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Hayat Raheem Khan
Published: 29 January 2021
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 35; doi:10.35380/sugar.035.04.0164

Abstract:
During the year 2008, DSM screen having slot size 0.7mm installed at mill house for screening of mixed juice and DSM screen with slot size 0.35mm working for screening of clear juice were replaced by two rotary screens of 0.5mm slot size for mixed juice and 0.2mm slot size for clear juice. after initial operational difficulties both the screens worked satisfactorily, not only clarity of clear juice increased but bagacillo particle in juices decreased which resulted less scale formation in juice heaters, evaporator tubes and back liner of continuous centrifugal. Also, e-circulation/ overflow of juice at the 2 mills was considerably reduced, resulting in improved mill working.
Muhammad Iqbal Javaid
Published: 29 January 2021
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 35; doi:10.35380/sugar.035.04.0166

Abstract:
Traditionally, all imbibition juices were screened through perforated sheets and cush cush was conveyed by scraper conveyor cum elevator ahead of mill # 2 in the tandem. With the introduction of DSM screens for the screening of mixed juice, the screening of imbibition juices was also discontinued and these juices were pumped directly along with cush cush through chockless pumps. At Shahtaj, we started screening of imbibition juices which proved to be a great success. In this case study, the advantages / benefits of new adopted system shall be discussed.
Mohammad Abul Kalam Azad, Mohammed Imam Hossion
Published: 29 January 2021
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 35; doi:10.35380/sugar.035.04.0165

Abstract:
A field trial was conducted on sugarcane genotype /clones against sugarcane smut disease (Ustilago Scitaminea) at Bangladesh sugarcane Research Institute (BSRI) farm, Ishurdi, Pubna during the cropping season 2010 -11 for plant cane. Forty-seven clones were inoculated by I g smut teliospore/liter of water equivalent to 105 -106 spore /ml, for 30 minutes mixed with tween 20 for the inoculation of smut spore by dipping method. Among them 32 clones were (R) resistant ,6 Clones were (MR) moderately Resistant, 6 were (MS) Moderately susceptible,2 were (S) Susceptible and only one clone 15-08 highly susceptible found to sugarcane smut disease.
Zulfqar Waseem Malik, Zia Ul Hussnain
Published: 17 August 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 35; doi:10.35380/sugar.035.02.0159

Abstract:
Climatic changes are the main concerns of varying crop yields nowadays. The world has reached where it will start a journey towards deterioration. Sustainable production will ensure food security in days to come. Sugarcane is considered a major crop for sugar as well as bio-fuel production in the world. Environmental changes have severely affected the cane production worldwide especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, poor forecasting systems and mitigating strategies. The changing rainfall patterns (Monsoon season) during July to September due to climate change may result in water stress induced by drought although harvesting efficiency is expected to increase. These studies also expound on the mitigation and adaptation strategies that can be employed in the sugarcane industry as a way of reducing losses in sugarcane production. This will also help to know how cane production is affected due to extreme environmental changes in Pakistan.
Chandan Kumar Mahapatra, Tamalika Bhadra, Swapan Kumar Paul
Published: 17 August 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 35; doi:10.35380/sugar.035.02.0160

Abstract:
Sugar is an important source of energy for the human body although it receives blame for many health problems, without it, the body would cease to function properly. Nearby thirty percent of the world sugar comes from sugar beet. Production of sugar beet globally spans diverse regions with a wide range of climatic and agro-ecological regions which shows exclusive management challenges. Fertilizer or nutrient management is one of the practices that associate with fertilizer use efficiency and production of the crops including sugar beet. As the nutrient management interacts with different agro-ecological areas and soils, the fertilizer recommendations and management have become regional and site-specific. Maximizing beet and sugar yields, the knowledge of the management of the fertilizers or nutrition is very essential. This article is to understand the impact of different fertilizers in different management practices including the major nutrients of the crop, fertilizer rate, timing, and method of application either solely or in a mixture or integrated manner with reviewing diverse research experiments. Moreover, it will help to approach future strategies and needs for making the production of sugar beet as a cost-effective crop with new improving management technologies for the farmers.
Tanveer Ul Ul Islam
Published: 17 August 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 35; doi:10.35380/sugar.035.02.0157

