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Warsidah, Dzul Fadly, Arman Amran
Mattawang: Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat, Volume 2, pp 92-100; doi:10.35877/454ri.mattawang346

Abstract:
Seaweed or known as macroalgae, is one of the marine commodities with valuable economic potential for domestic and foreign markets. West Kalimantan, especially on Lemukutan Island, is one of the cultivation centers for Eucheuma cottoni and E.spinosum. The use of seaweed as a functional food in various kinds of preparations has not been implemented optimally. This PKM activity aims to socialize the use and consumption of seaweed and diversify its processing in an effort to improve the immune system, especially during the Covid19 pandemic. A total of 256 participants stated that they were ready to attend the webinar, which was delivered in an online form distributed by the organizing committee. Socialization activities are carried out online with the material presented related to seaweed and its various preparations and its function as food in improving health status through repair, restoration, or enhancement of the immune system, so it is very important to socialize consumption and utilize this food as a defense agent for the body during pandemic Covid19 or after. The results of the evaluation of PKM activities through the pretest and posttest shows that the participants' knowledge regarding the material presented has increased from 40-50% to 80-90%, for that it is still expected that there will be similar activities with a wider target object in West Kalimantan which can improve the welfare of society in general. Abstrak Rumput laut atau dikenal sebagai makroalga merupakan salah satu komoditas perairan laut yang memiliki potensi ekonomi yang sangat bernilai baik untuk pasaran domestic maupun pasaran mancanegara. Kalimantan Barat khususnya Pulau Lemukutan merupakan salah satu sentra budidaya Eucheuma cottoni dan E.spinosum. Pemanfaatan rumput laut ini sebagai pangan fungsional dalam berbagai macam olahan belum dilaksanakan secara optimal. Kegiatan PKM ini bertujuan untuk memasyarakatkan pemanfaatan dan konsumsi rumput laut serta diversifikasi olahannya dalam usaha untuk meningkatkan system kekebalan tubuh terutama di masa pandemic Covid19. Sebanyak 256 peserta menyatakan siap hadir di acara webinar yang disampaikan dalam form online yang dibagikan oleh panitia pelaksana kegiatan. Kegiatan sosialisasi dilakukan secara online dengan materi yang disampaikan terkait rumput laut dan aneka olahannya serta fungsinya sebagai bahan pangan dalam meningkatkan derajat kesehatan melalui perbaikan, pemulihan atau peningkatan system kekebalan tubuh, sehingga sangat penting untuk mensosialisasikan konsumsi dan memanfaatkan pangan ini sebagai agen pertahanan tubuh dalam masa pandemic Covid19. Dari hasil evaluasi kegiatan PKM ini melalui pretest dan post test menunjukkan pengetahuan peserta terkait materi yang disampaikan mengalami peningkatan dari 40-50% menjadi 80-90%, untuk itu masih diharapkan adanya kegiatan-kegiatan serupa dengan obyek sasaran yang lebih luas dalam wilayah Kalimantan Barat yang dapat meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat pada umumnya.
Lahai Koroma, L. M. Kamara, Ronnie Freezer-Williams
SAINSMAT: Journal of Applied Sciences, Mathematics, and Its Education, Volume 10; doi:10.35877/sainsmat1012122021

Abstract:
A new compound LK001 identified as 2-Isopropenyl-1-methoxyl-7, 7-dimethyl-4, 9-imidazo-5-hydroxy pyrimidine and named Alchorneinol has been extracted from the root bark of Alchornea hirtella plant. It was isolated using solvent-solvent extraction method from the powdered root bark of A. hirtella. The white powdered compound was slightly soluble in water, ethanol chloroform and tested positive for unsaturation. The compound LK001 contained Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen during elemental analyses. It also tested positive for the presence Hydroxide group thus making it slightly different from the already reported drug Alchorneine. The fragmentation patterns proposed from the Mass spectrum for Sample LK001 and by McLafferty rule support a new compound named Alchorneinol in the root bark extract. Itis therefore one of the active compounds responsible for the treatment of pain, particularly tooth ache, as purgative, stomach-ache and to treat tiredness after intoxication in Sierra Leone.
Pius U. Angioha, Thomas A. Omang, Uduakobong P. Akpabio, James A. Ogar, Tersoo Asongo, Francis Ibioro
SAINSMAT: Journal of Applied Sciences, Mathematics, and Its Education, Volume 10; doi:10.35877/sainsmat1012112021

Abstract:
This study examines the correlation between the national health insurance scheme and access to national health care among female employees in Federal Institutions in Calabar cross river state, Nigeria. The study specifically examines the extent to which the national health insurance scheme reduces the cost of health and Enrollment in the NHIS relates to access to maternal healthcare. Two hypotheses were raised for the study. The survey research design was adopted in collecting data from 400 samples from a population of 9201 female employees of the federal institutions in Calabar cross river state. The instrument of data collection was the questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive and correlation analysis. Results revealed that the national health insurance scheme reduced health cost relates to access to maternal healthcare. Results also indicated that Enrollment in NHIS significantly relates to access to maternal health. Based on this result, the study recommends, amongst others, that there is a need for government to improve on health funding as this will help improve access to various provisions of the scheme as it relates to maternal health
A. M. Ogaboh Agba, Eteng I. Etobe, T. Charlie Titus, Pius U. Angioha, Francis E. Ibioro
SAINSMAT: Journal of Applied Sciences, Mathematics, and Its Education, Volume 10; doi:10.35877/sainsmat1012092021

Abstract:
This study examines disparity in call duty and hazard allowance and its implication on health worker's commitment and industrial dispute in tertiary hospital in South-South, Nigeria. A survey method that allows for the use of structured questionnaire was adopted. The study used a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques in determining a sample of 1191 participants from 4 tertiary hospitals in South-South Nigeria. Data gathered from the field was coded and analyzed using Linear Regression at 0.05 level of significance. Results revealed that call duty discrepancies and hazard allowances significantly affect health workers' commitment and industrial disputes in tertiary hospitals. The study recommended, among others, that National Salaries, Incomes and Wages Commission should carry out a comprehensive review of all health worker's wages and allowances in Nigeria with the view of harmonizing them. The commission should also evolve a periodic pay reform for health workers in Nigeria.
Felix E. Ojong, A. M. Ogaboh Agba, Chinenye J. Njirinze, Pius U. Angioha
SAINSMAT: Journal of Applied Sciences, Mathematics, and Its Education, Volume 10; doi:10.35877/sainsmat1012102021

Abstract:
This assessed available information on the effect of ethno-communal crisis on food security and business activities in Nigeria. Literature was reviewed according to the variables raised in the study. The study adopted Eco-violence theory for the study. The survey design was used in the study. Four hundred (400) participants from Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State were selected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Data was gathered from respondents using a structured questionnaire. Results revealed that ethno-communal crisis has a significant impact on food security and business activities. It was recommended that the government, in collaboration with traditional rulers, should set up well-defined boundaries between communities.
Thomas A. Omang, Mary U. Ojong-Ejoh, Emmanuella Dike, Bassey E. Butum, Adeolu Ayodele
SAINSMAT: Journal of Applied Sciences, Mathematics, and Its Education, Volume 10, pp 52-59; doi:10.35877/sainsmat1012152021

