections. Each of our respondents uses a mobile phone, which can to some extent affect our sleep, but also our health. Geopathogenic zones also occur near the dwellings where our respondents live. We assume that the animals of our respondents avoid geopathogenic zones as observed and predicted by studies. Geological research on the land can show us the presence of groundwater, changes in soil composition, and the possible occurrence of geopathogenic zones. All these arguments should be found even better to examine the issue since geopathogenic zones in the world are very under-represented. GPZ is one of the possible factors that can cause feelings of discomfort, various anomalies, or even health problems.
Segun Adebayo, Ozichi Emuoyibofarhe, Tolulope Awofolaju
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 111-120; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.64

Abstract:
Farmers are faced with challenges of producing enough food and the use of traditional methods seems not to keep pace with the ever-growing demand of the populace thus creating increased concern in food scarcity. Although it has been identified that smart tools will enhance the production pace needed in the Agricultural sector, unfortunately, most of these tools are designed for farmers without their inputs, thus creating tools that are not meeting demands. This study focused on a farmer-centered design, development, and deployment approach to improving farm productivity. The design thinking approach was used to identify the specific need of the farmers in selected areas, ideas were created using brainstorming sessions involving experts in the field, and prototypes were developed and deployed to evaluate the impact performance. The result shows that the proposed system improved the cost-benefit ratio of crop farming from 2.14 to 2.26. This is a 12% productivity increase.
Hande Sahin, Ali Osman Kusakci, Baboucarr Mbowe
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 130-147; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.69

Abstract:
Customer Loyalty Programs are one of the handiest tools to raise brand awareness, and secure long-term and strong ties between a brand and existing consumers. Airline companies have been using frequent flyer programs (FFPs) to retain customers with the expectation of increasing passengers’ loyalty levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the significance of FFPs for customer loyalty, which is of great help for customer retention in the civil aviation industry in the sample of passengers flying from the new Istanbul Airport. Furthermore, we questioned the effectiveness of various services and products offered within FFPs for loyalty, which is decomposed into two main components, behavioral, and attitudinal commitment of loyalty. We evaluated the significance of various demographic factors on passengers’ perception of FFPs services and privileges, and customer loyalty. The study confirmed the vital role of FFPs to build up brand loyalty, where profession, duration of the membership to FFPs, and gender are essential factors.
Wei Kitt Wong, Filbert Hilman Juwono, Wan Ning Loh, Ik Ying Ngu
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 102-110; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.53

Abstract:
Each country has been racing to contain the spread of COVID-19. The published data of daily infection and death cases can be used to measure the effectiveness of the control interventions. We focus our study in two Southeast Asia countries: Indonesia and Malaysia during period between March and November 2020. Newcomb-Benford law has been commonly used to analyze the probabilities of the first significant digits in natural occurrences since the late 19th century. It is a prominent statistical tool for its capability to detect frauds in datasets. A chi-squared test was recruited to quantify the closeness of the data and Newcomb-Benford law distributions. The results revealed that the distributions of daily infection and death cases in Indonesia followed Newcomb-Benford law while the opposite results were obtained for Malaysia. We have done the analysis of verifying the daily COVID-19 infection and death cases in Indonesia and Malaysia using Newcomb-Benford law. It can be inferred that, between March and November 2020, the control interventions in Indonesia was less effective compared to Malaysia.
Edin Jahic
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 78-88; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.59

Abstract:
Among the many mosques from the Ottoman period in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the most numerous are modest and predominantly wooden mosques covered by a hip roof with an integrated wooden minaret. Although they originate in the long tradition of Turkish single-space mosques, their appearance and construction represent the expression of Bosnian autochthonous architecture. They were mostly built for the needs of the neighborhood (mahala) in smaller and larger towns, but also in rural areas. Due to the perishable materials and various other reasons, they had been renovated several times so changes in appearance were in some cases quite certain. These structures have been insufficiently researched and very few valuable publications are available so far. Qualitative analysis of significant examples, in addition to the common features by which these mosques differ from large monumental mosques, differences in the spatial concept, as well as the construction of individual elements, were observed. Concerning the shape of the entrance, these mosques have four characteristic solutions: a mosque with a porch, with a porch and a gallery, without a porch, and with a closed vestibule. The analysis also showed that the two mahala mosques in Tuzla had a specific gallery form that deviated from the typical solution. These galleries are extended over the porch on three sides by the application of ingenious carpentry solutions and covered with elongated eaves. In addition, this study showed that thanks to available sources, it was possible to re-establish the original form of the two mosques, which had since been altered.
Ognjen Ridic, Jasmina Mangafic, Josip Nikolic, Azra Smjecanin
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 97-101; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.63