Abstract:
Exergy analysis has sparked interest within the scientific community to require a more in-depth check up on the energy conversation devices. Exergy analysis gives entropy generation, irreversibility percentage exergy loss and second law efficiency. The exergy loss or irreversibility is the maximum at boiler. Thus to know about actual flow of exergy in the cycle thermodynamic analysis based on second law is desirable. In this report exergy analysis of operating condition of boiler has been carried out based on mass and exergy balance. The power plant boiler was simulated based on the measured operating data and the thermodynamic states of the plant components. . It has been found that maximum exergy destruction occurs due to combustion process. Exergy efficiency of boiler according to second law analysis and the exergy analysis of back pressure steam turbine is performed. It is found that at minimum flue gas outlet temperature second law efficiency is the maximum.
Muhammad Awais Qureshi, Shahid Afghan
Published: 17 August 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 35; doi:10.35380/sugar.035.02.0158

Abstract:
The small sugar industry can afford to idle along using Research and development (R & D) produced (and paid for) by other sugar industries but when it is big with world standards it's a different matter. This study was important because Pakistan is 5th largest producer of sugarcane but it still lacks major advancement in production and marketing. The largest producers are Brazil, India, Thailand, China, and Pakistan accounting for more than 70% of world production. Brazil has the highest area (5.34 million hectares) while Australia has the highest productivity a n d s u g a r c a n e y i e l d (85 tons per hectare). Sugarcane is the second largest cash crop of Pakistan and is being cultivated on 1.06 million hectares with 55 t ha cane yield and sugar yield of 5.5 t ha, contributing around 3.6 % of Gross domestic production. The installed capacity of 85 sugar factories is to produce 7.5 million tons of refined sugar and domestic demand is around 4.5 million tons. This shows it’s export potential of 3.5 million tons, annually.
, Arshad Mehmood, Waqas Raza Arshad, Khalid Mehmood
Published: 28 January 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.04.0150

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted in Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI) Faisalabad during 20172018 and 2018-2019 cropping seasons to find out the effect of different irrigation levels on growth and yield parameters of five sugarcane clones. Sugarcane is a tropical crop with C4 Photosynthetic metabolism. Due to irrigation water shortages, water stress is common in sugarcane. Major Responses of drought in sugarcane is leaf rolling. Stomatal Closure inhibition of stalk and leaf growth, leaf senescence and reduced leaf area (due to its phenomenal dry matter production capacity) are other symptoms of water stress.
, Areeba Tehreem
Published: 28 January 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.04.0149

Abstract:
Loss of sucrose in final molasses is a major financial loss to a sugar factory; all efforts are to be made to curtail this loss. The apparent purity concept is unable to quantify the degree of molasses exhaustion but the Target Purity Formula can be used as bench mark to fulfill this purpose. Target Purity formula is a function of mono saccharides and inorganic components. A number of Target Purity Formulas have been presented in the past. Thirty tests of analysis of molasses exhaustion were collected from various sugar mills of the country in three years. All available Target Purity Formula applied on these tests to find an appropriate formula which can be used to quantify the exhaustion of final molasses for our country. Evaluating some of the Target Purity Formulas, a new formula is being planted (40.86-14.60 log Rs/A) and checked against all thirty tests analysis of final molasses exhaustion and found suitable for our country.
, Amjad Pervez, Syed Muzaffar Ahmed, Hina Zaffar
Published: 28 January 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.04.0151

