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M. Yu. Pukinskaya
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-4-459-476

Abstract:
The paper discusses changes in forest-forming species in the nemoral spruce forests of the Central Forest Reserve (Tver Region, the Russian Federation). A comparison is made of the characterization of vegetation in the reserve spruce forests, carried out during the first survey of the reserve by Ya. Ya. Alekseev in 1931 (Alekseev, 1935) with the descriptions of vegetation made by the author from 2011 to 2019. It is shown that the coverage of nemoral herbs in the spruce forests of the reserve has increased over the past 90 years. In addition, three types of broadleaf trees (Tilia cordata Mill., Acer platanoides L. and Ulmus scabra Mill.) have greatly increased their abundance in the stand, most notably the linden. In recent decades, the decay of nemoral spruce forests has been taking place in the Central Forest Reserve. The birch-aspenspruce stand is not replenished with spruce renewal but is replaced by linden-maple forests. The vitality of spruce undergrowth is deteriorating. After the decay of a spruce forest, a change of the tree dominants occurs on 74% of the trial plots and the stand continues with a spruce forest on 26%. The largest part of the reserve's nemoral spruce forests arose after major disturbances 100–150 years ago (on the site of burned-out areas, hurricane windblows and cuttings). Old nemoral spruce forests were formed during the period when severe frosts prevented linden and maple from entering the stand. Currently, the coincidence of climate warming with the aging of the spruce stand and the removal of anthropogenic influence contributed to the release of maple and linden from the undergrowth into the stand and change to a spruce-deciduous forest. Under the prevailing climatic conditions, a return to the spruce forest is possible in the event of a burning out or when the climate becomes cold. The nemoral spruce forest is an ecotone type and, depending on conditions, becomes a spruce or broad-leaved forest.
V. A. Chadaeva, G. A. Kyarova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-4-492-508

Abstract:
We studied the variability and phytocenotic plasticity of the morphological characters of individuals, and the numbers, density, ontogenetic structure and vitality of 11 coenopopulations of Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. within the Kabardino-Balkar Republic in 2015–2019. The variability and plasticity of plants features provide their adaptation to various growing conditions and improve the morphological heterogeneity of coenopopulations. The dynamics of abundance, density, age structure and vitality of coenopopulations in the changing conditions of the environment provides information about life strategies of the species. Age conditions, the variability and plasticity of plants were studied on the basis of morphological parameters of the aboveground organs without digging the plants. The studies were conducted in meadow plant communities under various conditions of anthropogenic load (recreation and grazing). The species is characterized by medium-high phytocenotic plasticity of morphological characters (Ip = 38–68%) and high variability of morphological characters (CVх¯ср = 17.10– 33.63%) under changeable growth conditions. Intensification of growth processes in the individuals with the maximum increase of the coenopopulation vitality (IVC = 0.98– 1.16) was observed in the composition of undisturbed highly wet meadows; the portion of generative individuals increased in their ontogenetic spectra (48.6–56.5%). Under the anthropogenic load intensification, the vitality of coenopopulations (IVC = 0.82– 0.95) and the density of individuals decreased; the portion of virginal individuals increased in their ontogenetic spectra (rubbly meadows) or coenopopulations were clearly aging. The rate of the seed reproduction of coenopopulations, where the density of individuals accounted for 16 ind./m2 , was high on rubbly substrata with low total projective cover (60%). Our studies have identified the mixed type of life strategy for Gymnadenia conopsea with stress-tolerant and ruderal components. The ruderal-stress-tolerant life strategy allows the species to grow for a long time in conditions of high interspecific competition and anthropogenic load, spreading quickly to unoccupied territories.
O. G. Gorokhova, Т. D. Zinchenko
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-4-383-397

Abstract:
For the first time, an assessment was given of the taxonomic and quantitative structure of the phytobenthos of seven saline rivers in the basin of the hypersaline lake Elton (Volgograd Region). Main types of algacenoses developing on substrates were revealed, namely: diatom phytobenthos, communities of diatoms with cyanoprokaryotes, cyanobacterial films and mats, and epiphyton. The phytobenthos consists of local, mosaic-distributed communities with a small similarity of their species composition. The algacenosis structure is determined by Bacillariophyta (with the predominance of species of the genus Navicula) and Cyanoprokaryota (of the genera Phormidium, Leptolyngbya, and Geitlerinema). The abundance and biomass values vary widely, reaching their highest values (109,834–417,472 mln cells/m2 and 523.6–567.6 g/m2 ) in cyanobacterial communities of mesohaline rivers with their salinity up to 16–19 g/L. Mineralization as a factor influencing the structure of communities, most rigidly acts in the estuarine sections of rivers, by controlling the composition of the dominant species. For critical salinity values (> 70 g/L), characteristic structural transformations of communities by the type of replacement of planktonic and benthic Bacillariophyta and Cyanoprokaryota by planktonic Chlorophyta (of the Dunaliella genus) and picoplankton were established.
M. R. Trubina, A. Р. Dyachenko
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-4-477-491

Abstract:
The moss cover of forests in an 50×36 km area around the Middle-Ural Copper Smelter was analyzed after almost complete reduction of its emissions. It has been shown that the moss communities in the low and high pollution zones differ significantly in composition, number and frequency of species, but are characterized by a similar cover of ground mosses. The frequency of most species in the high pollution zones, compared to the low pollution zones, was decreased. A significant increase of the frequency in the pollution gradient was found for Pohlia nutans only. Species loss was expressed more strongly on the mesoscale (species richness within a community) than on the macroscale (the total number of species in a pollution zone). The elimination of species under increasing pollution was revealed for species with a low (up to 40%) initial frequency. Despite of the almost complete cessation of emissions from the smelter, the moss cover in the high pollution zones remains severely damaged and is formed by a single species (Pohlia nutans) over a significant area. However, localities with high species richness and high similarity of composition with the background communities occur even under high pollution conditions. The presence of such localities, in combination with a considerable time lag before the extinction of species from the study area as a whole, may have major significance for recolonization of degraded areas after emission reduction.
A. К. Kirova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-4-398-414

Abstract:
The species composition of zooplankton in mineralized water bodies located in the Ulug-Khem basin (Republic of Tuva) was studied. These lakes have the status of natural monuments of regional significance. In total we recorded 53 species of microscopic Custaceans and Rotifers from 32 genera, 13 families, and 8 orders. Cladocera comprises 53% of the species. The dependence of the species diversity on the level of mineralization was revealed; 89% of the species were found in brackish water bodies. The zooplankton composition of the hyperhaline lakes Dus-Khol (Svatikovo) and Cheder has remained constant for many dozen years. The zooplankton includes some species known only from Republic of Tuva in Russia, namely, Microcyclops afganicus and Macrotrix tabrizensis. M. asiaticus and Alona irinae, rare for the fauna of Russia, live in the lake Haak-Hol. A decrease in the total numbers of zooplankton is observed in the lakes, namely: in the lake Dus-Khol, it has decreased by 4 times, in the lake Khadyn it has decreased by 10–19 times as compared to the middle of the last century. Despite the lack of intermediate information, we regard this as a consequence of anthropogenic impact. The emergence of an indicator of pollution (Brachionus nilsoni) in the lake Khadin confirms this version. At the same time, the stable finding of species rare for the fauna of Russia indicates the presence of favorable conditions for their development and life, which increases the value of the reservoirs themselves, which are already unique natural objects.
A. Yu. Kudryavtsev, М. L. Oparin, О. S. Oparina, A. В. Mamaev, D. V. Kovalev
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-4-427-441

