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Fehim Findik
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 67-76; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.84

Abstract:
Our planet is in danger for a number of reasons such as population growth, excessive energy consumption, and global warming that followed, the inability to manage waste and reduce water consumption. For sustainability, green concrete is defined as the use of waste materials and high-sustainability concrete that does not harm the environment in the production process. Proper green building should be energy efficient and use recycled aggregates. The emergence of sustainable structures in this way will reduce the need for fossil fuels, which is the main reason for universal heating. The environment can be perfectly sustainable only with zero use of non-renewable resources and a limited rate of regeneration and controlled use of renewable resources. This study considers the concept of environmentally friendly green concrete, which can be used instead of the traditional cement used in buildings that are being built due to the growing population. It was examined what needs to be done for the sustainable design of buildings and it was pointed out that in that way the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will be reduced. The use of green concrete for sustainable design and environmental protection was highlighted and several examples from around the world were highlighted.
Hind B. Ali, Dalia R. Alazawi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 76-81; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id159

Abstract:
The impact of 3D printing parameters is critical for expanding the application of technology in the design and construction. The effect of bonding layers on the compressive strength of the material is investigated in this research by variation of the layer thickness and print speed. Cube specimens with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.05 to 0.3mm and print rates of 40mm/s, were tested on compression with the DARTEC test equipment. It was found that layer thicknesses of 0.05mm and 0.15mm have similar elastic properties while the 0.15mm layer can take additional load after initial plastic deformation. Layer thickness of 0.30mm has significantly lower elastic zone load capacity, but the stress in plastic zone continue to grow. The findings are of great importance for in explaining the S-N curve in order to enhance part manufacture.
Ali Sadoun, Abderrahmane Khechekhouche, Imad Kemerchou, Mokhtar Ghodbane, Belgacem Souyei
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 61-66; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.80

Abstract:
Solar energy is an abundant energy in the earth globe. Solar distillation is one of the techniques that uses this energy to obtain portable water from ground or salt water. The purpose of our experimental study is to show that the blocks of natural carbon, that is to say the remains of a fire, can serve as an element for improving the performance of a solar still. For this, two similar solar stills were used, one is taken as reference SSR and the other modified still SSM contains carbon block. The results show that there is an improvement rate of 8%.
Rocksana Akter, Kamal Hossain, Shibly Anwar, Kalimur Rahman
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 82-96; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id157

Abstract:
Mineral fillers provide a significant role in the Marshall properties of hot mix asphalt for paving applications. The article's goal is to assess the suitability and effectiveness of two minerals (coal dust and wood powder ash) used as fillers in asphalt concrete. Chemical composition test using X-ray fluorescence indicated a high content of SiO2, Fe2O3, and Al2O3, which encouraged us to select the coal dust and wood powder ash as mineral fillers for further investigation. A total of 90 cylindrical Marshall Specimens, made with different percentages (i.e., 4%-8%) of coal dust, wood powder ash, and conventional stone dust filler were prepared to assess the performance of individual filler within the asphalt concrete mix. And after that, volumetric characteristics such as density, stability-flow test, air void, and voids in mineral aggregates have been analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of every sample and, afterward, to find out the optimum asphalt content. Finally, the optimum asphalt content for every filler material was ascertained, and subsequently, Marshall properties were checked again to assess the optimum filler content in the mix that satisfy all the standard criteria. The overall Marshall properties for both fillers were within the acceptable limits. Though the optimum asphalt content was higher for coal dust than wood powder ash and stone dust, the wood powder ash showed better durability than coal dust. All mixtures have been found to have better resistance to deformation, fatigue, and moisture-induced damages; however, 4% coal dust and 6% wood powder ash satisfied most of the Marshall criteria than other percentages.
Sabaa S. Radhi, Zainab S. Al-Khafaji, Mayadah W. Falah
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 42-52; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.82

Abstract:
Maintaining the optimum temperature in the living quarters is the key to a comfortable stay. Due to the lack of a central heating system or in the event of its insufficiency, they resort to the installation of additional heat sources. There is a wide range of devices on the market with different operating principles, hence the difficulty of which is better - a convector or infrared heater. A comparative analysis of devices will help you make the right choice. Asking the question of which is better a convection heater or an infrared heater, one must decide on its role in heating the house. It is better to use them as additional equipment with an existing heating system. One of the effective sources of additional heating are infrared radiators. Its principle of operation is based on infrared radiation, which provides a quick and qualitative increase in temperature in any part of your apartment. Today, more and more people prefer infrared radiators. From the usual electric convector, they differ in that they heat not the air in the room, but hard surfaces (floors, walls) and objects, and these, in turn, leak heat into the surrounding space. So, the entire room is heated up unnoticeably.
Yitong Niu, Linqian Jiao, Andrei Korneev
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 53-60; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.81

Abstract:
With the increase of harmful substances and greenhouse gases that need to be discharged from the traditional thermal power in industrial production in China, the phenomenon of climate warming is becoming more and more prominent. Clean energy will continue to increase in China's future energy consumption structure and market share, hydropower, nuclear power, and other energy as China's main clean energy, the future in China still has a huge market development and use of space. The new policies further adopted by the central bank of China include: continuously optimizing the structure of reasonable credit fund allocation and risk fund application for electric power enterprises to enhance the return rate of assets of electric power enterprises; continuously supporting the development of smart grid and strengthening the linkage between network and electric power; reasonably and categorically guiding the source of clean utilization of electric power, actively supporting large hydropower generation and solar and nuclear power generation, and investing funds in a controlled manner to support large thermal power generation, promote the upgrading of the thermal power generation industry structure, cautiously guide funds into large biomass power generation, wind power generation and small and medium-sized micro-hydro power, strictly control small and medium-sized thermal power, as soon as possible to withdraw from the implementation of the national preferential policies for small and medium-sized power industry management system, energy conservation and reduction of harmful emissions of environmental gases of enterprises is not possible to meet the standards and there are financial risks business efficiency situation Small and medium-sized electric power enterprises that continue to seriously deteriorate.
Ajla Pleh, Lejla Mahmutović, Altijana Hromić-Jahjefendić
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id178

