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Noraishah Mydin Abdul-Aziz
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 149-149; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i2.149

Abstract:
In December of 2002, the Malaysian government sent one very highly opinionated individual with spina bifida to do her PhD on her medical condition at University College London (UCL). Truth be told, in retrospect, during the phone interview with Professor Andrew J. Copp, this particular Malaysian student was not aware that her would-be PhD supervisor at that time most likely may not have considered the extent of the severity of her disability and the extent of having to deal with an individual with needs, different from other postgraduate students. UCL and England, being champions of equal opportunity, the focus during the London-Kuala Lumpur phone interview was entirely on her laboratory experience. The individual knew one thing and one thing alone, that she wanted to be regarded as capable purely on the basis of her academic abilities, and keenness on the topic and that she knew she had a huge plus on her side, that the Malaysian government would finance her studies (being of Bumiputera status by virtue of her mother's ethnicity) and having passed all the relevant exams and that all she needed to do was to make the case to procure a PhD studentship from a top global university.
Prachi Khandekar, Shweta Shenoy, Abhinav Sathe
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 146-146; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i2.146

Abstract:
The neurophysiological response to exercise on cognition is modulated through chemical pathways which involve several neurotrophic factors and the sex of the individual determines this effect. We examined sex differences in the concentration of neural growth factors (NGF); brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin like growth factor-I (IGF- I) in response to acute high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE). We also evaluated the relationship of NGF with gonadal hormones before and after the HIIE session. Forty healthy young adults (22 males and 18 females) performed HIIE (4 bouts of 4 minutes at 90–95% HR max with 3min active recovery at 70% HRmax). Venous blood was drawn before and immediately after the exercise session and was analyzed for the concentration of serum BDNF, VEGF, IGF-I, cortisol, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone, using ELISA method. A significant sex difference (p<0.05) was observed for BDNF concentration in response to HIIE and a significant increase was found in males but not in females. A significant (p<0.005) positive correlation of BDNF with FSH and LH and a significant (p<0.05) negative correlation of BDNF and VEGF with testosterone were found. Other NGFs (VEGF and IGF-I) did not show sex differences in response to HIIE. In conclusion, a single session of HIIE increases the serum concentration of BDNF in males and IGF-I in females and the response of NGF is different in males and females.
Sayali Chandrashekhar Deolankar, Shashanka G Koyangana, Arun H Patil, Yashwanth Subbannayya, Prashant Kumar Modi, T S Keshava Prasad
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 153-153; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i2.153

Abstract:
This article describes the data obtained for global post-translational modifications (PTMs) profiled for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) from two distinct human brain regions and one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample. The PTM profiling was performed to identify phosphorylation, O-GluNAcetylation, methylation, acetylation and citrullination using three publicly available LC-MS/MS raw data sets (PRIDE ID: PXD004010, PXD002516, PXD004863). A total of 1,857 PTM harbouring proteins with 4,961 unique post-translationally modified peptides were identified. Among the modified peptides, 75 corresponded uniquely to proteins identified from CSF samples. The data is related to the research article "Dissecting Alzheimer's disease molecular substrates by proteomics and discovery of novel post-translational modifications (PTMs)".
Phanindra Prasad Poudel, Chacchu Bhattarai, Arnab Ghosh, Sneha Guruprasad Kalthur
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 125-125; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i2.125

Abstract:
Granule cells in the cerebellum are derived by the proliferation of cells from the rhombic lips of the metencephalon. Atonal homolog 1 (ATOH1), a protein encoding proneural gene, plays an essential role in the neurogenesis of the cerebellar granule cells. It encodes the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factor ATOH1. Expression of the ATOH1 gene in the rhombic lips of the metencephalon results in specification and proliferation of the granule neuron progenitors. Four major signaling pathways- Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Notch, Wingless related integration site (Wnt) and Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) play an essential role in the regulation of the ATOH1 gene. Shh, Notch and Wnt signalings induce expression of the ATOH1 gene for the proliferation of the granule neuron progenitors whereas BMP signaling is involved in the differentiation of the granule neuron progenitors into the granule cells. Aberrant expression and mutation of the ATOH1 gene result in cerebellar medulloblastoma, the phenotype of trembling gait, cerebellar ataxia and hearing loss.
, , Gantsetseg Tumur-Ochir, Elena Belovol
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 100-100; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i2.100

Abstract:
Communication via the sense of touch has long been perceived as an important aspect of human development, social comfort, and well-being. Human somatosensory system has in fact two tactile sub-modalities, one providing the well-recognized discriminative touch input to the brain, and the second–the affective or emotional input. C-tactile system is hypothesized to represent the neurobiological substrate for affective and rewarding properties of touch. Lower relationship quality is associated with lower resilience to stressors and can lead to increased vulnerability to mental health disorders. Based on the existing work, we know that social touch can increase well-being and lower state-anxiety. Our goal was to prove content validity for the Mongolian version with the factor structure of the original English version of the TEAQ. We translated, and adapted TEAQ for Mongolian language version. Original TEAQ-117 items were used in the pilot study. In the present study, enrolled 204 participants, age varied between 18 and 57 years (26.9±8.8), 57.8% were female. Validated TEAQ-57 items English version was used, and Exploratory factor analysis confirmed 55 items with 6 component structure. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good consistency and homogeneity of the 6 factor structure of the TEAQ, and satisfactory model fit. Several subscales of the TEAQ revealed positive correlations on quality of life domains, in contrast negative correlations with anxiety and depression. In conclusion, analysed Mongolian version of the TEAQ-55 is a reliable and valid assessment tool of experiences and attitudes towards touch, and similar to component structure for different cultures (Validated British TEAQ-57, and TEAQ-37 RUS). We expected that Mongolian version of the TEAQ might be a helpful tool for screening mental health issues and researchers.
Wael Mohamed, Shahedah Koya Kutty, Akram Khedher, Indranath Chatterjee
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 126-126; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i1.126

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the digital health system. Healthcare organizations want to give medical treatment to individuals who live a great distance away. As a result, they are emphasizing the creation of bespoke telemedicine apps. The number of individuals using telemedicine apps is increasing significantly. Increasing technology gives patients healthcare resources. This has been made feasible via a new telemedicine system and by developing a telemedicine app. Patients can use several technologies to communicate with healthcare professionals. For comfort and privacy, you can employ live visual media. The creation of telemedicine apps is the most attractive and practical investment. With the growing availability and usage of technology in PD, the focus of these technologies is gradually turning toward the disease's vast spectrum of Non-Motor Symptoms (NMS). The nature of NMS makes them difficult to objectively measure, further development and building on experience gained in other conditions may still result in NMS capture that is feasible. Although it is impossible to offer recommendations for the use of digital technology outcomes for NMS in clinical practise based on currently available data, evidence for these devices is evolving, and such guidance may become accessible in the not-too-distant future. To our knowledge, this is the first telemedicine method of its sort to address cognition as one of the NMS in Malay PD patients. The project will be done on two consecutive phases (1 year each); Phase1 aims to develop the Dementia Coach Mobile App, and Phase2 aims to validation of this app by using PD patients sample from SASMEC. Therefore, we hypothesize that developing a friendly mobile app to assess dementia for PD patients is highly beneficial and could be used for diagnosis of NMS in PD patients.
Singh Nivrenjeet, Siti Waheeda Mohd-Zin, Singh Nisheljeet, Abu Bakar Azizi, Kamalanathan Palaniandy, Mohd Firdaus-Raih, Mohd Hisam Muhamad Ariffin, Nicholas Daniel Edward Greene, Noraishah Mydin Abdul-Aziz
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 132-132; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i1.132