Abstract:
The paper presents the results of our study of ecosystem diversity and the state of split-forest areas located in the Shchuchansky district of the Kurgan region. The species composition of forest stands, the productivity of tree species, the composition of underwood, brushwood and ground cover in plantations were analyzed. Data on the distribution of forest stands of various ages, composition, types of underwood and brushwood, as well as the main dominants of the ground cover are presented. Our studies have shown that forest communities are quite distinctly different in the nature of all storeys. A preliminary assessment of the economic impact on the territory of the site made it possible to identify significant changes in all the components of forest ecosystems, namely, ground cover, the composition and productivity of forest stands. The diversity of forest ecosystems in the study area is due to the ability of many plant species to inhabit a wide range of ecological conditions, as well as the composition, age and crowncontact, which, in turn, determines the nature of the storey of shrubs and ground cover. The volume of the forest type was taken quite large, it combined plantations of all age stages of forest stands development. Features of forest vegetation, typical for split forests of the Southern Trans-Urals, were revealed, namely: mosaic vegetation cover, low crown-contact and the presence of open spaces species in the lower storeys. The materials obtained showed that, despite the significant anthropogenic transformation, the forest ecosystems of the study area retained the main features characteristic of the peculiar vegetation of the forest-steppe of southern Siberia. The research results will make it possible to assess the diversity of forest ecosystems, to give a preliminary forecast of the dynamics of the site's vegetation and can be used in the development of a scientifically grounded strategy for forest management in the region under the conditions of the joint action of many natural and anthropogenic factors.
I. A. Kondratenkov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-4-415-426

Abstract:
In previous studies it was shown that the coefficient of proportionality of the winter route count (WRC) of animals included in the formula of WRC in the form of a constant multiplier π/2, is actually a random variable – the same as the average number of intersections account route traces per unit length, and the average length of the diurnal animals. The value π/2 is the mathematical expectation value of the proportionality factor, provided that the count route equiprobably crosses the daily footprint at any place and at any angle from 0 to 2π during a winter route counting of animals. At the same time, both the nature of the distribution of the coefficient as a random variable and the values of its variance as its other statistical characteristics remained unknown. In this study, it was found that when the above-mentioned count conditions are met, the distribution of the proportionality coefficient of WRC as a random variable will be exponential or power-like. This allows calculating the values of its variance and relative statistical error in advance without collecting additional count data.
A. Yu. Muratova , N. A. Zelenova, I. Yu. Sungurtseva, S. V. Gorelova, A. P. Kolbas, Ye. V. Pleshakova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-4-442-458

Abstract:
In a laboratory pot experiment, two mutant cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus cv. r2p2 and Helianthus annuus cv. r5n1) were grown on soils with anthropogenic polyelemental anomalies and on a background control soil, and a comparative analysis of their rhizospheric microflora was carried out. The numbers of soil bacteria, actinomycetes and micromycetes, as well as the numbers of rhizospheric microorganisms resistant to Zn2+, Pb2+, and Cu2+ ions were estimated in the rhizosphere of sunflower cultivars. Quantitative changes in the sunflower rhizospheric microboceno-ses, formed under the influence of both the plant genotype and technogenic soil pollution, were revealed. A pronounced stimulation of the rhizospheric microorganisms of all groups studied was found when plants were cultivated on the technogenically contaminated soil from PJSC Kosogorsk Metallurgical Plant. In this case, cultivar differences were observed, namely: the maximal number of bacteria and actinomycetes was revealed in the rhizosphere of H. annuus cv. r2p2, whilst the maximal number of micromycetes was revealed in the rhizosphere of H. annuus cv. r5n1. An increased number of microorganisms resistant to lead ions was revealed in the rhizosphere of H. annuus cv. r2p2. The observed changes in the structure of rhizospheric microbial communities of the sunflower cultivars manifested in the stimulation of the growth and activity of soil microflora can be in demand for phytoremediation of technogenically contaminated soil.
A. V. Bogoslov, I. V. Shilova, A. S. Parkhomenko , T. A. Kritskaya , L. V. Grebenyuk, A. S. Kashin
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-3-271-289

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V. N. Chekashov, K. S. Zakharov, Sh. V. Magerramov, A. G. Selenina, K. S. Martsokha, M. M. Shilov, A. A. Sludsky, Nikolay Mikhaylovich Ermakov, Mikhail G. Korneev, S. I. Tolokonnikova, et al.
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-3-353-366

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P. G. Belyaeva, R. A. Aristova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-3-259-270

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D. E. Gavrilko, G. V. Shurganova, I. A. Kudrin , B. N. Yakimov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-3-290-306

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I. A. Kondratenkov, М. L. Oparin, S. V. Sukhov, О. S. Oparina
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-3-318-335

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
A. A. Kislyi, Yu. S. Ravkin, I. N. Bogomolova, S. M. Tsybulin, V. I. Starikov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-2-209-227

Abstract:
According to the data collected in the second half of summer for the period from 1954 to 2016 in the flat and mountainous parts of Western Siberia, the distribution and number of the narrow-headed vole in the zonal and provincial aspects were analyzed. Based on the cluster analysis of the matrix of similarity coefficients of abundance indicators obtained by averaging the initial data by years and groups of geobotanical maps units, the classification of habitats according to the favorable environmental conditions degree for the vole is made. The averaged samples are divided into five types of favorability: from optimal, where the abundance of the species is highest in the whole studied area, to extreme, where it is not encountered. In the South of the West Siberian plain narrow-headed vole prefers steppes, and in the subarctic tundras – communities of river valleys. In the Altai and Kuznetsk-Salair mountain regions it is most common in the subalpine light forests, tundras and tundra-steppe of the North-Western and SouthEastern Altai. On average, this vole prefers open habitats in Western Siberia. According to the classification and the structural graph, the dependence of the vole abundance on a number of factors and their inseparable combinations (enviromental and anthropogenic regimes) was revealed. The greatest connection with its distribution in the habitats of Western Siberia is traced for heat and water availability. On the plain, the number of this vole increases from the middle taiga, where it is found only once, to the subzone of the subarctic tundras in the North and to the forest-steppe and steppe zones in the South. In the mountains its more in the South-Eastern Altai, where a relatively high proportion of the most favorable for narrow-headed vole habitats.
A. S. Kashin, A. S. Parkhomenko , L. V. Kulikova, N. A. Petrova, I. V. Shilova, M. V. Lavrentiev, V. A. Shushunov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-2-241-247