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of some phytochemicals by using an H2O2 scavenging assay. Betaine, Allantoin and Nicotinamide were put to the test. Even though hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is not intrinsically reactive, it can be transformed into the extremely reactive and harmful hydroxyl radical (HO), which is then able to interact with nucleotides in deoxyribose nucleic acid and in that way trigger breakage of the strand resulting in carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, etc. Antioxidants aid in the protection of cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species that are known to induce oxidative stress. Excessive production of these reactive oxygen species in the human body is associated with many chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, etc. The effective way to minimize levels of oxidative stress is the ability to scavenge these reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, phytochemicals are able to act as antioxidants, and in that way play a vital role in the prevention of disease caused by oxidative stress. The ability of a compound to scavenge H2O2 is a good predictor of its potential antioxidant function. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay was determined using the Ruch et al., 1989 method, and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. In conclusion, our samples had marvellous H2O2 scavenging activity and possessed good antioxidant capability, and were compared with the ascorbic acid (vitamin c) as standard natural antioxidant/ as reference antioxidant. The samples were also able to scavenge H2O2 in a concentration-dependent way, according to our results
Nadia Islam
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id182

Abstract:
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women and the second largest cause of mortality in the entire population worldwide. This review investigated how breast cancer is patho-physiologically associated with obesity which is defined by body mass index ≥30 kg/ and metabolic syndrome which leads to type 2 diabetes in pre and postmenopausal women. It also addressed the controversy relating the definition of BMI. The biological markers in breast cancer currently in use are ER, PR, HER2, uPA, and PAI-1. This study looked into future of predictive and prognostic biomarkers, such as exosome by altering interaction of distant cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment and the breast cancer progress.
Minel Salkičević
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v3.id183

Abstract:
Explosively formed projectile (EFP) is a self-forging shape charged structure having very high penetration ability compared to conventional kinetic energy projectile. The penetration capability of an EFP is strongly dependent on various design parameters. The main parameters can be roughly divided into geometric and material parameters used in the warhead configuration. The present research is an effort to study the effect of metal casing thickness, type of metal used for casing, explosive type, liner thickness, type and configuration on the formation of EFP. Effectivness of an EFP is studied in terms of final velocity and shape of formed penetrator. The study is carried out by performing a number of simulations by using explicit finite element (FE) hydrocode ANSYS/Autodyn.
Amina Karić, Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 19-30; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id180

Abstract:
DNA molecule is found in every cell in a living organism and function as an instruction manual for growth, development, as well as any other processes that happen. As the cell divide, it needs to copy its DNA. During the copying, an error can occur, which can lead to a disease. However, there are different error repair mechanisms that are searching for an error, and repairing it. This study focused on 2 proteins involved in DNA repair mechanism, RPA32B and RPA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Throughout multiple in silico approached, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, 3D visualisation, combination and interaction, we confirmed that the RPA2 and RPA 32b are involved in DNA replication, meiotic recombination and DNA repair mechanism.
Azra Alimanović
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id179

Abstract:
Viruses are extremely small obligate molecular parasites that can be seen only with an electron microscope. In plant pathology there are the organisms named plant viral vectors whose task is to transmit pathogens. Transmission of vector can be mechanical and insect that present two pathways which allow the spreading of plant virus particles. Plant virologists with other association in molecular biology and plant pathology nominated top 10 viruses based on scientific and economic importance. This paper reviews the current standing of most known antiviral defense mechanism called RNA silencing and most known molecular diagnostic method in plant pathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Nedim Tabaković,
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 63-78; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id170

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to address key features and the wave of new technologies that Industry 4.0 brings to Aerospace and Defense Systems. This research paper enthusiastically depicts what the future of the Aerospace and Defense industry could be while also providing information about those braves enough to already step into the world of all around digitalization. With this approach, the aim is to interconnect every step of the operation towards creating a mostly perfect environment which cuts off any human mistake and guarantees increase in revenue stream and customer satisfaction. The main method of implementation of Industry 4.0 to many industries is digitalization. Digitalization is the digital upgrade to any company or industry which, when applied correctly, guarantees nothing but success in revenue streams and customer service. This process is a complex blend of many modern technologies and implementing such a hefty upgrade might be problematic to those who have been surviving on very old business models for tens of years. Industry 4.0 is a fast-changing environment and those who are quickly adapting to this wave of change are setting themselves for success. The primary goal of this research paper is to provide an insight into the world of technology Industry 4.0 offers and how that technology could help Aerospace and Defense create a portal to the future.
Ajdin Jašarević, Marko Hočevar, Gašper Rak
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 96-111; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id175

Abstract:
This paper describes the process of 3D analysis of two water currents with method of photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is used in fields such as architecture, engineering, police investigation, preserving cultural heritage, military and geology. This method can be used in military to reconstruct a site with traces of shrapnel or various projectiles. In our case we tried to measure height of turbulent flow, where two currents collided at the angle of 90°. In first section we introduce our problem and method. Second section describes method of photogrammetry and basics of torrential flows. In third section we describe our experiment. Fourth section describes the course of getting 3D model. In fifth section we analyze results and in sixth section, a conclusion is given.
Tarik Sabanovic
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 79-85; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id172

