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Open Access Biostatistics & Bioinformatics; doi:10.31031/oabb

Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science; doi:10.31031/amms

Research & Development in Material Science; doi:10.31031/rdms

Bogdan Kulig, Andrzej Lepiarczyk, Andrzej Oleksy, Marek Kołodziejczyk, Anna Slizowska, Mirosław ZAGÓRDA
Journal of Biotechnology & Bioresearch, Volume 2, pp 1-7; doi:10.31031/jbb.2020.02.000544

Abstract:
Bogdan Kulig1*, Mirosław Zagórda2, Andrzej Lepiarczyk1, Andrzej Oleksy1, Marek Kołodziejczyk1 and Anna Slizowska1 1Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, University of Agriculture, Krakow, Poland 2Department of Machinery Management, Ergonomics and Production Processes, University of Agriculture, Krakow, Poland *Corresponding author: Bogdan Kulig, Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, University of Agriculture, Krakow, Poland Submission: November 06, 2020;Published: December 09, 2020 Volume2 Issue4December, 2020 The Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (VIS-NIRS) allows for quick analysis of soil abundance in basic macronutrients and development of fertilizer application maps. This article compares the results for pH and soil abundance in available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy in the 580-1850nm range and on the basis of standard laboratory methods. Soil samples were taken from a field of 20.6ha, from the surface of each polygon defined by a grid of squares with sides of 50x50m. The total soil sample (80) assigned to the square 50x50m taken from the arable layer to a depth of 0.2m. The constructed models must be then subjected to validation using an independent set of samples. In the presented experiment the samples were randomly divided into two equal sets, 40 samples each. A simple correlation analysis was conducted in order to estimate the correlations between the results obtained using standard methods and the spectrophotometry. The results were shown high relationship between values obtained by using NIRS and laboratory methods. Coefficients of determination computed for model calibration on the basis of linear regression, which for the soil pH, K content and subsequently for Mg and P was obtained, respectively: R2=0.90; R2=0.91; R2=0.83; R2=0.86. The results show the lower coherence of NIRS results with laboratory results for pH and K2O, followed by Mg and P2O5 for model verification. Determination coefficients in this case were as follows: R2=0.56; R2=0.54; R2=0.51 and R2=0.48. The fertility maps developed on the basis of laboratory analyses and by means of InfraXact™ device differed by 19% for phosphorus and 7,25% (relative root square error for area of fertility classes) for potassium. Keywords: VIS-NIRS; P; K; Mg; Soil fertility; Abundance maps Increasingly greater popularity of Visible and Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (VIS-VIS-NIRS) has been observed over the recent years for estimating soil fertility in basic macroelements Chodak M, et al. [1]. As a research (analytical or diagnostic) tool, VIS-NIRS method has a considerable advantage over typical laboratory methods. A single analysis takes only a few minutes and results are available at once Baeten V, et al. [2]. VIS-NIRS is a reliable and effective measurement tool that could be used to predict soil properties, and particularly SOM that is the key to evaluate soil fertility or soil quality Freschet, et al. (2011), Romsonthi C, et al. [3]. Implementation of precision agriculture technologies initially incurs considerable expenditures, not only on the equipment, but in the first place on gathering detailed data about the field, including necessary investigations on the available macroelement content. Advantages from spatially variable fertilizer application are conditioned by the obtained yields and expenditures Kulczycki G, et al. [4]; Walczykova M, et al. [5]. Table 1 shows the selected retrieving articles on the possibility to use VIS-NIR spectroscopy to determine the rapid content of phosphorus and potassium in the soil. Presented paper aimed to test the potential applications of visible and near reflectance spectroscopy (580-1850nm, VIS-NIRS-InfraXact™) for estimating soil fertility in basic macroelements (P, K and Mg) and compare the obtained results with those obtained at Chemical Agricultural Station using standard methods, as an important element of application maps preparation for precision agriculture. Table 1: Selected articles presented application of differentiated methods to estimation of P,K-concentrations in soil using VIS-NIR spectroscopy. The 80 soil samples were collected from 20.6 ha field situated in Brzezinka village near Krakow (N50 08 33, E19 43 52). It was a heavy soil with 5% content of sand, 53.3% silt and 41.7% clay. The relief of the field is hilly and the altitude is in the range of 270-290m. The soil in these fields is classified as heavy, compact and difficult to cultivate. The material for analyses was collected from the surface of each polygon demarcated by a grid of squares with sides 50m (80 averaged samples, each consisting of 18 primary samples - Figure 1). The samples were dried to constant mass, finely ground and sifted (2mm). Analyses of P, K, Mg and pH were conducted using standard methods at the Chemical Agricultural Station in Krakow, i.e. pH by potentiometric method, K and P by Egner-Riehm method and Mg by ASA method. The spectrum of the examined soil was determined in 2012 on InfraXact™ device made by FOSS, within the 580-1850 nm with 2nm step. The samples were divided into two sets, 40 samples for calibration and 40 for verification file. The preprocessing data and calibration models were made by means of WINISI 4.0 programme using the settings presented in Table 2. Whole spectrum were used to the construction of calibration models. The outliers (samples with an H-value >3) were not included for developing of models, as well as were excluded from validation file. Figure 1: Location of experimental polygons (a) and altitude map of the field (b) in Brzezinka (N50 08 33, E19 43 52). Table 2: Parameter settings of the WINISI program for data preprocessing and calibration for individual elements. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were the statistical tools applied to compare both methods, moreover statistical measures most commonly used for such...
Published: 3 December 2020
Modern Research in Dentistry; doi:10.31031/mrd

Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy; doi:10.31031/mcda

Surgical Medicine Open Access Journal; doi:10.31031/smoaj

Gastroenterology: Medicine & Research; doi:10.31031/gmr

Published: 28 November 2020
Novel Research in Sciences; doi:10.31031/nrs

COJ Technical & Scientific Research; doi:10.31031/cojts

Published: 28 November 2020
COJ Nursing & Healthcare; doi:10.31031/cojnh

Trends in Telemedicine & E-health; doi:10.31031/tteh

Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine; doi:10.31031/prm

Qingchun Yu, Yong Deng, Xiumin Chen
Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science, Volume 5, pp 659-661; doi:10.31031/amms.2020.05.000624

Abstract:
Qingchun Yu*, Yong Deng and Xiumin Chen State Key Laboratory of Complex Non-ferrous Metal Resources Clear Utilization, Faculty of Metallurgy and Energy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, Yunnan, China *Corresponding author: Qingchun Yu, State Key Laboratory of Complex Non-ferrous Metal Resources Clear Utilization, Faculty of Metallurgy and Energy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, Yunnan, China Submission: April13, 2020;Published: November 20, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/AMMS.2020.05.000624 ISSN 2578-0255Volume5 Issue5 Chlorination of copper has distinctive physical and chemical properties, which makes it applicable in fields of mineral processing, material synthesis, and energy production. Chlorination technique for simultaneously extracting Ni and Cu from mixed oxide-sulfide copper‑nickel ore or selective chlorination for the removal of copper from copper slag was developed. Copper film is a promising material which can be produced through the “in situ” chlorination of copper by chlorine and copper deposition via reduction of Cu3Cl3 by hydrogen. The Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production has significant potential because it does not generate greenhouse gas and requires lower energy consumption. Keywords: Chlorination; Copper; Extraction; Film; Cu-Cl cycle Various studies have been made on the chlorination of copper. Products of chlorination of copper include CuCl, Cu3Cl3, and CuCl2. Possible chemical reactions of standard Gibbs free energy versus temperature are shown in Figure 1. It is found that CuCl is the most likely product to be obtained for the reaction of copper with chlorine, whether in solid, liquid or vapor state. According to the △G° value, formation of gaseous Cu3Cl3 from metallic copper is expected for all temperatures [1]. Formation of CuCl2 from metallic copper cannot be excluded since it also has a negative value of △G°. The reaction of CuCl with Cl2 to give CuCl2 is feasible for temperatures below 400 ℃, at higher temperatures the decomposition of CuCl2 is predictable because the △G° of this reaction is negative. The direct combination of the elements is the most common method of production. However, Remeika & Battlogg [2] studied the synthesis of CuCl from Cl2 and CCl4. They found that very pure and stoichiometric CuCl is produced by the reaction of copper with CCl4. Thermogravimetric study [3] showed that the chlorination of metallic copper proceeded by forming CuCl, followed by further chlorination of a part of CuCl to CuCl2 above its melting point, but the amount of CuCl2 formed was limited. The distinctive physical and chemical properties of chlorination of copper make it applicable in fields of mineral processing, material synthesis, and energy production. Figure 1: Standard Gibbs free energy versus temperature for the possible chlorination reaction [1]. Chlorination roasting presents advantages for processing low-grade polymetallic complex ore. The metal chlorides formed by roasting has low melting point and high volatility and can be separated according to their boiling points and vapor pressure values. Chlorination roasting reagents can be classified into gaseous chlorinating agents, and solid chlorinating agents, such as Cl2, HCl, CaCl2, NaCl, MgCl2 and AlCl3. Solid chlorinating agents are preferred to gaseous ones in industrial production owing to their low price, availability, low equipment requirements and simple operation. The chlorination reactions of copper or copper-containing mixtures were studied for the development of separation methods in extractive metallurgy for the recycling of metals from ores and waste slag. Because of the depletion of the high grade nickel sulfide ore, mixed oxide-sulfide copper‑nickel ore, which accounts for approximately two-thirds of the total nickel reserves of this mine has become the main raw material for nickel products. The low-grade nickel sulfide ore contains a lot of serpentine and talc. In the conventional pyrometallurgical process (flash or electric smelting), the concentrate with high content of MgO will cause the problems of furnace nodulation, large viscosity to slag, difficulties in the separation between matte and slag, low recovery of valuable metals, and etc. A low-temperature chlorinating roasting-water leaching process to achieve the extraction of valuable metals selectively. Corresponding reactions are as follows [4]: AlCl3+3/4O2(g)=1/2Al2O3+3/2Cl2(g) CuFeS2+2Cl2(g)=CuCl2+FeCl2+2S Fe4.5Ni4.5S8+9Cl2(g)=4.5FeCl2+4.5NiCl2+8S The copper slag from the pyrometallurgical production of copper depending on its origin, contains about 35-45% wt% of iron that can be recovered, if treated suitably. Carbothermic reduction of the waste slag therefore inevitably results in the co-reduction of large amounts of iron together with copper. Higher copper content in the pig iron causes the brittleness and makes the iron worthless. Selective chlorination for the extraction of copper and the upgrading of lean minerals can be achieved by controlling reaction conditions such as the temperature and/or the amount of the chlorinating agent. The resulting copper removal rate of 84.34% is obtained under the optimum conditions [5]. Pickles [6] conducted a study about thermodynamic analysis of selective chlorination of the arc furnace dust. He found that copper could be chlorinated effectively as gaseous chlorides, but a small amount of iron oxides also could be converted to gaseous iron chlorides during the process. By adding some oxygen, the stability of iron oxide was promoted, which went against the conversion of iron oxide to gaseous iron chloride. Copper film is considered as a promising alternative to replace Al and its alloys because of its enhanced resistance to electromigration and low resistivity. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) offers advantages such as its ability to involve the substrate surface in...
Integrative Journal of Conference Proceedings; doi:10.31031/icp