Abstract:
The article presents a bioclimatic model of the potential range of Bulbocodium versicolor in European Russia. To build the model, we analyzed a matrix containing 166 B. versicolor localities in the studied region; the analysis was carried out in the SDMtoolbox program using the climatic paramaters from the WorldClim open database. The model demonstrates that, given the available dataset on the modern climatic conditions, B. versicolor may occur in a wider geographical range comprising, at the very least, the Belgorod, Voronezh, Volgograd, Lipetsk, Penza, Rostov and Saratov provinces. Also, within European Russia, the most favorable conditions for B. versicolor are found in most of the Voronezh and Volgograd provinces as well as in some areas of the Right Bank and Left Bank of the Volga River adjacent to the Volga Upland (in the Saratov province). The maximum occurrence probability is 70–100% while the average occurrence probability is 40– 60%. The maximum contribution to the model is made by the precipitation of the warmest and most humid quarter (June–August); a smaller contribution is made by the average temperature of the coldest (December–February) and warmest (June – August) quarters as well as by the average annual precipitation. The least contribution is made by the precipitation of the most humid month (July) and the driest quarter (March–May). Finally, we conclude that bioclimatic model facilitates a better understanding of the geographical distribution of the species in question.
Ju. V. Zeleneva, O. S. Afanasenko, V. P. Soodnikova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-2-177-190

Abstract:
Currently, septoria is the basis of the pathogenic complex on wheat crops in Russia, occupying the predominant position among harmful fungal diseases. In case of severe wheat damage, the crop loss caused by the fungus Z. tritici, makes up from 10–25 to 40–60%. The crop loss caused by the fungus P. nodorum parasitizing is from 10–20 to 30–50% during the years of epiphytoty. The question of the economic significance of P. avenae has not yet been examined completely. However, depending on the area of wheat cultivation and the year of observation, its part in the septorian population may reach up to 76.9%. It was of interest to study in detail the influence of conditions of the specific year, life form, and species of wheat on the formation of the species composition of Septoria in the pathogenic complex of wheat. Among the complex set of factors included in the concept of the environment, a significant role belongs to its abiotic components, namely, climate and weather, but the variety as an environment-forming factor has a decisive role. Our studies were carried out during 2010–2017. During the research period, the weather conditions varied significantly over the years and were not always favorable for the development of plants and formation of a good wheat crop. During the study, deviations in the amount of precipitations during the vegetation period, and, in general, over the year from the long-term average annual values, were noted. The years of 2012, 2014 and 2015 were characterized by the highest moisture supply during the vegetation season. It has been predicted that cooler days of April and May will promote the better development of P. avenae and P. nodorum. P. nodorum receives its predominant development during the years with wetter weather within the vegetation period of wheat, in contrast to Z. tritici more resistant to low humidity. These data demonstrate adaptation of the pathogen to conditions of an increased temperature regime and reduced rainfall amount.
M. I. Baskevich, С. Ф. Сапельников, И. И. Сапельникова, Liudmila A. Khlyap , Alexey Bogdanov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-2-135-150

Abstract:
Priority data are presented on the chromosomal (routine, C-banding) and molecular (cyt b, p53) marking of several (n = 19) individuals of common vole sibling species from three previously not studied localities in the Central Black Earth region, at the territory of the Deer Natural Park (Lipetsk Region, Krasninsky District). All individuals caught on the territory of the Deer Natural Park in the northwestern part of the Lipetsk Region were identified by both genetic markers as M. arvalis form “arvalis” (MAA). No representatives of other M. arvalis s. l. sibling species, including recombinants, were found in our samples. The geographical location of the M. arvalis form “arvalis” found by us was estimated with respect to the distribution boundaries and hybridization sites of the 46-chromosome forms of M. arvalis s. l. in the Central Black Earth region. It is shown that the studied individuals have been caught within the range of the Microtus form “arvalis” and are largely removed from the hybridization sites of the 46-chromosomal forms M. arvalis s. l., discovered earlier in the southern Lipetsk region and the southeastern Kursk Region. No M. rossiaemeridionalis in the examined sample from the Deer Natural Park were found. The correspondence between the samples studied and identified as the M. arvalis form “arvalis” from the Deer Natural Park and native meadow biotopes is shown. The data of determining the taxonomic status of M. arvalis s. l. individuals from the Deer Natural Park are consistent with our perceptions of the nature of the geographical distribution and biotopic correspondence of M. arvalis s. l. sibling species and the chromosomal forms on the territory of the Central Black Earth region.
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-2-165-176

Abstract:
Heavy metals are most common soil pollutants, including agricultural land. At the same time, the level of heavy metal pollution can significantly exceed the standards. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are most important crops. At the same time, no comparative analysis of their resistance to high concentrations of heavy metals has been carried out. In connection with this, the resistance of T. aestivum and P. sativum seedlings to the chronic effects of lead and copper salts in the range of lethal concentrations for T. aestivum was comparatively evaluated (0.15, 0.30 and 0.60 g/L of copper sulfate; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/L of lead nitrate) in experimental conditions. All studied concentrations of the toxicants caused a decrease in seed germination of T. aestivum relative to the control by 19–38% and 23–58% when exposed to lead nitrate and copper sulphate, respectively, which indicated the manifestation of lethal effects. All studied concentrations of both toxicants caused a significant reduction in the root system length (from 69% to 25 times) and shoot height (by 25–76%) as compared with the control level in T. aestuvum seedlings, and also led to an increase in the intensity of lipid peroxidation in seedling shoots, indicating the development of a stress reaction. At the same time, the studied concentrations of heavy metal salts, which were lethal for T. aestivum, did not cause almost any disturbances of the studied parameters in P. sativum, except for a decrease in the root system length after lead nitrate exposure. Thus, seed germination, growth processes of the root system and shoot, as well as peroxide homeostasis in P. sativum seedlings were much more resistant to the studied concentrations of lead nitrate and copper sulfate as compared with these parameters of T. aestivum.
I. A. Kirillova, D. V. Kirillov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-2-191-208

Abstract:
The Orchids due to their biological features, high decorative properties and poor resistance against anthropogenic factors are one of the most vulnerable components in vegetation of the world. Their conservation cannot be efficient without the knowledge on their reproductive biology. These data are especially important for species on the borders of their distribution area with additional reproduction limiting factors. Our study object is a rare orchid species Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.) Besser. During field works on the territory of the Komi Republic (northeast Russia), we studied 50 populations of E. atrorubens. Reproductive characteristics (fruit set, seed productivity and seed morphometry) were studied in 19 of them. We established that the main limiting factor in the North is a short vegetation period. Frosts damage generative shoots and do not allow seeds to ripe. The capsule of E. atrorubens on the northern distribution border contains fewer seeds than in the central part of areal. Also less is the indicator of real seed productivity. Within the Komi Republic on sample of two sites (the Timan Range and the Ural Mountains), we also see the decrease in all reproductive characteristics from south to north: the number and size of flowers, the number and quality of seeds decrease, their shape changes. However deterioration in seed productivity is compensated by an increase in seed volume. The populations of less than 50 shoots, in which juvenile plants are not marked, are in critical condition.
A. P. Stolyarov, M. V. Mardashova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-2-228-240