Abstract:
The energy efficiency represents a global and multi-faceted issue. It is especially important in the former socialist countries belonging to the Balkan’s region being geographically located in the Southeastern Europe (SE). The research problem addressed in this paper focuses on the unexplored potential links between the energy efficiency and the economic development. Energy efficiency is deemed to be highly job intensive phenomenon. It delivers multiple long-range benefits by the means of increasing competitiveness, energy affordability, and decreasing energy bills. Furthermore, it seeks to tackle the important issues of reduced reliance on energy importing, reduction in harmful greenhouse gas emissions and freeing up of funds to be critically invested in other economic areas. Energy efficiency, efficient and effective policies have been found to be directly linked to job creation and deliverance of the economic stimulus. These types of jobs are related to the activities with the paramount aim in reduction of the energy consumption. Investments in energy efficiency in the buildings and construction sector have been found to have brought about the greatest macroeconomic impact. This impact is due to the increasing need for the construction of new buildings and renovation of existing ones, in addition to its considerable potential in activation of the above listed industries’ value chains. The introduction of energy management system (EMS) being exemplified through the set of processes which utilize data to maintain and enhance energy efficiency and operational efficiency could be one of the important avenues to pursue. On the other hand, the EMS reduces the energy intensity and detrimental environmental polluting impact.
Marwa Taha Jasim, Tahseen H. Mubarak, Abdul Samee F. Abdul Aziz
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 121-129; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id117

Abstract:
In the current study, nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles Ni (1-x) ZnxFe2O4 (X= 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) have been arranged by sol-gel auto combustion and common chemical precipitation methods, The samples were described by x-ray (XRD) deflection, Fourier converts Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), dielectric perpetual and dielectric loss element. the XRD analysis confirms the cubic lone phase spinel configuration for all the synthesized materials. Average crystalline size is estimated of the (311) peaks of the x-ray diffractogram using Scherrer’s formulation institute in the range 38.90 to 37.71 nm for sol-gel auto burning method and from 18.61 to 23.41 nm for co-precipitation method. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was studied so as to assert the construction of the spinel phase and to recognize the kind of carbon remaining in the samples. The dielectric fixed and the dielectric loss factor were measured in the range between 50 Hz – 3 MHz at room temperature were located to be reduced with a rise in regularity.
Marin Petrovic, Nejra Isic
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 112-120; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id139

Abstract:
One of the most important parts of a wind turbine is a tower. There are various designs of the wind turbine towers, and they are most often made of steel pipes, lattice towers or concrete towers. In order to increase energy density to meet the growing electricity needs, larger wind turbine projects have been developed. Larger wind turbine towers can generate more electricity, but such large sizes also create higher costs in terms of development and maintenance. This research sets up a model of a wind turbine tower, where the load to the tower is calculated by its relation to the wind velocity. Analytical approach coupled with a finite element method (FEM) is used to analyse the distribution of tower stresses under these loads. The fatigue analysis of the column is performed using the load from its own weight, the weight of the housing and the distribution of the wind velocity. The effects of different loads are also compared. The results show that the main loads of the tower are the wind force acting on the area of ??rotation of the wind turbine blades and the moment caused by the uneven wind velocity. Construction is modelled using SolidWorks modelling package, where the analysis was performed using FEM in ANSYS software. As a result of the analysis, the stress distribution in the support was determined and compared with analytical calculations.
Mustafa Indžić, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 73-78; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id132

Abstract:
In this paper, the design, simulation, optimization and testing of a Microstrip Hybrid 10 dB Wideband Coupler was done. The aim of the project was to introduce a new coupler design and to achieve stable operation for as wide bandwidth as possible. For this proposed design simulated results are as follows: 3.8 GHz Bandwidth and Coupling Amplitude balance of 1 dB across it. Coupler is then produced using LPKF ProtoMat 104s machine and it is tested with Vector Network Analyzer at Istanbul Technical University.
Ahmed S. Nori, Ansam O. Abdulmajeed
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 79-91; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id131

Abstract:
This paper is presenting design and implementation of Threefish block cipher on grayscale images. Despite the fact that Threefish block cipher is one of the best secure algorithms, most studies concerning Threefish have focused on hardware implementation and have not commonly been applied on image encryption due to huge amount of data. The main contribution here was to reduce the time and the amount of data to be encrypted while maintaining encryption performance. This objective was achieved by encrypting just the most significant bits of image pixels. A 256-bit plain text blocks of the Threefish was constructed from 2n most significant bits of the pixels, where 0
Milan Tripathi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 102-111; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id142

Abstract:
Image denoising is an important aspect of image processing. Noisy images are produced as a result of technical and environmental flaws. As a result, it is reasonable to consider image denoising an important topic to research, as it also aids in the resolution of other image processing issues. The challenge, however, is that the traditional techniques used are time-consuming and inflexible. This article purposed a system of classifying and denoising noised images. A CNN and UNET based model architecture is designed, implement, and evaluated. The facial image dataset is processed and then it is used to train, valid and test the models. During preprocessing, the images are resized into 48*48, normalize, and various noises are added to the image. The preprocessing for each model is a bit different. The training and validation accuracy for the CNN model is 99.87% and 99.92% respectively. The UNET model is also able to get optimal PSNR and SSIM values for different noises.
Benjamin Kommey, Seth Kotey, Gideon Adom-Bamfi, Eric Tutu Tchao
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 92-101; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id144

Abstract:
Most applications in recent times make use of images one way or the other. As physical devices for capturing images improve, the quality and sizes of images also increase. This causes a significant footprint of images on storage devices. There is ongoing research to reduce the footprint of images on storage. Since storage is a finite resource, the goal is to reduce the sizes of images while maintaining enough quality pleasant to the human eye. In this paper, the design of two lossy codecs for compressing grayscale digital signature images has been presented. The algorithms used either simple thresholding or transform coding to introduce controlled losses into the image coding chain. This was to reduce, to a great extent, the average number of bits per pixel required to represent the images. The codecs were implemented in MATLAB and experiments were conducted with test images to study the performances of the algorithms.
Segolene Clemence Marie Mosser
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 130-138; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id148