Ted Lefroy
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 7, pp 740-741; doi:10.31031/mcda.2020.07.000667

Abstract:
Ted Lefroy* Adjunct Professor, Tasmanian Insitute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Australia *Corresponding author: Dr. Ted Lefroy, Adjunct Professor, Tasmanian Insitute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Researcher ID: J-7144-2014, Australia Submission: November 11, 2020Published: November 13, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2020.07.000667 ISSN 2637-7659Volume7 Issue 4 It is not often that an academic paper is downloaded over 600,000 times. Even rarer that one is described as ‘the scientific paper sending people into therapy’ [1]. Such is the social phenomenon triggered by the paper Deep Adaptation: A map for navigating climate tragedy [2], published privately after it was rejected by the journal Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy [3]. What follows is an agronomist’s attempt to understand the basis for the paper’s claim that we face ‘inevitable near-term societal collapse’ due to ‘…uncontrollable levels of climate change bringing starvation, destruction, migration, disease, and war’ [1]. In the paper’s preamble we learn it resulted from a 2017 sabbatical spent reviewing the latest climate science. And in a letter to the journal editor attached as a postscript, the author responds to a reviewer who questioned whether the climate data supported the paper’s argument by stating that section is ‘…the core of the paper as everything then flows from the conclusions of that analysis’ [2]. Several aspects of that analysis warrant a closer look. First, throughout the paper the term non-linear is used to imply unstoppable or runaway climate change. Non-linear means change in the output of a system that is not proportional to change in the inputs. It implies nothing about the direction or speed of change or the feasibility of human intervention or management. When Gavin Schmidt, Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, was asked to comment on an earlier version he replied ‘This is nonsense. Non-linearity (which is ubiquitous) is not synonymous with ‘runaway’ climate change’. To which the author responded ‘Verdict: No clarification or correction. Adding a reference to the new findings from scientists will be useful in future publications’ [4]. The new findings included in the revised version are drawn from an article on climate tipping points [5] which, the paper claims, indicate that we ‘have tipped into self-reinforcing and irreversible change’ [2]. What those authors actually said was ‘If damaging tipping cascades can occur and a global tipping point cannot be ruled out, then this is an existential threat to civilization’ [5]. The qualifier ‘if’ is important as the phenomenon of tipping cascades is hypothetical, which is why the paper was published as a comment, not a research paper. On global tipping points, others have argued ‘The global human enterprise is driving large-scale changes in most components of the Earth system, but in a haphazard fashion, with responses often being weakly connected or transmitted slowly at a cross-continental scale’ making it ‘…implausible that the planet, or indeed most of its component systems, are primed to tip irreversibly to a radically different state that is inhospitable’ [6]. Second, the prediction that global tipping points will lead to inevitable near term societal collapse rests largely on two phenomenon, Arctic ice melt and methane release. Both rely on a few, selected sources. In the case of the Arctic ice melt, the work of one scientist whose predictions have not eventuated [7]. In the case of methane release, it relies on the clathrate gun hypothesis first proposed in 2003 that has since been challenged in multiple reviews [8]. Third on crop yields, the paper notes that the IPCC has estimated that climate change has reduced growth in crop yields by 1-2% per decade over the past century. This needs to be seen in the context of yield increases in the major crops of 300-800% over the same period. In the UK ~300% for oats and barley, ~400% for wheat and potatoes and ~800% for sugar beet; in the USA, ~500% for corn [9]. Climate change is real and is having an impact on agriculture, but the major challenge now is not yield but equitable access. The major challenge for the future is declining investment, particularly in plant breeding and agronomy. Fourth, on declining fish stocks, the paper states that ocean acidification ‘degrades the base of the marine food web, thereby reducing the ability of fish populations to reproduce themselves across the globe’ [2]. The paper cited in support of this statement mentions acidification once, in the first paragraph of the introduction, as a process that ‘may impact the productivity of fish stock’ [10]. Acidification is not referred to again in the paper and is not implicated in reduced recruitment capacity. What this paper does say is that recruitment capacity (the ability of stocks to produce surviving offspring) has been altered by 3% of the historical maximum per decade by both environmental changes and overfishing, with overfishing more significant than environmental factors (sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration as a surrogate for phytoplankton biomass). Ocean acidification does affect phytoplankton, but this is not discussed in this paper. Fifth, the paper claims rates of sea level rise ‘may soon become exponential’ [2]. The source is a University press release about a study of relative sea level rise at selected locations in North America, so changes in both sea level and land surface, which does not mention exponential rise. Finally, there is the alarming claim ‘About half of all plant and animal species in the world’s most biodiverse places are at risk of extinction due to climate change’ [2]. The source is a press...
Published: 13 November 2020
Advancements in Case Studies; doi:10.31031/aics

Charles H Williams
Journal of Biotechnology & Bioresearch, Volume 2, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/jbb.2020.02.000543

Abstract:
Charles H Williams1* 1The Williams research laboratory, USA *Corresponding author: Charles H Williams, The Williams research laboratory, Sunrise Beach, USA Submission: October 27, 2020;Published: November 13, 2020 Volume2 Issue4November, 2020 The development of lung failure is a severe complication of COVID 19. My friend Bill Bruns, St Clair, MO died recently even though he was on a ventilator and in an induced coma at the Washington, MO Hospital. His wife also had COVID 19, but did not develop the acute lung failure aspect, so she quarantined at home and fully recovered [1,2]. Two of my immediate family members contracted COVID 19 but did not develop the acute lung failure aspect and quarantined at home and fully recovered. They went back to work at the ear, nose, and throat clinic where they had contracted the disease. The production of ventilators was ramped up to supply the demand necessitated by COVID 19 patients. However, the mechanical ventilation of patients does not solve the problem of getting oxygen into the red blood cells if the lung arterioles are plugged by micro clots that shut down the flow of blood thru the lung capillaries for exchange of lung gasses. This sounds like the lung failure that we researched extensively in pigs while working at TTUHSC-El Paso. We assumed that the red blood cells were forming small clumps of two or more RBC which then plugged the capillaries in the lung since only single RBC can pass through the capillaries in single file to exchange blood gases and oxygenate the patient. We treated the clumping problem with ABOKINASE or STREPTOKINASE, thereby dissolving the clumps and restoring blood flow through the capillaries which restored oxygenation to the patient. Our first patient, who had fallen from his roof, in this experimental protocol pinked up as they were infusing the ABOKINASE via the pulmonary artery catheter. The blood gas analysis confirmed the improvement in lung function. The treatment lasted for 24 hours, then he started to go down again. A second treatment was infused and he again recovered and was doing well for 3 to 4 days [3,4]. A third treatment was infused and the patient fully recovered lung function and walked out of the hospital after 58 days and went into physical rehab. There is a common lung failure problem from traumatic shock, septic shock, or gunfire shock that ties these lung failure problems together. That is the development of micro clots that plug the capillaries in the lung. This same treatment may need to be used in treating lung failure in COVID 19 patients that are experiencing lung failure. The USA has recorded over 200,000 COVID 19 deaths. These deeaths appear to be lung failure problems as ventilators have been readily available at all hospitals. © 2020 Navarrete JM. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Progress in Petrochemical Science; doi:10.31031/pps

Oñoro Guzmán L
Published: 30 October 2020
Advancements in Case Studies, Volume 2; doi:10.31031/aics.2020.02.000547

Lihi Kalakuda
Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science, Volume 5, pp 639-641; doi:10.31031/amms.2020.05.000621