Abstract:
This paper describes the computer dynamics of fluids, which was used to determine the influence of certain geometrical characteristics of the projectile on the coefficient of drag force. The first section is an introduction and describes the projectile, the aerodynamic forces acting on the projectile with special reference to drag. The second section was reserved for a review of projectile parameters that affect drag, primarily the slenderness of the ogive and the frustum, and the shape of the ogive, and the angle of the frustum. This section also defines drag in more detail. The third section describes the mathematical model of fluid in supersonic flow and gives the equations for the mathematical model, used in simulations and software package Ansys fluent. This section was also reserved for describing the emergence of a physical model and the verification of the numerical simulation model. The fourth section presents and describes the model of CFD analysis of 5.56 mm projectiles: SS109, M855, L110, and M856, and the comparison of projectiles by geometry. The fifth section comprises the analysis of the results. In the sixth section, a conclusion is given.
Roman Kmeť
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 53-62; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id168

Abstract:
Crime mapping information systems are currently a commonly used tool by public authorities, primarily for the police, security forces and services, local and regional government, as well as for the inhabitants of a certain territory. The main idea of ​​creating these systems is to monitor and evaluate the current security situation, which is significantly affected by the active or passive activities of the police or other entities dealing with security issues. An important part is also the knowledge of the security situation on the part of the population, in which a certain state of security can evoke a feeling of security and vice versa.
Kerim Krnjic
Defense and Security Studies, Volume 2, pp 86-95; https://doi.org/10.37868/dss.v2.id173

Abstract:
In the last twenty years, high energetic materials have changed significantly. Several factors have influenced the development of these materials, which include new operational requirements such as insensitive ammunition (IM), as well as factors in the availability of new materials and new production techniques, safety assessment, and modeling. All this enables more efficient use of materials and a more detailed understanding of the processes involved in the application of new technologies. This work presents new insensitive secondary high explosives such as TATB, FOX-7, GUDN, NTO, and others that are in different stages of development. A review of these explosives is given and their stability, reliability, and specific application are described. Energy materials are known to be chemical compounds or mixtures that contain significant amounts of energy and it has been shown that successful design of new energetic materials with customized performance properties and increased stability is possible. The properties of new insensitive energetic materials must be further researched and improved before they can be used in new or existing systems. Insensitive ammunition testing is a vital component of many national IM programs. The international community has established requirements for testing the insensitivity of materials and developed six unique tests based on testing the response of the material to the effects of heat, impact, or shock.
Lorenzo Cevallos-Torres, Miguel Botto Tobar, Angela Díaz Cadena, Oscar León-Granizo
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 66-75; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id150

Abstract:
The purpose of this work is to increase the sales of a store devoted to the purchase and sale of soft drinks, even though the store's inventory is overstocked. This occurs as a result of the business's lack of an effective management system that controls product ordering. Additionally, there is no analysis of future sales owing to the variations that may occur because of unforeseen occurrences. The main criterion was that the proprietors of the business submit monthly records from 2017 to July 2019. To accomplish this objective completely, we used the Monte Carlo simulation method to obtain data from August to December 2019; and neural networks to obtain data for all monthly periods in the years 2020, 2021, and 2022, which enabled us to generate records of demand and stock for each of the products. Finally, it was shown that the application of neural networks enables the solution of vehicle control issues, resulting in a maximization of more than 22% of sales, thus achieving the goal and giving an optimum solution to the company.
Damir Avdic, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.70

Abstract:
The goal of this work was to design, simulate, build, and test bow-tie antenna for 5G networks. In this paper, it will be shown how the radiation pattern and input match are improving by changing angles on some points of the antenna. The first angle is from the central point of the bow-tie antenna (mark A) and another angle is from the side points of the bow-tie antenna (mark B). Bandwidth improvement is shown in the simulation between 4 GHz and 6GHz. S11, E?, E? for the nominal design are -27.31 dB, 7.39 dB, -3.30 dB respectively. After simulations, the nominal antenna is fabricated and tested with reference antenna A-info LB8180. Simulation results, testing results with fabricated antenna, and angle change results will be shown in further text.
Benjamin Kommey, Daniel Akudbilla, Godfred Doe, Clifford Owusu Amponsah
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 22-33; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id152

Abstract:
Poultry is one of the most consumed agricultural produce in Ghana. Because of this high demand, the problem necessitates efforts to maximize the yield of poultry production in the country. Relying on natural means of hatching eggs to increase poultry production is inefficient thus the need for technologies that will aid in maximizing the yield. Artificial means of solving this problem have brought about the invention of the incubator. Although this has helped in large-scale incubation, incubators in the market are very expensive which makes Ghanaian poultry farmers find it difficult to purchase. This project investigates the design and implementation of an affordable, automated incubator for local poultry farmers. It is aimed at designing a low-cost smart incubator to ensure the maintenance of the optimum environmental conditions necessary for hatching eggs. These conditions: Ventilation, Temperature, Relative Humidity, regular positioning, and eggs turnings are kept at their optimal values to efficiently increase the hatchability rate. Temperature and humidity sensors are used to read temperature and humidity values inside the incubator respectively. These values are sent to a microcontroller which then coordinates other parts of the incubator to execute automated tasks. A mobile application is integrated with the incubator for the communication of important information to the poultry farmer.
Kifilideen Osanyinpeju, Adewole A. Aderinlewo, Olawale U. Dairo, Olayide R. Adetunji, Emmanuel S.A. Ajisegiri
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 34-45; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id155