Abstract:
The occurrence of neuroinflammation after the failure of neural tube closure, resulting in spina bifida aperta, is well established but whether or not neuroinflammation contributes to damage to the neuroepithelium prior to and during closure is not known. Neuroinflammation may occur at different time periods after perturbation to the developing spinal cord. Evidence suggests that early neuroinflammation is detrimental, whereas the later chronic phase of neuroinflammation may have useful roles. The role of neuroinflammation in neural tube defects is complex. It is important to make the distinction of whether neuroinflammation is important for neuroprotection or detrimental to the neural tissue. This may directly be influenced by the location, magnitude and duration of the insult, as well as the expression of neurotrophic or neurotoxic molecules. The current understanding remains that the chronic damage to the developing spinal cord is likely due to the chemical and mechanical damage of the exposed neural tissue owing to the aggressive intrauterine environment, described as the “two-hit mechanism”. Astrogliosis in the exposed spinal cord has been described in animal models of spina bifida after the failure of closure during embryonic life. Still, its association with neuroinflammatory processes is poorly understood. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of neuroinflammation in neural tube defects, specifically spina bifida, and highlight inflammation-targeted strategies that may potentially be used to treat this pathophysiological condition.
Nur Shahirah Md Nor, Nurul Hashimah Ahamed Hassain Malim, Nur Aqilah Paskhal Rostam, J Joshua Thomas, Mohamad Azmeer Effendy, Zurina Hassan
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 116-116; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i1.116

Abstract:
Analysing and processing the EEG dataset is crucial. Countless actions have been taken to ensure that the researcher in brain studies always achieves informative data and produces notable findings. There are several standard procedures to produce an informative result in analysing the EEG data. However, the techniques used in each standard procedure might be different for the researcher or data analyst because they have their preferences to suit the purpose of their experiments to adapt with the dataset collected. Not only the current manual method is time-consuming, but the main challenges are that researchers need to analyse only a small portion of the brain signals that are the most relevant to be observed through the analysis of several bands such as Very low, Delta, Theta, Alpha-1, Alpha-2, Beta-1, Beta-2, and Gamma. Therefore, one of the best alternatives is to automate the process of classifying the eight bands and extract the most relevant features. Hence, this paper proposed an automated classification method and feature extraction method through hybridising Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with three different machine learning methods (KNN, SVM, and ANN) that can improve the efficiency of EEG analysis. Based on the result, the FFT + SVM method gives a 100% accuracy and successfully classified the bands into different of eight EEG bands accurately.
Nurul Bayti Binti Sumardi, Hui Ying Jong, Aini Ismafairus Abd Hamid
Published: 10 February 2022
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 113-113; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i1.113

Abstract:
This study investigates (a) whether there is a functional neural activation at the frontal and temporal brain regions during the comprehension of Malay relative clause (RC), and (b) the differences in the activated areas among native (L1) and non-native (L2) Malay language speakers. The subject relative clause (SRC), object relative clause (ORC), and subject-verb-object (SVO) were used as the study stimuli. Participants were asked to do a sentence-picture matching task during an fMRI measurement. The random-effect analysis (RFX) using two-way ANOVA was conducted for the fMRI data. The main effect of the group at the puncorrected< 0.001, cluster size > 20 voxels found that the comprehension of Malay relative clauses had activated frontal and temporal brain regions in L1 and L2. The multiple comparisons of L1>L2 showed a significant difference left-lateralised in the temporo-parietal region. While for L2>L1, the significant activations were indicated as distributed to the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions that lateralised to the right hemisphere. Conclusions: The findings suggested that the comprehension of Malay relative clauses had caused the activation at different brain regions amongst L1 and L2 groups. It was also found that both L1 and L2 groups showed their preference in SRC, the mean reaction time showed that they had a faster reaction time to comprehend SRC than ORC. The findings from this study can also be applied in clinical language intervention, and it is expected to benefit children and adults with speech and language disorders.
May-Yi Koh, Si-Bao Khor, Kheng-Seang Lim, Si-Lei Fong, Wei-Zhen Low, Li-Ling Yeap, Chong-Tin Tan
Published: 7 February 2022
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 5, pp 109-109; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i1.109

Abstract:
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage were reported in Europe, the United States of America and monoethnic Asian countries such as Korea and Taiwan. However, limited literature is available on the variability of CAM usage patterns among people with epilepsy (PWE) in a multi-racial country in particular Malaysia. This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence, types, predictors and impact of CAM use among adult PWE and their adherence to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) treatment.140 patients were recruited, with a median age of 37.5 (IQR,28.0-51.5) years, majority female, had secondary or lower education level, earn
Orgilbayar Ganbat, Oyuntugs Byambasukh, Tserendagva Dalkh, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan
Published: 29 December 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 29-32; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i4.112

Abstract:
There is no specific treatment for concussion in modern medicine; existing treatments are limited to resting and restoring cognition. For Mongolians, seeking concussion treatment from a bariachi, an advanced practitioner of the baria zasal traditional massage therapy, is very common. The baria zasal technique has been passed down the generations for millions of years, keeping with the Mongolian nomadic culture and way of life. However, this Mongolian treatment is little known or researched internationally. Due to the lack of literature on this subject, conducting a meta-analysis or systematic review was impossible. We reviewed the literature published in Mongolian about this technique. We also searched articles published from 1 January 1921 to 20 June 2021 in PubMed using "concussion", "baria zasal", and "Bariachi" keywords. Although informal observation indicates this is a commonly sought treatment among patients, there are very few published scientific articles about the practice outside the realm of cultural anthropology. This may be due to a few reasons: the informal, semi-religious setting in which the treatment takes place makes it difficult to conduct scientific field research; concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury, making it impossible to identify changes in the brain as a result of the treatment using imaging methods and therefore difficult to verify; and lastly, baria zasal is generally uncontested as a treatment even by Mongolian medical professionals, therefore it has not been the subject of empirical debate. Moreover, it is not classified under a specific system, each bariachi having its technique. As bariachis do not receive formal training, their treatments often depend on instincts, natural talents, and personal abilities. Therefore, it is recommended to study the techniques of baria zasal of concussion to explain its enduring popularity in Mongolia and to ascertain how it interacts with standard western medical treatment.
Aida Abdul Rashid, Subapriya Suppiah, Nisha Syed Nasser, Hamed Sharifat, Mazlyfarina Mohamad, Jia Ling Loh, Buhari Ibrahim, Nur Shahidatul Nabila Ibrahim, Nur Hafizah Mohad Azmi, Ezamin Abdul Rahim, et al.
Published: 27 December 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 19-28; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i4.107

Abstract:
The characteristics of smartphone addiction (SPA) can be evaluated by neuroimaging studies. Information on the brain structural alterations, and effects on psychosocial wellbeing, however, have not been concurrently evaluated. The aim of this study was to identify abnormalities in gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and neuronal functional alterations using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) in emerging adults with SPA. We correlated the neuroimaging parameters with indices for psychosocial wellbeing such as depression, anxiety, stress, and impulsivity. Forty participants (20 SPA and 20 age-matched healthy controls) were assessed using VBM and rs-fMRI. The smartphone addiction scale – Malay version (SAS-M) questionnaire scores were used to categorize the SPA and healthy control groups. DASS-21 and BIS-11 questionnaires were used to assess for psychosocial wellbeing and impulsivity, respectively. VBM identified the SPA group to have reduced gray matter volume in the insula and precentral gyrus; and increased grey matter volume in the precuneus relative to controls. Moderate correlation was observed between the precuneus volume and the SAS-M scores. Individuals with SPA showed significant rs-fMRI activations in the precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex (FWE uncorrected, p<0.001). The severity of SPA was correlated with depression. Anxiety score was moderately correlated with reduced GMV at the precentral gyrus. Collectively, these results can be used to postulate that the structural and neuronal functional changes in the insula are linked to the neurobiology of SPA that shares similarities with other behavioural addictions.
Urangoo Ganbaatar, Oyuntuya Gantulga, Puntsagdulam Byambajav, Maralgua Och, Ganjargal Ganburged, Tsolmon Jadamba, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan, Oyuntugs Byambasukh
Published: 18 December 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i4.88