Abstract:
Sugarcane crop is heavily damaged by a complex of rodent species and wild boar. The damaged sugarcane becomes infested with microorganisms and other physiological stresses, resulting in reduction of weight and sugar recovery. In this regard a study was carried out to know the damage caused by rodents to four varieties of sugar cane grown at Thatta. In these studies maximum damage by rodents was observed to BL-4 (10.29±0.44%) variety followed by BL-129 (10.23±0.35) and Thatta-10 (7.31±0.22%) in the month of November. To manage the vertebrate pests Integrated Pest Management approach was tested and the pest management model is designed for its adoption by the sugarcane growers after research and practical studies. In these studies egg mixed brodifacoum bait proved the most promising one in achieving (92.55±0.55%) rat reduction followed by bromdiolone (89.87±0.6%) and Zinc Phosphide bait (84.10±1.00%). Paraffinized Zinc Phosphide Capsular Technology used to kill wild boar population proved very successful by reducing the activity upto 98.11 Percent on the fifth day. The proposed model is a combination of mechanical, chemical and habitat manipulation approaches, which will help to enhance the crop yield through minimizing pest infestation.
Waqas Raza Arshad, Muhammad Ehsan Khan, Zaheer Aslam
Published: 8 January 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 12-15; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.03.0147

Abstract:
Sugarcane is the crop that have the quality to sprout after its first harvesting, phenomenon known as ratooning. Among all other major crops, sugarcane ratooning is widely acceptable to farmers of the Punjab. The more the tillers grew, the higher are the chances of a greater number of stalks to be harvested. It is proven that more the number of stalks, the thinner is the diameter, finally results in more stalks and high production. Similarly, higher number of canes produce favorable ratoon. In this experiment, performance of Seven promising sugarcane varieties/clones along with the check variety CPF-246, were tested for their ratoon ability capacity at farmer’s field at Toba Tek Singh during the year 2017-18. It has been found that one of the varieties S2008-FD-19 produced that maximum ratoon yield, U2003-US-633 produced the maximum sugar recovery and S2003-US-133 produced maximum number of mill able canes. The observing of the current analysis also revealed that S2003-US-633 and S2003-US-133 have significant potential for boom sugar recovery through breeding programs and by improving the production techniques.
Mohammad Sarfaraz Khan
Published: 8 January 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 04-11; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.03.0146

Abstract:
The term Sugar cane byproduct comprises primarily on bagasse, Molasses & Press mud. However, their contribution would be more or less 30, 5 & 3 % on cane respectively. While, cumulative reflection remains 37– 38%. Principally, byproducts contribute to curtail cost of production to measurable & even survival extent. Amongst all, bagasse due to their 30% larger share has greater opportunity is utilized as prime byproduct to reduce cost with energy efficiency. By & large, bagasse itself utilize to generate power production on cheapest cost as compared to other sources of fuel. Currently, country – wide sugar industry, utilized bagasse to generate power @ 10 - 12 KG/KWH for self-generation. However, Cogeneration can reduce its consumption to 5 KG/KWH which is tremendous opportunity for sugar industry to make it proficient (Its Cogen mode steam consumption of extraction – condensing turbines having parameters 110 bar/ 540 Celsius with power output of 31.2 MW consumed steam at 5 Kg/KWH) With latest techniques steam consumption can be reduced from conventional 50 to 36 – 42% on cane. In order to focus potential opportunities to save bagasse or energy, five distinct areas i.e. a) Mill house Electrification, b) Installation of FFE with integrated vapor distribution, c) capacity utilization, d) Milling equipment & finally e) Plant automation significantly contributes towards optimization with justified pay back.
, Warda Muzaffar, Waqas Raza Arshad
Published: 8 January 2020
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 16-22; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.03.0148

Abstract:
Topographical areas better adapted for sugar cane cultivation must be identified and preserved, for this study Indus valley river delta in South Punjab represents promising features for prosperous sugarcane cultivation (lower water pumping costs due to higher water tables, sugarcane being flood resistant crop in Pakistan. Eight sugarcane varieties and eight promising clones were grown on different locations in Punjab at farmer’s field using RCBD with three replications. The objective of this study is to evaluate varieties under different ecological zones. These clones were tested for their proficiency at four different locations during 2018-19. The “Thal” and Southern Punjab viz; 142/TDA Lalazar Layyah, Indus Sugar mills Rajanpur, Ashraf Sugar Mills Bahawalpur and Adam Sugar Mills Chishtian. The data on germination %, tillers / plants, Number of mill able canes, canes yield tones/ ha and commercial cane sugar (CCS) were recorded during the course of study. It is obvious from pooled mean of four locations that cane yield of clone S2002-US-133 gave 84.13 % higher cane yield as compared the check variety CPF 248 as far as CCS% is concerned, sugarcane clones S200-US-633 and S200-US-133 gave the higher sugar recovery that is 15.31 % & 15.23 % respectively more than check variety. Whereas S200-US-658 and HSF240 have the lowest CCS% 1.22 & 1.14 % less than check.
Muhammad Sarwar
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 27-31; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.02.0143