Abstract:
This paper focused on the maintenance problems encountered by industrial vehicles within the Volvo Group. The main goal of the research on this subject was to propose to customers’ a personalized maintenance offer which adapts to their constraints while reducing the impact on the operating costs. To achieve this, a policy has been developed. This policy works on the dynamic gathering of information using both the available monitoring information and the knowledge of the multi-component system. Its objective is to guarantee to the customer the autonomy of its system over given periods of operation while minimizing the total cost of maintenance. The paper showed that the policy developed does indeed reduce the total maintenance cost compared to the previous policy used within the Volvo group. Nevertheless, this policy still has room for improvement.
Muamer Bučo, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 68-72; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id133

Abstract:
In this paper, we will present a planar geometry design for a 6dB compact microwave coupler, and will further explore and discuss the results of an electromagnetic simulation in Sonnet® Suites™ Electromagnetic simulation software. Being a compact coupler, the device features a minute circuit footprint size, while still observing the limitations of the production technologies involved in manufacturing it. The technology utilized in the paper is a 4 port microstrip copper trace on a production-friendly and extremely economical FR4 dielectric substrate. The circuit shows excellent performance in a 1.8GHz bandwidth (3.9GHz – 5.7GHz), with a loss of 6dB on the coupled port. A further advantage of this geometry is a very linear and predictable change in the S-parameter values as a result of small linear changes in the geometry
Amel Becic
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v1.id148

Abstract:
Smart city is one of the most exiting industries of 21st century. For this research paper the development of smart cities and its application is explored. The key results in this paper concerns what impact does industry 4.0 have on smart cities and with technological advancements what does the future look like for smart cities, how will they develop and how will they look in future. For this research the lastest research papers written on topic of smart cities were used, with industry 4.0 and research on integration of industry 4.0 into smart cities. The main result of this paper is to show the reader exactly what is smart city, what is industry 4.0 and how are they connected through modern cutting edge technologies.
Ammar Trakic
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v1.id63

Abstract:
Armor-piercing ammunition is primarily used to combat against heavy armored targets (tanks), but targets can be light armored vehicles, aircraft, warehouse, structures, etc. It has been shown that the most effective type of anti-tank ammunition in the world is the APFSDS ammunition (Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot). The APFSDS projectile flies to the target and with his kinetic energy acts on the target, that is, penetrates through armor and disables the tank and his crew. Since the projectile destroys target with his kinetic energy, then it is necessary for the projectile to have the high impact velocity. The decrease in the velocity of a projectile, during flight, is mainly influenced by aerodynamic forces. The most dominant is the axial force due to the laid trajectory of the projectile. By knowing the axial force (axial force coefficient), it is possible to predict the impact velocity of the projectile, by external ballistic calculation, in function of the distance of the target, and to define the maximum effective range from the aspect of terminal ballistics. In this paper two models will be presented for predicting axial force (the axial force coefficient) of an APFSDS projectile after discarding sabot. The first model is defined in STANAG 4655 Ed.1. This model is used to predict the axial force coefficient for all types of conventional projectiles. The second model for predicting the axial force coefficient of an APFSDS projectile, which is presented in the paper, is the CFD-model (Computed Fluid Dynamics).
Benjamin Rudalija
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 44-52; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v1.id149

Abstract:
With new century we have new revolution which is Industry 4.0. That industry is helping companies to create smarter products together with services in such way that companies will reduce costs and they will increase efficiency. In that operation, human factor is crucial for the application. One of the benefits of the Industry 4.0 is the Smart factory that makes a solution. That is leading to the automated procedures. Also, it is leading to the uncomplicated setup including simple installation and sometimes very high rate of scalability. All of this features will help companies in the manufacturing process and further optimization their own processes. In the end, it will boost up their efficiency from the aspect of manufacturing. With digitalization of major industries, almost 5 million workplaces can be lost by 2020. In the same time, it will stop really fast the market demand for product which are produced using outdated technologies. Because of that, such production would be shut down because of higher costs and inefficiency in the first place.
Alan Catovic
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 16-25; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v1.id72

Abstract:
The literature survey, related to the initial velocity of fragments for HE ammunition is presented. The basic Gurney model for fragment initial velocity, that can be used for different munition configuration, is presented. The research we performed using the Gurney method for a different projectile types is given.
, Erwin Trgo
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 1, pp 26-33; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v1.id145

Abstract:
The increased global demand for weapons is growing fast both military and civilian grade equipment. The defense industry is experiencing an increase in its trades and production over the globe. Currently global market trade of arms is about US$ 1.9 trillion, with a trend of increase. This paper investigates global trends in defense through analysis of global defense spending and R&D activities with the focus to Bosnian defense industry perspectives. It was observed that Bosnian defense industry has potential to be one of the key players of the national innovation system through which the national R&D output would make notable positive impact on the national economic performances.
Celalettin Basyigit, Mehmet Hanifi Alkayis, Mutlu Irem Kartli
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 64-70; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.57