Abstract:
Cognitive impairment is common in elderly people, so it is considered an ageing disorder. However, cognitive decline, including dementia, can also occur in middle-aged people. Cognitive impairment is associated with multiple risk factors. We hypothesised that tooth loss might also be a potential risk factor among Mongolians, as oral health problems are one of the significant health issues in Mongolia, especially in middle-aged people. In this cross-sectional study, we used the baseline data from the Mon-Timeline cohort study, including people older than 40 years of age (n=279). The amount of tooth loss was assessed by a trained researcher. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was defined as those participants scoring a total of £ 24 points based on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Unadjusted analysis showed that having more tooth loss (>10) increased the risk of MCI by an odds ratio of 3.03 (1.49-6.17), as compared with having less tooth loss (£10). Even after adjusting for covariates, the association remained significant, suggesting that tooth loss is associated with MCI risk, independent of age, education, and other socioeconomic factors. There was no significant interaction effect of age in the association between tooth loss and MMSE scores. In conclusion, tooth loss may play a role in developing cognitive decline, especially in the early onset of dementia. Further studies are needed to investigate whether early tooth loss at younger ages is associated with dementia, especially among middle-aged people.
Battuvshin Lkhagvasuren, Jambaldorj Jamiyansuren
Published: 30 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 70-74; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.143

Abstract:
"What is the origin of the mind?", "What is the organ of intelligence?" The first answers to these questions trace to the scripts of ancient Sumeria and Egypt. It took almost 4000 years to understand that the brain is the main organ that controls other organs. The dawn of modern neuroscience lay in the 1890s when the pioneering works of Camillo Golgi and Ramon Cajal invented the structure of the nervous system using microscope techniques. Cajal's neuron doctrine, which hypothesizes that the functional unit of the brain is the neuron, has become the main concept that explains the mind and body interactions.
Praveen Prakash, Chandana Shivaiah, Abishek Umashankar, Prashanth Prabhu
Published: 8 December 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i4.110

Abstract:
The human circadian rhythmicity is an internal biological clock mechanism that enables them to effectively perform tasks during a particular time of the day, due to which they exhibit diurnal effects. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire classifies individuals as definitely morning, moderately morning, intermediate, moderately evening, and definitely evening type individuals based on their active performance during different times of the day. Literature show variations in visual, memory, audition, and other cognitive tasks throughout the day in every individual. The current study aimed to document the diurnal effects on auditory working memory, a phenomenon crucial for learning and academic outcomes and holds its role in various clinical and research fields. Thirty-two participants were enrolled (21 females and 11 males) and were classified based on the morningness-eveningness questionnaire. The Auditory Working Memory tests were carried out during the morning and evening for all the participants. Based on a parametric paired t-test, results reveal no significant differences between morning time and evening time across moderately morning, intermediate, and moderately evening groups implying that working memory is a higher-order function that shows no or negligible diurnal effects, unlike other lower-order functions like temporal processing of auditory signals.
Batbayar Munkhbaatar, Amarbayasgalant Badarch, Amarbayar Munkhjargal, Ulemjjargal Ganzorig, Choinyam Bayarmunkh, Enkhjin Bat-Erdene, Enkhnaran Tumurbaatar, Sumberzul Nyamjav, Damdindorj Boldbaatar, Battuvshin Lkhagvasuren
Published: 30 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 65-69; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.130

Abstract:
In 2021, the Mongolian Neuroscience Society (MNS), together with the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences (MNUMS), organized two events: The 8th Annual Meeting of the Mongolian Neuroscience Society themed as "Multidisciplinary Brain Science 2021" and the IBRO-APRC Ulaanbaatar Associate School on Fundamental Techniques in Neuroscience. Multidisciplinary Brain Science 2021 aimed to bring together scientists with brain science-related backgrounds under an umbrella meeting consisting of educational lectures and academic connections. It was held with 14 invited lecturers and 20 speakers for two days virtually from August 13 to 14, 2021. The meeting was streamed live on social media, which brought together 2.6K online viewers. The goal of the IBRO-APRC Associate School on Fundamental Techniques in Neuroscience was to enable students to understand the theoretical and practical fundamentals of neuroscience. This virtual school was formed by 20 students and 16 faculty members from 5 countries. The students participated in lectures, technical talks, interactive discussions, and hands-on sessions on responsible conduct of research in neuroscience with a high neuroethical standard during the 6-day program. The events were a great success, offering a unique opportunity for the participants to get updated with current advances in brain science by global and regional experts in neuroscience and facilitate academic collaborations.
, Enkhjin Bat-Erdene, Otgontuya Duurenjargal, Myagmartseren Erbat, Tsolmontuya Amartuvshin, Myagmartseren Dashtseren, Gantsetseg Tumur-Ochir, , Oka Takakazu, , et al.
Published: 30 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 55-64; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.102

Abstract:
Improving knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19 is critical to control the infection rate of the pandemic successfully. Mongolia declared a state of emergency in January 2020 but no study was performed on public adherence to centralised measures and awareness of the pandemic in Mongolia. This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 in the general population, especially regarding the extent to which KAP has contributed to the control measures before local COVID-19 outbreaks. The study was conducted between July and October 2020, when the pandemic was limited to internationally imported cases. We adapted a structured KAP questionnaire that was used to survey residents of Wuhan, China, during the initial outbreak of the pandemic. Participants aged between 13 and 65 years (n=1324, mean age=39.79±14.8), 73.2% were women, and 27.2% held a bachelor's degree or above. The results suggested that 81.9% of the participants had sufficient knowledge about the transmission, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of the disease. In the multiple linear regression, an increase in age and education contributed positively to a high knowledge score (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively). The majority of the participants (96.2% - 96.5%) had compliance with the measures to control COVID-19 spread with good practices (82.4% - 93.1%) toward COVID-19 prevention. In the binary logistic regression analyses, the COVID-19 knowledge score was associated with a higher likelihood of optimistic attitudes and preventive practices (OR: 0.617 - 0.845). In conclusion, despite the sufficient knowledge toward the COVID-19 pandemic among the general population of Mongolia, a relatively low level of optimistic attitudes and appropriate practices compared to other populations may negatively impact preventing the outbreak in the society. Health education programs aimed at improving COVID-19 knowledge will be helpful to minimise local epidemic growth and the current government measures such as lockdowns, quarantines, and travel restrictions.
Oyunaa Chimedregzen, Sarangerel Jambal, Munkhbayar Rentsenbat, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan
Published: 30 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 47-54; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.96

Abstract:
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare neuromuscular disorder. Till now, there are no studies on the prevalence and incidence of MG in Mongolia. The current study aimed to elucidate the incidence of MG in Ulaanbaatar, the age of onset, and the gender distribution of Mongolian patients with MG. We conducted a cross-sectional, hospital-based study involving MG patients (n=48) all around Ulaanbaatar from 1 January 2015 to 1 January 2020. The clinical diagnosis was assessed with the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) classification system. The disease severity was evaluated by using Osserman’s classification. The diagnosis was confirmed with serological and electrophysiological tests. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. A total of 30 patients with MG were registered for the last five years in Ulaanbaatar. The average annual incidence of MG in Ulaanbaatar was 0.65 per 100,000 populations (95%CI 0.26-1.34), 0.60 in males (95%CI 0.25-1.28), and 0.69 in females (95%CI 0.33-1.46). The cumulative incidence in the study period was 3.2 per 100,000 populations. The ratio of males to females was 1:1,3. The median age for onset of MG was 33 years (ranging from 27 to 46 years); 43.3% of patients had ocular and 56.7% generalized symptoms at the disease onset. Only 23.3% of patients remained with purely ocular symptoms (Osserman I stage). The average incidence of MG between 2015 and 2020 was 6,5 per 1.000.000 population, and the annual incidence was relatively stable. Although ocular and generalized symptoms were observed each in about half of the cases, only one-fourth remained with pure ocular signs at the end of the review period.
Munkhkhand Jurmeddorj, Otgonbaatar Dondonkhuu, Naranbaatar Nyam, Ariunaa Damdinsuren, Aldarmaa Tundevrentsen
Published: 30 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 40-46; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.87