Abstract:
Features of the species and spatial structure of macrobenthic sublittoral communities in a lagoon ecosystem on the Green Cape (the White Sea) were studied. 31 invertebrate species and 3 species of sea grasses and algae (Zostera marina, Cladophora sericea, and Fucus vesiculosus) were found in the sublittoral of the surveyed lagoon. The data on the species composition, diversity and spatial structure of macrobenthos communities indicate the predominance of littoral brackish-water and marine euryhaline macrobenthos species (Hydrobia ulvae, Tubificoides benedii, Chironomus salinarius, and Macoma balthica) in the coastal region of the lagoon, marine euryhaline littoral and sublittoral species (mainly polychaetes Heteromastus filiformis, Polydora ciliata, and Capitella capitata) in the central deeper region, and marine sublittoral less euryhaline species (Pontoporeia femorata, Anonyx nugans, Nereimyra punctata, Terebellides stroemi, Astarte montagui, Micronephthys minuta, and Atylus carinatus) at the exit from the lagoon. The ecosystem of the Green Cape lagoon belongs to lagoons significantly fenced off from the sea with depleted specific fauna (many littoral species) and largely influenced by carbon load and salinity. The reduced connection of the lagoon with the sea due to the continued rise of the White Sea coast (4 mm per year in this area) will contribute to a decrease in the species diversity and the predominance of few small eurytopic invertebrate species resistant to organic load, oxygen deficiency, and desalination.
S. A. Dubrovnaya, L. Z. Khusnetdinova, N. K. Attobrah
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-2-151-164

Abstract:
The morphological variability of the aerial vegetative and generative organs of Melilotus officinalis in the ecotone communities of the forest-steppe zone, the forest zone of the Republic of Tatarstan including desecrated parts of the forest zone was studied. The ascorbic acid content in various parts of the plants growing in these habitats was also analyzed. It was revealed that the realization of the morpho-physiological potential of plants was determined by the conditions of botanical-geographical zones. The sweet clover, growing on black soils under the conditions of ecotone communities of the forest-steppe zone, was found to have higher indicators of “total biomass”, “biomass of leaves”, “biomass of inflorescences”, etc., as compared to the plants from similar communities growing on gray soils of the forest zone. Under the conditions of the ecotone communities of the forest-steppe zone, the content of ascorbic acid in all parts of the plant was also higher. Melilotus officinalis, growing in the conditions of a desecrated soil layer, was characterized by the maximum realization of its biomorphological potential with a low value of the coefficient of variation (CV), which reflected a stronger homogeneity of the samples. In the plants growing under extreme conditions, a sharp increase in the concentration of ascorbic acid in all parts was observed, which could be considered as an important mechanism for the adaptation of the species to survival under conditions of a sharp temperature difference of the substrate. Along with an increase in the generative period, an important component of the species adaptation was the low correlation between the indicator “biomass of inflorescences” and the concentration of ascorbic acid in inflorescences, “biomass of inflorescences” and the concentration of ascorbic acid in the leaves, which reflected the stable process of formation of the generative system of sweet clover. All coenopopulations were characterized by an incomplete ontogenetic spectrum with an absolute maximum on the plants with the middle-age ontogenetic status (95%).
N. V. Kiseleva
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-2-248-256

Abstract:
In the birch-pine forests of the Ilmeny Reserve the bank vole is predominated by numbers, the pygmy wood mice being in the second place. The results of our monitoring of the numbers of these rodents for 27 years (1991–2018) are presented. 1,610 rodents were caught,of which the bank vole accounted for 52.6%, the pygmy wood mouse for 32%, and other species for 15.4%. The autumn abundance of the bank vole was 4.6±1.8 and 18.9±2.6 ind./100 trap-days for 1991–1999 and 2000 – 2018, respectively; that of the pygmy wood mouse was 2.1±1.9 and 18.9±2.6 ind./100 trap-days, respectively. Since 2000, the peak amplitude of the bank vole number has increased by 1.1– 2.5 times, that of the pygmy wood mouse has increased by 2.5–4.2 times. Since 2006, the number peaks of these rodents began to repeat after 2–3 years. Over eighteen years (2000–2018), the autumn abundance of the bank vole twice (2008 and 2017) reached its peak values, at which the reproduction of voles ceased in July or early August. The correlation coefficient of the autumn abundance of the bank vole and pygmy wood mouse for 1996–2018 was 0.64±0.1. The spring abundance of the pygmy wood mouse has begun to more often exceed the spring abundance of the bank vole. Changes in the population cycles of the bank vole and pygmy wood mouse were obviously associated with some climatic features of the recent decades.
A. A. Zorina, E. A. Shuyskaya, I. V. Kurakina, V. P. Volkov, S. S. Ogurtsov, S. N. Stepanov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-1-52-65

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Raisa Sukhodolskaya , D. N. Vavilov, T. A. Gordienko, T. R. Mukhametnabiev
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-1-99-114

Abstract:
Carabus communities of the industrial, habitual and recreational zones in a large industrial center (Nizhnekamsk City, Republic of Tatarstan) were examined. 31 species were revealed, and the highest abundance and diversity was in the recreational zone (23 species). Similar species (Carabus cancellatus Illiger, 1798, Pterostichus niger Schaller, 1783 and Pterostichus oblongopunctatus Fabricius, 1787) predominated in the industrial and recreational zones, while Pterostichus versicolor Sturm, 1824 prevailed in the habitual zone. The dynamic density of beetles was 12.1, 7.5 and 16.4 per 10 trapnights in the industrial, habitual and recreational zone, respectively. Discriminant analysis has shown significant differences of the carabids in the recreational zone from those in the other two zones ones by structure and dynamic density. In addition, multidimensional analysis has revealed differences of the carabid communities in conifer, deciduous and meadow biotopes. Urbanization also affects the morphometric structure of ground beetle populations. We chose two species – Pterostichus melanarius Ill., 1798 and P. niger as objects for morphometric analysis, because they had been included as model ones into the project on carabid morphometric variation on Research Gates. The body sizes of P. melanarius were smaller in the recreational zone than in the industrial one. By the morphometric structure, the populations of the species were similar in both zones explored. The beetles of P. niger increased in body size from the industrial zone to the recreational ones. The morphometric structure of populations of this species was similar in the habitual and recreational zones and differed significantly in the industrial one. Such traits as the pronotum width and the distance between eyes contributed much into discrimination.
E. A. Zaytseva, M. M. Chunkov, K. Z. Omarov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-1-44-51

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E. A. Dzhayani
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-1-31-43

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M. L. Sizemskaya, M. M. Elekesheva, M. K. Sapanov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-1-86-98