Abstract:
At a high frequency of vibration; the cam of a vibrator always encounters the issue of jamming or the follower rolling off or losing contact with the cam when the appropriate design is not carried out. This study, therefore, developed the shape of the cam profile of mechanical yam vibrator using cycloid motion in the South. Displacement equations from the base circle to the cam profile were developed to obtain the shape of the cam using cycloid motion. A vibrometer was used to evaluate the developed 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm cam sizes installed in a mechanical yam vibrator. The maximum displacement recorded for 5 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm cam sizes were 4.47 mm, 8.71 mm, and 14.54 mm respectively for low (1 – 5 Hz) frequency; 4.58 mm, 8.84 mm and 16.34 mm respectively for medium (60 – 100 Hz) frequency; and 4.66 mm, 9.09 mm and 17.30 mm respectively for high (150 – 200 Hz) frequency. This study shows that a cycloid cam would operate smoothly at low, medium, and high frequencies of vibration and function properly for frequency and displacement of vibration up to 200 Hz and 20 mm respectively without jamming and failing. A cycloid cam is therefore recommended for low, medium, and high frequencies motion of vibration.
Othman Inayatullah, Nor Asrina Ramlee, Taharah Edin
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id149

Abstract:
In the era of modernization, the term “Industry 4.0” has emerged and gained attention progressively from all relevant authorities. This term reflects the movement that gradually improves the current existing technologies and contributes to maintenance advancements in the future. The basic objective of this project is to learn and understand how computer-based technology can bring about revolutionary changes in maintenance to achieve an ideally smart industry. There are two inquiries being studied to fulfill the objective including the recognition of integration between Industry 4.0 and Cyber-Physical System (CPS) in the aspect of maintenance as well as the extent of its contribution to the future development of maintenance management. Both conception study and simulation are chosen as the research methodology for this project.
Adel Alzahrani, Abdullah Safhi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 58-65; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id128

Abstract:
Data mining is one of the most important modern techniques used to achieve high output standards at all levels. The twenty-first century saw the advent of a new trend to improve medical services in the healthcare sector. To bridge the gap between previous studies and the practical applications of data mining, this study aimed to review the theoretical literature and previous studies related to the demonstration of data mining techniques and tools and their role in big data management. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers used a descriptive, analytical, documentary method. The study concluded many results including that in the era of the knowledge and technology revolution, data mining is one of the important issues, that requires everyone to take into account its achievements in our current era, as well as the existence of a correlation between big data and the provision of a separate health service in the field of healthcare, and work to address epidemics and discover vaccines for them. In the healthcare industry, data mining plays a vital role, especially in predicting various types of diseases. In detecting diseases, diagnosis is the main tool. The study recommended the need to conduct more experimental and exploratory studies dealing with healthcare data mining techniques and tools and their effect on the management of big data volumes, especially in our Arab countries and the need for the development of models and action plans and the development of processes and methods from which data in the healthcare sector can be explored.
Adebola Adekunle, Iheoma Adekunle, Omobolaji Opafola, Tolulope Ogundare, Ayodeji A. Adeyeye
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.60

Abstract:
The strong performance of fibre reinforced concrete with the stepped introduction of glass and sisal fibre was evaluated. In this study, fibres as light reinforcements with varying percentages of 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 and 1.5 by weight of concrete were added to M15 grade concrete. The water/cement mix proportions ratio was 0.6. Control specimens, such as cubes were cast and tested at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively to determine the mechanical properties. Glass fibre resulted in the most workable mix as compared to the sisal fibre with the highest slump and compaction factor of 19.50 mm and 0.93 respectively on the addition of 0.25% fibre. The addition of glass and sisal fibres in plain concrete (control) up to 1% increases the strength of concrete while the addition of fibres content greater than 1% resulted in a reduction in the strength of concrete. The optimum glass and sisal fibre content was 1% with maximum compressive strength of 36.50 N/mm2 and 34.67 N/mm2 at 28 days respectively. The experimental study revealed that glass fibre was stronger than sisal fibre. Hence, the fibre content of 1% is recommended for use as light reinforcement in concrete.
Emmanuel Olusegun Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Chigbo Mgbemene, Ifeanyi Jacobs
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 46-57; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id147

Abstract:
The optimum tilt-angle of a fixed photovoltaic solar panel is very important during the installation, in order to best exploit the accessible output power efficiency of the panel. The output power effectiveness of a PV solar collector is profoundly affected by its tilt-angle to the horizontal and its orientation. This is because of the detail that the sun’s angle varies at every point of time and location. The solar photovoltaic tilting platform plays a dynamic role in the installation of the solar photovoltaic panel. From one perspective, it protects the solar panel from mechanical pressures that can arise from the wind movement and the hand; it provides means of adjustment for the solar panel. The proposed solar photovoltaic tilting platform was designed for an adjustable angle capacity oscillating from 0? to 40?; the materials used for the construction of the tilting platform are capable to withstand a load of 45kg and resist a temperature of -50? F to 150? F under a maximum wind force of 3.78N. The numerous mechanisms of the PV tilting platform prototype were tested, the stability, strength, easy titling, and overall performance of the PV tilting platform were declared as satisfactory.
Asrar Baktayan, Ibrahim Ahmed Albaltah
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 8-21; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v4i1.id153

Abstract:
The mobility nature of the wireless networks and the time-sensitive tasks make it necessary for the system to transfer the messages with a minimum delay. Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) reduces the latency problem. However, due to the trustlessness of 5G networks resulting from the heterogeneity nature of devices. In this article, for the edge devices, there is a need to maintain a trust level in the C-RAN node by checking the rates of devices that are allowed to share data among other devices. The SDN controller is built into a macro-cell that plays the role of a cluster head. The blockchain-based automatically authenticates the edge devices by assigning a unique identification that is shared by the cluster head with all C-RAN nodes connected to it. Simulation results demonstrate that, compared with the benchmark, the proposed approach significantly improves the processing time of blocks, the detection accuracy of malicious nodes, and transaction transmission delay.
Swati Chitranshi, Akanksha Gupta, Nagaji Sarkar, Priyanka Khare
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 32-41; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.68

