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Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.04.0150
An experiment was conducted in Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI) Faisalabad during 20172018 and 2018-2019 cropping seasons to find out the effect of different irrigation levels on growth and yield parameters of five sugarcane clones. Sugarcane is a tropical crop with C4 Photosynthetic metabolism. Due to irrigation water shortages, water stress is common in sugarcane. Major Responses of drought in sugarcane is leaf rolling. Stomatal Closure inhibition of stalk and leaf growth, leaf senescence and reduced leaf area (due to its phenomenal dry matter production capacity) are other symptoms of water stress.
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.04.0151
Sugarcane crop is heavily damaged by a complex of rodent species and wild boar. The damaged sugarcane becomes infested with microorganisms and other physiological stresses, resulting in reduction of weight and sugar recovery. In this regard a study was carried out to know the damage caused by rodents to four varieties of sugar cane grown at Thatta. In these studies maximum damage by rodents was observed to BL-4 (10.29±0.44%) variety followed by BL-129 (10.23±0.35) and Thatta-10 (7.31±0.22%) in the month of November. To manage the vertebrate pests Integrated Pest Management approach was tested and the pest management model is designed for its adoption by the sugarcane growers after research and practical studies. In these studies egg mixed brodifacoum bait proved the most promising one in achieving (92.55±0.55%) rat reduction followed by bromdiolone (89.87±0.6%) and Zinc Phosphide bait (84.10±1.00%). Paraffinized Zinc Phosphide Capsular Technology used to kill wild boar population proved very successful by reducing the activity upto 98.11 Percent on the fifth day. The proposed model is a combination of mechanical, chemical and habitat manipulation approaches, which will help to enhance the crop yield through minimizing pest infestation.
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.04.0149
Loss of sucrose in final molasses is a major financial loss to a sugar factory; all efforts are to be made to curtail this loss. The apparent purity concept is unable to quantify the degree of molasses exhaustion but the Target Purity Formula can be used as bench mark to fulfill this purpose. Target Purity formula is a function of mono saccharides and inorganic components. A number of Target Purity Formulas have been presented in the past. Thirty tests of analysis of molasses exhaustion were collected from various sugar mills of the country in three years. All available Target Purity Formula applied on these tests to find an appropriate formula which can be used to quantify the exhaustion of final molasses for our country. Evaluating some of the Target Purity Formulas, a new formula is being planted (40.86-14.60 log Rs/A) and checked against all thirty tests analysis of final molasses exhaustion and found suitable for our country.
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 04-11; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.03.0146
The term Sugar cane byproduct comprises primarily on bagasse, Molasses & Press mud. However, their contribution would be more or less 30, 5 & 3 % on cane respectively. While, cumulative reflection remains 37– 38%. Principally, byproducts contribute to curtail cost of production to measurable & even survival extent. Amongst all, bagasse due to their 30% larger share has greater opportunity is utilized as prime byproduct to reduce cost with energy efficiency. By & large, bagasse itself utilize to generate power production on cheapest cost as compared to other sources of fuel. Currently, country – wide sugar industry, utilized bagasse to generate power @ 10 - 12 KG/KWH for self-generation. However, Cogeneration can reduce its consumption to 5 KG/KWH which is tremendous opportunity for sugar industry to make it proficient (Its Cogen mode steam consumption of extraction – condensing turbines having parameters 110 bar/ 540 Celsius with power output of 31.2 MW consumed steam at 5 Kg/KWH) With latest techniques steam consumption can be reduced from conventional 50 to 36 – 42% on cane. In order to focus potential opportunities to save bagasse or energy, five distinct areas i.e. a) Mill house Electrification, b) Installation of FFE with integrated vapor distribution, c) capacity utilization, d) Milling equipment & finally e) Plant automation significantly contributes towards optimization with justified pay back.
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 12-15; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.03.0147
Sugarcane is the crop that have the quality to sprout after its first harvesting, phenomenon known as ratooning. Among all other major crops, sugarcane ratooning is widely acceptable to farmers of the Punjab. The more the tillers grew, the higher are the chances of a greater number of stalks to be harvested. It is proven that more the number of stalks, the thinner is the diameter, finally results in more stalks and high production. Similarly, higher number of canes produce favorable ratoon. In this experiment, performance of Seven promising sugarcane varieties/clones along with the check variety CPF-246, were tested for their ratoon ability capacity at farmer’s field at Toba Tek Singh during the year 2017-18. It has been found that one of the varieties S2008-FD-19 produced that maximum ratoon yield, U2003-US-633 produced the maximum sugar recovery and S2003-US-133 produced maximum number of mill able canes. The observing of the current analysis also revealed that S2003-US-633 and S2003-US-133 have significant potential for boom sugar recovery through breeding programs and by improving the production techniques.