Abstract:
The performance of promising varieties was compared with already released. The varieties trail was conducted at four different sites in Punjab, it is an essential component of sugarcane research and thus provides an important basis of recommendations to growers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate promising varieties under different ecological zones. Seven sugarcane promising and two commercial clones were evaluated. These clones were tested for their performance at four locations during Feb-March-2017 in “Thal” and South Punjab viz; Karampur Mailsi, Layyah, Alipur and Khanpur. The trials were conducted at farmer’s field using RCBD with three replications. The data on germination%, Tillers/Plant, number of mill able cane, cane yield t/ha and commercial cane sugar% (CCS) were recorded during the course of study. Overall, pooled mean of four locations indicate that cane yield of clone S2003-US-127 produced statistically higher significant 124.64 t/ha cane yield as compared HSF-240 that produced statistically lower yield i.e. 103.14 t/ha. The Brix% of overall mean of four locations results S2003-US-633 was statistically significant i.e. 24.47% and Brix% of overall mean of four locations results S2008-AUS-134 was statistically lower i.e. 19.38%.
Ghulam Muhiyuddin Kaloi, Ali Hassan Mari, Naimatullah Bughio, Salahuddin Junejo, Riaz Noor Panhwar, Muhammad Abbas Bhutto, Muhammad Aslam Rajput, Samia Arain
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 33-40; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.02.0144

Abstract:
Ten hybrid exotic sugar beet varieties were tested under four locations in southern-zone of Sindh during 2009-10. Experiments was in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated thrice. Seeds were planted on top of the ridges by using 2-3 seeds per hole. Plant to plant and row to row space was maintained at 20 and 100 cm, respectively. Nitrogen (120 kg ha-1) and phosphorus (100 kg ha-1) applied in the form of Urea and DAP, while the potassium was excluded completely. The values of physico-chemical properties of experimental soils were in a wide range. The soils were slightly alkaline in nature (pH 7.68-8.46) with 1.66-8.78 dSm-1 EC, 3.62-7.84 ppm available phosphorus, 128-364 ppm available potassium, 5.50-60.54 meq L-1 exchangeable sodium, 11-51.4 meq L-1 soluble calcium + magnesium. The textural class was clay-clay loam. The germination (74 %) was higher at location Hussainy Agricultural Farm Matiari. The yield was higher at NSTHRI Thatta, Ramesh Agricultural Farm Sujawal and Hussainy Agricultural Farm Matiari, all were statistically at par (60.41 to 62.57 t ha-1). The sugar recovery was higher (14.44 %) at RAF Sujawal. Among varieties, the germination percent was statistically at par for all varieties (67.26-70.75 %) except the Esteban and California (66.25-66.76 %). The higher sugar beet yield (64.03 t ha-1) was noted in SD-12970, however the varieties Sandrina, SD-PAK 07/07 and SD-PAK 09/07 were statistical at par with the variety SD-12970. Maximum sugar recovery of 13.88 % was noted in SD-PAK 07/07. The varieties Antek, SD-PAK 04/06 and SD-PAK 09/07 were statistically likewise with SD-PAK 07/07. The growth performance of Antek, California, SD12970, SD-PAK 09/07 and SD-PAK 07/07 found better under climatic condition of southern-zone of Sinsh
, Areeba Tehreem
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 23-26; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.02.0142