Abstract:
Migration is generally defined as a period of time or permanent settlement of people by moving from a place of origin to another place. Throughout history, humanity has migrated due to natural disasters, religion, poverty, wars and this migration has caused urbanization with population growth. With the increase in population, irregular and excessive migration, decrease in resources, unplanned urbanization, infrastructure problems, wastewater lines, drinking water lines, rainwater collection lines, power lines, and natural gas pipelines cannot be delivered to desired places, traffic, and excessive waste generation increased. Therefore environmental pollution and health problems arise in cities. Today, due to the adverse environmental impact of all these, people have become more sensitive and have tended to find solutions to the problem with areas such as sustainable structures, recycling, and reuse of waste. In this study, the studies and gains made with the recycling aggregate used are evaluated in order to produce solutions for environmental pollution caused by the construction sector.
Abderrahmane Khechekhouche, Abderrrahim Allal, Zied Driss
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 16-22; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.49

Abstract:
This work is a comparative study between the various advanced technologies of diagnosis of induction motors published recently and to make a classification of these diagnostic techniques according to their sensitivities from experimental results of stator short-circuit faults between stator turns. By using the logarithmic FFT spectrum, we can discover the best method to detect faults in their early stages so that we can predict their faults and anticipate breakdowns that can be dangerous for people or the economy.
Admel Husejinovic, Mirela Husejinović
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 23-33; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.52

Abstract:
In this study we investigate the level of adoption of internet banking in Bosnia and Herzegovina across gender, age group and education levels. Data is collected true the google forms questioner. We use descriptive statistics and inferential statistics to test out hypothesis in SPSS 22. We find out that some of the main reasons of not adopting internet in providing some of the banking services are security issue and that clients do not find reason for use of internet banking. Study suggests that significantly lower transaction cost and faster transaction process are important reason for increase in internet banking adoption by clients in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also, we find out that null hypothesis regarding distribution of internet banking adoption across gender, age group and education level cannot be rejected.
Deniz Durmus
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.51

Abstract:
Complexity and complexity economics are relatively new fields of science, both of which started at the beginning of the 1980s. As it had emerged, questions have been raised regarding complexity’s applicability on human-involved systems and its predictive powers. Economics has been in the spotlight in recent years within the framework of complexity, since economics is one of the most well-established fields in social sciences. Within this framework, the field is referred to as complexity economics. While in its early years, complexity economics research had distanced itself from the reductionist neoclassic tradition of economics that has been identified by its use of, and reliance on, descriptive equations. One of the salient feature of complexity economics is its somewhat unorthodox approach to economic systems, as in its emphasis on non-equilibria. However in recent years, the proponents have become more assertive that complexity economics needs to be more modest and symbiotically co-exist with well-established mainstream economics. Although we focus on economics under the prism of complexity, our underlying interest is in the investigation of how other disciplines, such as industrial engineering and operations research, may benefit from a similar complexity-oriented perspective. Keywords: Complexity, complexity economics, mainstream economics, equation-based economics, non-equilibrium
Funda Yetgin Baykal
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 71-77; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.58

Abstract:
The Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) is among the core international instruments for environmental protection. It appears to be excessively economy-focused at initial sight. To evaluate the moral validity of this, I visited four different justification possibilities: 1. Economically preferable equals environmentally preferable; 2. Economic development is a satisfactory aim; 3. Environmental problems arise from economic goals; 4. The economy represents the power needed for solutions. After evaluating each of these, I confirmed that the focus of the PPP on the economy does not allow for sufficient protection of Nature, as also expressed in the literature.
Mubina Sasic, Sehabbedin Taha Imeci
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 44-52; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.55

Abstract:
This project contains basic information, design, 3D projection, simulation, and analysis of Microstrip Bandpass Filter. The filter was composed of the feed lines connected to the two ports with the parallel coupled lines between them. The separation between these elements is reduced to the minimum for the purpose of reducing the error. Ultimately, the microstrip bandpass filter was designed with a 400 MHz bandwidth. We end up with these result: at the 4.43 GHz, S11 parameter is -9.868 dB and S22 is -1.808 dB, while at the 4.83 GHz, S11 is -9.995 dB and S22 is -1.826 dB.
Sevgi Günes-Durak
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 58-63; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.56

Abstract:
Microplastics are less than 5 mm in length and are polymer chains containing carbon and hydrogen atoms. It poses a direct and indirect danger to all living things in the ecosystem. It is found in products such as microplastics, synthetic clothes, plastic bags and bottles, some cleaners, health and beauty products, toothpaste and causes both soil and water pollution from wastewater systems and solid waste. This situation not only threatens the life of creatures living in aquatic ecosystems such as rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans but also penetrates the human body through the food chain, causing various health problems, especially cancer. As with all environmental pollutants, microplastics need to reduce pollution at the source. In this research, treatment methods applied to remove microplastics that cannot be prevented at source from the water ecosystem were investigated and evaluated. According to the results, in wastewater treatment plants, the highest efficiency of microplastic removal is provided by membrane bioreactors. However, by imitating the microplastic removal capabilities and structures of living things in nature, studies on the discovery of new methods of microplastic removal can also be conducted.
Sarac Yesilada Yuksel
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 53-57; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.54