Abstract:
The study was aimed to assess culturable bacterial endophytes from the medicinal plant Aloe vera, their antimicrobial spectra against pathogens, and the potential of bacterial endophytes in textile and paper dyeing. Culturable seventeen bacterial endophytes were isolated from the Aloe vera plant out of which 16 showed varied antimicrobial activity against both human pathogens i.e., bacteria & fungi E. coli, S. pyogenes, acne bacterial isolate (ABI), A. niger, and F. oxysporum. Simultaneously, the bacterial endophyte ENDB3 is producing extracellular green-brown color pigment under submerged (SmF) condition and the extracted pigment has shown promising results in textile and paper dyeing at lab scale without using mordant. All the bacterial endophytes showed resistance against standard antibiotics (penicillin G P(10 units), Oxacillin (1 mcg), Cephalathin (30 mcg), Clindamycin (2 mcg), Erythromycin (15 mcg), and Amoxyclav (30 mcg)) at the specific concentration used. Concludingly, bacterial endophyte ENDB3 is found capable to produce bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical and dyeing industries which may provide a new path in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug and natural dyeing candidates. Hence, we suggest further evaluation and characterization of their bioactive molecules for pharmacological and dyeing potential.
Kanita Šabanović, Ahmet Yildirim, Jasmin Šutković
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v1i1.id107

Abstract:
When a plant is under heavy metals stress, it has different mechanism of coping with it. Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) is a plant that has an ability of heavy metal accumulation and removal of heavy metals from the ground. The plants were exposed to 50, 100, 200, and 500 μM of CdCl2 for 5days, in controlled in vitro conditions. Root length was measured to confirm the Cd effect on plant growth. There are five key antioxidants enzymes responsible for the regulation of heavy metals stress: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Peroxidase (POD) and Polyphenol oxidase (PPO). All enzymes showed significant activity, especially triggered by 500 μM CdCl2 in both varieties. The domestic sorts seem more resistant if compared to hybrid variety, showing significant lower expression of antioxidants enzymes at higher concentrations. In general, significant percentage of enzymes is more expressed in the hybrid Italian sort, Nero di Toscana, indicating the ability of domestic sorts to be more resistant to heavy metal stress.
Ramo Palalic, Robert D. Hisrich, Leo Paul Dana, Veland Ramadani
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 4, pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v4i1.78

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the way business is conducted. The widespread closure of commercial organizations presents opportunities to reset the way business activities are conducted. Regardless of the organization’s size or its status as a domestic or international firm, due diligence is required to find solutions that will allow firms to sustain their business activities in uncertain times. This study addresses this issue and attempts to identify issues that require urgent attention so that organizations can be effective and efficient in their global operations. In this context, the study proposes three imperatives for global/international businesses to sustain their operations in the long term. These imperatives include having a strong reserve fund, access to a local mutual fund, and networking to form alliances in host countries. Other implications are discussed, and we identify areas for future research.
Javier Ascanio Villabona, Jon Terés Zubiaga, Yesid Alfonso Muñoz Maldonado, Omar Lengerke Pérez, Luis Alfonso Del Portillo Valdés
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 173-182; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.66

Abstract:
In this article, we present the results of the evaluation of the thermal performance of a conventional home in a dry warm climate, a case study in Bucaramanga, Colombia. This simulation, evaluation, and analysis make it necessary since currently in the case study area there is no thermal assessment of the dwellings, which are old houses built with resistive and mechanical analyses, but without regard to thermal behavior or thermal housing comfort. This evaluation is done by means of software simulation. Thus, a valid simulation identifies the weather data present in a dry warm climate zone and determines the geographical location and behavior in the solar diagram. Likewise, the thermal characterization of the soil and the construction materials of support and envelopes of the architecture is performed, to establish its thermal transmittance, thermal resistance, and thermal capacity. As a result of the research, the thermal behavior of the house is presented by means of the calculations made that determine the thermal behavior of the envelopes, energy load balancing, and housing thermal comfort based on the ASHRAE 55 standard by Fanger's method. Consequently, with the above, the results of the simulation and a detailed analysis of the recorded data are presented in the document.
Shahab Kareem, Zhala Jameel Hamad, Shavan Askar
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 148-159; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id146

Abstract:
Artificial intelligence through deep neural networks is now widely used in a variety of applications that have profoundly altered human livelihoods in a variety of ways. People's daily lives have become much more convenient. Image recognition, smart recommendations, self-driving vehicles, voice translation, and a slew of other neural network innovations have had a lot of success in their respective fields. The authors present the ANN applied in weather forecasting. The prediction technique relies solely upon learning previous input values from intervals in order to forecast future values. And also, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are a form of deep learning technique that can help classify, recognize, and predict trends in climate change and environmental data. However, due to the inherent difficulties of such results, which are often independently identified, non-stationary, and unstable CNN algorithms should be built and tested with each dataset and system separately. On the other hand, to eradicate error and provides us with data that is virtually identical to the real value we need Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) algorithms or benefit from it. The presented CNN model's forecasting efficiency was compared to some state-of-the-art ANN algorithms. The analysis shows that weather prediction applications become more efficient when using ANN algorithms because it is really easy to put into practice.
Ola Hussein Abd Ali Alzuabidi, Ban M. Alameri
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 139-147; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id151

Abstract:
This paper presents an overview of the general idea and history of cloud computing in theory. The objective of this review is to draw attention to preceding studies about cloud computing that have common characteristics with the theme of this paper. There were some points discussed in general, including the advantages of this technology, its subjects, security, and the effects of adopting cloud computing in an organization.
Furkan Findik,
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 154-172; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.74