Abstract:
Features, trends and the rates of formation of new forest biogeocenoses on anthropogenically disturbed lands, in particular, on an unused pond created on heavy loamy soils in the semi-desert of the Northern Caspian region are analyzed. At an early stage of spontaneous pond colonization by vegetation, the maximum influence on its development was exerted by the presence of a seed source 300 meters away – in the Arboretum of the Dzhanybek Research Station of the Institute of Forest Sciences (Russian Academy of Sciences) with 120 species of introduced tree and shrub plants. Initially 34 pioneer species colonized the lower parts of the unused pond, and 29 species survived by 2018. The formation of intrazonal willow-oleaster-poplar communities of a quasitugai type with a grass-wet-meadow association has been revealed. Their development was influenced by geographical isolation, self-regulation under rather unstable moisture conditions caused by occasional flooding by melt snow waters and bogging. A differentiation of the upper part of the soil-forming rock brought to the surface has occurred. The forest leaf litter has been formed from uncut moquette with a thickness of 1–2 cm, reaching currently quite substantial deposits of 0.953±0.196 kg/m2 , with the ash content reaching 13.85%. Ca prevails absolutely in the ash composition; while the amounts of Mg, Fe, and K are significantly lower. A humus horizon has been formed and the soil effervescence depth has changed. In the whole, for almost 40 years of vegetation colonization, the previously infertile substrate has acquired features of an immature soil, which is characterized by manifesttion of humus-accumulative process, gradual humification of organic matter and decarbonization of the material. In general, compact, diverse in structure, spontaneously arising self-developing forest biogeocenoses could significantly transform disturbed semi-desert territories. The peculiarities of their structure and the composition of emerging species make it possible to properly choose species preferred for landscaping.
Т. D. Zinchenko, Ch. T. Zamaldinova, G. V. Funk
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-1-3-14

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V. S. Gromov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-1-15-30

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Ye. V. Pleshakova, N. A. Zelenova, C. T. Ngun, Mikhail V. Reshetnikov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2020-1-66-85

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I. A. Kondratenkov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-432-444

Abstract:
In the course of our model experiment, an attempt was made to falsify (refute) a consequence from the mathematical justification of the winter route counting of hunting animals (WRC) – the consequence of the mathematical expectation of the proportionality coefficient of this counting being equal to π/2. A simulation was carried out in the MapInfo program. The essence of our digital experiment was as follows: in several places of the model territory, which was a circle 5 km in diameter, daily tracks of animals were placed. Next, a grid of parallel routes oriented along 12 equally spaced directions relative to each other was applied to the model territory. The frequency of the route grid (the distance between parallel routes) for different tracks was chosen so that the total number of all intersections of a single track in all directions was not less than a thousand. In total, 19 electronic daily tracks of various animal species were used. 95 different actual values of the proportionality coefficient were obtained for various locations of the tracks in the model territory, no violations of the above mentioned consequence were found. The results of our experiment made it possible to formulate a corollary arising from the fundamental properties of Euclidean geometry on the directly proportional dependence between the number of intersections between the lines of daily animal tracks and route lines and the product of the total lengths of these lines. The mathematical justification of WRC has once again passed a simulation test, already using the means of geographical information systems and data from satellite navigators. At present, there are no grounds for abandoning the practical use of winter route counting for game animals. All possible discrepancies in the estimates of the numbers of game animals determined by the WRC method with their actual values should be attributed to shortcomings in the direct organization of this counting rather than to its mathematical justification.
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-470-492

Abstract:
The considerable polarization of bird habitats has been formed in European Russia – extensive abandoned lands, of low suitability for nesting of typical meadow species, alternate with increasingly intensively cultivated fields. Though the abundance of most species is low in these fields, the polarization has resulted in their increasing exploitation by Eurasian Curlew, Black-tailed Godwit, Common Redshank, Black-winged Pratincole, Demoiselle Crane, Montagu's Harrier, Grey Partridge, Short-eared Owl and Mallard, apart from those more typical for fields: Lapwing, Common Quail, Eurasian Skylark, Calandra Lark and Western Yellow Wagtail. However, nesting of these species on most crop fields often results in low breeding success. The trends most unfavorable for nesting birds in European Russia are conversion of grasslands into arable lands, associated with the switching to indoor keeping of cattle, and increasing no-till farming.
E. A. Lushchay, Dmitriy E. Ivanov , E. I. Tikhomirova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-458-469

Abstract:
The transformation of hazardous pollutants in the environment usually results in formation of hard-to-identify compounds that may have a significant impact on ecosystems. They are difficult to identify by conventional methods of quantitative chemical analysis, but their detrimental effects can be detected by biological methods. The goal of this study was to develop novel methodological approaches to the express assessment of the state of the environment as well as toxicity of its components in the process of biological monitoring at hazardous industrial facilities. The article presents the results of comprehensive toxicity assessment of environmental objects using originally developed system of express methods. The objects of research were water fleas (Daphnia magna Straus and Ceriodaphnia affinis Lilljeborg), infusoria (Paramecium caudatum), preparation of lyophilized fluorescent bacteria based on recombinant Escherichia coli strain M-17 (Ecolum), algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb.), and mammalian gonads. The original methods for determining toxicity by changing the motor activity of water fleas at elevated temperatures of the studied environment are described. The description of the following original utility models is presented: “Method of bioassay for water samples and device for its implementation”, “Device for express assessment of natural environment quality” and “Device for comprehensive assessment of natural environment quality”, confirmed by the patents of the Russian Federation. Their use may significantly reduce the cost of ecotoxicological studies in terms of time and money expenditures. The effectiveness of the system of express methods was established during a biological monitoring of a sanitary protection zone of the Balakovo NPP. Toxicity of the samples of bottom sediments, soil, as well as water samples from the cooler pond and the adjacent water area of the Saratov reservoir were identified. The bioassay results were matched by both conventional methods’ results and originally developed system of express methods.
N. A. Shchipanov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-503-523

Abstract:
Small mammals are an active component of ecosystems that supports energy and matter flows and they are responsible for both construction of and maintaining their habitat. Such activity is vital for human prosperity, as it supports the chemical and physical quality of the environment where the human is adapted as a biological species. The contemporary human activity has resulted in destruction of a number of natural habitats and, as a consequence, in drastic changes in the species abundance. Some species have become so abundant that pose problems for human health, agriculture, and industries. Some formerly common and even pest small mammals, on the contrary, have reduced in distribution and numbers and now fall in the category of vulnerable species. In both cases, ecologically-based management of populations is required to maintain an optimal abundance of various species. Effective ecologically-based management of populations could be based on the basic principles of population ecology. It implies our understanding of both external and internal factors affecting the population abundance. Here, I review some fundamental principles which could be applied to operational management of populations. Also, I focus on some specifics of population reactions which have been elaborated in the Russian ecological school. Based on the well-known principles of supporting the numbers of populations, I propose a classification of species in terms of their ability to provide and change the type of functions in local populations. My classification allows distinguishing three groups of species with predictable resilience of population. Fitted to various environmental instabilities, the species of these groups require different conservation tactics.
A. A. Sludsky, A. V. Boiko, M. N. Lyapin, Mikhail Alekseevich Tarasov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-493-502