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 16-22; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.03.0148
Topographical areas better adapted for sugar cane cultivation must be identified and preserved, for this study Indus valley river delta in South Punjab represents promising features for prosperous sugarcane cultivation (lower water pumping costs due to higher water tables, sugarcane being flood resistant crop in Pakistan. Eight sugarcane varieties and eight promising clones were grown on different locations in Punjab at farmer’s field using RCBD with three replications. The objective of this study is to evaluate varieties under different ecological zones. These clones were tested for their proficiency at four different locations during 2018-19. The “Thal” and Southern Punjab viz; 142/TDA Lalazar Layyah, Indus Sugar mills Rajanpur, Ashraf Sugar Mills Bahawalpur and Adam Sugar Mills Chishtian. The data on germination %, tillers / plants, Number of mill able canes, canes yield tones/ ha and commercial cane sugar (CCS) were recorded during the course of study. It is obvious from pooled mean of four locations that cane yield of clone S2002-US-133 gave 84.13 % higher cane yield as compared the check variety CPF 248 as far as CCS% is concerned, sugarcane clones S200-US-633 and S200-US-133 gave the higher sugar recovery that is 15.31 % & 15.23 % respectively more than check variety. Whereas S200-US-658 and HSF240 have the lowest CCS% 1.22 & 1.14 % less than check.
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 23-26; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.02.0142
Production of sparkling white sugar crystal is always prime target of a Production Manager while handling a sugar factory. In order to make good quality sugar PM has to concentrate over many factors which may disturb the color and quality of sugar during processing which includes, in coming color in cane itself, coloring in cane juice due to decomposition of its constituents, coloration due to iron salts, formation of color due to non-sugar reactions, coloration due to high temperature and storage of sugar bags. Precautions and practical steps to produce good quality sugar are included in the paper as supply of fresh and quality cane, proper beating and scrapping of all vessels before start of every cane crushing season, temperature control and proper storage of sugar bags in godown etc.
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 33-40; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.02.0144
Ten hybrid exotic sugar beet varieties were tested under four locations in southern-zone of Sindh during 2009-10. Experiments was in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated thrice. Seeds were planted on top of the ridges by using 2-3 seeds per hole. Plant to plant and row to row space was maintained at 20 and 100 cm, respectively. Nitrogen (120 kg ha-1) and phosphorus (100 kg ha-1) applied in the form of Urea and DAP, while the potassium was excluded completely. The values of physico-chemical properties of experimental soils were in a wide range. The soils were slightly alkaline in nature (pH 7.68-8.46) with 1.66-8.78 dSm-1 EC, 3.62-7.84 ppm available phosphorus, 128-364 ppm available potassium, 5.50-60.54 meq L-1 exchangeable sodium, 11-51.4 meq L-1 soluble calcium + magnesium. The textural class was clay-clay loam. The germination (74 %) was higher at location Hussainy Agricultural Farm Matiari. The yield was higher at NSTHRI Thatta, Ramesh Agricultural Farm Sujawal and Hussainy Agricultural Farm Matiari, all were statistically at par (60.41 to 62.57 t ha-1). The sugar recovery was higher (14.44 %) at RAF Sujawal. Among varieties, the germination percent was statistically at par for all varieties (67.26-70.75 %) except the Esteban and California (66.25-66.76 %). The higher sugar beet yield (64.03 t ha-1) was noted in SD-12970, however the varieties Sandrina, SD-PAK 07/07 and SD-PAK 09/07 were statistical at par with the variety SD-12970. Maximum sugar recovery of 13.88 % was noted in SD-PAK 07/07. The varieties Antek, SD-PAK 04/06 and SD-PAK 09/07 were statistically likewise with SD-PAK 07/07. The growth performance of Antek, California, SD12970, SD-PAK 09/07 and SD-PAK 07/07 found better under climatic condition of southern-zone of Sinsh
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 27-31; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.02.0143
The performance of promising varieties was compared with already released. The varieties trail was conducted at four different sites in Punjab, it is an essential component of sugarcane research and thus provides an important basis of recommendations to growers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate promising varieties under different ecological zones. Seven sugarcane promising and two commercial clones were evaluated. These clones were tested for their performance at four locations during Feb-March-2017 in “Thal” and South Punjab viz; Karampur Mailsi, Layyah, Alipur and Khanpur. The trials were conducted at farmer’s field using RCBD with three replications. The data on germination%, Tillers/Plant, number of mill able cane, cane yield t/ha and commercial cane sugar% (CCS) were recorded during the course of study. Overall, pooled mean of four locations indicate that cane yield of clone S2003-US-127 produced statistically higher significant 124.64 t/ha cane yield as compared HSF-240 that produced statistically lower yield i.e. 103.14 t/ha. The Brix% of overall mean of four locations results S2003-US-633 was statistically significant i.e. 24.47% and Brix% of overall mean of four locations results S2008-AUS-134 was statistically lower i.e. 19.38%.
Pakistan Sugar Journal, Volume 34, pp 04-10; doi:10.35380/sugar.034.01.0139
There are numerous well-documented phenomena that plague the efficient operation of bagasse boilers. Key Parameters that influence boiler combustion and operation are studied with the aid of combustion and flue gas analyzer. Combustion stability and efficiency is linked to various parameters such as fuel moisture and air temperatures supplied to the boiler and are investigated in this paper as part of a case study. The paper highlights number of modern developments that have been implemented at Shakarganj Limited, Jhang to optimize the existing boiler design to enhance the Boiler capacity from 65 tph to 80 tph. Along with that impact of various devices on performance improvement of boiler has been shown with experimental data for comprehensive evaluation of boiler operation and combustion efficiency. Results of suitable measures after installation of low cost retrofits to reduce losses including combustion instabilities, unburnt fuel, moisture in fuel and deposition of ash on tubes are also part of the paper.