Abstract:
For any construction project to prove satisfactory, it is essential to understand the properties of materials during both the design and construction phases. It is crucial to consider the economic viability and sociological and environmental impact of a project. During this initial design phase, possible alternative locations and a preliminary assessment of suitable construction materials are taken into account. The decision of which structural form and material choice is most appropriate depends on a number of factors including cost, physical properties, durability and availability of materials. Buildings can contain wood, metals, concrete, bituminous materials, polymers, and bricks and blocks. Some of these can only be used in non-structural elements, while others can be used alone or in combination with structural elements. The actual materials used in the structural members will depend on both the structural form and other factors mentioned earlier. In this study, various materials such as metal, timber, concrete floor and polymer used in civil engineering were examined, the properties and usage areas of these materials were examined.
Segun Adebayo, Ozichi Emuoyibofarhe, Tolulope Awofolaju
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 111-120; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.64

Abstract:
Farmers are faced with challenges of producing enough food and the use of traditional methods seems not to keep pace with the ever-growing demand of the populace thus creating increased concern in food scarcity. Although it has been identified that smart tools will enhance the production pace needed in the Agricultural sector, unfortunately, most of these tools are designed for farmers without their inputs, thus creating tools that are not meeting demands. This study focused on a farmer-centered design, development, and deployment approach to improving farm productivity. The design thinking approach was used to identify the specific need of the farmers in selected areas, ideas were created using brainstorming sessions involving experts in the field, and prototypes were developed and deployed to evaluate the impact performance. The result shows that the proposed system improved the cost-benefit ratio of crop farming from 2.14 to 2.26. This is a 12% productivity increase.
Silvia Duranková, Richard Kalavsky, Jarmila Bernasovská
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 121-129; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.61

Abstract:
Geopathogenic zones are defined as inhomogeneities in the Earth's crust that emit electromagnetic radiation. These zones can also affect people without awareness and perception. Currently, the animal and plant kingdom as well as the human population live in a time with many electronic devices that can also affect us to some extent. Therefore, geopathogenic zones (GPZ) can also be one of the theoretical triggers of various diseases. The study aimed to determine the theoretical occurrence of geopathogenic zones and their effect on plants, animals, and the human body. Theoretically approach the occurrence of geopathogenic zones. In this study, data were obtained by using an anonymous questionnaire. A total of 202 respondents participated in the study, of which 56 were men and 146 women. The questionnaire consisted of 34 questions divided into 5 sections. Each of our respondents uses a mobile phone, which can to some extent affect our sleep, but also our health. Geopathogenic zones also occur near the dwellings where our respondents live. We assume that the animals of our respondents avoid geopathogenic zones as observed and predicted by studies. Geological research on the land can show us the presence of groundwater, changes in soil composition, and the possible occurrence of geopathogenic zones. All these arguments should be found even better to examine the issue since geopathogenic zones in the world are very under-represented. GPZ is one of the possible factors that can cause feelings of discomfort, various anomalies, or even health problems.
Hande Sahin, Ali Osman Kusakci, Baboucarr Mbowe
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 130-147; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.69

Abstract:
Customer Loyalty Programs are one of the handiest tools to raise brand awareness, and secure long-term and strong ties between a brand and existing consumers. Airline companies have been using frequent flyer programs (FFPs) to retain customers with the expectation of increasing passengers’ loyalty levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the significance of FFPs for customer loyalty, which is of great help for customer retention in the civil aviation industry in the sample of passengers flying from the new Istanbul Airport. Furthermore, we questioned the effectiveness of various services and products offered within FFPs for loyalty, which is decomposed into two main components, behavioral, and attitudinal commitment of loyalty. We evaluated the significance of various demographic factors on passengers’ perception of FFPs services and privileges, and customer loyalty. The study confirmed the vital role of FFPs to build up brand loyalty, where profession, duration of the membership to FFPs, and gender are essential factors.
Segolene Clemence Marie Mosser
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 130-138; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id148

Abstract:
This paper focused on the maintenance problems encountered by industrial vehicles within the Volvo Group. The main goal of the research on this subject was to propose to customers’ a personalized maintenance offer which adapts to their constraints while reducing the impact on the operating costs. To achieve this, a policy has been developed. This policy works on the dynamic gathering of information using both the available monitoring information and the knowledge of the multi-component system. Its objective is to guarantee to the customer the autonomy of its system over given periods of operation while minimizing the total cost of maintenance. The paper showed that the policy developed does indeed reduce the total maintenance cost compared to the previous policy used within the Volvo group. Nevertheless, this policy still has room for improvement.
Martin Harutyunyan
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 148-153; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.72

Abstract:
In Yerevan, as well as in a number of other Armenian cities, gardens were designed and constructed mainly during the Soviet era, and most of them were transformed, distorted and devastated in the first decade of the period of independence. In the last decade, a unique number of gardens/parks have been built or reconstructed in Yerevan. The city of Yerevan needs this kind of investigation. To observe and analyse the current state of gardens and parks, architectural and design structures as well as compositional design issues and problems concerning Yerevan’s gardens and parks can be the first study in the Armenian history of design and architecture We still do not have any information about similar research efforts in the given sphere carried out in the countries neighbouring Armenia and other foreign countries. This article presents the right process of modernization and/or construction of gardens/parks based on the study of the best models envisions and requires application and implementation of different tools of compositional design and modification not only in the design proper of gardens/parks, but also in the external design and aesthetic nuances of the adjacent surrounding, leaving any compositional design setup unchanged.
Marwa Taha Jasim, Tahseen H. Mubarak, Abdul Samee F. Abdul Aziz
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 121-129; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id117

Abstract:
In the current study, nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles Ni (1-x) ZnxFe2O4 (X= 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) have been arranged by sol-gel auto combustion and common chemical precipitation methods, The samples were described by x-ray (XRD) deflection, Fourier converts Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), dielectric perpetual and dielectric loss element. the XRD analysis confirms the cubic lone phase spinel configuration for all the synthesized materials. Average crystalline size is estimated of the (311) peaks of the x-ray diffractogram using Scherrer’s formulation institute in the range 38.90 to 37.71 nm for sol-gel auto burning method and from 18.61 to 23.41 nm for co-precipitation method. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was studied so as to assert the construction of the spinel phase and to recognize the kind of carbon remaining in the samples. The dielectric fixed and the dielectric loss factor were measured in the range between 50 Hz – 3 MHz at room temperature were located to be reduced with a rise in regularity.
Milan Tripathi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 102-111; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id142