Abstract:
COVID-19 pandemic has created a lot of work stress, especially among medical professionals, namely among nurses. The absence of the non-invasive stress detecting method using salivary alpha-amylase test in Mongolia served us to perform this study. We consider that the nurse immunization could be managed and boosted if the work stress is detected, and it would serve as the prevention method from the infections in the clinical settings. The study aims to investigate the stress level among medical professionals, particularly the nurses, using a self-report questionnaire, work stress profile, and salivary alpha-amylase during the initial period of the COVID pandemic. In the mid of March 2020, 356 professional medical nurses from three national tertiary centres of Mongolia were involved in this study. We employed a Work Stress Profile (WSP), a self-administered questionnaire that assists the personnel to identify their perceived stressors and assessing the stress at work. As the physical stress marker, we measured the saliva alpha-amylase level in these participants. The vital signs, heart rate, glucose and blood pressure were measured. The correlation method was used. There were 344 females and 12 males. The participants' mean age was 38±9.6 years old. The stress among the medical professionals was high by WSP - it was counted 342 or 96.1% of the personnel suffering from the stress at work: the WSP average was 151.49±26.81. However, age, education and work experience could influence stress at a certain level. The salivary alpha-amylase and WSP scores were correlated directly (p<0.01; r=0.187). The pulse, diastolic blood pressure and salivary alpha-amylase were interrelated. As one of the important personnel at the hospital, nurses are at high risk to get stressed in Mongolia. We concluded that the overloading of work leads to work stress among professional medical nurses, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.
, Tetsuya Hiramoto, Gantsetseg Tumur-Ochir, , , Tsolmon Jadamba,
Published: 30 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 30-39; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.101

Abstract:
Various psychological, biological, and social factors make people vulnerable to mental health problems. These precursory factors as mental distress, are not sufficient alone for diagnosing a mental disorder but are recognised as risks to mental health. There has been no screening tool available in Mongolia that is adequately validated for mental health screening and neuropsychiatric functions of the brain. Therefore, we aimed to translate and validate the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) to identify potential mental distress in healthy people. The HADS is reliable, valid, and practical for identifying the most common psychological disturbances. This nationwide comparative observational study for the validity of a self-reported measure was conducted between June and December 2020. One thousand ninety-four participants were randomly selected, aged 13-75, mean age was 37.7±13.7 years old, 60.9% were females, 63.9% were married. HADS total score was 13.0±5.7, HADS anxiety (HADS-A) score was 6.8±3.6, and HADS depression (HADS-D) score was 6.0±3.1 for the original two-factor model. The external reliability was good in the whole scale, and both subscales using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (0.872, 0.837, and 0.801 for the HADS-T, HADS-A, and HADS-D, respectively). Cronbach's alpha value was 0.776, 0.756, and 0.582, respectively, for the HADS-T, HADS-A, and HADS-D, indicating an acceptable internal consistency for the entire scale but marginal reliability for the HADS-D subscale. The reliability of both the two-factor and three-factor structures of the HADS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis with a satisfactory model fit on a separate sample. In conclusion, the Mongolian version of the HADS can be considered a valid and reliable measurement tool for various scientific and clinical practices in the general population.
Abishek Umashankar, Prashanth Prabhu
Published: 30 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 36-43; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i5.105

Abstract:
Stimulating the Vagus nerve helps maintain the autonomic tone, indicating stabilising any hyperactivity in the nervous system. The vagus nerve stimulation is applied in individuals with seizures, depression, sepsis, pain, obesity, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, diabetes, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Auditory neuroscience has been widely applied in individuals with tinnitus and has been demonstrated as a successful neuromodulation technique. Individuals with peripheral lesions of the hair cells induce a maladaptive change in the plasticity resulting in hyperactivity in the auditory and non-auditory structures. In order to reduce this hyperactivity, neuromodulation techniques such as; transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial alternating current stimulation, transcranial random noise stimulation, neurofeedback, epidural and subdural cortical and deep brain stimulation. The vagus nerve stimulation is also one form of neuromodulation technique considered to reduce the symptoms of tinnitus. It is believed that the ramus Auricularis Nervi vagi, an afferent sensory branch of the vagus nerve, innervates the afferent sensory branch of the vagus nerve, the ramus auricularis nervi vagi also innervate the outer ear canal and parts of the auricle. This auricular branch of the vagus nerve also called Arnold's nerve, which gives a projection to the nucleus of the solitary tract. The vagus nerve stimulation in individuals with tinnitus works to activate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve to reduce its symptoms. A similar principle of vagus nerve stimulation can be tried upon in individuals with misophonia. Literatures states that individuals with misophonia have hyperactivity in their non-classical auditory pathway that can be suppressed with the help of vagus nerve stimulation. The article discusses the possible effects of vagus nerve stimulation in individuals with misophonia.
Yusuf Yusha'U, Umar Muhammad Adam, Alhassan Abdul Wahab, Malajiya Ibrahim Alhaji Saleh, Jamilu Ya’U
Published: 26 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 36-50; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3.75

Abstract:
Depression affects over 264 million people of all ages globally. Major depressive disorder significantly and chronically reduced quality of life by its association with functional impairment both at home and in the workplace. Depressive patients consistently complain about cognitive disturbances, significantly exacerbating the burden of this illness. Several studies have shown that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) possesses mitochondrial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, indicating a basis for evaluating the efficacy of ALA in depression. Hence, this research aimed to assess the possible anti-depressant effect of ALA in mice exposed to the open space forced swim test (OSFST) model of depression. Twenty-five (25) Swiss albino mice were grouped into five groups (n=5). Group 1: [Normal saline (NS)], Groups 2, 3 and 4 received graded doses of ALA 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, Group 5 received fluoxetine 20 mg/kg orally. The animals were subjected to OSFST, novel object recognition test (NORT) and Y-maze test. Serotonin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase levels of the mice were assessed. Treatment with ALA and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility time compared to NS group in OSFST (p<0.05). Also, ALA at doses of 200 & 400 mg/kg and fluoxetine 20 mg/kg significantly increased spontaneous alternation ratio in the Y-maze test compared to the normal saline group (p<0.05), however, no significant difference was observed in novel object recognition using NORT between NS, ALA and fluoxetine treated groups. Similarly, the level of serotonin, SOD and catalase were not altered between the ALA and fluoxetine treated groups and NS group. In contrast, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg increased the brain BDNF level of the mice (p<0.05). Alpha-lipoic acid ameliorated depression in the OSFST murine model of depression and improved their cognition. Thus ALA can be a promising candidate in the development of novel anti-depressant medication.
Enkhzaya Batkhuyag, Enkhnaran Tumurbaatar, Battuvshin Lkhagvasuren, Enkh-Uchral Perenleisambuu, Enkhjin Bat-Erdene, Myagmartseren Dashtseren, Otgontuya Duurenjargal, Xihua Zeng, Gantsetseg Tumur-Ochir
Published: 26 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 21-29; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.90