Abstract:
Considering the relationship between the environment and morality, discussion of the matter of values is inevitable. Although there is no consensus on the intrinsic and instrumental characteristics of the value, the condition of talking about environmental ethics is that the environment carries not instrumental but intrinsic value. The problem of subjectivity of this value creates an ontological problem. Given that the value of what is valued depends on the preferences, interests, and attitudes of the valuers, it can lead to anthropocentric environmental ethics, which is an abusive approach style by environmental policymakers. On the other hand, the understanding that value is independent of the preferences, interests, and attitudes of the subject brings an objective approach but this makes it difficult to base environmental ethics on values ??and adds scientific aspects to environmental approaches. Scientific aspects are already discussed under some concepts such as sustainability, biodiversity, ecology, and environmental management. However, grounding these concepts on moral values ??and the formation of environmental ethics depends on emphasizing not only the scientific and objective but also its subjective side. This study explained the possibility of meeting the universality criterion in objective conditions despite the subjectivity of values because the way environmental ethics is adopted by everyone is only a universal environmental ethic.
Lina Muhammad Al-Ghamdi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.121

Abstract:
Social media provide opportunities for organizations to reach the largest amount of people by measuring the general perception of the consumer and knowing his/her feelings and some of his reactions towards brands and products. On the other hand, these organizations as well as people are keen to preserve the privacy of their data, which will only be achieved by using applications and techniques of artificial intelligence. This scientific paper aims to analyze and discuss the impact of using artificial intelligence applications with their various technologies on social media through the method of critical analysis and evaluation that was applied to previous recent studies that dealt with the impact of artificial intelligence on social media. Then, this paper conducted a critical review of these studies coming up with findings, conclusions, and special recommendations on the subject. This resulted in the fact that studies agree on the great role that artificial intelligence plays in social media platforms in terms of preserving the privacy of the user and organizations and in terms of marketing and increasing the profits of organizations. Moreover, companies that do marketing through social media using artificial intelligence have benefited three times more than other companies that do not. In addition, artificial intelligence contributes to the preservation and security of privacy and data of users and digital owners in social networking sites, and contributes to increasing the profits of companies that use marketing through social media platforms based on artificial intelligence techniques, as their revenues increased by 10%, costs decreased, and productivity and logistic networks improved. This study recommended working to develop the mechanism of artificial intelligence in social media platforms, conducting more studies on the contribution of artificial intelligence in increasing the revenues earned by social media platforms, reducing the costs of social media creation and management, and finally the necessity for the commitment of social media companies to apply artificial intelligence techniques to maintain user privacy.
Didem Gökçe
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.id136

Abstract:
The quick improvement of nanotechnology permits a wide range of utilization of engineered nanoparticles, such as personal care products, medicals, optics, electronics, and automobiles. The nanoparticles manufactured from Ag, Au carbon-nanotube, ZnO, SiO2, TiO2, Cu, Ni, and magnetic ferrites are among the generally utilized in products. The nanoparticles are produced and utilized in large quantities and release into marine and freshwater ecosystems during production, use, discharge, treatment, and deposition. Those particles with a mean size of 1 nm - 100 nm are of potential environmental risks because of their particular qualifications and high reactivity although their great economical values. Based on the studies, the size, shape, and surface physical and chemical characteristics of the nanoparticles show the level of aggregation, solubility, structural and chemical composition, the importance of the use of nanoparticles, and their toxicity with biological systems. Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse impacts on tissue, cellular, genetic materials, and protein- enzyme levels due to their unique physical and chemical qualifications. In this study, the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms and aquatic ecosystems were evaluated.
Nesli Aydin
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 61-67; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.id138

Abstract:
As a result of Turkey's economic growth, industrial development has accelerated across the country and this has ultimately led to the environmental sector and waste management gaining importance. In Turkey, where there is a depletion of natural resources, the expansion of energy demand, and the orientation in environmental technologies, waste is no longer a problematic issue that needs to be eliminated; but it has become a source of raw materials whose processing and recycling can be achieved with today's technology. In the scope of sustainable development, the waste hierarchy includes the three priority targets. These are prevention of waste production, reuse, recycling, or recovery respectively. The method for non-recoverable wastes is landfilling with energy recovery if possible. In this context, this study aims to investigate the electricity generation potential of the solid wastes disposed at the Edirne Solid Waste Landfill Facility. When the amount of waste to be sent to the facility, which was assumed to have a 20-year economic life, increases by 5% in parallel with the population profile, it is seen that electricity production will go up rapidly until 2040. However, the results of the study present that the potential of methane production will fall as the stored waste age increases so that a significant decrease in electricity production should be expected from 2045 onwards. Once it is considered that the facility continues to produce electricity for a hundred years beyond 2040, the electricity generated from the facility will contribute to the electricity network and provide the avoidance of approximately 25 thousand tons of CO2 on a national basis.
Ibrahim Uyanik, Oktay Özkan, Hamdi Mihçiokur
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 49-53; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.id137

Abstract:
In this study, we discussed how can be the management hierarchy and management process in a university campus. Erciyes University is in the middle of the Anatolia Region that has about 60.000 population. The university has faculty /institutional administrations and hospital-related buildings and research centers. It has an area of about 20 m2 for each person on the campus. The university is responsible in terms of legislative directives that are in operation. The waste directive is published by the university in 2017 that shares the responsibilities and distributes the tasks for each unit on the university campus. In Turkey, zero waste projects and zero waste legislation are also in operation by 2019. The importance of waste management strategy is important for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that is published by the United Nations and put in consideration of Times Higher Education (THE) which is one of the most confidential ranking systems for universities. There is also, environmental assessment system for university campuses, the Green-Metric. One of the grading subjects of the Council of Higher Education (YÖK) in Turkey is the zero waste strategy on the campus. Therefore, the operation of a zero-waste strategy gains importance.
Putera Nik Aiman Mustaqim Othman, Othman Inayatullah
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.129