Abstract:
The study objective is to analyze the effect microcredit scheme on household income in Northern Cross River State. The convenient sampling technique was used in collecting data from three Local Government Area that make up Northern Cross River State. The Survey Monkey Sample Determinant Technique was used to arrive at a sample size of 1515, selected using a stratified and convenience sampling technique from Northern Cross River State, Nigeria. A self-developed semi-structured questionnaire was used as the instrument of data collection. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Linear Regression. Out of the 1515 instrument distributed, 1306 was returned and used for analysis. The result revealed that all the participants were beneficiaries of Microcredit Scheme. 95.02 per cent reported that since benefitting from Microcredit scheme, their businesses have improved, and 96.78 per cent reporting that their family's living condition has improved since benefitting from microcredit scheme. The results from the descriptive analysis were subjected to parametric statistics using simple linear regression. The results review that woman involving in microcredit scheme has significantly improved household income in the Northern Cross River. This is because the result indicated an R-value of .245a. The regression ANOVA revealed that the F (1, 1307) = 83.345; p < .05, is significant. Based on this result, the study recommends a need for various enlightenment programmes to educate rural people on the benefit of obtaining microcredit for businesses and economic activities that will help move them out of poverty.
Cruz Garci­a Lirios
SAINSMAT: Journal of Applied Sciences, Mathematics, and Its Education, Volume 10; doi:10.35877/sainsmat1012132021

Abstract:
Studies on the consumption of information technologies, electronic devices and digital networks have shown that expectations are explanatory variables of processes of acceptance, adoption and intensive use that would be linked to anxiety and addiction, as well as to processes of aggression such as stalking, buying or infidelity. In the case of the Internet and electronic networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, SnapChat, Periscope, YouTube or WhatsApp, there have been trends towards violence that can trigger and suicidal ideation. However, the measurement of the sociocultural and sociocognitive determinants of intensive use have not established integral models that explain the structure of relations between the variables. Therefore, the present work was proposed to validate an instrument that measures the phenomenon, considering the exposure or the intensive use of electronic networks. The factors that determine the intention of use in a factor structure that explained 63% of the total variance were confirmed, although the design limits the findings to the research scenario, suggesting the inclusion of another factor related to the behavior... Â
Putiri Bhuana Katili, W. Wibowo, Maruf Akbar
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 199-205; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems319

Abstract:
Employee Engagement is an important strategy on increasing company performance. The aims of this research is to elaborate influences of leadership styles and work- life balance to the employee engagement; also influence of employee engagement to the employee performance. To achieve this aim, the data was collected from 204 employees using questionnaire as instrument of research. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling. This research conducted in steel industry. From this research can be concluded that work-life balance have most significant influence to employee engagement, and employee engagement have strong influence to the employee performance. By increasing leadership styles and work-life balance , the company could improve employee engagement. Therefore, the company management can utilize this research result for increasing employee performance and company competition.
A. M. Ogaboh Agba, John J. Akpanudoedehe, Felix E. Ojong, Michael Sunday Agba
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 163-181; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems298

Abstract:
Climate change remains one of the world’s greatest challenge in the 21st century. It causes inevitable changes that alter human activities. Adaptation to climate change creates and at the same time limits opportunities that support human existence. While United States of America, Europe, China, India and other countries are maximizing the opportunities climate change adaptation offers especially in areas of green technology, energy and agriculture, that of Africa who are more vulnerable to climate change are complacent and at most show less commitment. As the negative impacts of climate change increases and livelihoods erode, and as jobs continue to disappear leading to conflicts and upheavals in Africa, governments across the continent need policy options that will enable them to mitigate and adapt to climate change while at the same time address the problem of unemployment and create new patterns of livelihood. This paper, therefore, explores options that support these objectives. It offered policy suggestions in green energy and agriculture where Africa have a comparative advantage over other nations, and which also has the capacity of employing 90 per cent of the continent's workforce. It makes suggestions on how Lake Chad and other water sources affected by climate change in Africa can be revived to support agricultural activities and hydropower industry as well as create green jobs. It advocated for investment in biofuel, wind and solar energies to create green jobs. The paper submits that if green jobs are created and agricultural activities supported conflicts associated with unemployment and migration will be reduced drastically.
Nayab Khalid, Aaqib Qayyum
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 182-191; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems272

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to examine Pakistan's health sector issues and the critical ties between health indicators and economic growth. ARDL analysis has been applied on the data set of Pakistan’s economy, in the time reference to 1990-2020. The study revealed that the important ties between GDP, foreign direct investment, fertility and life expectation in the short run are strong, while mortality rate is negative, but have a significant impact on economic development. The fertility rate has a huge effect on GDP in long-term, while affecting foreign direct investment. The study achieves that countries with developing economic growth will focus more on improving human capital well-being.
Wahyuddin, Mauliyana
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 387-399; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems382

Abstract:
This research is intended to determine how much influence the premium income, underwriting results, investment results, and risk based capital on the profit of insurance companies (a study of insurance companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange). In this study, the technique to collect the form of financial documentation as the data were taken from 11 insurance companies as samples that listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2017-2019. The multiple linear regression analysis methods use to analyze the data. The results of this study indicate that premium income, underwriting results, investment returns, and Rased Based Capital have a positive and significant effect on profits in insurance companies registered in Indonesia in 2017-2019. It is hoped that insurance companies registered in Indonesia will be able to maintain the value of premium income, underwriting results, and Rased Based Capital in the company, this is so that insurance companies are able to provide more performance for the progress of the company in the future.
Em Yusuf Iis, Wahyuddin, Armanu Thoyib
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 376-386; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems383

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the effect of employee empowerment, work environment, and career development on the performance of Aceh Government employees. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to 150 employees. Data analysis method was Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results showed that employee empowerment, work environment, and employee career development affected work motivation and employee performance significantly. In addition, employee empowerment and work motivation have a direct and significant influence on employee performance, and career development and work environment also have a direct effect on performance. Work motivation partially mediates the influence of employee empowerment, work environment, career development on performance. The Government of Aceh is expected to improve career development in order to create a conducive work environment to improve the performance of Aceh Government employees.
Felix E. Ojong, A. M. Ogaboh Agba, Felix O. Eteng, Gbadebo S. Maruf, Abayomi I. Akintola, E. U. Usung
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 335–344-335–344; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems376

Abstract:
The study assessed the impact of Treasury Single Account (TSA) on revolving funds in public organisations, with particular reference to drug revolving fund in government hospitals in Nigeria. Specifically the study examines the relationship between appropriation control of TSA, cash management of TSA, payment mechanism of TSA and Drug Revolving Fund (DRF) in public hospitals. Survey method was adopted and 1020 questionnaire were administered. Data generated study were presented in tables and simple percentile. Hypotheses were also tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). Findings established significant links between appropriation control of TSA, cash management of TSA, payment mechanism of TSA and DRF in public hospitals. It was recommended among other that management should carryout monthly review of cash management of DRF to ensure that adequate funds are availability for drugs administration in public hospitals.
Rosnaini Daga, Fadliyani Nawir, Dhita Pratiwi
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 318–325-318–325; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems359