Abstract:
Lihi Kalakuda* and Amir Shapiro Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben Gurion University, Israel *Corresponding author: Lihi Kalakuda, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben Gurion University, Israel Submission: September 28, 2020;Published: October 22, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/AMMS.2020.05.000621 ISSN 2578-0255Volume5 Issue5 The world still relies on human labor when it comes to operating heavy machinery. This dependence on human labor is expensive, time-intensive, and hazardous. This paper deals with an autonomous front- loader movement planning for a soil loading task. We used reinforcement learning algorithm trained by a Gazebo simulator integrated with ROS and OpenAI Gym framework. The continuum model was chosen as the soil-tool interaction model. Next, we trained outrobot to load soil utilizing Proximal Policy Optimization algorithms. Our results show that this algorithm yields high return with a moderate number of training steps. Keywords: Autonomous; Material; Bucket filling; Soil-tool; Loader; Hydraulics An autonomous earth moving machine is one that is able to navigate itself to target area, load and unload designated material, and repeat steps as needed. Fortunately, autonomous navigation has already been developed, but the problem of autonomous bucket filling step in the loading cycle remains open, despite three decades of research. To address the bucket filling problem, we aim to develop an algorithm for the most efficient loading of a front-loader’s bucket. The absence of an accurate model of the material to be scooped prevents the use of optimization methods and therefore we decided to examine machine learning algorithms for model-free problems using reinforcement learning. Research aiming to automate earth-moving machines has a long history [1-4]. However, to the best of our knowledge and at the time of writing, a reliable or commercial system for autonomous earth-moving machines has not yet been introduced. Work has been done to include machine learning for bucket-filling motion-planning. Dadhich et al. [5] reveals that application of machine learning to automate the bucket filling process is feasible in principle and can lead to flexible solutions. Dadhich created a model for training with an appropriate dataset that can be adapted to a new machine, material, or environmental condition. In addition, Dadhich et al. [6] used a neural network ensemble to predict bucket filling control actions of an operator. The training data is recorded during a controlled experiment with an expert driver filling bucket. Hodel [7] used reinforcement learning algorithms to control an excavator and perform bucket leveling. His study, based on policy optimization by mimicking the human operation, showed that the reinforcement algorithms have excellent results. The methods presented are trained to mimic the actions of a human operator, not necessarily representing the best strategy for automated bucket filling. A reinforcement learning task is about training an agent which interacts with its environment. The agent arrives at different scenarios known as observations or states by performing actions. In Reinforcement Learning, the agent is the one who takes decisions based on the rewards and punishments. In our case, the Bobcat (mini front-loader model) is the agent. The environment contains all the necessary functionality to run an agent and allow it to learn. Gym environment provides a standardized interface for the reinforcement learning process (Figure 1). In order to build a custom environment for our Bobcat, we defined the action space, which contains all the actions possible for the bobcat to perform, and similarly, the observation space which contains all the environment’s data to be observed by the agent. Figure 1: Skid-steer bucket velocities and algorithm planning method. The algorithm input data is the existing condition of the bucket based on the data that the Bobcat receives from the environment through its sensors. In the future it will be possible, utilizing a front camera and image processing, to identify the pile slope and determine the type of soil and thus select the movement required to fill the bucket. The behavior of a learning agent is not programmed explicitly, but implicitly. The policy is optimized to maximize the accumulated returns from the reward function. The reward conditions were based on the definition of a desirable operation; shortest time, maximum soil loaded and minimum penetration height. Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) algorithm is an onpolicy algorithm which is based on policy gradient methods [8]. Policy Gradient methods have convergence problem which is referred by the natural policy gradient. In practice, natural policy gradient involves a second-order derivative matrix which makes it difficult to solve when it comes to large scale. PPO uses a different approach; it relies on specialized clipping in the objective function to remove incentives for the new policy to get far from the old policy. With clipped objective, we compute a ratio between the new policy and the old policy: This ratio measures the difference between two policies, new and old. The objective function to clip the estimated advantage function if the new policy is far away from the old policy is: Where ε is a hyperparameter which roughly says how far away the new policy can go from the old and ˆ At is an estimator of the advantage function. Based on “Deep Reinforcement Learning Hands- On Second Edition” [9], we maintain two policy networks (Figure 2). The first is the current policy that we want to refine called the Critic. The second is the policy that we last used to collect samples called the Actor. The actor and critic networks consist of two hidden layers with 64 units each. Training and testing our algorithm in the real world would consume many work hours, entail large sums of money, and be overall cumbersome. To streamline the process,...
Research in Pediatrics & Neonatology; doi:10.31031/rpn

Longwei Luan
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 14, pp 1534-1535; doi:10.31031/rdms.2020.14.000834

Abstract:
Longwei Luan1,2*and Ning Han3 1Hanshan Normal University, Guangdong, China 2Cheongju University, Chungbuk, Korea 3Xingzhixuan Technology Co., LTD, China *Corresponding author: Longwei Luan, Hanshan Normal University, Chaozhou 521041, Guangdong, China Submission: October 05, 2020;Published: October 16, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2020.14.000834 ISSN: 2576-8840 Volume 14 Issue 2 “Indigo dyeing” is an ancient traditional Dyeing process in China, which has the reputation of “the first dyeing in the East”. The indigo dye is an essential technology in white trousers clothing. The material follows the ecological cycle of “from the people and from the people”. The material indigo is also made from indigo plants, which is degradable and can reduce environmental pollution to the maximum extent. Keywords: Anti-dyeing; Dyeing; Indigo dye Selection and application of indigo dye material for white trousers In the world of manual printing and dyeing, articles of daily use or works of art made by preventive dyeing have a long history and are widely used. The principle of anti-dyeing process is a work of unique artistic style presented in the opposite state of "anti-dyeing" and "dyeing". The preparation of indigo dye for white trousers is mainly divided into the preparation of anti-dye material and the preparation of dyeing cloth material. Preparation of anti-dyeing materials Yao costume of white trousers is a kind of costume combined with painting and embroidery. Both women's jacket and pleated skirt need to use self-made wax dyeing tool to draw "painting" with their own national characteristics before dyeing, which is known locally as "sticky paste painting". The "sticky paste" used in the "sticky paste" painting is the main anti-dyeing material, which is also the biggest difference between white pants Yao and other nationalities who use beeswax, paraffin and other materials to prevent dyeing. The paste is produced from the SAP of a native toona plant and is collected in a manner similar to that of rubber. Generally, a tree can flow 8 to 10 kilograms of sticky paste, more when the sun shines. Paint a picture with sticky paste alone is not enough, you also need another anti-dye material, that is butter. Mix the paste and butter 1:1 into a small black iron pot, burn the corn stalk and heat it for 3-4 hours to make it fully blend into a dark brown color, set aside. At this time, anti-dye materials for making the paste painting are ready. In the production and living area of white trousers, sticky paste trees are commonly planted, and the materials are easy to be obtained and used. Using adhesive paste to prevent dyeing, the effect is more obvious than beeswax, the pattern is more beautiful after dyeing. In the anti-stain material, the paste is mixed with butter, which has a low melting point and can reduce the burn injury. Short heating time, will not produce toxic smoke, residue green environmental protection. Preparation of dyeing materials White pants yao indigo dyeing process follows the "ecological cycle, by the people", the main indigo dyeing material is taken from the indigo plant, the indigo natural fermentation, match into the quicklime, rapid agitation, make its rapid convergence, and placed a week or so, there will be precipitation at the bottom of the bucket, this is the main material of dyed indigo. When used, it is reconfigured with self-made grain wine and grass ash, which gives out primitive and natural colors with natural ecological aesthetic feeling. Environmental protection concept of indigo dye for white trousers The traditional batik prevention is to mix paraffin wax and beeswax and boil them, which will produce harmful smoke, harm human health, pollute the environment. Perchloroethylene is a toxic chemical that needs to be used for washing, and many countries have banned the use of this dry detergent. Both indigo dyeing and anti-dyeing materials are materials made from the people, which reflects the concept of environmental protection in the ecological cycle. In addition, the indigo dye in white pants adopts the method of artificial fermentation and reduction dyeing. The principle of this method is that indigo is not easy to be dyed, and microorganisms such as yeast need to be added. After the microorganisms secrete biological enzymes, indigo can be gradually reduced to indigo that is suitable for dyeing. Therefore, when the Baikuyao people are dyed, adding quicklime and sorghum wine into the blended fuel is to use this principle to restore the indigo that was not suitable for dyeing to indigo white. No chemical materials were added in the whole process. Compared with all kinds of modern dyeing materials, although indigo dye for white trousers is not complete in color chromatography and has no high color fastness as modern dyeing materials, there is no environmental pollution in the whole process of production and use, and all materials can be degraded. If you want a dark blue or black cloth, you also need a colorant, and the local choice of colorant is a local root plant. After dyeing the cloth, the spinning and dyeing materials are the leaves of caulis SPP. In addition, as the raw material of indigo is originally a medicinal plant, indigo has a certain health care effect in the process of using clothes. These environmental protection ideas are the embodiment of modern chemical materials cannot achieve. Cotton is spun into thread and woven into cloth, and natural plants are used to make dye-proofing agent and dye. From production to production, it contains a natural beauty of handwork, and expresses the respect of white pants yao people to nature. Yao Indigo dye in white trousers is a natural ecological thing and phenomenon passed down from generation to generation. From the perspective of aesthetic value and environmental protection concept of material application, it is worth passing down this ancient national craft. This work was supported by...
Markos Petousis, Nectarios Vidakis, Lazaros Tzounis
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 14, pp 1522-1533; doi:10.31031/rdms.2020.14.000833