Abstract:
Sleep is a vital component for maintaining good physical and mental health. When sleep is disordered, it can adversely affect an individual's mental and physical wellbeing. Although a variety of single specific disorder measurements are available for specialized clinicians use across the globe, to date, there are no proper screening instruments available for screening multiple sleep disorders at the primary care level. The purpose of this study is to determine the test-retest reliability of the sleep disorder screening questionnaire (SDSQ) for detecting multiple sleep disorders among the Mongolian population. A total of 366 university students were recruited for participation. SDSQ was administrated to all participants on two occasions two weeks apart. The test-retest reliability intra-class correlation (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha of the SDSQ were calculated. The sample consisted of 194 (53%) females, and 172 (47%) males, with a mean age of 21.6. Observed test-retest reliability was ranged from 0.53 to 0.81. The SDSQ was found to have excellent internal consistency with an alpha=0.950. The external validity of SDSQ revealed strong test-retest reliability in the current study population. The discriminant and convergent validity studies are required for the further improvement of the construct of the SDSQ.
Vrinda Jethalia, Sanjana Varada Hasyagar, Kasturi Bhamidipati,
Published: 18 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 23-35; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i5.106

Abstract:
Ayurvedic medications originated centuries ago and are still prevalent today. Saraswatarishta (SWRT) is a well-known ayurvedic formulation that is often prescribed to control the manifestations of neurological illnesses and disorders such as slurred speech, anxiety, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease(AD). However, scientific research on its mode of action has not been studied extensively. Therefore, this study employs network pharmacology to understand better the neuroprotective role of Saraswatarishta (SWRT) in neurological disorders. Out of the 18 ingredients in SWRT, five were considered in this study due to their elevated therapeutic action in neurological disorders. Further, nine active phytoconstituents were chosen from the five selected ingredients. The gene targets of the active phytoconstituents were screened and selected using STITCH, SwissTargetPrediction and ChEMBL. Protein-Protein interaction and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis were carried out using STRING and g:Profiler, respectively. Cytoscape 3.7.2 was used to create three networks-the compound-target, the target-disease and the compound-target-disease network. Molinspiration and admetSAR2.0 were used to obtain the bioactivity scores and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) probability scores. The three networks indicated that all nine phytoconstituents were linked to the gene targets that encode proteins involved in the pathways of 10 major neurological disorders. This includes Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, Huntington disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia, spinocerebellar ataxia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The gene targets were expressed significantly in various central nervous system regions such as the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and amygdala. The bioactivity scores of the phytoconstituents were in the active range along with high BBB probability scores, indicating that the phytoconstituents can potentially cross the BBB and impart therapeutic effects.
Darisuren Namjil, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan,
Published: 16 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 17-20; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.99

Abstract:
Cognitive impairment is commonly associated with older people. It can also occur in middle-aged people due to non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases (non-communicable diseases) has been rapidly increasing in Mongolia. Therefore, we aimed to overview these studies to identify whether the increasing prevalence of non-communicable disease is associated with the risks of cognitive impairment in Mongolians. Published literature between 01 January 1980 and 20 June 2021 were included in the study. We searched articles published in journals registered to PubMed and doctoral and master's dissertations registered in the Central Medical Library of Mongolia using the following keywords: "cognitive impairment", "dementia", "mild cognitive impairment", "Alzheimer", "vascular dementia", “diabetes", "Mongolia", "obesity", "stroke", "hypertension". While there were no internationally published articles in this field, seven studies were either published in local research journals or as doctoral or master’s dissertations. Although few studies have been conducted in Mongolia, people with lifestyle-related conditions such as hypertension and diabetes are strongly associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. The increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases may be one of the factors contributing to the prevalence of vascular cognitive impairment.
Ahmed H. Alsharif, Nor Zafir Salleh, Rohaizat Baharun
Published: 14 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 27-35; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3.79

Abstract:
Neuromarketing (NM) uses neuroscience tools, for example, but not limited to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) to study, explore, analyze, and explain the neural correlates of consumer’s behavior (i.e., decision-making processes), the cognitive processes (i.e., attention and memory) and emotional processes (i.e., emotion) of interest for marketing research (e.g., advertising, brand, product, price). This study analyzes the relevant literature and sheds light on the triune brain of humans, the dimensions of NM such as emotion, attention, and memory. Currently, emotional and cognitive processes have remarkably received attention from academic and industrial environments. Thus, NM presents unrivalled possibilities to record the activity regions in consumers' brains and provide precise information about which neurons are active when consumers are exposed to marketing stimuli. To best our knowledge, this will aid in shaping and understanding the central theme and set the future research directions for the researchers.
, Nor Zafir Salleh, Rohaizat Baharun
Published: 4 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i5.80

Abstract:
In the last two decades, neuromarketing (NM) studies are snowballed because scientists and researchers are looking for understanding the mechanisms of decision-making in the consumer's brain toward marketing stimuli, for example, but not limited to advertising and brands that have not changed overnight. For this purpose, NM research is using state-of-the-art technology to gauge the responses of consumers’ minds to marketing stimuli, which is impossible by traditional marketing methods. In this paper, we have concentrated on neuromarketing tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and eye-tracking (ET). Literature indicates that EEG, fMRI, and ET enable to gauge consumers' neurometrics and biometrics responses; thereby, they provide valuable information about the physiological and mental reactions toward marketing stimuli, which can be used to improve marketing research. Neuromarketing can provide valuable information about consumer behaviour, which is impossible by traditional methods. We hope that this study provides valuable insights into neuromarketing and future directions.
Aida Azlina Mansor, Salmi Mohd Isa, Syaharudin Shah Mohd Noor
Published: 4 September 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3.83

Abstract:
Neuromarketing provides insights into consumers' decision-making that traditional marketing test methods cannot offer. The foundation in the process of decision-making is P300. Thus, the P300 wave is a potential Event-Related Component (ERP) used to measure consumers' decision-making process. The P300 wave represents a positive transition in human event-related potential. Therefore, the P300 is determined by measuring the amplitude and latency of the consumers. A higher P300 amplitude indicates greater confidence in the decision-making process, while a longer P300 latency indicates lower attentiveness. Thus, P300 in neuroscience, which investigates customers' responses in-depth, cannot be accomplished by typical marketing methods. For many years, P300 components such as attitudes, preferences, and information-based decision-making have been examined extensively in marketing-related research. However, a review of an ERP in neuromarketing method is fewer reported. This mini review describes some analysis on P300 and decision-making by several researchers.
Indra Altankhuyag, Agiimaa Byambaa, Anujin Tuvshinjargal, Anar Bayarmunkh, Tsolmon Jadamba, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan,
Published: 30 August 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 8-16; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.97

Abstract:
Mongolia ranks third in the world in stroke-related deaths. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is associated with a higher risk of various metabolic disorders such as stroke. Thus, screening of sarcopenia is important. Hand-grip strength (HGS) can be used to predict sarcopenia in the short term. In this cross-sectional study, we used data (n=1180, mean age of 39.2 ± 15.2 and 33.2% males) from the Mon-Timeline cohort study, a multidisciplinary, prospective, population-based cohort study in Mongolia. A digital grip strength dynamometer (TKK 5401 GRIP D; Takei, Japan) was used to measure HGS. We performed binary logistic regression analysis between HGS and stroke risk. Suspected sarcopenia was defined when HGS is less than the 25th percentile of HGS. In this study, 3.3% of all participants had a stroke. The incidence of stroke was significantly higher (5.2% and 1.9%) in people with suspected sarcopenia. According to body composition, the incidence of stroke was more frequent in sarcopenic obese people: 1.3%, 2.4%, 2.8% and 6.2% in normal (non-obese and non-sarcopenic), sarcopenic (non-obese), obese (non-sarcopenic) and sarcopenic obese groups, respectively. In regression analysis, the OR (95% CI) was 2.84 (1.44; 5.59) for sarcopenic compared with non-sarcopenic. The adjustments for age, gender, education, body mass index, waist circumference and hypertensive status attenuated the associations, but lower HGS remained significantly associated with a higher risk of stroke. In conclusion, lower HGS was significantly associated with a higher risk of stroke independent of adiposity and hypertensive status in Mongolian adults.
Gantuya Gantumur, Munkhbayar Rentsenbat, Sarangerel Jambal, Byambasuren Dagvajantsan
Published: 26 August 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3suppl.98