Abstract:
The strategy of improving service quality through the digitalization of services is a strategy that a company uses to develop digital-based services to answer consumers' increasingly digital needs. Likewise, the banking business continues to innovate to improve the quality of its services. The digitization of banking services is one strategy that can answer problems that occur in terms of improving the quality of banking services. PT. Bank Negara Indonesia Central Jakarta has implemented digitalization of services for the last 3 (three) years. It can be seen from the annual report and internal interviews that Bank Negara Indonesia has achieved good performance targets. However, several obstacles are faced in implementing the digitalization strategy for services such as legacy IT systems. This work culture is not yet digital and poor coordination between BNI's internal divisions. Some of these things need to be considered more seriously to achieve PT. Bank Negara Indonesia's vision and mission.
Novita Rosanti, Karta Negara Salam, Panus
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 365-375; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems360

Abstract:
The study aim is to analyze are brand image and product quality partially positive and significant impact on purchasing decisions at Starbuck; Do brand image and product quality simultaneously have a positive and significant effect on purchasing decisions at Starbucks; Which variable has the most dominant influence on purchasing decisions at Starbucks. In this study, the authors chose the research location in Starbucks, Trans Studio Mall, Makassar City. In connection with the problems previously stated, an analysis will be carried out based on the data obtained using the following calculation: (1) Validity test, used to measure whether a questionnaire is valid or not. A questionnaire is said to be useful if the questionnaire's questions can reveal something, which is measured by the questionnaire. The results showed that the brand image variable had positive and significant influences on purchasing decisions; this indicated that Starbucks should maintain a good brand reputation, increasing consumer loyalty. Introducing products to consumers will give a good impression, and consumers will also remember the product. The results showed that the product quality variable had positive and significant effects on purchasing decisions; this indicated that Starbucks had to improve the quality of the products offered to increase sales levels. 12.9% of variables are not examined in this thesis, and this also affects the purchasing decision at Starbucks Trans Studio Mall Makassar; the variables that are not examined are (Price, Location, and Lifestyle). Researched, so you can find out what variables influence a person to make purchasing decisions at Starbucks Trans Studio Mall Makassar. In this study, the authors chose the research location in Starbucks, Trans Studio Mall, Makassar City. In connection with the problems previously stated, an analysis will be carried out based on the data obtained using the following comment: (1) Validity test, used to measure whether a questionnaire is valid or not. A questionnaire is said to be useful if the questionnaire's questions can reveal something, which is measured by the questionnaire. The results showed that the brand image variable had positive and significant effects on purchasing decisions; this indicated that Starbucks should maintain a good brand reputation, increasing consumer loyalty. Introducing products to consumers will give a good impression, and consumers will also remember the product. The results showed that the product quality variable had positive and significant influences on purchasing decisions; this indicated that Starbucks had to improve the quality of the products offered to increase sales levels. 12.9% of variables are not examined in this thesis, and this also affects the purchasing decision at Starbucks Trans Studio Mall Makassar, the variables that are not examined are (Price, Location, and Lifestyle). Researched, so you can find out what variables influence a person to make purchasing decisions at Starbucks Trans Studio Mall Makassar.
S. Sampurnawati, Titien Agustina
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 326-334; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems277

Abstract:
This study aims to (1) describe the competence of Human Resources (HR), intellectual capital and the performance of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) engaged in the production of Sasirangan, a typical cloth of South Kalimantan (2) Analyze the influence of the level of competence of Human Resources ( HR) and intellectual capital on the performance of Sasirangan MSMEs. (3) Analyzing the competence of Human Resources (HR) and intellectual capital have a dominant effect on the performance of Sasirangan SMEs. Associative research method on 40 respondents taken by total sampling method. The data analysis technique used multiple linear regression. The results showed that the competence of Human Resources (HR) and intellectual capital had a positive and significant effect on the performance of MSMEs. Between these two variables, intellectual capital has a more dominant influence on Sasirangan MSMEs.
Mary Eru Iji, Edem A. Ebong, Thomas A. Omang, Mary U. Ojong-Ejoh
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 307-317; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems309

Abstract:
The objective of the study is to examine the extent to which women involvement is small business contributes to household income and family wellbeing. The study adopted the survey research method in collecting data from 317 women from Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria using Cluster and Purposive sampling technique. The Survey Monkey Sample Determinant Technique was used to determine the sample size for the study. The instrument of data collection was a semi-structured self-developed questionnaire. Data collected from the Field was analyzed using descriptive statistic and parametric statistic (Simple Lineal Regression) at 0.05 level of significance. The result from the descriptive statistics revealed that most of the women used in the study, 97.41 per cent do not depend solely on their husband income. 63.70 cent of women spend all the money from their endeavour in taking care of their homes. 81.10 per cent of the women reported that they are able to contribute to the household and take care of themselves. From the parametric statistics carried out, result revealed a significant correlation between women involved in small business and household income and family wellbeing in Yala. The study thereby concludes that women in small business significantly contribute to household income and family wellbeing. The study calls for governmental effort towards improving the capacity of women in Yala through self-help programs and microcredit.
Nur Laili Safitri, R. Agus Baktiono, Elok Damayanti, I Gede Arimbawa
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 192-198; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems318

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the effect of work motivation and compensation on the performance of PT. Delami Brands Kharisma Busana Surabaya. This study used a quantitative approach and data collection through questionnaires and observations. With a population of 76 respondents. Analysis of the data used the validity test, reliability test, classic assumption test, and multiple linear analysis test. The results showed that the effect of work motivation and compensation on the performance of PT. Delami Brands Khasrisma Busana Surabaya showed positive and significant results. The F test results are 70,878> F table = 2,92 simultaneously. Partially work motivation of 8.433> t table 1.993 has a significant effect on employee performance, compensation of 4.564> 1.993 has a significant effect on the performance of employees of PT. Delami Brands Kharisma Busana Surabaya.
Pandu Adi Cakranegara
Journal of Applied Science, Engineering, Technology, and Education, Volume 3, pp 324–331-324–331; doi:10.35877/454ri.asci372

Abstract:
Indonesia is a country experiencing demographic growth, especially in the productive age. This growth has several consequences, among others, from income and consumption levels. The increase in the people's standard of living affects various industries, including the food and beverage industry. Apart from macroeconomic and demographic factors, technological factors play an essential role in increasing production. In this case, the availability of coffee machines on a home scale. This machine's existence enables small businesses to start their coffee cafe businesses to compete with large coffee companies. This research uses existing analytical tools between market potential analysis and boarding house structure analysis. This analysis found that there was a decrease in the barrier to entry to the ready-to-serve coffee industry. As a consequence, there are vast opportunities for small businesses to start a business using home-scale machines. This study explains the phenomenon of the rapid development of small-scale coffee in Indonesia in recent years.
Muchammad Zaenal Muttaqin, Yori Herwangi, Cahyono Susetyo, Tri Sefrus, Muhammad Subair
Disasters and conflicts : policy and field updates / UNEP., Volume 1, pp 1-7; doi:10.35877/454ri.daengku367