Abstract:
Population approach to determination of the borders and number of natural plague foci implies the specialists’ acceptance of the concept that the existence of a natural plague focus is always provided by a single population of the main carrier. Motivation for our discussion of such an approach was the data of a long-term study of the Hissar natural plague focus (Tadzhikistan). The area of the focus was only 300 km2 and its functioning was maintained by a single, relatively small population of Microtus carruthersi (Thomas, 1909) – the main carrier of plague. The Hissar mountain range territories adjacent to the focus have been surveyed for plague for more than 20 years, however, no plague agent (Yersinia pestis Lehmann, Neuman 1986) has been found, despite the complete identity of the species composition of rodents and fleas. Many of the known natural plague foci are significantly larger in size than the Hissar focus and inhabited by several populations of the main carrier. For instance, in the East-Caucasian high-mountain focus, covering the area of 23,500 km2 , five groups of common vole populations (the main carrier of plague) are distinguished (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1778). In the Tuva mountain focus, the plague agent was detected in six populations of the main carrier – the long-tailed souslik (Spermophilus undulates Pallas, 1778). In the territory of the Mojynkumsky desert natural plague focus that occupies 93,000 km2 , 17 populations of the great gerbil (Rhombomus opimus Lichtenstein, 1823) were singled out. Similar data are available for a number of other foci. Revealingly, in different populations of the main carriers, genotype differences were identified, both in rodents and the plague agent, as well as asynchrony in the plague epizooty development. Thus, the plague parasitic coenosis, operating within the boundaries and in the territory of a single population of the main carrier, constitutes an autonomous, standalone natural focus. Therefore, the foci with several populations of the main carrier are, in fact, groups of autonomous foci with a close, similar biocoenotic structure. There are many more natural (autonomous) foci within the natural plague focality zone than is widely assumed.
E. A. Katsman
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-524-528

Abstract:
In the modern world, increasing importance is attached to the formation and preservation of surface water quality, which is recognized as one of the leading factors in maintaining human health and well-being. In the 2000s the water quality in the Khoper river was considered as one of the best in Europe, but now the waters have become more polluted, and flow regulation (even with a low-pressure dam) may cause declension of their condition due to disruption of the water exchange process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the river flow regulation effect on the floristic diversity of vascular aquatic plants and the water quality in the vicinity of the Potlovskaya Dam near the source of the Khoper River (Penza region, Russia). The content of nutrients in water was estimated since their concentration and ratio determine the trophic status, water quality, and the state of aquatic vegetation, which is important in assessing the status of the environment of a particular region. Water chemistry and plants were sampled at two sites, one being upstream of the Dam, the other one being downstream. We have found that flow regulation by this small hydraulic installation causes some changes in the hydrochemical regime but does not affect the floristic diversity.
T. D. Zinchenko, V. K. Shitikov, Larisa V. Golovatyuk, E. V. Abrosimova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-407-418

Abstract:
The paper presents the results of our comprehensive studies of the saline rivers of the arid Prieltonie region based on hydrobiological surveys of plankton and bottom communities. We have compared two tables of the specific structure according to the results of observations at 13 river sites in 2013 and 2018, which included the numbers of hydrobionts of 94 different taxonomic groups of macrozoobenthos, meiobenthos and zooplankton. Using the method of joint inertia analysis, we have revealed a high statistical consistency of the data matrices, due to objective laws of the spatial distribution of aquatic organisms. A randomization test of the Procrustean correlation coefficient showed the statistical significance (p = 0.00026) of the conjugacy of both specific structures in the space of latent variables. At the same time, a certain trend was noted in the changes in the taxonomic composition of communities at individual stations over time under the conditions of dynamic abiotic factors. We have analyzed the dependence of the taxonomic structure of hydrobionts on a set of 30 abiotic environmental factors obtained during hydrobiological and hydrochemical monitoring of the studied river sections. Using canonical correlation analysis and the projection method on latent structures, a set of ordination diagrams was plotted to allow revealing peculiar “ecological niches” for each group of species with a certain set of characteristics of their biotopes. The plankton and bottom communities were shown to correlate quite well with each other, which indicates a close relationship between them, due to both biotic interactions and a mutually agreed response to changes in aquatic factors.
M. V. Lavrentiev, V. V. Boldyrev
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-445-457

Abstract:
In recent decades the interest to the study of Hedysarum has increased. Researchers touched upon the classical issues of morphology and variability of external features of Hedysarum grandiflorum and other species of Hedysarum (to clarify morphology, to more accurately separate existing species, to describe the morphology of new species, including rare ones) providing almost no detailed descriptions. The paper provides information about the morphology of external features of H. grandiflorum in the Southern Volga Upland. The study was conducted in 2007–2018. We have studied 23 H. grandiflorum cenopopulations in habitats with various environmental conditions, where more than 600 counting sites were laid, and concluded that the morphological features of H. grandiflorum are rather variable and the values of morphometric parameters are higher in the northeastern part of the study area. The well-being of the population is achieved due to some heterogeneity in the size of individual plants and by means of suppressing the growth and size of separate cenopopulations. The decrease in the parameters of signs is often associated with a higher anthropogenic load. Dimensional indicators of individuals from the cenopopulations of the species studied depend on the thickness of soil, which decreases from fescue-feather grass to petrophyte steppes. Cluster analysis has allowed us to divide the cenopopulations into southern, northern and northeastern ones, and those with anthropogenic impact. The least variable and most informative morphological features of H. grandiflorum (in the descending order of importance) are: the length of the standard, the diameter of the caudex, the plant height, the number of foliole pairs, the number of inflorescences, the number of leaves, the length of the unpaired foliole, the number of flowers on the inflorescence, the length of leaves and the width of the unpaired foliole. In the overwhelming majority of the plants encountered, all the petals of the corolla were of uniform light yellow color, turning into a white tint to the edges of the petals. In some cenopopulations, the corolla can be colored differently and unevenly, especially at the keel. Approximately 0.3% of individuals of the corolla petals and/or the lower part of the keel and/or veins are light blue or light pink, less than 0.07% has a light magenta or even light purple tint of the veins of the carina, edges of the petals or the whole corolla. Similar individuals are found in other regions. Many scientists noted this peculiarity a long time ago and had already described this phenomenon as a color variation (for example, H. grandiflorum var. violaceum) or less often, as a subspecies (for example, H. grandiflorum ssp. argenteum). Individuals with recessive coloring of the corolla from the area of study are called intraspecific color variations.
G. Z. Idrissova, I. V. Sergeeva , E. N. Shevchenko , A. L. Ponomareva, Kazhmurat Akhmedenov
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-419-431