Abstract:
Production of sparkling white sugar crystal is always prime target of a Production Manager while handling a sugar factory. In order to make good quality sugar PM has to concentrate over many factors which may disturb the color and quality of sugar during processing which includes, in coming color in cane itself, coloring in cane juice due to decomposition of its constituents, coloration due to iron salts, formation of color due to non-sugar reactions, coloration due to high temperature and storage of sugar bags. Precautions and practical steps to produce good quality sugar are included in the paper as supply of fresh and quality cane, proper beating and scrapping of all vessels before start of every cane crushing season, temperature control and proper storage of sugar bags in godown etc.
Muhammad Chohan
Published: 25 March 2019
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 15-22; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.01.0141

Abstract:
Increasing demand of bioenergy, sugar and other byproducts make sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum) very important and valuable crop in world. It is growing on the many diversified agroecological zones of 120 countries of the world. Brazil, India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Mexico, Colombia, Indonesia, Philippines, and USA (number wise from area and production) are top ten sugarcane producing countries in the world. But yield production per hectare of these countries is ranged from 56-86 t ha-1 is much lower than the achievable potential 100-130 t ha-1. Amongst many other factors responsible for lowering the yield, change in environment is now growing a major factor. It is very difficult to increase area for sugarcane so efforts are made to increase the yield production at the same cultivated area, the per hectare yield production must be improved by adapting modern technologies suited for changing environment. The global warming is increasing due to change in environment by the increasing emission of green house gases. Sugarcane is sensitive for climatic parameters such as temperature, rainfall, sunlight and soil. The research indicated that global temperature will increased from 3-5oC in the end of 21st century. The enormous human activities are cause to accelerate the changing in our ecosystem with low or high rainfall, temperature, severity of pests pressure, unavailability of pollination services, decrease soil fertility, alter the water use efficiencies and crop behavior. Changes in temperature, rainfall, floods, drought, salinity stresses and frosts have been found major factor for lowering production of sugarcane in Pakistan is highly dependent on natural resources. Obtaining the high cane production with high quality juice in future, it is necessary to develop cane varieties and advanced farm management practices which will suitable under changing environment.
, Syed Muzaffar Ahmad, Syeda Azra Tariq
Published: 25 March 2019
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 11-14; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.01.0140

Abstract:
Sugarcane crop is highly vulnerable to attack by a complex of rodent pest species due to its long duration, providing excellent protective cover for field rats to feed and thrive throughout the year. Damage survey conducted at crop maturity stage (September-November) at Palejo Farm, Thatta revealed that BL-4 variety was heavily attacked due to its softness (10.40%) followed by BF-129 variety (8.63%) and least affected was Thatta-10 variety (6.62%). Rat damaged cane become further infested with other micro-organism and physical stress, resulting in reduction in weight and sugar recovery. Rodent control trials through application of PARC Rat bait formulations containing Zinc Phosphide (2%), Bromadiolone (0.005%) and Brodifacoum (0.005%) alongwith additive (Egg 3%) showed remarkable reduction in pest population. Brodifacoum mixed bait emerged as highly effective formulation showing 92.63% reduction in pest population followed by Bromadiolone bait (89.02%) and Zinc phosphide bait (83.54%). For effective management of field rodents, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach is recommended with combination of mechanical, chemical and habitat manipulation practice to enhance the crop yield through effective rat pest management.
Muhammad Sharif Tahir, Muhammad Waseem Irshad
Published: 25 March 2019
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 04-10; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.01.0139

Abstract:
There are numerous well-documented phenomena that plague the efficient operation of bagasse boilers. Key Parameters that influence boiler combustion and operation are studied with the aid of combustion and flue gas analyzer. Combustion stability and efficiency is linked to various parameters such as fuel moisture and air temperatures supplied to the boiler and are investigated in this paper as part of a case study. The paper highlights number of modern developments that have been implemented at Shakarganj Limited, Jhang to optimize the existing boiler design to enhance the Boiler capacity from 65 tph to 80 tph. Along with that impact of various devices on performance improvement of boiler has been shown with experimental data for comprehensive evaluation of boiler operation and combustion efficiency. Results of suitable measures after installation of low cost retrofits to reduce losses including combustion instabilities, unburnt fuel, moisture in fuel and deposition of ash on tubes are also part of the paper.
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