Abstract:
Markos Petousis1*,Lazaros Tzounis2 and Nectarios Vidakis1 1Mechanical Engineering Department, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Greece 2Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Ioannina, Greece *Corresponding author: Markos Petousis, Mechanical Engineering Department, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Greece Submission: October 05, 2020;Published: October 15, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2020.14.000833 ISSN: 2576-8840 Volume 14 Issue 2 Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process based on the sequential addition of material layers, allowing thus to print either 2D parts (thin or thick films substrate assisted and obtained then as self-standing films or supporting films/ coatings) or bulk 3D parts consisting of different materials with variable physical and chemical properties. The Global sales in 3D printing (products and services) rose by 21% from 2017, reaching 7B$ in 2018. Various techniques are available and belong to the family of 3D printing of solid materials, while the most well-known ones are the electron beam freeform fabrication, the direct metal laser sintering, and the fused filament fabrication (FFF). Due to the unique possibility to manufacture complex 3D objects layer by layer, as well as due to the relatively low-cost 3D printers available in the market nowadays, AM utilising nanomaterials could be employed in new ways toward greater control over material properties across part dimensions. The multifunctionality endowed through nanomaterials’ incorporation as additives can further extend capabilities of nanocomposites to i.e. by-design and patient specific biomedical equipment and personalised medicine applications, tuned and tailored gradients in electrical and thermal conductivity, increased strength and reduced weight, photonic emissions tunable for wavelength, etc., all of which are elaborated in this mini review article. In specific, FFF 3D printing method that a main focus is given herein could allow direct 3D printing of nano enabled thermoplastic filaments endowing the nanocomposite’s functionality to the bulk 3D printed derived objects. Keywords: Three-Dimensional (3D) printing; Rapid prototyping; Nanomaterials; Nanotechnology; Additive manufacturing; Two-Dimensional (2D) printing; Polymers; Nanocomposites Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) printing processes have received significant attention as additive manufacturing technologies amongst others [1,2]. 2D and 3D printing are additive manufacturing (AM) processes based on sequential addition of (nano-)material layers allowing to print either 2D parts (thin or thick films/ layers as self-standing films or coatings) or bulk 3D parts and components made of different (nano-)materials with variable physicochemical properties [3,4]. Namely, the global sales in 3D printing (products and services) rose by 21% from the market in 2017 reaching 7B$, while the total AM market only for the Automotive sector is expected to grow from 1.5B€ in 2018 to 5.3B€ in 2023 and 12.6B€ in 2028. Roll-to-roll (R2R) and sheet-to-sheet (S2S) 2D additive manufacturing The 2D AM processing could be a continuous process otherwise defined as roll-to-roll (R2R) or sheet-to-sheet (S2S), both of which allow a continuous deposition of materials as inks/ pastes, melts, etc. onto rigid or flexible substrates (glass, plastic, metallic foils, textiles, etc.). In a R2R process, the materials are deposited in motion between two moving rolls named as unwinder and winder. R2R is an essential substrate-based manufacturing process in which additive (e.g. printing methods as for instance ink-jet, slot-die, etc.) and/ or subtractive technologies (e.g. laser scribing) can be employed to build 2D components in a continuous manner. R2R could offer cost-effective and high production rates of mass quantities, combining, in a continuous manner, different technologies towards the production of rolls with a finished product. Today, R2R processing is applied in numerous manufacturing fields such as i) coating of textiles (e.g. using a bath coating technology otherwise known as dyeing process) [5], ii) prepregs for advanced CFRP structural composites (bath or slot die deposition of epoxy onto fabrics) [6], iii) packaging i.e. smart packaging (e.g. slot-die, gravure, bath coating, screen printing, flexography of inks, varnishes, etc.) [7], flexible and large-area printed electronics (e.g. slot-die, gravure, bath coating, screen printing, flexography, ink-jet printing of electronic inks and pastes) [8-10], thin-film batteries [11] and (bio-)electrodes (e.g slot-die, screen printing) [12], textiles for wearables (e.g. ink-jet printing, screen printing and flexography) [13], membranes (e.g. slot-die, etc.) [14], etc. The global R2R technology market is expected to reach 35.69 B$ to 2023 expanding at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.5% from 2015 to 2023. Figure 1 demonstrates (a) a schematic of a R2R AM process, as well as (b) a representative R2R printing/ coating line produced by FOM company (FOM, Denmark); while in (c) a schematic of a S2S printing coating AM process is depicted and in (d) a S2S printing slot-die and blade coating machine produced by COATEMA printing technologies company (Coatema, Germany). Figure 1: (a) Schematic of a R2R AM process, as well as (b) a representative R2R printing/ coating AM line; (c) a schematic of a S2S printing coating AM process, and (d) a S2S printing slot-die and blade coating machine. Three dimensional (3D) additive manufacturing 3D printing is nowadays one of the most promising additive manufacturing (AM) processes based on sequential addition of material layers allowing to manufacture bulk 3D parts with tailored properties i.e. mechanical, thermal, electrical, etc. [15]. The first 3D print was reported by Hideo Kodama in 1982 [16]. Since then, 3D printers have become much more accessible in the engineering academic community as well as end-product manufacturing...
Huichao Jin
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 14, pp 1520-1521; doi:10.31031/rdms.2020.14.000832

Abstract:
Huichao Jin* Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, China *Corresponding author: Huichao Jin, Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China Submission: October 05, 2020;Published: October 15, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2020.14.000832 ISSN: 2576-8840 Volume 14 Issue 2 The poor mechanical stability of microtextured surfaces is a major barrier to their engineering applications [1,2]. Accordingly, researchers have devoted themselves to developing microtextured surfaces with robust mechanical stability. Recently, Wu et al. [3] reported a superhydrophobic coating with a robust hierarchical structure and compared its mechanical stability to that of the other robust surfaces. The authors claimed that the test conditions used to evaluate the mechanical properties were the most rigorous as compared to those used in previously reported tests. As there is no universal standard to quantify the mechanical stability of a surface, the following questions are worth discussing: "how was the comparison carried out?" and "what test conditions qualify as rigorous?" Currently, several methods have been widely used to evaluate the mechanical stability of microtextured surfaces, including sandpaper abrasion, blade scraping, finger wiping, tape peeling, and sand impact. After these tests are performed, researchers usually use the changes in the Water Contact Angle (WCA) to evaluate the mechanical stability of microtextured surfaces [4]. However, the specific testing methods are many and varied in the literature [3]. For example, the sandpaper abrasion test involves several parameters, such as sandpaper grit, load pressure, movement speed, and cycles or distances. Different researchers tend to use different parameters to conduct abrasion tests [5-10]. The selection of a particular parameter may render the experiment easier to conduct or lead to a better result. These practices make it difficult to compare the mechanical property of a microtextured surface with other robust surfaces. To overcome the chaotic status quo, researchers need to develop a standard to evaluate the mechanical stability of microtextured surfaces. Again, we consider the case of sandpaper abrasion. The combination of sandpaper grit, load pressure, movement speed, cycles, or distances should have a universal standard. Table 1 shows an assumed and fancied standard, in which sandpaper abrasion tests are classified into two categories, namely: (i) low grit test and (ii) high grit test. The combination of both grits is expected to better demonstrate the mechanical property of a microtextured surface. After the abrasion tests, the changes in the WCA of the microtextured surfaces can be measured. Subsequently, the descent rate of the WCA can be calculated with the following equation: The microtextured surface with a lower descent rate indicates a higher mechanical stability. In the low- and high-grit abrasion tests, we can obtain two descent rates, which can be used to carry out an effective comparison. Apart from sandpaper abrasion, other test methods (e.g., blade scraping, finger wiping, tape peeling, and sand impact) also need a standard for measurement. If researchers adopt a universal standard, the comparison of the mechanical stability of various microtextured surfaces will be easily achieved. The purpose of this paper is not to question or criticize the work of Wu et al. [3] because the issue of effectively comparing the mechanical stabilities of different microtextured surfaces is a problem encountered by many researchers. We hope that the above discussion will inspire researchers to create a standard to evaluate the mechanical stability of microtextured surfaces, which will be beneficial to the development of microtextured surfaces. Table 1: An assumed sandpaper abrasion standard. © 2020 Huichao Jin. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences; doi:10.31031/rmes

Abstract:
Research in Medical & Engineering Sciences is a multidisciplinary study of research and information on the applications of Science and Engineering to medicine
Firas M Al Rshoud, Khamaiseh K, Emad Al Sharu, Ziad Awwad, Nagham Younis, Ban Tell, Abdel Hamid Malhas
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/prm.2020.04.000582

Abstract:
Firas M Al Rshoud1*, Khamaiseh K2, Emad Al Sharu3, Ziad Awwad4, Nagham Younis5, Ban Tell6 and Abdel Hamid Malhas7 1Professor of Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, JSFG CME head, Jordan 2JSFG President, MRCOG, Jordan 3Senior Consultant of REI, Jordan 4JFSG Vice president, senior consultant of urology and andrology, Jordan 5MSc in embryology, General Secretary of JSFG, Biological science department, Jordan 6MSc clinical embryology, CME JSFG, Jordan 7Consultant of OB & Gyn, Financial committee of JSFG, Jordan *Corresponding author: Firas Al Rshoud, Assistant professor of REI, JSFG CME head, Faculty of Medicine, The Hashemite university , Zarqa, Jordan Submission: October 01, 2020;Published: October 07, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2020.04.000582 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume4 Issue2 Objective: This JSFG guidance comes in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic crisis and to the need of a clear information for provision of ART and Infertility treatments in Jordan aiming to protect both the patients and the health care workers [1]. By the end of September 2020, the risk of COVID-19 infection is increasing dramatically in Jordan (we are close from 2000 case/day), the normal daily Work should be modified to adapting a new life taking in consideration the following: Conclusion: We hope after the release of the JSFG guidance on Recommencing ART and Infertility Treatments our colleagues in the ART field will have a clear information that makes the work safer for both the staff and the patients during the pandemic of COVID-19. Keywords: COVID-19; ART and Safety The society board members and the Advisory committee identified pillars of good medical practice proposed for the restart of activity in the ART clinic and labs. Information and consent to the start of treatment All our Patients must be fully informed, clearly understand the risks related to COVID-19 disease, this can be achieved by providing a written information. Priority of ART treatment We should give priority of treatment to certain patients such as: Staff and patient triage Treatment cycle protocol The Ovarian stimulation: Oocyte retrieval: Embryo transfer: Laboratory guidelines: Staff safety Laboratory contingency plan (sudden shutdown): The Jordanian Society for Fertility and Genetics(JSFG) hope that all ART health worker in Jordan follow the above guidelines as these guidelines will make it safer for both the staff and patients. JSGF don’t recommend routine testing for asymptomatic patients either by PCR or antibodies at the present situation. 1. This guidance is inspired by the ESHRE 2020 Guidelines. 2. We want to thank the advisory board of the society(Mazen Zebdah, Faheem Zayed, Khaldoun Sharif, Suleiman Dabit and Aref Al Khaledi) for their participation in making these guidelines. © 2020 Firas M Al Rshoud. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Samo Kralj
Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science, Volume 5, pp 635-638; doi:10.31031/amms.2020.05.000620