Abstract:
The effectiveness and efficiency of public transport should be a priority for transportation in developing cities. Despite the efforts from the government to improve public transportation, in Jakarta City, Indonesia, there is still 9.93% increase of private vehicles annually per year. In detail, contributor for increasing vehicles in Jakarta is motorcycles with an average annual increase of 10.54% every year, followed by an increase in the percentage of passenger cars by 8.75%. In contrast, the number of public transportation increased only by 1.74%. This research did the evaluation for public transport service in Jakarta by availability and accessibility for them. Neighborhood analysis and Proximity analysis used in this research. The results of the research showed that major problems in public transportations in Jakarta City are the coverage area of the service, route connectivity, and its accessibility for public facilities. There are only 7.78% for coverage area by flexible bus stop service with average walking distance by 300 m. Thus, there are some areas that are not passed by public transport routes, for about 18.5 million people live in blank spot area.
Era Purike
1948 : la guerre de Palestine, Volume 1, pp 1-8; doi:10.35877/454ri.eduline361

Abstract:
The policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kemdikbud) regarding “Merdeka Belajar, Kampus Merdeka (Free Learning, Independent Campus) as outlined in 5 (five) policies (Permendikbud) as a legal umbrella for this policy. This policy was launched on January 24, 2020 and is a breakthrough made by the Ministry of Education and Culture in the education sector in Indonesia. As a new policy, this policy is likely to experience obstacles, especially in its implementation. Therefore, effective communication is needed to achieve the objectives (outputs) of this policy. This research was conducted through literature review and monitoring of official online media as tools used by the Ministry of Education and Culture to socialize this policy. Policy communication could be effective if: (1) the policy can be received and understood as intended by the government; (2) the policy launched by the government can be approved by the recipient and followed up with the proper implementation as required by the government; (3) there are no significant obstacles to follow up and implement the policy. The results of this study indicate that there are still misinterpretations regarding the contents of this policy. The results of literature review state that educational institutions are still having difficulty implementing this policy in curriculum adjustments and learning activities. They also have obstacles to follow up on links and match programs for independent learning with industry due to it requires much budget and many universities have low budget.
Geminastiti Sakkir, Syarifuddin Dollah, Jamaluddin Ahmad
1948 : la guerre de Palestine, Volume 1, pp 9-15; doi:10.35877/454ri.eduline378

Abstract:
COVID-19 pandemic era has changed human life in the world. In education side, the learning process is forced to be carried out through full online (E-learning) since this pandemic era. There are many studies conducted on students’ perceptions of using E-learning to learn the English language while this challenges era. So, the researchers also want to conduct a study about it. The objective of this study was to investigate the students’ perceptions on the use of E-learning while COVID-19 pandemic era. Data were collected using a questionnaire that collected background information of participants and a five-point Likert scale to gauge the students’ perception use of the E-learning in EFL classroom while pandemic COVID-19 era. Findings from this research indicate that the most of students showed a negative perception toward to use E-learning in the EFL process. It was proved by the results of students’ perception. There is only 1 student who strongly agrees with the current e-learning process or said that the E-learning in pandemic COVID-19 era is effective, there are 10 students who said the E-learning is less effective, 1 students say they are moderate (4%), 12 students said E-learning is not effective and 3 student said E-learning is very not effective. There are many factors influenced the students’ perception on the use of E-learning media in COVID-19 pandemic era such as, the signal and network connection; limit of quota and expensive; lack of lecturers methods; lack of students’ motivation; limitation of time; and lack of interaction.
Amine Bel HajHassine
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 281-287; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems356

Abstract:
Now a days, we live all in a connected world, competition from digital companies is disrupting business models, and leaders no longer have a choice: the time has come for digital transformation (Dussart, 2015). This transition is not new. It covers a necessary reality, especially for so-called traditional companies, which were not born in digital culture. Built on an old model, they must initiate and succeed in their transformation to remain competitive. This paper aims to analyze the opportunities brought by digital transformation for Tunisian companies. In our research and on the methodological section, we used an exploratory qualitative approach with Tunisian companies, using a questionnaire. The results of this investigation have shown that the great opportunities and challenges facing Tunisian companies are human capital in the first place, funding and above all methodological support. And the government must be the first to assist and support the digitization process.
Ali Sunandar, Kuncoro Bili Aszhari
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 261-271; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems323

Abstract:
In every construction project, there is always a change or what is commonly called a change order (CO). CO greatly affects the effectiveness of project work where its sustainability depends on three interrelated components namely quality, time and cost. The purpose of this study is to determine the causes, risks, impact of CO and risk management on costs. This research was conducted in the Bekasi area at the Tamansari Iswara project. This study uses descriptive analysis methods and direct interviews with the experts concerned by distributing questionnaires to 85 respondents and producing data for analysis. With the help of statistical analysis software that is SPSS researchers use several tests such as validity test, reliability test, descriptive analysis test, regression analysis, and risk analysis to determine the dominant variables and risk management. From the results of the analysis conducted there are 6 dominant variables namely X18, X19, X15, X28, X21, X9, X25, and the highest risk is found in variables X1 and X21.
Sarah Wahyu Darmawan Geraldine Putri, Sengguruh Nilowardono
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 251-260; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems322

Abstract:
Restaurant Navy Seals Surabaya has many determinants in purchasing decisions, these factors are Brand Image, Service Quality, Social Media Marketing. And these factors will be examined statistically which aims to determine how much influence. The variables used are four, namely Brand Image (X1), Service Quality (X2), Social Media Marketing (X3), and Purchase Decision (Y). Data collection was obtained from distributing questionnaires to customers of Restaurant Navy Seals Surabaya. The results show that the Brand Image variable (X1), Service Quality (X2), and Social Media Marketing (X3) simultaneously and partially have a significant effect on Purchase Decision (Y). This research is a quantitative study with a sample of 160 respondents. The analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis. Based on this research, Restaurant Navy Seals Surabaya can maintain Brand Image, Service Quality, and Social Media Marketing, so that customers survive and faithfully buy at the place.
A.M. Ogaboh Agba, Pius U. Angioha, Ntiense G. Akpabio, Abayomi Akintola, Gbadebo S. Maruf
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 355-364; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems306

Abstract:
The study examines workplace inducements and labour turnover. Specifically, the study sought to establish the relationship between staff promotion, performance-based bonuses, employee discount, training, and labour turnover in the telecommunications industry in South-South, Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. Using a self-report questionnaire. Data was collected from five hundred and seventy-two (572) staff selected in four (4) telecommunications industry in South-South, Nigeria. The obtained data were statistically analysed using simple linear regression. Each hypothesis was tested at 0.05 per cent level of significance. The result obtained from the analysis revealed that staff promotion, performance-based bonuses, employee discount and training significantly affect labour turnover in the telecommunications industry in South-South, Nigeria. The study recommended among others that policy options that encourage improved incentives for employees in telecommunications Company.
Mary U. Ojong-Ejoh, Pius U. Angioha, Rose U. Agba, Evaristus A. Aniah, Maruf Gbadebo Salimon, Abayomi Akintola
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 272–280-272–280; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems305