Abstract:
The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare but severe disorder that affects peripheral nerves and is classified into several subtypes based on clinical presentation and electrophysiological abnormalities. Incidence and predominant subtypes of GBS differ geographically. The diagnosis is made upon clinical features and confirmed by nerve conduction studies (NCSs) which can differentiate subtypes such as demyelinated and axonal. Demyelinating subtypes in Europe and North America and axonal subtypes in Asia are predominant. Electrophysiological subtypes have not been determined in Mongolia. Therefore, we aimed to determine common electrophysiological subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Mongolia. In our study, 75 patients referred to Reflex Neurological Clinic between 2016 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. After excluding the cases by the criteria, patients were classified as demyelinating, axonal, normal and equivocal subtypes based on Hadden criteria. We compared the electrophysiological features of axonal and demyelinating subtypes. SPSS-23 was used for statistical analysis. The results are expressed in averages (standard deviations) and percentages (numbers). The difference between the mean and the group of variables was calculated using the T-test and the Chi-square test. Patients were 44% male (33), and the mean age was 46.4±15.1. There was no significant association between seasonal factors and electrophysiological subtypes. Among 75 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a nerve conduction study was performed in the first week on 36% of patients, 33.3% in the 2nd week, and others in the 3rd-4th week after symptom onset. Electrophysiology subtypes were classified as demyelinating (65.3%), axonal (20%), within the normal range (5.4%) and equivocal (9.3%) based on Hadden criteria. The absence of F-waves on electrophysiological examination was higher in patients within 14 days of the disease onset, whereas non-sensory changes were higher in patients after 14 days. We conclude that acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDP) was the most frequent subtype of GBS in Mongolia.
Muhammad Zulfiqah Sadikan, Nurul Alimah Abdul Nasir, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal
Published: 28 August 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3.74

Abstract:
To evaluate the use of mirror test in an open field arena as a visual function assessment tool in a rodent model of diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into diabetic rats, that received intraperitoneal streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight) for induction of diabetes, and control rats that similarly received citrate buffer. Rats with a blood glucose level of more than 20 mmol/L were considered diabetic. Blood glucose was monitored weekly throughout the experimental period. General behavioural assessment of the rats was done at week 12 post-induction using open field arena, followed by visual-behavioural assessment with mirror and reversed mirror added in the arena. Subsequently, rats were euthanised and subjected to haematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) staining to assess changes in retinal morphology. In the open field test, diabetic rats showed a lesser number of zone crossings (3.73-fold, p<0.001), total distance travelled (2.02-fold, p<0.001), number of rearing episodes (2.22-fold, p<0.001) and number of grooming episodes (4.33-fold, p<0.01) but a greater number of freezing episodes (2.47-fold, p<0.001) and number of the faecal pellet (4.17-fold, p<0.01) compared to control rats. Control rats spent more time with higher zone entries toward mirrored than non-mirrored and reversed mirror zones (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively), whereas diabetic rats showed no preference for zones. Normal rats also showed higher freezing episodes within the mirrored zone compared to diabetic rats (2.00-fold, p<0.05). The retinal morphometry showed significant thinning of various retinal layers in the diabetic group compared to control rats. Visual behavioural activities of diabetic rats in an open field arena with the presence of a mirror could detect the presence of visual loss. Changes in visual functions positively correlated with changes in retinal morphology. Therefore, an open field mirror test could be used as an alternative for assessing visual function in the rodent model of diabetes.
Zurina Hassan, Raghava N. Sriramaneni
Published: 28 August 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3.77

Abstract:
A neurodegenerative disease (ND) is defined as an irreversible disorder in most cases, leading to progressive loss of neurons and intellectual abilities. ND can lead to fatality in most circumstances, and the elderly above the age of sixty-five (65) constitute the major risk category. The most common type of ND includes Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Other NDs are Huntington's disease (HD), motor neuron disease (MND), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and prion disease. ND strikes mainly in the middle to late life incidence expected to rise as the population ages.
, Noraishah Mydin Abdul-Aziz, Norshariza Nordin
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 14-16; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i2.89

Abstract:
Neuroscience Research Notes (ISSN: 2576-828X) was established in 2018 by a group of neuroscientists out of frustration and struggle to pay off any article processing charges for open access publication. Ever since its establishment, the journal has been steered to cater to high quality, short research and technical reports in all aspects of the nervous system. The journal emphasises hypothesis formation, research methodology, data interpretation and conclusion derived from both positive and negative findings, orphaned studies or neglected observations of related research fields. To date, the journal has received 66 submissions, with a 27% rejection rate. The average number of days for an editor to reach the first decision to accept any manuscript for further peer-reviewing is 5-day. However, it takes about 80-98 days (3 months) from submitting an article to final publication or rejection. The timeline of publishing with Neuroscience Research Notes is considered competitive and reasonable in fulfilling authors’ interest in having their research published as soon as possible while safeguarding the sanctity of the scientific peer-reviewing process.
Thaarvena Retinasamy, Mohd. Farooq Shaikh
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 17-20; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i2.81

Abstract:
The US FDA approved Aducanumab in June 2021 as the first Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug under its accelerated approval pathway. It has given some hope to patients suffering from AD around the world. Aducanumab is an antibody that targets one of the well-known key culprits of this disease, known as amyloid-beta (Aβ). The journey of Aducanumab was bumpy, and there are controversies around the rapid approval of this drug AD treatment. This article highlights the potential of Aducanumab in AD, its mode of action and controversies around it.
Kesevan Rajah Kumaran, Habibah Abdul Wahab, Zurina Hassan
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i2.71

Abstract:
Vascular dementia (VaD), is one of the most common types of dementia in the ageing population, initiated by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). At present, effective therapeutic approaches to cure VaD are still missing. Cholinergic system dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) has been recognised as one of the main reasons for learning and memory impairment in VaD patients. Therefore, medications that restore the level of acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter by inhibiting cholinesterase activity were proposed as a potential candidate to treat VaD patients. Permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (POBCCA) surgery method was performed to develop CCH model in rats. The present study evaluated the anti-cholinesterase activity of three Malaysian plant methanol leaf extracts in vitro and further validated its cognitive-enhancing effects in vivo using POBCCA rats. The selected plant extracts were Coccoloba uvifera (stems), Mimusops elengi (leaves) and Syzygium aqueum (leaves). The in vitro anti-cholinesterase activities of these plants were determined using Ellman's method. The effects of selected plant extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) on learning and memory functions were evaluated using a series of behavioural tests. All the selected plant extracts exhibited good anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities in vitro, with IC50 ranging from 3.67 to 16.04 and 5.6 to 13.95 µg/mL, respectively. Extracts of S. aqueum (200 mg/kg) improve both short- and long-term recognition memories, whereas M. elengi and S. aqueum (200 mg/kg) extracts improve spatial learning. None of the extracts impaired motor and exploratory functions in POBCCA rats. In conclusion, methanol extracts of C. uvifera, M. elengi and S. aqueum showed good anti-cholinesterase activity in vitro. However, only M. elengi and S. aqueum improve learning and memory function in POBCCA rats.
Tamara Hummadi,
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 4-12; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i5.68