Abstract:
Samo Kralj1* and Mitja Kralj2 1Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Slovenia 2ŠKUC, Slovenia *Corresponding author: Samo Kralj, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Slovenia Submission: September 01, 2020;Published: October 07, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/AMMS.2020.05.000620 ISSN 2578-0255Volume5 Issue4 Figure 1: The central atom (e.g., carbon or silicon) of valence four is linked with four neighboring atoms, which could result in a tetrahedral crystal structure. Various materials have dominated different human history periods. Some of them are even named by them: the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age… For example, in 5000 BC chisels made of copper (bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper) enabled the construction of Egyptian pyramids and sparked the growth of 1st great civilizations. From this perspective, the last century could be referred to as the Silicon Age. The “king” of this period, the silicon atom, is dressed with the electron cloud described by 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2. Among these electrons, the outer four valence electrons, located at the 3s and 3p-orbital, are the most important for its “social” activities. These valence electrons can form a tetrahedral lattice crystal unit (Figure 1) characterized by a specific electronic band gap structure, displaying semiconducting electric behavior. This property is extremely useful, and due to its electronic semiconductors are at the heart of classical computers. The microelectronic revolution of the 20th century is based on sensitive control of electric currents in semiconductors, enabled by their band gap structure. The switching of logic functions relies on the number of electrons and holes below and above the band gap separating the valence and conducting band. Here the electronic band gap corresponds to a forbidden zone of energies that electrons cannot occupy. Among various semiconducting material, doped silicon is most commonly used. In addition to the band gap property, its main advantages with respect to competing materials were its natural abundance, optical transparency, and widespread use. In the 1980s first artificial photonic crystals appeared [1,2]. Crystal structures enabling sensitive manipulation of light beams have been demonstrated. Prototype photonic materials displayed periodic structures on a micrometer scale and possessed a photonic band gap. The latter is characterized by a window of optical wavelengths that cannot propagate through the otherwise optically transparent material. For example, the 1st photonic crystal was made by drilling a closely spaced array of sub micrometer sized cylindrical holes. These holes play a similar role as atoms in semiconductors. The band gap structure depends on the crystal symmetry and geometric parameters determining the crystal lattice. The parameters are tailored to yield the band gap in the visible wavelength regime. Again, as in the case of electric semiconductors, the tetrahedral geometry enabled desired properties, suggesting that this structure is outstanding for making a photonic band gap material. The general aim is to reproduce in photonic crystals analogous phenomena seen in electronic semiconductors. They should function as “semiconductors for light”. The key to this in the band gap structure, which is dictated by geometry. Note that the behavior of i) electrons and ii) light beams in i) electronic semiconductors and ii) photonic materials is governed by different basic equations: i) Schrodinger equation and ii) Maxwell equations, respectively. Figure 2: a) A representative topological defect within an ordering field. In bulk, the ordering field tends to be spatially homogeneous, oriented along a single direction. The defect is characterized by the winding number m=1. At the defect origin, the ordering field is not uniquely defined. The defect core corresponds to the region where the elastic distortions due to the defect presence are relatively strong. In LCs the linear size of the core equals few nm. b) If an object is inserted within the defect core (in the figure the object is spherical), which weakly interacts with the ordering field, it reduces local energy costs introduced by the defect. c) In general, curvature enforces topological defects within the surface hosting the field. In the figure, there are two topological defects, characterized by m=1, located at the poles of the sphere. In the case of a vector field, such defects represent “elementary defects” (i.e., |𝑚|=1 corresponds to the minimal possible winding number). If the field exhibits head-to-tail invariance, “elementary defects” carry |𝑚|=1/2. Consequently, such geometry would in most cases host four m=1/2 TDs. d) In general, curved regions attract TDs. In the case shown, a m=1 defect covers the top of a cylindrically symmetric object. This placement of the defect enables the parallel structure of the ordering field below the defect, which is energetically advantageous. Already now photonic materials pervade our day-to-day life. They are present in several displays, smartphones, medical devices… Furthermore, they are promising to pave the way to completely new artificial materials, metamaterials, which are currently not present in nature. These materials are expected to introduce qualitatively new behaviors and functionalities. However, current photonic materials are made using “top-down” approaches, for instance, by etching, material deposition, 3D printing or drilling. It would be advantageous to produce such materials by exploiting some kind of “bottom-up” technology by exploiting materials possessing self-assembling property. One branch of such materials represent colloidal crystals [3] consisting of colloidal objects (particles) dispersed in an isotropic liquid. The surface of a particle should exhibit some...
Hani Raoul Khouzam
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/prm.2020.04.000580

Abstract:
Hani Raoul Khouzam1,2* 1Staff Psychiatrist, Mental Health and psychiatry services, PTSD treatment program and General Mental Health Clinic, USA 2Clinical Professor of Psychiatry and Medicine, USA *Corresponding author: Ajit Kumar Saxena, Department of Pathology/ Laboratory Medicine, India Submission: September 15, 2020;Published: October 06, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2020.04.000580 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume4 Issue1 The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) which precipitated the COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect human reproductive health. This review summarizes the potential risks of COVID-19 on pregnancy, neonatal health and fertility as reported through clinical observation and recently published studies. Keywords: COVID-19, pregnancy, neonates, fertility, coronavirus Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel type of highly contagious infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).It has several medical complications that keep being observed and addressed on a daily basis as this global pandemic continues to progress worldwide. Some of the recently observed clinical findings have documented SARS-CoV-2 ability of affecting reproductive health and neonate’s health. This review summarizes some of the recently described effects of COVID-19 infection on pregnant women, neonates and fertility. According to World Health Organization (WHO), pregnant women do not appear to be at higher risk of severe disease. Furthermore, WHO reports that currently there is no known difference between the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Nevertheless, the available data on the exact effects of COVID-19 on fertility and pregnancy is scarce. Despite the increasing number of published studies on COVID-19 in pregnancy, there are insufficient rigorous and systematically collected data with regard to the severity of the disease or specific complications of COVID-19 in pregnant women, as well as vertical transmission, perinatal and neonatal complications and the capture of critical data is needed to better understand the effects of this infection on pregnant women and neonates [1]. The main presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, sputum production, headache, and myalgias with some patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms [2]. Other patients may manifest anosmia which is an absence or decreased sense of smell or ageusia which is the loss or impairment of the sense of taste [3]. The severity of infection ranges from asymptomatic carriers, to mild flulike disease, to critical illness and death. Critically ill patients may experience respiratory failure, shock, or multiple organs failure [4]. Approximately 80% of infections are mild with flu-like symptoms, 15%-20% are severe, requiring hospitalization and supplemental oxygen, and 5% are critical and require mechanical ventilation [5]. The risk factors for severe illness include older age and the presence of co-occurring underlying medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, hypertension, and cancer [6]. Up to 3% of SARS-CoV-2 infections have been associated with increase mortality in individuals older than 60 years of age or in those with underlying medical conditions ,however it is important to recognize that death to COVID-19 can occur at any age including younger patients , and women of reproductive age who could be initially asymptomatic carriers of the virus [3]. Based on limited reports and the available data from other respiratory pathogens, it is unknown whether pregnant women with COVID-19 will experience more severe illness than nonpregnant adults. COVID-19 infection during pregnancy is not generally associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm birth [7]. In some reports, SARSCoV- 2 was found to increase the risk for pregnancy complications especially in the third trimester including acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, renal failure, secondary bacterial pneumonia, and sepsis [8]. To prevent these possible complications, the delivery should optimally be performed in health care facilities with close maternal and fetal monitoring. The timely delivery in women with COVID-19 critical status is not usually associated with increased risk of premature birth or asphyxia of the newborn and could improve the treatment and rehabilitation of maternal pneumonia [9]. Pregnant women with comorbidities such as obesity are likely at increased risk for severe illness consistent with the general population with similar comorbidities. However, given that pregnancy itself is now identified as a risk factor for certain outcomes, the magnitude of further increase from such comorbidities will need to be further delineated. Clinicians are urged to provide educational instructions to pregnant women and those contemplating pregnancy about the potential risk for severe illness from COVID-19, and measures to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized for pregnant women and their families. Pregnant individuals are encouraged to take all available precautions to optimize health and avoid exposure to COVID-19. These educational efforts could be provided via phone or telehealth sessions before scheduled appointments to allow clinics to appropriately prepare and optimize care coordination needs. There seem to be a low frequency of spontaneous preterm birth and general favorable immediate neonatal outcome in pregnant women with COVID-19 and the rate of vertical or peripartum transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be very low and not yet detected for cesarean delivery [10]. Although vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not detected, the proportion of neonatal bacterial pneumonia was higher than other neonatal diseases in newborns [11]. Although...
Hani Raoul Khouzam
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/prm.2020.04.000581