Abstract:
This study examines the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on small and medium scale enterprise Operation in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. The cross-sectional survey method was used in collecting data from 474 SMEs in Calabar, Cross River State using the stratified and purposive sampling technique. The instrument of data collection was a self-developed semi-structured questionnaire. Data collected from the field was coded, analyzed using descriptive statistics such as tables and graphs and correlation analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Out of the 474-instrument distributed only 422 was returned and used for analysis. From the analysis, the result revealed that 88.6 per cent of the SMEs reported being negatively affected by the pandemic, 71.3 per cent reported laying off employees during this period. Also result from the correlation analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between covid-19 pandemic and the operations of SMEs in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Based on these findings, there is a need for policy adjustment toward SMEs operations in Calabar
Romadini Antikasari, Agus Baktiono, I Gede Arimbawa, Elok Damayanti
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 244-250; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems321

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of product quality, restaurant atmosphere, and customer value on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. This type of research is quantitative. The population of this study were 95 respondents who bought at Surabaya Choie Dimsum. The analysis technique used is Partial Least Square (PLS). Data was obtained from questionnaires and tested with the SmartPLS 3.0 application. The results of this study indicate that product quality, restaurant atmosphere, and customer value have a positive and significant influence on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. And customer satisfaction has a positive and significant influence on customer loyalty.
Lamia Jamel
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 122-128; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems301

Abstract:
The nexus among financial development and economic growth has long remained a subject matter of considerable debate in the financial and economic literature. This article examines the relationships between financial development, institutions, and economic growth. This indicates that the marginal effect of financial development on economic growth depends on the quality of institutions. To do so, we employ a panel data of 14 MENA countries during the period of study from 2008 to 2019. For the econometric methodology, we use fixed and random effects models. To choose between fixed effects and random effects, we employ the Hausman test. Based on the empirical findings, we demonstrate that financial development has a positive effect on economic growth. Furthermore, we have observed that institutional quality seems to be a necessary complement to financial development. Consequently, it is important to implement policies leading to the deepening of financial systems, through a including a solid institutional framework. Thus, by promoting such development and better institutional quality, economic growth will thus be accelerated.
Wahyu Utami, Karisma Ayu Ningtyas, Vira Safitri, Endang Mawarti, Lilla Puji Lestari
Mattawang: Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat, Volume 2, pp 79-86; doi:10.35877/454ri.mattawang342

Abstract:
The KKNT-KK activity of the Urip Sumoharjo Group purpose to provide public understanding of the importance of 3M in preventing the spread of the corona virus. As well as improving community skills in the use of natural ingredients for the manufacture of hand sanitizers. The method used in this activity is education and socialization of the application of 3M for the prevention of the corona virus, practicing how to make hand sanitizers from natural ingredients. The targets in this KKNT-KK activity are the people of Kalijaten Village, Taman Subdistrict, Sidoarjo Regency, especially mothers. The result of this activity is that the community has begun to understand the importance of 3M, and can utilize natural ingredients for the manufacture of hand sanitizers. Abstrak Kegiatan KKNT-KK Kelompok Urip Sumoharjo ini bertujuan untuk memberikan pemahaman masyarakat tentang pentingnya 3M untuk mencegah penyebaran virus corona. Serta meningkatkan keterampilan masyarakat dalam pemanfaatan bahan alami untuk pembuatan hand sanitizer. Metode yang digunakan pada kegiatan ini adalah edukasi dan sosialisasi penerapan 3M untuk pencegahan virus corona, mempraktekkan cara pembuatan hand sanitizer dari bahan alami. Sasaran dalam kegiatan KKNT-KK ini yaitu masyarakat Kelurahan Kalijaten Kecamatan Taman Kabupaten Sidoarjo khususnya para ibu-ibu. Hasil dari kegiatan ini adalah masyarakat mulai paham tentang pentingnya 3M, serta bisa memanfaatkan bahan alami untuk pembuatan hand sanitizer.
Mariana Simanjuntak, Astri Rumondang Banjarnahor
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 214-232; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems344

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate previous research on the co-creation of Green Service-scape Destination (GSD) specifically concerning definitions, theories used, research themes, methodologies, and contexts; studied in accordance with the perspective of Service Dominant Logic (SDL). This study used bibliometric analysis and used Publish or Perish software with Google Scholar as the database. A total of 183 articles published in 122 journals from 2010 to 2020 were selected. This study used systematic data to reveal trends in development markets and qualitative inductive analysis to define relevant themes within the topic. Search results according to keywords, found that the total number of research articles there are 1246, with the most cites themed SDL totally 910. This study provides future directions for research on GSD. GSD generates increased variety of tourist needs through proactive green innovation activities in efforts to adjust services. GSD provides improved methods, types, quality and service design with green environmental conditions, resources and service provider corporate support. To get the maximum advantage of layout and atmosphere is given added value through Innovation. This study reveals trends in co-creation GSD and sustainable marketing performance has the potential to generate job opportunities, empower resources effectively and strategically, increase social expectations and awareness, improve the economy and meet the needs of destinations and the sustainability of a value chain.
Ika Widiastuti, Pandu Adi Cakranegara
Mattawang: Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat, Volume 2, pp 87-91; doi:10.35877/454ri.mattawang341

Abstract:
This article is motivated by COVID-19, which can affect the economy and MSMEs of the Mojokerto community. The research objective was to determine the community's strategies in Watespinggir Hamlet Mojokerto to survive and still earn income during the pandemic. The research method is descriptive qualitative, and the authors collect data by conducting interviews, discussions with business actors, and seeking information from other article sources. The results showed that business actors' efforts to increase an income such as studying more details about the technology, providing exemplary service to consumers, paying attention to the quality of goods to be sold to consumers. Also, selling products using e-commerce, adding services to consumers, digital marketing and optimizing marketing relationships with consumers, maintaining products, and protecting existing customers. Abstrak Artikel ini dilatarbelakangi oleh COVID-19 yang dapat mempengaruhi perekonomian dan UMKM masyarakat Mojokerto. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui strategi yang digunakan oleh masyarakat di Dusun Watespinggir Mojokerto supaya dapat bertahan dan tetap mendapatkan penghasilan selama pandemi. Metode penelitian ialah kualitatif deskriptif, penulis mengambil data dengan melakukan wawancara, diskusi dengan pelaku usaha dan mencari informasi dari sumber artikel lainnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa upaya pelaku usaha guna meningkatkan suatu pendapatan seperti mempelajari lebih detail tentang teknologi, memberikan pelayanan yang baik untuk konsumen, memperhatikan kualitas barang yang akan dijual ke konsumen. Selain itu, penjualan produk dengan menggunakan e-commerce, penambahan layanan terhadap konsumen, digital marketing serta mengoptimalkan hubungan pemasaran dengan para konsumen, dan mempertahankan produk serta menjaga pelanggan yang sudah ada.
Eka Siswanto Syamsul, Supomo, Achmad Kadri Ansyori
Mattawang: Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat, Volume 2, pp 75-78; doi:10.35877/454ri.mattawang338