Abstract:
Image denoising is an important aspect of image processing. Noisy images are produced as a result of technical and environmental flaws. As a result, it is reasonable to consider image denoising an important topic to research, as it also aids in the resolution of other image processing issues. The challenge, however, is that the traditional techniques used are time-consuming and inflexible. This article purposed a system of classifying and denoising noised images. A CNN and UNET based model architecture is designed, implement, and evaluated. The facial image dataset is processed and then it is used to train, valid and test the models. During preprocessing, the images are resized into 48*48, normalize, and various noises are added to the image. The preprocessing for each model is a bit different. The training and validation accuracy for the CNN model is 99.87% and 99.92% respectively. The UNET model is also able to get optimal PSNR and SSIM values for different noises.
Marin Petrovic, Nejra Isic
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 112-120; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id139

Abstract:
One of the most important parts of a wind turbine is a tower. There are various designs of the wind turbine towers, and they are most often made of steel pipes, lattice towers or concrete towers. In order to increase energy density to meet the growing electricity needs, larger wind turbine projects have been developed. Larger wind turbine towers can generate more electricity, but such large sizes also create higher costs in terms of development and maintenance. This research sets up a model of a wind turbine tower, where the load to the tower is calculated by its relation to the wind velocity. Analytical approach coupled with a finite element method (FEM) is used to analyse the distribution of tower stresses under these loads. The fatigue analysis of the column is performed using the load from its own weight, the weight of the housing and the distribution of the wind velocity. The effects of different loads are also compared. The results show that the main loads of the tower are the wind force acting on the area of ??rotation of the wind turbine blades and the moment caused by the uneven wind velocity. Construction is modelled using SolidWorks modelling package, where the analysis was performed using FEM in ANSYS software. As a result of the analysis, the stress distribution in the support was determined and compared with analytical calculations.
Benjamin Kommey, Seth Kotey, Gideon Adom-Bamfi,
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 92-101; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id144

Abstract:
Most applications in recent times make use of images one way or the other. As physical devices for capturing images improve, the quality and sizes of images also increase. This causes a significant footprint of images on storage devices. There is ongoing research to reduce the footprint of images on storage. Since storage is a finite resource, the goal is to reduce the sizes of images while maintaining enough quality pleasant to the human eye. In this paper, the design of two lossy codecs for compressing grayscale digital signature images has been presented. The algorithms used either simple thresholding or transform coding to introduce controlled losses into the image coding chain. This was to reduce, to a great extent, the average number of bits per pixel required to represent the images. The codecs were implemented in MATLAB and experiments were conducted with test images to study the performances of the algorithms.
Milan Tripathi
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 89-96; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.71

Abstract:
Image denoising is a crucial topic in image processing. Noisy images are generated due to technical and environmental errors. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider image denoising an important topic to study, as it also helps to resolve other image processing issues. However, the challenge is that the classical techniques used are time-consuming and not flexible enough. This article compares the two major neural network architecture which looks promising to resolve this issues. The AutoEncoder and UNET is now the most researched subject in deep learning for image denoising. Multiple model architectures are designed, implement, and evaluated. The dataset is preprocessed and then it is used to train and test the model. It is clearly shown in this paper which model performs the best in this task by comparing both models using the most used parameters to evaluate image quality PSNR and SSIM.
Ognjen Ridic, Jasmina Mangafic, Josip Nikolic, Azra Smjecanin
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 97-101; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.63

Abstract:
The energy efficiency represents a global and multi-faceted issue. It is especially important in the former socialist countries belonging to the Balkan’s region being geographically located in the Southeastern Europe (SE). The research problem addressed in this paper focuses on the unexplored potential links between the energy efficiency and the economic development. Energy efficiency is deemed to be highly job intensive phenomenon. It delivers multiple long-range benefits by the means of increasing competitiveness, energy affordability, and decreasing energy bills. Furthermore, it seeks to tackle the important issues of reduced reliance on energy importing, reduction in harmful greenhouse gas emissions and freeing up of funds to be critically invested in other economic areas. Energy efficiency, efficient and effective policies have been found to be directly linked to job creation and deliverance of the economic stimulus. These types of jobs are related to the activities with the paramount aim in reduction of the energy consumption. Investments in energy efficiency in the buildings and construction sector have been found to have brought about the greatest macroeconomic impact. This impact is due to the increasing need for the construction of new buildings and renovation of existing ones, in addition to its considerable potential in activation of the above listed industries’ value chains. The introduction of energy management system (EMS) being exemplified through the set of processes which utilize data to maintain and enhance energy efficiency and operational efficiency could be one of the important avenues to pursue. On the other hand, the EMS reduces the energy intensity and detrimental environmental polluting impact.
Edin Jahic
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 78-88; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.59

Abstract:
Among the many mosques from the Ottoman period in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the most numerous are modest and predominantly wooden mosques covered by a hip roof with an integrated wooden minaret. Although they originate in the long tradition of Turkish single-space mosques, their appearance and construction represent the expression of Bosnian autochthonous architecture. They were mostly built for the needs of the neighborhood (mahala) in smaller and larger towns, but also in rural areas. Due to the perishable materials and various other reasons, they had been renovated several times so changes in appearance were in some cases quite certain. These structures have been insufficiently researched and very few valuable publications are available so far. Qualitative analysis of significant examples, in addition to the common features by which these mosques differ from large monumental mosques, differences in the spatial concept, as well as the construction of individual elements, were observed. Concerning the shape of the entrance, these mosques have four characteristic solutions: a mosque with a porch, with a porch and a gallery, without a porch, and with a closed vestibule. The analysis also showed that the two mahala mosques in Tuzla had a specific gallery form that deviated from the typical solution. These galleries are extended over the porch on three sides by the application of ingenious carpentry solutions and covered with elongated eaves. In addition, this study showed that thanks to available sources, it was possible to re-establish the original form of the two mosques, which had since been altered.
Wei Kitt Wong, Filbert Hilman Juwono, Wan Ning Loh, Ik Ying Ngu
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 102-110; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i2.53