Abstract:
Carbazole, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a hazardous compound and a pollutant that can mainly be found in the petroleum industry. This pollutant can be treated in many ways and one of it is known as bioremediation. A method of using degrading-cell-organism, Thalassospira profundimaris, that is able to consume the pollutant as its food source and produce metabolite, harmless substance in exchange, splits into two ways which are using the cell as free cell and the other is using it as immobilized cell. There are many factors that are affecting the performance of the cell degradation. In this study, initial concentration of carbazole and agitation speed parameters have been tested and kinetic models built based on the results of this study. This study found that in term of initial concentration of carbazole, the performance of degradation cell is better on immobilized cell but not so significant based on kinetic models built. However, addition of good mixing quality enhanced the degradation performance significantly when the agitation speed is in range of 100 revolution per minute (rpm) and below.
Ahmet Faruk Karakebelioglu, Ozkan Eren, Hasan Koten, Huseyin Alp
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 44-48; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.id123

Abstract:
Many problems have been seen in cities because of increasing vehicle density. One of these problems is vehicle density in parking lots. People look for empty parking areas and they spend too much time. While people look for empty parking areas, CO2 (carbon dioxide) emission and energy consumption increase due to density in parking lots. We worked to solve these problems by doing Magnetic Car Park Sensor. Magnetic Car Park Sensor is the system which detects cars in car parks. After cars detected with the system, the system sends information to center server and we can see information data in the system interface. The system helps people to find empty parking lots. As people find empty car park areas fastly, energy consumption and CO2 emission are decreased significantly.
Sehabeddin Taha Imeci, Haris Ackar, Faruk Matoruga
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 38-43; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.id130

Abstract:
The paper presents an upgraded configuration of compact T-shaped microstrip patch antenna design, simulation, fabrication, and test on 1.6mm FR-4 substrate. The microstrip patch antenna is simulated using Sonnet Software. The proposed design is developed to be used as a transmitting antenna operating at 2.4 GHz radio signals with bandwidth ranging from 2.2 GHz to 2.6 GHz, and with input, match S11 less than -27 dB on 2.4 GHz frequency. The gain of the proposed antenna is 7.28 dB. The antenna was fabricated and measured results match with simulated in terms of frequency but measured S11 is lower due to lossy dielectric FR-4.
Rozan Khader, Derar Eleyan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 23-28; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.124

Abstract:
The term internet of things (IoT) has gained much popularity in the last decade, which can be defined as various connected devices over the internet. IoT has rapidly spread to include all aspects of our lives. For instance, smart houses, smart cities, and variant wearable devices. IoT devices work to do their desired goals, which is to develop a person's living with his/her minimal involvement. At the same time, IoT devices have many weaknesses, which attackers exploit to affect these devices' security. Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) are considered the most common attacks that strike IoT security. The main aim of these attacks is to make victim systems down and inaccessible for legitimate users by malicious malware. This paper's objective is to discuss and review security issues related to DoS/DDoS attacks and their countermeasures i.e. prevention based on IoT devices' layers structure.
Gokberk Kemal Oguz
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.118

Abstract:
In recent years monetary narrowing impact more on Turkey and developing countries. Therefore, the importance of industrial policy and technology management in developing countries has widely increased. Production and design strategies have to be planned carefully. Thus, evidently monetary narrowing and undesired exchange rate fluctuation affected investment and the cash flow in numerous sectors such as finances, funding, industry, service industry, agribusiness, livestock, building trade, research, and development, etc. In this context, this situation broadly hit the research, prototyping, manufacturing, and testing phase of the microstrip patch antennas. Today, patch antennas have widely utilized in telecommunication systems. Hence, this growth has increased interest in studies. As it is in every project, cost and efficiency are an essential part of the project design. Therefore, the ratio of cost is more important for Turkey and developing countries due to undesired exchange rate fluctuation, tax, financial obligations, and unexpected world events (e.g. COVID-19 pandemic). Commonly, the microstrip patch antenna comprises particular parts such as a radiating patch on top of the double-sided laminate and ground plane and feeding point located below the double-sided laminate. Therefore, microstrip patch antenna components play a significant role in patch antenna radiation characteristics. Moreover, specifications of the double-sided laminate, such as relative permittivity (or dielectric constant) and real physical thickness are essential elements of the patch antenna's radiation characteristics. Generally, high-quality dielectric substrates are developed and manufactured by western originated companies. Thus, the dielectric substrate with high-grade characteristics is hard to find for Turkey and developing countries. Importing is the only option and quite costly. Choosing a domestic dielectric substrate is inevitable, however insufficient for many cases. In this study, difficulties in microstrip patch antenna production and prototyping in Turkey are analyzed.
Arda Sahin, Mehmet Zubeyir Unlu
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 11-14; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i1.119