Abstract:
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, the availability of handwashing products in Samarinda City has become a rare item. The purpose of this activity is to prevent COVID-19 through the use of Hand Sanitizer. This method in this service includes several stages, namely preparation that includes the preparation of tools and materials, the production process with the stages of mixing materials into hand sanitizer products, and the packaging process that is inserting the finished hand sanitizer into small bottles measuring 20 ml, 100 ml and Container 5 L, as well as labelling the brand hand sanitizer, and subsequently the distribution process in RT 27, 28 , 29 and 30 Black Water Village. Civitas Akademika STIKES Samarinda (STIKSAM) and Ikatan Keluarga Alumni (IKA STIKSAM) make hand sanitizer in accordance with WHO regulations, hand sanitizer distribution process in rt 27, RT 28, RT 29 and RT 30 Black Water Village and COVID-19 referral hospital (AW Hospital. Sjahranie and I.A. Moeis Hospital) went smoothly. Mayor of Samarinda H. Syaharie Ja'ang appreciated and reviewed the activities of Hand Sanitizer making at STIKES Samarinda campus. Abstrak Akibat wabah pandemi COVID-19 ketersediaan produk pencuci tangan di Kota Samarinda menjadi barang langka. Tujuan kegiatan ini yaitu melakukan upaya pencegahan COVID-19 melalui penggunaan Hand Sanitizer. Metode pada pengabdian ini meliputi beberapa tahap yaitu persiapan yang meliputi penyiapan alat dan bahan, proses produksi dengan tahapan pencampuran bahan-bahan menjadi produk hand sanitizer, dan proses pengemasan yaitu memasukan hand sanitizer yang sudah jadi ke dalam botol-botol kecil berukuran 20 ml, 100 ml maupun Dirigen 5 L, serta labelling merek hand sanitizer, dan selanjutnya proses pendistribusian di RT 27, 28, 29 dan 30 Kelurahan Air Hitam. Civitas Akademika STIKES Samarinda (STIKSAM) dan Ikatan Keluarga Alumni (IKA STIKSAM) membuat hand sanitizer sesuai ketentuan WHO, proses pendistribusian hand sanitizer di wilayah RT 27, RT 28, RT 29 dan RT 30 Kelurahan Air Hitam dan Rumah sakit rujukan COVID-19 (RSUD AW. Sjahranie dan RSUD I.A. Moeis) berjalan dengan lancar. WaliKota Samarinda H. Syaharie Ja’ang mengapresiasi dan meninjau kegiatan pembuatan Hand Sanitizer di kampus STIKES Samarinda.
Amine Bel HajHassine
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 233–243-233–243; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems329

Abstract:
To the extent that the company is an “open system”, it must be in a continuous standby state. In this research work, we will try to focus on the contribution of economic intelligence strategies to the performance of the company. We will begin with a literature review to better understand the theoretical concepts. Then we will conduct a field study of 92 Tunisian industrial companies. Our work has revealed that economic intelligence has a positive but differential effect on the firm’s performance. But some determinants of performance do not seem to take full advantage of the strategies of economic intelligence to which companies should attach greater importance.
Bal Ram Chapagain
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 94-104; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems267

Abstract:
Considering the importance of job satisfaction in teaching, and the ongoing debate regarding the influence of various factors on job satisfaction, this study identifies the status of job satisfaction and examines the influence of institutional sector and demographic factors on job satisfaction among Nepalese academicians. The study sample comprised 156 academicians from different higher-level educational institutions in Nepal, and the data were collected through structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, independent-samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that Nepalese academicians are moderately satisfied with their job, in which intrinsic factors appear stronger than extrinsic factors. The findings also demonstrated that the institutional sector, in favor of public institutions, and academic qualification influence job satisfaction but gender, age, and teaching experience do not influence job satisfaction of academicians. Widespread sampling framework, all-inclusive job satisfaction measures, and remarkable findings have made the study unique and potent.
Menik Tri Wahyuni
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 140-148; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems316

Abstract:
Working capital is a very important part of the company. Working capital should always be available enough to be able to provide maximum benefits and the company’s operations can continues. Analysis of source and use of working capital is needed for companies to find out the source of funds and how those fund spent.The purpose of this study is to determine the analysis of sources and uses of working capital of PT Sido Muncul,Tbk in Semarang, and to review the policy of uses working capital of PT Sido Muncul, Tbk in Semarang. This study use dercriptive qualitative method. The result of this research indicate that the source of working capital in 2016 to 2018 is quite good. However, in 2017 and 2018 the use of working capital’s company is greater than the source. In 2016 working capital of PT Sido Muncul was increase Rp55.060.000.000. Whereas in 2017 was decrease Rp158.045.000.000 and in 2018 also decreased Rp241.108.000.000. This is due to the high amount of increase in fixed assets by the company. For investment policies, companies tend to use conservative policies, while for working capital expenditure policies companies tend to use aggressive policies.
Ulul Abror, I Nyoman Sudapet, Hamzah Denny Subagyo, Joko Suyono
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 298-306; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems326

Abstract:
The aim of this study: (1) to analyze the effect of service quality on Patient Satisfaction, (2) to analyze the effect of service quality on Word of Mouth, (3) to analyze patient satisfaction with Word of Mouth. This research is quantitative research. Population and sample distributed were 252 respondents. Data collection techniques using a questionnaire. Analysis of the data used is Convergent Validity, Discriminant Validity, Reliability and Average Variance Extracted (AVE). The results showed that the effect of the Service Quality variable (X1) on patient satisfaction (Y1) was significant at 0,000 and Service Quality (X1) is significant with variable Word of Mouth (Y2) of 0.002 which means medium. Based on the correlation for the Patient Satisfaction variable (Y1) for Word Of Mouth (Y2) of 0,000 which means strong. The results of this study indicate that, quality of service, has a significant influence on patient satisfaction, which leads to word of mouth patients. While patient satisfaction has no significant effect on Word of mouth patients.
Tri Wahyu Putra Susanto, I Nyoman Sudapet, Hamzah Denny Subagyo, Joko Suyono
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 288-297; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems325

Abstract:
The aim of this study: (1) to analyze the effect of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, (2) to analyze the effect of prices on Customer Satisfaction, (3) to analyze the effect of Service Quality on Repurchase Intention, (4) to analyze the effect of Price on Repurchase Intention, (5) to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction on Repurchase intention. This research is quantitative research. The population and samples were distributed to 86 respondents. Data collection techniques using a questionnaire. The data analysis used is Convergent Validity, Discriminant Validity, Reliability and Average Variance Extracted (AVE). The results of the study show that the influence of Service Quality variable (X1) on Customer Satisfaction (Y1) is significant at 0,000. Customer Quality Variable (X1) is not significant with the Repurchase Intention (Y2) variable of 0.225. Based on the correlation for the Price variable (X2) to customer satisfaction (Y1) of 0.020. And the price variable (X2) is significant with the Repurchase Intention (Y2) variable of 0,000. And the Customer Satisfaction variable (Y1) is significant with the Repurchase Intention (Y2) variable of 0,000. The results of this study indicate that, compared to service quality, Price has a stronger influence on customer satisfaction, which leads to a Buyback Interest.
Rega Irsa Irawan, Sengguruh Nilowardono
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 206-213; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems320