Abstract:
Brain-computer interface's (BCI) potential applications increased tremendously over the past decade. The rising of this new technology is providing promising solutions in the field of aerospace and space exploration. As astronauts face diverse challenges in long-duration spaceflight, BCI can help astronauts deal with complicated tasks with a minimal mental workload. It may provide intelligent communication systems, maximize safety and security, facilitate space discovery missions, and enhance astronauts' overall health and wellbeing. In new ventures such as SpaceX, Starlink, and Neuralink, pioneers adopt futuristic strategies that use BCI as their main anchor. Such efforts are valuable in neuroscience as they will reveal information that will allow neuroscientists to deeper understand the brain's mechanisms.
Shahidee Zainal Abidin, Han-Chung Lee, Syahril Abdullah, Norshariza Nordin, Pike-See Cheah, King-Hwa Ling
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i1.62

Abstract:
MicroRNA-3099 (miR-3099) plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal differentiation and development of the central nervous system (CNS). The miR-3099 is a pro-neuronal miRNA that promotes neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) differentiation into neuronal lineage by suppressing astrogliogenesis. Down syndrome (DS) brain exhibited increased astrogliogenesis and reduced neuronal cell density. The involvement of miR-3099 in the neurodevelopment of DS has not been investigated and potentially responsible for the neurogenic-to-gliogenic shift phenomenon observed in DS brain. To investigate the role of miR-3099 during DS brain development, neural/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, we profiled miR-3099 expression level in the Ts1Cje, a mouse model for DS. We analysed the Ts1Cje whole brain at embryonic day (E) 10.5, E14.5 and P1.5, proliferating neurospheres and differentiating neurospheres at 3, 9 and 15 days in vitro (DIV). Expression of miR-3099 in both the developing mouse brain and the differentiating neurosphere was not significantly different between Ts1Cje and wild type controls. In contrast, the expression level of miR-3099 was significantly higher (p
Usman Garkuwa, Buhari Ibrahim, Aisha Balanmalam, Sayyadatu Muhammad, Mustapha Muazu, Hassan Garkuwa, Adamu Yakubu
Published: 26 February 2021
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 4, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i1.60

Abstract:
Curcuma longa (C. longa), also known as curcumin, is a lipophilic polyphenol substance proven to have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties in both in vitro and in vivo models. Most previous studies investigated the effect of C. longa on diabetic mice and therefore, there is a need to investigate the effect of C. longa on normoglycemic mice. Depression is a common consequence of anxiety that affects 21% of the world’s population. Since the prevalence of diabetes and depression is on the rise globally, it is important to search for safer and cost-effective management for these disorders. In doing so, it is therefore essential to investigate its effect in normoglycemic mice. The current study determines the effect of C. longa on blood glucose level and anxiety-like behavior in normoglycemic Swiss albino mice. A total of 20 mice were divided into four groups of five (n=5 per group). Group I (control) received distilled water 10 ml/kg, groups II, III, and IV received C. longa at 5%, 10%, and 20%, respectively, for 14 days. We found that 20% C. longa group showed a significant (p0.05) difference in both fasting blood glucose level and anxiety-like behavior between the mice treated with 5% and 10% C. longa and the control group. This study indicates that C. longa at high concentration is unsafe for consumption by normoglycemic Swiss albino mice.
Benneth Chiemelie Iloka, Grace Ifeoma Anukwe
Published: 31 December 2020
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i4.61

Abstract:
Following technological advancements, the marketing world has witnessed a tremendous introduction of technologies that aid decision making. The essence is that through the adoption of such technologies, the marketers will make more informed decisions. Neuromarketing is a new marketing field that has witnessed increased penetration of technologies. As a field, it is centred on understanding the human brain's functionality when exposed to marketing activities. This article reviews eye-tracking as a neuromarketing tool. The review represents ideas from different scholars concerning the topic, concisely condensed to form the views held in this article. Findings from the review show that eye-tracking is one of the most commonly adopted neuromarketing tools because it is easier to access and implement with other tools. On the same note, some limitations come with this tool. The review concluded by stating that the best results with eye-tracking are obtained when combined with other tools to overcome these limitations and produce more informed data for better decisions and customer service.
Aida Azlina Mansor, Salmi Mohd Isa
Published: 3 December 2020
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i4.58

Abstract:
Neuromarketing has become a central marketing issue in the new global economy. The term neuromarketing is a combination of neuroscience and marketing. This new concept provides new insights and powerful techniques in marketing research, especially on consumer analysis. The central concept of neuromarketing is strongly related to brain activities, understanding the consumers' subconscious mind, explaining consumers' preferences, motivations, and expectations, and predicting consumers' behavior. Neuromarketing is not to replace traditional marketing methods, but rather to provide unique and complementary insights. This paper focuses on the growing field of neuromarketing and aims to explain the fundamental concepts of neuromarketing to ensure that its unexplored practical usefulness can positively contribute to the field of marketing. Therefore, this review will help researchers to develop effective approaches further, to provide better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of scientific methods to understand how consumers respond to marketing campaigns.
Wael My Mohamed, Indranath Chatterjee, Mohammad A Kamal
Published: 24 October 2020
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i5.59

Abstract:
Neuroscience is an exciting area in which, at a fast rate, revolutionary advances materialise. Neurotechnology is interesting and contentious at the same time, as one of its aims is to "wire" human brains directly into computers. Neurotechnology is defined as the assembly of methods and instruments which allow a direct connection to the nervous system of technical components. These instruments are electrodes, machines or smart prostheses. They are designed to record and/or "translate" impulses from the brain into control instructions, or to modify brain function through the application of electrical or optical stimulation. The emergence of neuro-technologies is interdisciplinary. It supports the amalgamation of neurobiology with atomic, nano- and micro-sciences, as a fascinating path for significant development in the neuroscience domain. It poses a scientific foundation for potential therapeutic strategies.
, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Published: 5 October 2020
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i4.52

Abstract:
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In 2009, the National Trauma Database Malaysia reported that nearly 80% of traumas in the population were caused by road traffic accidents, with 64% of these cases related to TBI. Despite these concerning reports, TBI reporting systems and research are still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate the available literature on TBI in Malaysia in order to uncover the status of TBI research in Malaysia. A comprehensive literature search was performed on four databases (PubMed, Embase, Medline and Scopus) regarding TBI in Malaysia. Critical evaluation of 60 relevant articles after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria have indicated that TBI research in Malaysia may have significant limitations in representing the actual TBI population and was lacking in basic TBI research. Thus, there is a dire need for government and private institutions to provide support for the advancement of TBI reporting and the progression of basic, clinical and translation TBI research in Malaysia. This will create a deeper understanding of TBI, contributing to global TBI knowledge, and advancing the development of efficient interventions for Malaysians with its population heterogeneity taken into consideration.
Benneth Chiemelie Iloka, Kenechi John Onyeke
Published: 20 September 2020
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 27-35; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i3.54

Abstract:
Neuroscience, the study of the brain and how humans process their daily activities, has always been part of other fields (such as neuropsychology in the psychological context). However, 2002 is known as the year neuromarketing was first coined by Professor Ale Smidts, describing it as the study of the brain and how it processes activities about consumer context (purchase behavior – how and why they buy). Further reviews showed that before coining the term, companies were already adopting neuromarketing through systems such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). To further demonstrate its essence, this review discussed its historical dimension, and findings show that it is a revolutionary area of marketing. Although limited empirical studies have been conducted within the context of neuromarketing, the review shows that it can address the challenges of reliability, validity, and generalizability that come with the conventional approaches in marketing research. However, it is suggested that the field of neuromarketing needs empirically-based works, urgently.
Asraa Faris, Pike-See Cheah,
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 9-26; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i3.50