Abstract:
The data of floristic studies of 40 spring tracts of the Mangistau, Aktobe, Atyrau and West Kazakhstan regions of the Western Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan are presented. We have found that the studied flora is represented by 252 species, 167 genera and 55 families belonging to Equisetophyta, Pinophyta, and Magnoliophyta divisions. Taxonomic characterization of the flora showing the predominance of the Asteraceae and Poaceae families is provided. The predominance of perennial herbaceous plants in the flora of spring tracts was identified by the system of I. G. Serebryakov’s life forms. The predominance of steppe plants and weeds was revealed. Horological analysis showed the leading set of species with the Eurasian range type. Ecological characteristics highlighted the predominance of xerophytes and mesotrophic plants. 20 protected plant species listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and the Red Data Book of the Republic of Kazakhstan were identified. Analysis of the distribution of plants in the areas adjacent to the springs identified four grades of occurrence, namely: common species – 7; uncommon species – 17; rare species – 100; and very rare species – 128. The most common species found within the spring tract territories are related to weeds, such as Tripleurospermum perforatum (Merat) M. Lainz, Polygonum aviculare L., Taraxacum officinale Wigg., Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort., Plantago major L., Arctium lappa L., Xanthium strumarium L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Chenopodium album L., Convulvus arvensis L., Poa annua L., Bromus squarrosus L., Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski. The Jaccard index (Kj) for the analyzed floras in pairwise comparison varies from 0.02 to 0.5, which shows the extreme heterogeneity of the specific composition.
G. V. Shurganova, Vyacheslav S. Zhikharev, D. E. Gavrilko , I. A. Kudrin , T. V. Zolotareva, B. N. Yakimov , Oxana Erina , Мария Алексеевна Терешина
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-3-384-395

Abstract:
В работе использованы современные методические подходы к анализу пространственного распределения сообществ зоопланктона (на примере средней речной части Чебоксарского водохранилища). Сообщества зоопланктона были исследованы в период летней межени 2018 г. в средней речной части Чебоксарского водохранилища (от г. Нижний Новгород до пос. Васильсурск). Границы сообществ зоопланктона Чебоксарского водохранилища закономерно менялись с момента его строительства и до наших дней. В средней речной части Чебоксарского водохранилища выявлено два четко выраженных пространственно устойчивых сообществ зоопланктона, связанных с окским и волжским потоками. Различие между этими зоопланктоценозами было продемонстрировано с помощью иерархического кластерного анализа. Анализ избыточности показал, что основными факторами, определяющими изменчивость видовой структуры зоопланктона, являются содержание хлорофилла-a и водородный показатель (pH). При этом концентрация хлорофилла-а отражает мезомасштабную неоднородность горизонтального распределения фитопланктона на исследованной акватории, а следовательно, и кормовой базы организмов зоопланктона. Отношение зоопланктона к уровню рН отражает высокую чувствительность видов рода Brachionus Pallas, 1766 к высокой кислотности. Влияние рН как фактора окружающей среды было менее очевидным. Однако эта переменная хорошо известна как один из ведущих факторов, определяющих структуру сообществ зоопланктона. Его роль в структурной организации сообществ зоопланктона равнинных водохранилищ заслуживает дальнейшего изучения.
S. V. Pestov, S. Yu. Ogorodnikova
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-3-348-359

Abstract:
Приводятся данные о влиянии галловых клещей на состояние фотосинтетического аппарата листьев древесных растений. Сбор материала проводили на территории Дендропарка лесоводов Кировской области, который расположен в черте г. Киров (подзона южной тайги). Для выявления степени повреждения растений галловыми клещами с каждого участка собирали 100 листьев (по 10 листьев с 10 деревьев). На участках с наибольшей степенью поражения галлообразователями случайным образом отбирали по 50 поврежденных и 50 неповрежденных листьев, измеряли длину и ширину листа. Листья для определения фотосинтетических пигментов отбирали в первой половине дня (10:00 – 12:00). Пробы листьев (0.15 – 0.25 г) фиксировали кипящим 100%-ным ацетоном. Содержание пластидных пигментов в экстракте оценивали с использованием спектрофотометра SPEKOL 1300 (Analytik Jena, Германия). Хлорофилл а, b и каротиноиды определяли при длинах волн 662, 644 и 470 нм соответственно. На исследованной территории на листьях встречено шесть видов галловых клещей, которые широко распространены в пределах ареала деревьев. Повреждения листьев на липе вызваны Eriophyes leiosoma и E. tiliae, на черёмухе – E. padi, на осине – Aceria varia, на рябине – E. sorbi и на вязе – E. ulmicola. Все выявленные виды галлообразователей представлены монофагами. Наиболее многочисленными видами были черемуховый клещ (E. padi) и рожковый липовый клещ (E. tiliae). Поражение листьев галловыми клещами не оказывало существенного влияния на размеры листьев, но приводило к изменениям в пигментном комплексе. Заселение листьев фитофагами вызывало снижение содержания пластидных пигментов в листьях деревьев. Среди изученных растений более чувствительными к поражению галлами были липа и черёмуха, в меньшей степени происходили изменения в пигментном фонде при поражении клещами листьев вяза, рябины и осины. Выявленные изменения фотосинтетического аппарата древесных растений при повреждении галлообразователями указывают на опасность данной группы филлофагов для древесных насаждений на урбанизированных территориях.
Nikolay Vladimirovich Popov , Sergey A. Yakovlev, G. V. Lidzhi-Garyaeva, Aleksandr Nikolaevich Matrosov, A. A. Sludsky, T. V. Badmaev , V. B.-H. Sandziev, Sh. V. Magerramov, T. B. Karavaeva
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-3-360-370

Abstract:
Представлены результаты сравнительного анализа сроков и длительности фенологических фаз в популяции малого суслика в центральной части Ергенинской возвышенности в 1926 – 1932 гг., 1972 – 1982 гг. и 2000 – 2015 гг. Отмечено, что в 1926 – 1932 гг. все основные фенологические фазы жизнедеятельности в популяциях малого суслика проходили исключительно в течение весенне-летнего периода (март – август). Обосновано, что в 2000 – 2015 гг. под влиянием современного потепления климата по сравнению с 1926 – 1932 гг. выход популяции малого суслика из спячки стал отмечаться в течение зимних месяцев (январь – февраль). Начало и конец периода беременности зарегистрированы в период с 1-й декады февраля по 3-ю декаду марта. Соответственно, подготовка к спячке (нажировка) взрослых зверьков стала происходить также в более ранние сроки (март, апрель) и завершаться преимущественно в мае. Первое появление молодняка малого суслика на поверхности и его расселение стали проходить в апреле – мае. Массовое залегание молодняка малого суслика в спячку установлено в конце июня – начале июля. При этом отмечена тенденция увеличения по сравнению с периодом 1926 – 1932 гг. общей длительности периода спячки молодых зверьков (июль – январь или февраль). Также отмечено снижение интенсивности кормовых миграций взрослых сусликов на понижения рельефа.
G. V. Shlyakhtin, V. G. Tabachishin , M. V. Yermokhin
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-3-396-401