Abstract:
The main objective of this study is to have the noise component of a speech signal eliminated and compressed by storing the locations and durations of silence regions. The separation between voiced, unvoiced, and silence regions is done by using the Short-Time Energy (STE) and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) methodologies. All operations in this study have been performed by using the User Interface (UI) developed on MATLAB®. These operations include voice recording, playing the recording, eliminating the unwanted regions, playing the modified recording, saving original and compressed files, and loading the recording compressed.
Sercan Saray, Tanzer Satır, Neslihan Dogan-Saglamtimur
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 6-15; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.48

Abstract:
Effective communication in the sea and ocean can only be achieved through a common language. Maritime professions in Turkey for many years have been seen as an important area of employment. Maritime vocational and technical high schools are also seen as educational institutions that play an important role in this field. In this study, it has been aimed to define the level of general and Maritime English education provided by the maritime vocational high schools, the problems and deficiencies of education, and what must be done to improve the education quality. A questionnaire was conducted to 200 graduates of maritime vocational high schools in order to determine the efficiency, deficiencies and issues that need to be improved. The results of the survey were analyzed by SPSS and made meaningful. For analysis, t-test was used to evaluate numerical data between two independent groups and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used to evaluate numerical data between more than two independent groups. After the One-Way ANOVA Test, Tukey Test was used as a complementary Post-Hoc analysis to determine the differences. Finally, Pearson correlation method was used to evaluate the continuous numerical variables used in the research. As a result of the research, it has been seen that Maritime English education in vocational high schools is far from meeting the needs of today's world and the maritime sector. It was observed that the graduates felt this inadequacy heavily on ships and experienced the effects of this deficiency in all of their professional life. As stated in the survey results, it is thought that the Maritime English educators with sea experience will increase the motivation of the students. Programs sourced from the field need to be reorganized. Also, it will be beneficial to rearrange the requirements of the seafarer educators for giving English lessons.
Azra Alimanović, Jasmin Šutković
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v1i1.id115

Abstract:
Two SMN (survival motor neuron) genes are presented in the human genome: SMN1, which present the telomeric gene whose homozygous deletion or mutation like gene conversion, causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and SMN2, the centromeric version whose copy number modulates the phenotype of SMA These genes are commonly detected by Polymerase Chain reaction-based methods, and these are MLPA (Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification), qPCR (quantitative Polymerase chain reaction) and PCR-RFLP (Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism). This paper reviews the current standing of the most common PCR methods used in the detection of spinal muscular atrophy genes. MLPA, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP currently represent the most common methods of choice for the detection of mutations, especially for deletion and duplication mutations.
Adoum Mahamat Baraka, Kanita Šabanović, Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 21-36; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v1i1.id114

Abstract:
Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two POLE2 homologs known as polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit A (POLE2A) and polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit B (POLE2B). They play a very important role in DNA repair mechanisms. In this study, bioinformatics tools were used to understand DNA repair mechanisms in A. thaliana in which POLE2A and POLE2B proteins are involved. Through interactome analysis of POLE2A and POLE2B homolog proteins in A. thaliana, their additional roles in DNA repair were explored. The most important proteins that are participating in DNA repairs, like MSH2, MSH5, PCNA1, PCNA2, PRL, and CDC45 were identified as interactors of both POLE2A and POLE2B. The three-dimensional structure of POLE2 proteins was identified to decipher the complexity of NER, GG-NER, MMR, TFIIH, and TC-NER repair mechanisms through the identification of docking sites. The interaction complex of POLE2A and POLE2B with six proteins was confirmed and found to have a significant role in DNA repair processes and UV-B tolerance. The interactome analysis of POLE2A and POLE2B performed here once again confirms the complexity of the DNA repair mechanism in plants.
Amar Čosić, Ajdina Karić, Kanita Šabanović, Jasmin Šutković, Ahmet Yildirim
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v1i1.id112

Abstract:
The Bosnian and Herzegovinian market lacks data about the percentage of genetically modified soy products placed on the domestic market. There has been research on the issue of the presence of GMO products in our domestic market, but neither of the results is used as a reference for this occurrence. Therefore, this research topic tends to contribute to this issue, by examining genetically modified soy in processed food. The sample of seven products containing soya is examined by the methods of DNA isolation and real-time PCR for CP4 EPSPS. The results showed positive results for the presence of CP4 gene in certain products without an appropriate label. This mislabeling was confirmed since a couple of samples were labeled as GMO-free but contained CP4 gene, indicating GMO product.
Esma Zajimović, Jasmin Šutković
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 44-50; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v1i1.id116

Abstract:
Felis Catus is a small carnivorous mammal and it is considered to be the only domesticated species among Felidae family. The purpose of this work is to genetically characterize cat breeds from Bosnia and Herzegovina and to compare them to one unknown completely different cat. To achieve this, samples of 20 cats that belong to the European Shorthair Cat (ESH) breed have been collected, plus the target subject. Further, for the genetic microsatellite characterization, the DNA material was isolated from each cat, in order to compare them to the sample taken from an unknown cat breed that will be referred to as the subject of this research. Genetic diversities within and between populations were be analyzed using 5 microsatellite markers. The obtained results showed that the subject cat genetically differs from other ESH breed cats, where the observed heterozygosity patterns within the cat breeds showed minimum but expected genetic variety among the analyzed cat species.
Nawaf AlMarzouki
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.47