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the effect of innovation, promotion, product quality on consumer loyalty with customer satisfaction as intervening. This research method uses quantitative with OLS analysis tools. The research instrument was a questionnaire with 75 samples of Gastby product consumers. The results of the study prove that Innovation has positive significant effect on consumer satisfaction as evidenced by the results of t value of 4.457 with p-value of 0.00, Innovation has significant positive effect on consumer loyalty as evidenced by the results of t value of 8.897 with p-value amounting to 0,000, promotion does not have a significant positive effect on customer satisfaction t value of 0.421 with a p-value of 0.674, promotion does not have a significant positive effect on consumer loyalty as evidenced by the result of t of 1,277 with a p-value of 0,202, quality the product has significant positive effect on customer satisfaction as evidenced by the results of t table (1.666) and p-value smaller than 0.05, product quality has significant positive effect on loyalty consumer as evidenced by the results of this value greater than t table (1.666 ) and p-value is smaller than 0.05 consumer power has an effect on consumer loyalty as evidenced by the results of t value of 4.689 with a p-value of 0.00.
Nur Alifah Istiqomah, Elok Damayanti
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 149-157; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems317

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the influence of incentives and motivation on the performance of employee of PT. Tozy Santosa Surabaya. This research is quantitative research. Population and sample based on questionnaire distribution to the employees of PT. Tozy Sentosa Surabaya was taken 63 respondents. Data collection techniques used interviews, observation and questionnaires. The data analysis used reliability test, validity test, classic assumption test and multiple linear analysis test. The results of the study, incentives and motivations simultaneously and partially significantly influence the employee performance of PT. Tozy Santosa Surabaya with significance value
Pius U. Angioha, Rose U. Agba, Beauty U. Kenneth, Eno U. Ishie
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 158-162; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems275

Abstract:
The study specifically examines the correlation between remuneration and the effectiveness of employees in commercial banks in cross river state, adopting a survey method, data was collected from 232 participants employed by five commercial banks in cross river state. The participants were selected using the proportional stratified and simple random sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire was adopted to elicit the required information for the study. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. out of the 232 distributed questionnaires, 213 was returned and used for analysis. Result revealed a correlation between remuneration and the effectiveness of employees in commercial banks in cross river state. From the analysis 21.8 per cent of the variance in the effectiveness of bank's employees is accounted for by remuneration. The study concludes that bank the management of banks need to take into cognizance the economic situation in the country and improve on the take-home package of their employees.
Irriene Indah Susanti, Fahmizan Rimawan
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 345–354-345–354; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems324

Abstract:
The development of Depok-Antasari Toll road construction was delayed by the work on the implementation of land work of 30.70% from the original plan presentation so that The initially planned time was completed in August 2019 extended to be completed in December 2019. In this study will analyze the acceleration of completion duration on The construction project of Depok–Antasari Toll road with an alternative to the number of heavy equipment. The purpose of this research is to know the cost of project that is physical and duration of time is faster by using the alternative. The results of the analysis was obtained that total project cost under normal conditions is IDR. 9,860,552,249.00 with the duration of project execution 130 working days. In the condition after accelerated with the addition of the number of heavy equipment alternative– 1 obtained a fee of Rp. 10,030,638,486.00 or more expensive 1.02% of the project cost in normal conditions and duration Project execution of 109 business days or faster 21 days from the normal duration. While the total cost of the project in the alternative condition–2 obtained Rp. 10,153,918,103.00 or more expensive 1.04% of the project cost under normal conditions and duration of project execution 104 days or faster 26 days from the normal duration. It can concluded that the acceleration of work by alternative method-1 is a more effective and economical acceleration alternative, because By applying an alternate acceleration–1. The duration of project work is faster than normal circumstances and does not experience a delay of employment from the planned time of 120 days. And the total budget cost of the project is cheaper compared to the alternative acceleration method-2.
A. M. Ogaboh Agba, T. A. Omang, C. N. Enukoha, Felix O. Eteng
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 129-139; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems282

Abstract:
The study examined the relationship between performance-based incentives and employees’ productivity in commercial organizations in Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigates the links between performance-based incentives such as promotions, bonus, recognition and employees’ productivity. Expectancy theory was used to situate the study. Descriptive survey design that allows for the use of questionnaire as quantitative tool was adopted as well as in the selection of respondents from commercial organizations. Quantitative data were analyzed using multi-variance analysis. It was revealed that performance-based promotion, performance-based bonus, performance-based recognition significantly influence productivity of employees in commercial organizations. The study further reveals a joint relationship between the predictor variables (performance-based promotion, bonus, recognition) and productivity of employees. It was recommended among others that promotion policies in commercial organizations should be transparent and fair. Management of these entities should make personnel policies that outline key performance indicators and their relationship to internal promotions, bonuses and wages.
Himza Fadhilah Putri Wulandari
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 85-93; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems315

Abstract:
Every company established has a goal to gain profits and maximize wealth to shareholders. The purpose of this study is to analyze method of Economic Value Added as a measure of financial performance assessment at PT. Campina Ice Cream Industry Tbk. Method used in this study a Qualitative Descriptive approach. Data source in this study uses secondary data form of financial statements PT. Campina Ice Cream Industry Tbk in 2016-2018. Analysis data technique used is method of Economic Value Added. Economic Value Added shows the measurement of extent to which company has value added to owners of company in a given year or period. The results of this study can be concluded that Economic Value Added (EVA) at PT.Campina Ice Cream Industry Tbk in 2016 worth Rp. (3.656.510.875) and in 2017 valued at Rp. (2.473.733.162) so that it produces a negative Economic Value Added or> 0 which can be said that the company financial performance is not good. However, in 2018 company achieved scores. Economic Value Added
Rahman Olanrewaju Raji
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 72-84; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems269

Abstract:
This paper explores the asymmetric nexus between financial inclusion, financial efficiency and financial stability, within asymmetric and symmetric Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) framework, covering the period from 2003 to 2018, using quarterly data in Nigeria. The findings showed that symmetric technique of econometric test detects, that financial stability is augmented by better improvement in financial inclusion in short-run, while asymmetric technique observed that short-run positive effect, and negative effect likewise long-run decrease in this index heightened the level of financial stability in this economy. This study further found trade-off existence, between financial efficiency and financial stability in both symmetric and asymmetric techniques of econometric tests, which is consistent with some empirical findings. The results based on the model and empirical data indicate that, the monetary authority needs to follow prudent and adequate supervisory standard in pursuing financial inclusion, financial intermediaries should be accompanied with good institutional quality, including financial awareness that should be enhanced through financial teachings in all sectors both in the urban and rural areas of the economy.
Neema Gasper Mariwa, Garba Betchem, Isaac Amankwaa Adu, Minkah Yaw Andrews
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 27-35; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems247

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of spiritual leadership on employees’ turnover intention by assessing the role of quality of work life as a mediating role and organizational climate as a moderator. This study identifies and examines, using a cross-sectional survey research design, the empirical support for two alternative model – a direct effect model and an indirect effect model of the likely effect of spiritual leadership on employee turnover intention, mediated by quality of work life and organizational climate as moderator on hotel employees of Tanzania. The results of this study showed the inverse relationship of spiritual leadership and turnover intention mediated by quality of work life. In addition organizational climate moderated the effect of quality of work life on turnover intention such that the relationship was stronger when organizational climate was high. The findings from this work adds to the existing literature and provide hotel managers with knowledge on the effects of spiritual leadership on turnover intention of employees. This is an original practical examination and its significance partly comes from its research implications and practice implications.
Pooja Dangol
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 13-26; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems119