Abstract:
Изучение питания Lacerta agilis основано на анализе проб содержимого желудков, собранных в окрестностях г. Саратова с апреля по сентябрь в 1981, 2003, 2007 гг. Максимальные значения суточного рациона были характерны в июле и достигали 2.5 – 2.7 г/сут., минимальные – в апреле и сентябре – 1.1 – 1.2 г/сут. Наибольшее количество пищевых объектов отмечено в мае, наименьшее – в сентябре. Выявлено, что основу питания L. agilis составляют насекомые; их частота встреч на протяжении всего периода активной жизни составляет 100%. При этом в диете преобладали представители отряда Coleoptera (число экземпляров составляло 25.4 – 40.5%, а утилизованной биомассы – 43.5 – 70.9%). Несколько ниже доля среди насекомых занимали представители Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera и др. Причем в пищевом спектре L. agilis преобладали насекомые, хорошо летающие и быстро передвигающиеся. Сравнительно много среди объектов питания беспозвоночных с криптической окраской, а также ядовитых, жалящих и с резким запахом. Кроме того, в содержимом многих желудков были встречены растительные остатки в виде семян, листьев, элементов цветка и т.п., а также различные небольшие камешки, возможно, выполняющие роль гастролитов.
E. A. Shashulovskaya, S. A. Mosiyash
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-3-371-383

Abstract:
Сделана попытка оценить состояние и тенденции развития экосистем разнотипных водохранилищ Европы и Азии (замыкающих Волжский каскад – Саратовского и Волгоградского, а также самого крупного на р. Урал Ириклинского) на основе взаимосвязи базовых гидрохимических параметров. Экологическое состояние водоёмов рассматривали с позиции устойчивости их экосистем, которую оценивали с помощью некоторых статистических подходов, основанных на данных многолетнего мониторинга. Рассчитывали удельный вес изменчивости главных компонент и показатель пластичности (надежности), соответствующий усредненному модулю коэффициентов корреляции гидрохимических параметров. Для качественной оценки состояния водных экосистем, характеризующихся большим числом гидрохимических параметров, применили метод функции желательности, который позволил свернуть большое количество информации и преодолеть проблему размерности. Результаты применения рассчитанных статистических индексов позволяют рассматривать объем водного стока и летнюю температуру воды в качестве основных факторов, влияющих на содержание базовых гидрохимических ингредиентов в Волгоградском и Ириклинском водохранилищах. Гидрохимический режим Саратовского водохранилища, вследствие его высокой проточности, определяется главным образом водами, поступающими из накопительного Куйбышевского водохранилища, в связи с чем подобные зависимости не установлены. За исследуемый период энтропийный индекс в волжских водохранилищах колеблется на одном уровне, в Ириклинском – он достоверно увеличивается. Наибольшими величинами пластичности характеризуется Ириклинское водохранилище, обладающее наибольшей пространственной и сезонной гетерогенностью водной среды. За исследуемый период наметились тенденции увеличения пластичности в Саратовском водохранилище и уменьшения в Ириклинском. Снижение показателя функции желательности свидетельствует о некоторой дестабилизации их экосистем.
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-3-322-334

Abstract:
В статье объединены полученные за 50 лет исследований данные по выбору мест гнездования, гнездостроительному поведению и характеристикам гнезд пеночки-веснички подвида Phylloscopus trochilus aсredula (Linnaeus, 1758) в таежной зоне Северо-Запада России. При выборе гнездового биотопа в районах исследований пеночки-веснички отдают предпочтение различным хвойно-лиственным лесам, заболоченным ельникам и елово-сосновым лесам. При выборе гнездовой стации птицы обращают внимание на структуру насаждений, наличие полян, просек и других открытых мест. При выборе места для гнезда определяющими являются свободный обзор в направлении от летка, надежная маскировка гнезда ближайшим окружением и наличие опоры для постройки. Строит гнезда самка 4 – 11, в среднем 7.0±0.5 дней. Характер постройки гнезд и состав гнездового материала в местах исследований характерны для вида в целом. При этом такие особенности некоторых построек, как наличие специфического материала или недостаточная прочность отдельных элементов, обусловлены особенностями занимаемых местообитаний.
М. L. Oparin, A. В. Mamaev, О. S. Oparina
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-3-335-347

Abstract:
Рассматривается динамика плотности гнездящихся пар пяти видов жаворонков (Alaudidae), обитающих на территориях Межузенской и Узено-Дюринской равнин на северо-западной оконечности Прикаспийской низменности в полупустыне Александрово-Гайского района Саратовской области, и ее и связь с гидротермическим коэффициентом (ГТК) Селянинова. Работы выполнялись в гнездовой период годового цикла жаворонков ежегодно с 2011 по 2019 г. на 40 стационарных маршрутах по 1 км каждый. Установлено, что тренды динамики численности были отрицательными у четырех видов жаворонков: степного (Melanocorypha calandra), белокрылого (M. leucoptera), чёрного (M. yeltoniensis), серого (Calandrella rufescens), и положительными у полевого жаворонка (Alauda arvensis). Рассчитанный нами тренд показателей ГТК для описываемой территории демонстрирует ежегодное увеличение увлажнения полупустынной зоны района наших исследований на 5.4%. Для оценки связи плотности разных видов жаворонков со значениями ГТК нами были рассчитаны коэффициенты корреляции Спирмена. При анализе полученных данных было выявлено, что у полевого, степного и чёрного жаворонков наблюдается высокая положительная корреляция плотности с ГТК, у белокрылого жаворонка такой связи не выявлено, а у серого жаворонка обнаружена высокая отрицательная связь плотности гнездовых пар с ГТК. На основании нашего исследования можно предположить, что увлажнение территории полупустыни является одним из основных факторов, обусловливающих динамику численности жаворонков. Соотношение тепла и влаги определяет уровень вегетации растительности и, соответственно, качество местообитаний этих наземно-гнездящихся птиц.
Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology; doi:10.35885/1684-7318-2019-3-311-321

Abstract:
У особей плотвы и речного окуня, отловленных в 15 малых антропогенных водоемах центрально-восточной части Удмуртии, произведен подсчет числа выходных отверстий сейсмосенсорных каналов в некоторых парных покровных костях головы. На основе полученных данных рассчитаны три показателя флуктуирующей асимметрии и проведен статистический анализ связей этих показателей со средними за несколько лет величинами минерализации водоемов для разных периодов вегетационного сезона и с коэффициентами их вариации. У плотвы средняя доля асимметричных вариантов изученных признаков была значимо связана только с сезонной вариабельностью величин минерализации, тогда как у окуня отмечены тесные и статистически значимые связи данного показателя со средними значениями минерализации в отдельные периоды вегетационного сезона. С этими же значениями аналогично был связан другой показатель плотвы – дисперсия флуктуирующей асимметрии суммарных величин парных счетных признаков сейсмосенсорной системы головы. Обсуждены возможные механизмы влияния фактора минерализации на степень асимметричного проявления изученных признаков c учетом особенностей их постепенного формирования в раннем онтогенезе двух видов рыб. Как следствие, рассмотрены некоторые ограничения адекватного использования этих показателей в биоиндикации антропогенного загрязнения пресных водоемов растворенными неорганическими веществами.
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