Abstract:
Hani Raoul Khouzam1,2* 1Staff Psychiatrist, Mental Health and psychiatry services, PTSD treatment program and General Mental Health Clinic, USA 2Clinical Professor of Psychiatry and Medicine, USA *Corresponding author: Ajit Kumar Saxena, Department of Pathology/ Laboratory Medicine, India Submission: September 15, 2020;Published: October 06, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2020.04.000581 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume4 Issue1 Aging is emerging in 20th and 21st centuries more than any time before. Development in science, technology, medicine, food, clean water, and hygiene have widely helped in more human longevity. Through such series of development, people are experiencing longer life as compared with their ancestors. Many countries in developing countries do not yet have such experience as how to interact with the growing aging people [1]. East, or broadly speaking, the developing world is unexpectedly facing new generations of the elderly people on the one hand, and the lowering of their youth below the age of 15 on the other hand. Despite the East, the Western countries have more experience in how to handle their aging people. Those countries have appropriately invested on research and practice in the field of biology, nursing, medicine, social work, public health, housing and anthropology for such people [2]. The nature of gerontology means that there are a number of sub-fields which overlap with gerontology. The developed countries entered the study of population aging quite earlier. Due to their declining fertility rates and rising life expectancy, mostly the developed countries are facing more aging population. Aging population is an indicator of industrial countries. Social work plays a very prominent role to identify the status of aging people with special reference to those who are usually 65 and older. It functions quite better in the developed world countries, whereas in developing countries social work is not as developed, and because of that, many aging people are facing hazards of various kinds. Many aging people are afflicted with dementia and Alzheimer's disease disorders [3]. Not only the Western scientists have written on aging and gerontology, Avicenna the Islamic scientist and researcher (1025) indicated the care of the aging people, including remedies, diet and constipation problems. The increasing number of the aged and life expectancy have started rising since the 14th century, but with higher acceleration in recent centuries. The phenomenon has resulted in increasing many family issues. The term "gerontology" was first coined by [4]. However, since 1940s National Institute on Aging started its activities at the University of Southern California [5]. People over 60 years old are predicted to be about 22 percent of the total population by the year 2050. Because of the age-related diseases the term the issues of aging people have been of priority with reference to treatment. As a demographic rule, baby-boomers of a time turn to aging population at another time. It is currently happening in Japan with 29 percent of aging people, Western Europe with 21 percent and the United States with 16 percent of aging 65 and over [6]. Due to change and transition in science and technology, most parts of the world will face more elderly people in the next three decades. So, geoscience needs to be used more to solve the issues emerging. Sex ratio is an indicator used in demography and gerontology. It indicates the number of males per 100 females. In industrial countries females outnumber males in in old ages. © 2020 Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Modern Approaches in Drug Designing; doi:10.31031/madd

Abstract:
Modern Approaches in Drug Designing Journal is a cutting edge, peer reviewed, open access platform for authors to make their contribution. It focuses on the latest research in all related fields of drug targets
Psychology and Psychotherapy Research Study; doi:10.31031/pprs

Abstract:
Psychology and Psychotherapy Research Study journal is well-known for its exploration of the relationship between analytical psychology and Psychotherapy. PPRS addresses issues on the leading edge of philosophy, science, religion, and an understanding of the arts.
Iraj Salehi Abari
Published: 28 September 2020
Advancements in Case Studies, Volume 2; doi:10.31031/aics.2020.02.000546

Ajit Kumar Saxena, Ramanuj K, Aniket K, Singh Ck, Agarwal M
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/prm.2020.04.000579

Abstract:
Ajit Kumar Saxena1*, Agarwal M2, Ramanuj K1, Aniket K1 and Singh CK1 1Department of Pathology/Laboratory Medicine, India 2Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, India *Corresponding author: Ajit Kumar Saxena, Department of Pathology/ Laboratory Medicine, India Submission: September 07, 2020;Published: September 28, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2020.04.000579 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume4 Issue1 Introduction: CUL4B gene is ubiquitin ligase belongs to the Cullinring ubiquitin ligase family. In recent study we have identified a series of MTNR1B, SENP3, AKAP3 and PLOD3 genes and their functional interaction to the ligand binding capacity after prediction of 3D structure to the drug like methotrexate, which plays a significant role during spermatogenesis. Although, the role of Cul4B gene mutation and its impact to the ligand binding during development and differentiation of male gonad (testis) remains unexplored in fertility. Objective: The present study has been designed to characterize the mutation of CUL4B gene sequence and correlate with functional aspect to the ligand binding site to understand the translational event of non-frame shift mutated (deleted) nucleotide sequence GGAGGA of DNA. The findings of mutations try to correlate with anatomical feature (testicular size) of the gonad and fertility. Material and methods: Blood samples were collected from the cases of clinically diagnosed non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with respective age matched controls. Study was carried out using whole genome sequencing (NGS) from Illumina (USA) to characterize the nature of mutation. The study was further extended to develop 3D structural analysis of the candidate gene CUL4B and protein (ligand) binding activity with drug like methotrexate using molecular docking (iTASSER) techniques for gene coded functional changes in testis. Results: Findings of NGS DNA sequencing confirm the non - frame shift mutation in homozygous condition of CLU4B gene involving deletion at position 1761-1746 of GGAGGA nucleotide sequences. After decoding of mutation region (gene) confirm loss of non-essential amino acid glycine glycine resulting changes in physiological function during spermatogenesis in testis. The predicted 3D helical structure of CLU4B gene showing binding of amino acid residue to ligand (methotrexate) as model to evaluate the functional activity of the gene by using bioinformatics tools. Conclusion: DNA sequencing analysis confirms the non-frame shift mutation of CUL4B gene in non-obstructive azoospermia male in homozygous condition. After mutation of GGAGGA sequence confirm either loss or deletion of non-essential amino acid residue (glycine-glycine) failed to bind to the ligand respective ligand (protein) resulting interference to the development of testis and infertility. Keywords: CUL4B gene; Infertility; DNA sequencing; 3D protein structure Human infertility is a highly complex phenomenon and etiological factors are poorly understood [1]. CUL4B gene is a member of the family of Cullin scaffold proteins which makes a series of ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes that regulate the degradation of cellular proteins [2]. The CUL4B gene is mapped on Xq24, is and consist of 22 exons which encodes a protein of 913 amino acids (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/?term=cul4b). The cullin domain is located between amino acid residues 14 and 354 and is characterized by a C-terminal globular domain (cullin homology domain). Earlier study of CUL4B gene point mutation assigned on X- chromosome in homozygous condition of has been associated to male infertility [3]. CUL4B gene hypothesized to play an important role in maintaining structural and functional role during spermatogenesis. CUL4 gene family have two members, CUL4A and CUL4B play a crucial role for the survival of both male and female germ cells. CUL4B is expressed in testis during spermatogenesis and mostly in post-meiotic spermatids stage and hardly expressed in spermatocytes [4,5]. CUL4B gene expression has distinct functions during development of gonad, but still to date, the crucial function(s) of CUL4B gene has not been clear in association with infertility. The rationale behind this study to recognize the impact of non-frame shift gene mutation of CUL4B and their interaction to ligand (protein) binding after prediction of 3D structure using known MTX drug as a model of infertility using molecular docking techniques. The present study might be helpful to explore the mechanism of abnormal differentiation of male gonad (testis) after gene protein drug interaction if mother exposed antenatally with anticancer molecules which might have interfare to the spectrum of cellular events of spermatogenesis and fertility. In the present study, clinically diagnosed cases of male infertility referred from OPD of AIIMS, Patna (Bihar, India) for Genetic investigations. The study was approved by Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC) and blood samples were collected by written informed consent from guardian. These cases of infertility are mainly categorized in three different groups i.e. non-obstructive azoospermia, obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia on the basis semen analysis by WHO [6] where the sperm count >20×106/ml, progressive motility>50% and normal morphology >30% and established fertility (with one or more children) were included as controls. All patients were initially evaluated by clinician and conventional medical diagnostic including patient’s background and physical examination analyses were performed. None of them had any history of childhood disease, environmental exposure, radiation exposure or prescription drug usage that could account for their infertility. The median age of patients included in the study was 35.4 years. Isolation and characterization of mutation using whole exome sequencing (WGS) Genomic DNA was isolated from clinically diagnosed cases of non-obstructive azoospermia and blood sample (1.0 ml) were collected after written...
Pinar Sengul
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000608

Abstract:
Pinar Sengul* Department of Psychology, UK *Corresponding author: Pinar Sengul, Department of Psychology, UK Submission: August 19, 2020;Published: September 24, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000608 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue2 Nutrition influences a wide range of physiological and cognitive mechanisms. Vegan (Plant-Based) diet is known to be associated with a healthy cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. Studies on the Mediterranean diet have shown that diets high in fruits and vegetables are linked with better cognitive performance and lower rates of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. The present study assessed verbal memory and sleep quality in a cohort of sixty-two adults aged 40 and above. Participants were split into strictly defined diet categories: vegan, vegetarian, pescatarian, omnivores with low meat/fish consumption and omnivores with high meat/fish consumption, using a modified Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener questionnaire. Verbal learning memory was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test, and sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Diet was found to have a significant effect on memory but no significant effect on sleep quality. The sample size, diluted by the five diet categories, may have been insufficient to capture the effects on sleep. Further research is needed to elucidate the protective role of plant-based diets on cognitive functions and sleep quality. Unlike main-stream knowledge in the relationship between memory and eating animal-based food, this research has debunked that hypothesis by showing that there are no significant relationship be-tween consuming animal products and having a better memory. Further research can even support a hypothesis that suggests that more plant-based eating habits would strengthen memory if gender is controlled with a larger sample size. Previous studies have indicated that the modern Western diet (high in animal fat and animal protein) is associated with raised incidences of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and cancer as well as mood and neurological disorders [1-5]. Evidence also exists of a correlation between macronutrient intake and the quality of sleep [6], and that reductions in sleep quality are related to lower cognitive functioning [7]. Another study [8] suggests that a vegan diet is associated with improvements in mood and neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Studies on the effects of a Mediterranean diet [9] indicate that it is associated with improved mood and cognitive processing speeds. There are, however, a number of conflicting findings and the levels of statistical significance of some of the results referred to above are low due to small participant numbers, short study periods and diverse nutritional patterns [10,11]. The possible implications of the effects of diet on the physical, mental and emotional health of the general population makes a controlled study of the effect of specific classified diets on defined sleep quality measures and on objectively measured memory performance highly relevant. For the present pilot study, the independent variable is diet over the last five years in five classifications: vegan, vegetarian, pescatarian, omnivore-low and omnivore-high, as established by the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, (MEDAS) questionnaire. The two de-pendent variables are sleep quality, self-reported on the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, (PSQI), and memory performance measured by the California Verbal Learning Test, 3rd Edition, (CVLT-3). Measures The primary measures used in the study were the California Verbal learning Test-3rd Edition, the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. CVLT-3 The CVLT-3, standard form, was used to measure memory performance. Participants were given word lists to memorize and recall was tested after a timed delay. Raw scores were standardized for age. For the current study the key outcome measure was total recall. MEDAS The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener consists of 14 questions on food and drink consumption. For the present study an amended scoring system was used to categorize individuals to one of the five specified dietary groups. PSQI The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Questionnaire assesses sleep quality and disturbances over the previous month. It contains a list of 19 questions giving scores for sleep quality, latency, duration and efficiency and also disturbances, use of medications and dysfunctions during day-time activities. Procedure Once informed consent had been given by the participant and they have been given instructions to be focused as much as possible, the experimenter started the questionnaire booklet. This consisted of the CVLT test followed by the MEDAS and PSQI questionnaires. The delayed components of the CVLT were completed after the questionnaires. The entire procedure took between 40 and 60 minutes to complete. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Birkbeck, University of London. Statistical analysis Analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Version 25. The main hypothesis concerning the effect of diet on memory was assessed using ANCOVA with dietary group as the independent variable and the memory score as the dependent variable with sleep quality as the covariate. All participants were adults aged between 40 and 77 years of age. All were fluent English speakers, with English as their first or second language. There were 62 participants, 33 male and 29 females. Using the diet questionnaire, each participant was placed in one of the five dietary categories as shown in Table 1. Table 1: Number of participants by diet group. Table 2 shows the mean memory score for each diet group and the overall mean. Figure 1 shows the differences between the individual group scores and the overall mean. The statistical analysis confirmed that there was a...
Bin Zhao, Wang Z, Yu Z, Tian C, Zhao B, Rodriguez Lc, Batista Ls
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-9; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000606