Abstract:
The general objective of the study is to determine the role of performance appraisal and its impact on employee. The study is guided by the following specific objectives: to establish the extent to which performance appraisal process affects employee motivation, to determine the extent to which appraisers affect staff motivation and to determine the challenges in appraising employee performance. The study adopted descriptive research design. The population of interest consists of 120 employees of Service Industry in Nepal. Data is collected using structured questionnaires and additional qualitative data is collected using the reference from the questionnaire and the objectives of the study. The data is analysed using statistical tools such as frequency distribution, percentages and Pearson correlations. Data is presented using tables and charts. The research findings suggest that regular assessment of performance leads to employee motivation. Performance appraisal rating can be considered as a technique that has a positive effect on work performance and employee motivation. Employees may be motivated if the appraisal process is based on accurate and current job descriptions. On the challenges of performance appraisal on employee motivation established that some managers tend to be liberal or strict in their rating of staff which may affect the employees’ motivation. The manager’s ability to address the skills gaps can have a significant impact on the employee’s motivation. Regular ratings may affect the performance and motivation of the employees. Fair assessment of the employee’s performance may enhance their motivation.
Louis Sevitenyi Nkwatoh, Kekere Sule Ibrahim
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 36-46; doi:10.35877/454ri.qems251

Abstract:
This study investigated the macroeconomic effect of refugee inflow on West African Countries using a panel vector autoregressive approach over the period 1992 to 2018. Our results provide evidence that a positive refugee shock induces a positive effect on GDP per capita, government consumption and labour force. On the other hand, the effect of a shock to refugee exerts a negative effect on the fiscal balance of host Countries. The overall result from the variance decomposition indicates that refugees prefer to migrate to Countries with better economic activities as reflected by the GDP per capita and labour supply, even though the magnitude of contribution of refugees to economic activities is small and significant only in the short run. Hence, refugees do not constitute an economic burden to West African States, but however induce a negative effect on their fiscal balance via extra budgetary expenditure. This calls for a global response to refugee crisis with respect to its fiscal implication on host Countries. This may go a long way in averting another circle of crisis because refugees often exacerbate the worsening economic and social problems of host Countries, leading to increase in government consumption.
Yusniar Rasjid, Zulkifli Rais, A. Bida Purnamasari, Rusdianto
Mattawang: Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat, Volume 2, pp 19-22; doi:10.35877/454ri.mattawang307

Abstract:
The purpose of this activity is to seek to develop skills and abilities in the manufacture of liquid organic fertilizers as an effort to reduce environmental pollution caused by household waste and industrial waste. Lack of skills in making organic liquid fertilizer from household waste for students is the driving force for the implementation of this training activity. For this reason, this activity will provide training on how to make liquid organic fertilizer from household waste and rotten fruits. The results achieved were in the form of knowledge and skills on how to make organic liquid fertilizer from household waste and rotten fruits by involving students at school. This can be seen from the results of the participants' independent work in producing the final product in the form of liquid organic fertilizer. These students' skills can be seen from the results of independent work in forming attractive and beautiful horticulture plants. The results of the activity are also in the form of enthusiasm and enthusiasm of the students/training participants which can be seen from the presence of the participants and interest in the practice of making organic liquid fertilizer from waste. Abstrak: Tujuan kegiatan ini yaitu hendak mengupayakan pengembangan keterampilan dan kemampuan dalam pembuatan pupuk organik cair sebagai upaya mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan akibat limbah rumah tangga dan limbah industri. Kurangnya keterampilan dalam membuat pupuk cair organik dari limbah rumah tangga bagi siswa menjadi pendorong pelaksanaan kegiatan pelatihan ini. Untuk itu, kegiatan ini akan memberikan pelatihan cara pembuatan pupuk organik cair dari limbah yang berasal dari rumah tangga dan buah-buahan yang busuk. Hasil yang dicapai berupa pengetahuan dan keterampilan cara membuat pupuk cair organik dari limbah rumah tangga dan buah-buahan busuk dengan melibatkan siswa-siswa di sekolah. Hal tersebut tampak dari hasil kerja mandiri peserta dalam menghasilkan produk akhir berupa pupuk organik cair. Keterampilan siswa tersebut tampak dari hasil kerja mandiri dalam membentuk tanaman vertikultur yang menarik dan indah. Hasil kegiatan juga berupa antusiasme dan semangat siswa/ peserta pelatihan yang tampak dari kehadiran peserta dan ketertarikan dalam praktek pembuatan pupuk cair organik dari limbah.
A. Sry Iryani, Agustina Deka Minggu Bali
Mattawang: Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat, Volume 2, pp 27-35; doi:10.35877/454ri.mattawang204

Abstract:
Chili is one of the most important foods for traditional Indonesian food. One of the chilies that have a very high Scoville rating from Toraja Utara and Tana Toraja is Cabe Bakul or Lada Katokkon. This chili is different from other peppers ranging from the shape that resembles a pabrika but the size is small, it is sweet taste turned hot and good smelled. . The disadvantage of this chili is the condition of chilies that have a very high water content so it is easy to rot and wrestle so that the price quickly goes down and sometimes thrown away. To avoid the problem, the team proposes to process chili into a product but does not change the taste, color, and smell. This activity helps the chili farmers to process their crops into processed products that have higher economic value. There are two types of products produced are Chili powder (Bon Cabe) and sauce. Chili sauce is made there are four variants of flavors are: original, onion, terasi, and fish. Through this training, the farmer group partners can cultivate the harvest and its products can compete in the Toraja market and outside Toraja. Abstrak Cabe merupakan salah satu makanan terpenting untuk makanan tradisional Indonesia. Salah satu cabai yang memiliki rating Scoville sangat tinggi dari Toraja Utara dan Tana Toraja adalah Cabe Bakul atau Cabe Katokkon. Cabe ini berbeda dengan cabe lainnya mulai dari bentuknya yang menyerupai pabrika namun ukurannya kecil, rasanya manis berubah menjadi panas dan harum. Kekurangan dari cabe ini adalah kondisi buah cabe yang memiliki kandungan air yang sangat tinggi sehingga mudah membusuk dan bergelut sehingga harganya cepat turun dan kadang dibuang begitu saja. Untuk menghindari masalah tersebut, tim mengusulkan untuk mengolah cabe menjadi sebuah produk namun tidak merubah rasa, warna dan baunya. Kegiatan ini membantu petani cabe mengolah hasil panennya menjadi produk olahan yang memiliki nilai ekonomi lebih tinggi. Ada dua jenis produk yang dihasilkan yaitu bubuk cabe (Bon Cabe) dan saos. Kuah sambal yang dibuat ada empat varian rasa yaitu: original, bawang, terasi dan ikan. Melalui pelatihan ini para mitra kelompok tani dapat membudidayakan hasil panen dan produknya dapat bersaing di pasar Toraja dan luar Toraja.
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