Abstract:
Aim: To evaluate the awareness about glaucoma among adults and its related health problems in Jeddah, Western region of Saudi Arabia and to assess the relationship between the awareness and knowledge about glaucoma across the socio-demographic characteristics. This will help to develop educational and screening programs of glaucoma which could help in early detection and diagnosis of the disease therefore reducing its sight threatening outcomes. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study which included a sample of 608 adults in June 2019. Participants took part filling in the online multiple choice sociodemographic and glaucoma awareness questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the participants was 28.3 years ±11.4 with (59.2%) males and (40.8%) females. The majority of the respondents 70.9% were single and the majority had a bachelor's degree. Overall, 66.3% of the participants had knowledge about glaucoma, whereas 33.7% had no previous knowledge about glaucoma. Significant association between higher educational level and awareness of glaucoma was (P= 0.024). Females and age group (?40) also showed significant associations with glaucoma awareness (P=
Aida Botonjic Karahusic, Nedim Begic, Edin Begic, Sabina Kusljugic, Damir Secic
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 108-113; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i2.45

Abstract:
Heart failure is defined as a clinical state, which occurs as a result of structural or functional damage of ventricle with consequential blood hypo perfusion of organs (reduced stroke volume of heart muscle and/or increased intracardial pressure in rest or during work activity). Therapeutical monitoring of patient is imperative, and it includes assessment of objective and subjective state of patient, which is often guide for optimizing of pharmacological treatment. The aim of paper is assessment of the room wall color influence as one of the factor for optimizing the therapeutic modality of patients with diagnosis of heart failure. Findings suggest that the influence of color in environment can be neutral, enabling or disabling, and this is the aspect of treatment that needs to be investigated further in future.
Vedat Asipi,
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 89-99; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i2.29

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare two different business models called business to business and business to consumer. The first model -business to business or B2B is defined as the transfer of goods and services between businesses or firms without the interference of consumers. The second model, business to consumer or B2C is customer-oriented in which the goods and services are sold immediately to customers in the market. This research focuses on the performance of these two business models in North Macedonia and Serbia. Our analysis tries to provide information regarding the countries’ development in different sectors within B2B and B2C models that are affected by specific indicators such as net salaries, total employment level, investment and exports, and research&innovation. Furthermore, besides the analysis of these indicators separately for each country, the paper will show the results and compare the performance differences among listed developing countries.
, Sencer Yeralan
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 114-122; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i2.42

Abstract:
Not only have Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) advanced in rapid succession, but society has embraced these developments and implemented them in daily life. This adoption has not only affected our way of conducting routine activities, but also significantly modified the way we do things as well as the things we now do. At this junction, rather than how engineering should improve ICT, the appropriate question seems to be “what should ICT engineers focus on? This question involves not only the prediction of future trends, but core engineering ethics, since any new ICT development is likely to affect societal activity. We present a recent study where we developed an approach to predict future trends and use it to guide our research plans. In that sense, the current study is a meta study, that is, a study to reveal what and how we should conduct future studies.
Merve Küçük, Tulay Tikansak Karadayi
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 69-88; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i2.40

Abstract:
After the civil war in Syria, many refugees sought refuge to Turkey. It brought along many environmental problems such as sudden population growth and resource shortage. It is thought to design an ecological settlement that can produce its own energy and be self-sufficient as a solution due to the limited natural resources, in order to meet the need for shelter quickly in emergency situations. With this in mind, in order to create an ecological settlement, a sample and literature search was conducted and sustainable ecological settlement criteria were determined. As a place operation, the position is preferred in Turkey and that provides employment and by day increasing the number of refugees residing Kocaeli been selected. In line with the ecological settlement criteria, a survey was conducted to understand the accommodation problems and environmental awareness of Syrian refugees living in Kocaeli. Ecological living units are designed in line with the environmental, climatic and sociological data obtained. The units are placed in accordance with the physical environmental conditions of the plot chosen for ecological settlement. In the conclusion part, the applicability of the designed project has been evaluated in line with economic, sociological and ecological criteria and its positive and negative aspects have been discussed. In the sample area selected in this study, it is aimed to create an ecological residential area that provides energy, water and raw material conservation in accordance with environmental data, protects the ecosystem, and provides adequate comfort conditions for the users indoors. This study is intended to be a source for ecological settlement projects in order to create livelihoods for low-income groups and to stimulate agriculture, except in emergencies.
Merjema Ikanović, Mevlan Iseni, Muhamed Adilović, Altijana Hromić-Jahjefendić
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 2, pp 100-107; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v2i2.46

Abstract:
Clean water is essential to our existence and problems might arise when it becomes contaminated with different pathogens, which might pose a threat to human health. Tap water is generally considered drinkable since it passes different forms of disinfection during processing. Some households have additional disinfection procedures, the most common one being the usage of charcoal filters, in order to further clean the tap water from both undesirable solvents and microorganisms. In the first independent study of this kind, we have tested tap water for bacteria from five different locations in Sarajevo, and we have tested the efficiency of charcoal filter in trapping of bacteria. According to regulations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, there should be 1 colony forming unit (CFU) per 50ul of water sample, which was satisfied in only one location from Sarajevo, while one had significantly higher levels (6.7, p val. 0.0148). Overall, the charcoal filter has decreased the number of bacteria in the water, with the exception of one sample.
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