Abstract:
Wang Z1, Yu Z1, TianC1, Rodriguez LC2,3,4, Batista LS4 and Zhao B1* 1Colleage of Science, China 2ELIDAN genome SAS, 1 avenue du Lycée, Montereau Fault Yonne, France 3ELIDAN Dynamic LLC, Tampa, USA 4Environmental Biotechnology Department, Jamaica *Corresponding author: Bin Zhao, College of Science, China Submission: August 10, 2020;Published: September 23, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000606 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue2 Background: An infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus called COVID-19 has raged across the world since December 2019. The novel coronavirus first appeared in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread to Asia and now many countries around the world are affected by the epidemic. The deaths of many patients, including medical staff, caused social panic, media attention, and high attention from governments and world organizations. Today, with the joint efforts of the government, the doctors and all walks of life, the epidemic in Hubei Province has been brought under control, preventing its spread from affecting the lives of the people. Because of its rapid spread and serious consequences, this sudden novel coronary pneumonia epidemic has become an important social hot spot event. Through the analysis of the novel coronary pneumonia epidemic situation, we can also have a better understanding of sudden infectious diseases in the future, so that we can take more effective response measures, establish a truly predictable and provide reliable and sufficient information for prevention and control model. Methods: We establish different models according to the different developments of the epidemic situation, different time points, and different response measures taken by the government. To be specific, during the period of 2020.1.23-2020.2.7, the traditional SIR model is adopted; during the period of 2020.2.8-2020.3.30, according to the scientific research results, it was considered that the novel coronary pneumonia has a latent period, so in the later phase of epidemic development, the government has effectively isolated patients, thus we adopt the SEIQR model accordingly. During the period of 2020.3.31-2020.5.16, because more asymptomatic infected people were found, we use the SEIQLR model to fit. Finally, through a SEIR simulator, considering the susceptible number, the latent number, the infected number, the cured number, death number and other factors, we simulate the change of various numbers of people from the beginning to the next 180 days of novel coronary pneumonia. Findings: The results based on the analysis of differential equations and kinetic models show that through the prediction of the model established in the first phase, the epidemic situation of novel coronary pneumonia in Hubei Province was controlled at the end of March, which is in line with the actual situation. The rest of Hubei province, except for Wuhan, lifted control of the departure channel from 0:00 am on March 25, and Wuhan was also unblocked on April 8. Through the establishment of the second-phase model, it is found that the epidemic situation will reach its peak in mid-February. For example, the quarantine admission of the hospital declined after mid-February, which is inseparable from the measures to build square cabin hospitals in early February so that more and more patients can be admitted. The model established in the third phase shows that the epidemic had been completely controlled by the end of May, which is also in line with the reality. Because in mid-May, the Wuhan government conducted a nucleic acid test on all the citizens to screen for asymptomatic infected persons to fundamentally control the spread of novel coronary pneumonia. Interpretation: Hubei Province, as the center of the initial outbreak of novel coronary pneumonia, people were forced to be isolated at home during the Spring Festival, the most important Chinese holiday, and the whole society was in a state of suspension of work and Study: The Chinese government had taken many measures in response to the epidemic, such as shutting down the city, vigorously building square cabin hospitals, and prohibiting people from gathering. At the beginning of May this year, the epidemic in Hubei Province was finally effectively controlled. For ordinary citizens, we should not cause unnecessary panic about the unknown novel coronavirus. Instead, we should fully understand and be familiar with this virus. In addition to the relevant medical knowledge, we should also understand the spread of infectious diseases through appropriate mathematical models. By mathematical models, we can understand the degree of harm of infectious diseases, when to control it, how to stop it, and use scientific views to reveal the original face of the novel coronavirus to the public without causing social panic. Keywords: COVID-19; Pneumonia; Virus; Coronary; Differential equation; Infectious disease model The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. It quickly spread to other districts in the country, and a month later, to other countries across the world, impacting over 200 countries and territories [1]. On March 11, 2020, Tedros, the Director General of the World Health Organization, announced that, based on an assessment, the World Health Organization believes that the current novel coronary pneumonia could be described as a global pandemic [2]. COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by a coronavirus that is transmitted primarily through close airborne droplets and contact with a patient's respiratory secretions and close contact, and may also be transmitted through droplet contaminants from a patient (e.g., through hands, clothing, food, water, or the environment). The incubation period of most patients is within 7 days. Common clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, respiratory symptoms, fatigue, normal or decreased peripheral blood lymphocyte count, and...
Shaidaton Nisha , Nahian Rahman, Syeda Saima Alam, Khaleda Islam
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000607

Abstract:
Shaidaton Nisha1, Syeda Saima Alam2, Md.Nahian Rahman1 and Khaleda Islam3 1MSc, Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh 2Lecturer, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh 3Professor, Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh *Corresponding author: Shaidaton Nisha, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition Science, Bangladesh, Email: [email protected]; Tel: +8801679480527 Submission: August 14, 2020;Published: September 23, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000607 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue2 The aim of the study is to assess the dietary patterns along with nutritional status of thalassemia patients at selected hospitals in Dhaka city. A cross sectional study was conducted among patients with thalassemia aged 18 to 40 years at Bangladesh Thalassemia Samity Hospital and Thalassemia hospital and institute in Dhaka city. The study assessed nutritional status by height, weight and BMI along with dietary and morbidity pattern of thalassemia. Among study population 7.7% male and 5.5% female had thalassemia major, 23.1% male and 40% female had thalassemia minor, 53.8% male and 45% female had thalassemia intermedia. Again 15.4%male as well as 46% female had Haemoglobin H. 33.3% of thalassemic patients were severely thin, 29.1% were moderately thin, 20.8% were mildly thin and 1.67% were normal in comparison of weight to height. Our research observed food consumption score and individual dietary diversity score among the patients and found that 35.8% of patients consumed acceptable low food diet, 32.5% consumed borderline food diet and only 6.7% of patients consumed acceptable high food diet. In case of individual dietary diversity score only 8.7% of patients consumed highly diversified food as various type of foods are restricted to the patients with thalassemia that ultimately leads to poor nutritional status. This study found that about 40% of patients with thalassemia were severely thin and surprisingly there were no patients with overweight. This revealed that patients with thalassemia are more vulnerable to survive as they cannot eat diversified food because of disease restriction. Keywords: Nutritional status; Dietary patterns; Thalassemia patients; Bangladesh Thalassemia is emerging as a global public health concern. An estimated 320,000 babies are born each year with a clinically significant hemoglobin disorder [1]. Nearly 80% of these births occur in developing countries. Most conservative estimates suggest that at least 5.2% of the world population (over 360 million) carry a significant hemoglobin variant [1] and in excess of 100 million beta thalassemia carriers with a global frequency of 1.5% [2]. Thalassemia is a common problem in Bangladesh. According to World Health Organization (WHO) about 4.8 million people in Bangladesh are now carrying the gene of this silent killer disease, which is four per cent of the total population of the country. It is estimated that approximately 6000 babies with different types of thalassemia are born in Bangladesh each year [3]. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with a population of over 160 million people. Over 70% of the population live in highly resource-constrained rural areas [4], while most tertiary hospitals are located in big cities, notably in Dhaka, the capital city. Public hospitals are often overcrowded and lack resources (such as specialized and basic medical equipment, healthcare professionals and essential drugs) [5]. On the contrary, some private clinics and hospitals are relatively resourceful, but these are not accessible to the general population due to the associated costs. The treatment drop-out rate among a population plagued by poverty is expected to be very high, and is presumably driven by lack of access, either due to lack of awareness or income of patients seeking care on the demand side, or inadequate expertise, facilities, knowledge, and infrastructure from the supply side of health care. Despite the fact that Bangladesh lies in the world’s thalassemia belt, the information on different aspects (epidemiology, clinical course, mortality, complications and treatment outcomes) of thalassemias is lacking. Malnutrition affects the growth, efficacy of treatments and quality of life in patients suffering from thalassemia. Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, due to haemolytic anaemia, increased nutritional requirements, and morbidities. Thalassemia is a chronic disease that presents a range of serious clinical and psychological challenges. The effects of thalassemia on physical health can lead to physical deformity, growth retardation, and delayed puberty [6]. Its impact on physical appearance e.g., bone deformities and short stature, also contributes to a poor self-image [7]. About 61.3% of the adolescent consumed medium dietary diversified food. 30% of the respondent consumed lowest dietary diversified food where 8.7% girls consumed highly diversified food [8]. The aim of the study is to assess the dietary patterns along with nutritional status of thalassemia patients at selected hospitals in Dhaka city. Thalassaemia is the most common congenital disorder in Bangladesh. It is estimated that nearly 14,000 thalassaemia children are born every year in Bangladesh. Treatment facilities are limited due to the high cost of medicine and limited availability of blood for transfusion. Furthermore, medicines are not available readily other than in specialised thalassaemia centres in Dhaka and Chittagong. As treatment is expensive and lifelong, majority of the patients hardly afford proper treatment and thus suffer from the complications of the disease. Therefore, prevention is the fundamental way of uprooting thalassemia disease through knowledge dissemination. But where the disease already exists there is no option to prevent but...
E Villar Cociña, Villar Cociña E, Frías Rojas M, Savastano H
Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science, Volume 5, pp 626-634; doi:10.31031/amms.2020.05.000619