Abstract:
Each country has been racing to contain the spread of COVID-19. The published data of daily infection and death cases can be used to measure the effectiveness of the control interventions. We focus our study in two Southeast Asia countries: Indonesia and Malaysia during period between March and November 2020. Newcomb-Benford law has been commonly used to analyze the probabilities of the first significant digits in natural occurrences since the late 19th century. It is a prominent statistical tool for its capability to detect frauds in datasets. A chi-squared test was recruited to quantify the closeness of the data and Newcomb-Benford law distributions. The results revealed that the distributions of daily infection and death cases in Indonesia followed Newcomb-Benford law while the opposite results were obtained for Malaysia. We have done the analysis of verifying the daily COVID-19 infection and death cases in Indonesia and Malaysia using Newcomb-Benford law. It can be inferred that, between March and November 2020, the control interventions in Indonesia was less effective compared to Malaysia.
Sarac Yesilada Yuksel
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 53-57; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.54

Abstract:
Considering the relationship between the environment and morality, discussion of the matter of values is inevitable. Although there is no consensus on the intrinsic and instrumental characteristics of the value, the condition of talking about environmental ethics is that the environment carries not instrumental but intrinsic value. The problem of subjectivity of this value creates an ontological problem. Given that the value of what is valued depends on the preferences, interests, and attitudes of the valuers, it can lead to anthropocentric environmental ethics, which is an abusive approach style by environmental policymakers. On the other hand, the understanding that value is independent of the preferences, interests, and attitudes of the subject brings an objective approach but this makes it difficult to base environmental ethics on values ??and adds scientific aspects to environmental approaches. Scientific aspects are already discussed under some concepts such as sustainability, biodiversity, ecology, and environmental management. However, grounding these concepts on moral values ??and the formation of environmental ethics depends on emphasizing not only the scientific and objective but also its subjective side. This study explained the possibility of meeting the universality criterion in objective conditions despite the subjectivity of values because the way environmental ethics is adopted by everyone is only a universal environmental ethic.
Funda Yetgin Baykal
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 71-77; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.58

Abstract:
The Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) is among the core international instruments for environmental protection. It appears to be excessively economy-focused at initial sight. To evaluate the moral validity of this, I visited four different justification possibilities: 1. Economically preferable equals environmentally preferable; 2. Economic development is a satisfactory aim; 3. Environmental problems arise from economic goals; 4. The economy represents the power needed for solutions. After evaluating each of these, I confirmed that the focus of the PPP on the economy does not allow for sufficient protection of Nature, as also expressed in the literature.
Celalettin Basyigit, Mehmet Hanifi Alkayis, Mutlu Irem Kartli
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 64-70; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.57

Abstract:
Migration is generally defined as a period of time or permanent settlement of people by moving from a place of origin to another place. Throughout history, humanity has migrated due to natural disasters, religion, poverty, wars and this migration has caused urbanization with population growth. With the increase in population, irregular and excessive migration, decrease in resources, unplanned urbanization, infrastructure problems, wastewater lines, drinking water lines, rainwater collection lines, power lines, and natural gas pipelines cannot be delivered to desired places, traffic, and excessive waste generation increased. Therefore environmental pollution and health problems arise in cities. Today, due to the adverse environmental impact of all these, people have become more sensitive and have tended to find solutions to the problem with areas such as sustainable structures, recycling, and reuse of waste. In this study, the studies and gains made with the recycling aggregate used are evaluated in order to produce solutions for environmental pollution caused by the construction sector.
Sevgi Günes-Durak
Heritage and Sustainable Development, Volume 3, pp 58-63; https://doi.org/10.37868/hsd.v3i1.56

Abstract:
Microplastics are less than 5 mm in length and are polymer chains containing carbon and hydrogen atoms. It poses a direct and indirect danger to all living things in the ecosystem. It is found in products such as microplastics, synthetic clothes, plastic bags and bottles, some cleaners, health and beauty products, toothpaste and causes both soil and water pollution from wastewater systems and solid waste. This situation not only threatens the life of creatures living in aquatic ecosystems such as rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans but also penetrates the human body through the food chain, causing various health problems, especially cancer. As with all environmental pollutants, microplastics need to reduce pollution at the source. In this research, treatment methods applied to remove microplastics that cannot be prevented at source from the water ecosystem were investigated and evaluated. According to the results, in wastewater treatment plants, the highest efficiency of microplastic removal is provided by membrane bioreactors. However, by imitating the microplastic removal capabilities and structures of living things in nature, studies on the discovery of new methods of microplastic removal can also be conducted.
Ahmed S. Nori, Ansam O. Abdulmajeed
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 79-91; https://doi.org/10.37868/sei.v3i2.id131

Abstract:
This paper is presenting design and implementation of Threefish block cipher on grayscale images. Despite the fact that Threefish block cipher is one of the best secure algorithms, most studies concerning Threefish have focused on hardware implementation and have not commonly been applied on image encryption due to huge amount of data. The main contribution here was to reduce the time and the amount of data to be encrypted while maintaining encryption performance. This objective was achieved by encrypting just the most significant bits of image pixels. A 256-bit plain text blocks of the Threefish was constructed from 2n most significant bits of the pixels, where 0
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