Abstract:
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most abundant neurotrophin in the central nervous system and was shown to be involved in neuronal growth, differentiation and synaptic plasticity. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the pro-region of the BDNF gene (rs6265) has been reported to alter the amino acid from valine to methionine at codon 66 and was associated with neuropsychiatric disorders in several studies. To date, the results on the association of BDNF rs6265 to the aetiology of the neuropsychiatric illnesses have been inconsistent with some studies reporting a positive association and others reporting no association. Concerning the past inconsistent reports, this mini-review aims at determining the association of BDNF rs6265 and neuropsychiatric disorders among the different studies. Firstly, we discuss the findings on studies reporting the association of BDNF rs6265 with depression whereby a positive association between the BDNF variant and depression was obtained in several studies on the Caucasian, German, Chinese, and Malaysian population but not in studies on the Korean and other populations. Likewise, some studies found the occurrence of the SNP to be associated with a reduction in the BDNF level in depressed cases, but others found no effect at all. We then reported findings on the association of BDNF rs6265 with anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Val allele has been found associated with these disorders, whereas some studies reported the involvement of the Met allele, and some reported no association at all. Similarly, the association of the BDNF variant with the BDNF level remains controversial. It is, therefore, essential to conduct more studies with larger sample sizes and look at the haplotype level to determine the association.
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i3.51

Abstract:
Neuroscience has emerged as a richly transdisciplinary field, poised to leverage potential synergies with information technology. To investigate the complex nervous system in its normal function and the disease state, researchers in the field are increasingly reliant on generating, sharing and analyzing diverse data from multiple experimental paradigms at multiple spatial and temporal scales. There is growing recognition that brain function must be investigated from a systems perspective. This requires an integrated analysis of genomic, proteomic, anatomical, functional, topological and behavioural information to arrive at accurate scientific conclusions. The integrative neuroinformatics approaches for exploring complex structure-function relationships in the nervous system have been extensively reviewed. To support neuroscience research, the neuroscientific community also generates and maintains web-accessible databases of experimental and computational data and innovative software tools. Neuroinformatics is an emerging sub-field of neuroscience which focuses on addressing the unique technological and computational challenges to integrate and analyze the increasingly high-volume, multi-dimensional, and fine-grain data generated from neuroscience experiments. The most visible contributions from neuroinformatics include the myriad reference atlases of brain anatomy (human and other mammals such as rodents, primates and pig), gene and protein sequences and the bioinformatics software tools for alignment, matching and identification. Other neuroinformatics initiatives include the various open-source preprocessing and processing software and workflows for data analysis as well as the specifications for data format and software interoperability that allow seamless exchange of data between labs, software tools and modalities.
Kavinash Loganathan, Eric Tatt Wei Ho
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i2.48

Abstract:
In Malaysia, abstinence-centric programs failed to reduce drug use and stem the spread of HIV. The Malaysian government shifted its focus to implement harm reduction strategies with methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), in particular proving to be effective in improving the overall health and well-being of people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Despite this success, MMT retention rates remain low, as methadone is only able to stall drug consumption, but not stop it completely. Neuroimaging research revealed that PWIDs enrolled in MMT still display addictive behavior, including drug cue sensitivity, craving, and withdrawal, despite treatment adherence. Brain activity amongst treated PWIDs continues to bear similarities to untreated individuals, as they struggle with cognitive impairments and poor self-control. Findings from the emerging field of network neuroscience could provide fresh insight into the mechanics of addiction, especially the impact of substance abuse on brain-wide cognitive networks. Concurrently, the development of non-intrusive cognitive interventions, such as neurofeedback and transcranial magnetic stimulation, shows promise to reprogram a person's patterns of brain activity, including those regulated by large-scale networks, to a state resembling normalcy. We highlight the importance of relapse in the life-long rehabilitation of substance abuse. The lack of treatment options to handle relapse after successful harm-reduction policies is due to the absence of a conceptual framework to reason about interventions. We review recent research in the new field of network neuroscience, which suggests that altered brain activity due to drug addiction underlies the propensity for relapse and that this dysfunction is not addressed in drug rehabilitation programs. We hypothesize that non-invasive, non-pharmacological cognitive interventions based on network neuroscience to correct brain activity dysfunction associated with addiction are potential therapies to treat drug addiction relapse. In complement with medicine-substitution-based therapies, we hope this approach will finally break the cycle of addiction.
, Azlina Ahmad Annuar, Junedah Sanusi
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 4-14; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i2.49

Abstract:
Experimental studies on spinal cord regeneration are focusing on the windows of opportunity to improve spinal cord microenvironment via spinal-centric repair pathways. One pathway of particular interest is the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway which plays a vital role in axonal guidance, synaptic assembly and function, neuronal survival and connectivity after spinal cord trauma to induce repair. Upregulation of β-catenin expression is often taken as evidence of regeneration mechanisms through the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway. However, these studies may not have optimised the staining protocol for β-catenin to enable accurate detection of the protein. Given possible issues with the background or endogenous tissue autofluorescence, there is a need to optimise the protocol further to allow better visualisation of β-catenin. So far, there are no studies which report optimising spinal cord tissues for β-catenin to reduce autofluorescence, and as β-catenin is widely used in spinal cord injury (SCI) and other spinal cord tissue studies, thus it is an important issue to address. To achieve reliable detection and localisation of β-catenin, we utilised sequential quenching techniques using 1% NaBH4 and 1mM CuSO4 in 50mM ammonium acetate buffer to reduce both background and fixative-induced autofluorescence. Our results showed that sequential autofluorescence quenching is crucial in β-catenin detection, and this improved technique indicates that β-catenin is localised in the spinal cord white matter regions. Objective approach for the β-catenin localisation is highly significant as it unravelled an objective identification and illuminate the pattern of distribution of β-catenin for researcher focusing on spinal cord repair studies via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway following SCI.
Ruben Pérez-Elvira, Ana Jiménez Gómez
Published: 30 January 2020
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i1.40

Abstract:
Fibromyalgia is a chronic and incapacitating condition that produces, as main symptoms, pain, and stiffness. In addition to these physical symptoms, it is also accompanied by psychological symptoms such as cognitive deficits, anxiety, and depression. One of the non-pharmacological treatments that have been used in this pathology in recent years is neurofeedback. In this study, we analyze the efficacy of sLORETA Neurofeedback in the case of fibromyalgia. The experimental subject was a 37-year-old patient. Quantified electroencephalography studies were applied on three occasions, one initial, another after fifteen days of waiting list, and another after treatment. Psychometric scales were also applied at the same time to evaluate the patient's psychological and physical state. The treatment consisted of 5 sessions of Neurofeedback LORETA in Brodmann area 2. After the treatment, a neurometric, psychometric, and clinical improvement were found. The improvement of the patient after 5 sessions is relevant since previous studies using neurofeedback in fibromyalgia, despite finding positive results, needed a higher number of sessions to achieve relevant results. Therefore, the intervention with neurofeedback LORETA in fibromyalgia patients could be an alternative or complement to current treatments.
Mohd. Farooq Shaikh, Faiz Ahmed Shaikh
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i2.46

Corrigendum
Tsun Haw Toh, Kheng-Seang Lim, Ching-Ching Ng, Imran Idris, Sherrini Bazir Ahmad, Thien-Thien Lim, Irene Looi, Ai-Huey Tan, Chung-Kin Chan, Chun-Shen Lim, et al.
Neuroscience Research Notes, Volume 3, pp 32-33; https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i1.45

Abstract:
This corrects the article https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v2i3.35.
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