Abstract:
Villar Cociña E1, Frías Rojas M2 and Savastano H3 1Department of Physics, Central University of Las Villas, Cuba 2Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), Spain 3University of Sao Paulo, Brazil *Corresponding author: E Villar Cociña, Department of Physics, Central University of Las Villas, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba Submission: August 14, 2020;Published: September 23, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/AMMS.2020.05.000619 ISSN 2578-0255Volume5 Issue4 In this research work a synthetic review of the quantitative characterization of various materials (sugar cane waste ashes, bamboo leaf ash, calcined paper sludge, loessic soils, zeolite, fly ash and silica fume) based on the computing of the kinetic parameters of the pozzolanic reaction in pozzolan/calcium hydroxide(CH) systems is offered. The paper presents of more relevant results in the quantitative characterization (computing of the kinetic parameters) of the pozzolanic reaction of different materials originated from agriculture, mining or industry activities carried out by the authors.Two pozzolanic activity tests (conductometric method and accelerated chemical method) are employed. A kinetic-diffusive model (published by the authors in previous works) is used to describe the pozzolanic reaction. The kinetic parameters that characterize the process (in particular, the reaction rate constant and free energy of activation) are determined with relative accuracy in the fitting process of the model. The pozzolanic activity is quantitatively evaluated according to the results obtained for the kinetic parameters. This allows the comparison in a direct way of the pozzolanic reactivity of the materials, which is very useful for the employment of these materials for envisaged applications. The values of the reaction rate constant jointly with the free energy of activation give a precise index of the reactivity or pozzolanic activity of the materials. Complementary experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), were also employed, but not shown in the paper for space reason since that would necessitate a much larger paper. Keywords: Quantitative characterization; Pozzolanic activity; Kinetic parameters; Kinetic-diffusive model Abbreviations: SCBA: Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash; SCSA: Sugar Cane Straw Ash; BLA: Bamboo Leaf Ash; CPS: Calcined Paper Sludge; LS:Loessic Soils;FA: Fly Ash; SF: Silica Fume Industrial by-products and wastes are attracting much research studies in recent years because of their high silica and/or alumina content for the use as additions in commercial Portland cement. It is well-known that hydrated phases formed during pozzolanic reaction commonly improve the performance of concrete [1,2]. The reuse of waste materials for concrete production is a worldwide practice. The incessant generation of solid waste materials represents serious environmental and technical problems as a consequence of several industry activities. Also, the assessment of the pozzolanic activity of cement replacement materials is becoming increasingly important because of the need for more sustainable cementing products. The majority of the wastes are disposed in landfills having an adverse effect on the environment and creating air pollution due to fine dust generation. Waste ashes as pozzolanic materials to replace cement can reduce the consumption of clinker and reduce landfill requirements. This helps solving environment problems caused by cement production, decreasing both energy used and CO2 emissions. In recent years, agro-industrial solid wastes and zeolitic minerals applied as pozzolans in the manufacture of blended mortars and concrete has become the focus of new researches on alternative binders [3-8]. In the most of these researches, the methods for evaluating pozzolanic activity of the materials are focused on the qualitative aspect of the behavior of the pozzolanic materials rather than the quantitative aspect of lime- pozzolan reaction, with the latter regarding computation of kinetic parameters. The investigation of the kinetics of pozzolanic reactions is an important experimental task that gives characteristic constants for the reaction rate. Using them, one can evaluate the effectiveness of applying different types of pozzolanic materials as mineral additions to mortars and concretes, as well as to compare their properties. Presently, researchers are beginning to focus on known kinetic coefficient as an acceptable and rigorous criterion for evaluating the pozzolanic activity of the materials. With this precise purpose, several traditional mathematical models have been applied to the study of the pozzolanic reaction [9-16] describing with more or less accurately the experimental results. Other authors [17-20] have continued the development of other models for the quantitative characterization of reaction kinetics in pozzolan/lime and pozzolan/cement systems. Recently Villar Cociña et al. [21-23] proposed a kinetic-diffusive model that allows characterizing the pozzolanic activity of sugarcane wastes for all ages of the reaction. The results showed a good correlation between the experimental and theoretical data what encouraged its application in the evaluation of different pozzolans. The present paper shows the principal results obtained by the authors in the quantitative characterization of various pozzolanic materials (sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), sugar cane straw ash (SCSA), bamboo leaf ash (BLA), calcined paper sludge (CPS), loessic soils (LS), zeolite, fly ash (FA) and silica fume (SF)) based on the computing of the kinetic parameters of the pozzolanic reaction by applying the kinetic-diffusive model especially developed for this type of evaluation. This allowed the pozzolanic activity of these materials to be characterized in a rigorous way through the computing of the kinetic parameters, which also gives the possibility of comparing in a direct way the pozzolanic behavior...
Darweesh Hhm
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 14, pp 1512-1519; doi:10.31031/rdms.2020.14.000831

Abstract:
Darweesh HHM* Department of Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials, National Research Centre, Egypt *Corresponding author: Darweesh HHM, Department of Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials, National Research Centre, Egypt Submission: August 25, 2020;Published: September 18, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2020.14.000831 ISSN: 2576-8840 Volume 14 Issue 2 The chemical resistance or durability of Portland cement pastes (PS0) incorporating natural Perlite rock (PT) against the aggressive attack of 4% MgSO4 solution up to 12 months were investigated. Results showed that water of consistency and setting times (initial and final) are elongated. The compressive strength slightly improved during the early ages of immersion only up to three months with the blank cement batch (Pp0), but up to 4, 5, 6 and 7 months with cement batches (Pp1-Pp4) containing 5, 10, 15 and 20wt%PT, respectively and then decreased. Thereafter, certain deleterious or detrimental reactions started till forming high levels of ettringite and/or gypsum. These new phases are responsible for the decrease of compressive strength. Both combined water and total sulfate contents increased with time of immersion up to 12 months but decreased with PT content if compared with those of the blank (Pp0). The blank cement pastes (Pp0) recorded the highest values of total sulfate content, i.e. it is very sensitive to SO42- ions. At the end of the 12th month of immersion, the SO42- ions only precipitated on the external and lateral surfaces of the hardened cement pastes, and some horizontal minor cracks and little deformation could be seen on the edges of specimens with samples containing PT, whilst large swelling was noted with cement pastes of the blank (Pp0). Keywords: OPC; PT;Sulfate attack;Strength;Ettringite;Gypsum;Sulfate content Scope of the problem The use of nanomaterials as nano-alumina, nano-silica and generally nanoparticles could significantly increase their mechanical properties and durability owing to the reduction in the total pore structure of cement-based materials [1]. Nano silica, which is one of the earliest nanomaterials applied in cement-based composites, had a more obvious and evident effect on the performance improvements compared to other nanoparticles. This is due to that the nano-silica had a high pozzolanic reactivity with Ca (OH)2 in cement composites to create more hydration products or CSH and/or CAH- gels. Thereby, it is making the composites more compacted [2-4]. Generally, there are two types of sulfate attack can occur. The first is often accompanied by the formation of gypsum in the cement pastes with low C3A immersed in high sulfate concentrations which is the first factor for the formation of ettringite. The second is characterized by the formation of ettringite (C3A.3CaSO4.32H2O), in the cement pastes with high C3A immersed in low sulfate concentrations which is the first step of deterioration. The transition between the two types of sulfate attack was gradual, where both ettringite and gypsum could simultaneously occur. The formation of ettringite always leads to expansion, while gypsum usually leads to the loss of cohesion and softening, but no more to a marginal degree of expansion. The loss of cohesion is more directly due to the incorporation of sulfate ions into the CSH and / or CAH-gels [5-8]. The influence of these aggressive media on the behavior of building materials is a topic of significant interest for durability of cement structures [7-12]. This problem could be overcome or at least reduced by the use of mineral admixtures in cement to improve the strength development by the modification of the microstructure of the cement. The use of these cements is well accepted due to the resulting savings through the conservation of energy and cement as well as the production of low-lime products with good mechanical properties and durability [10-14]. The most common types of mineral admixtures are Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS), Fly Ashes (FA), Silica Fume (SF), Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA), Palm Ash (PA), Saw Dust Ash (SDA), Sun Flower Stalk Ash (SFSA), Corn Stalk Ash (CA) and wheat straw ash [15-17] which are coming from the various sectors of industry are pozzolanic materials [15-23]. When the pozzolanic materials dispersed into the cement paste, they generate a large number of nucleation sites for the precipitation of the produced hydration products. Hence, this mechanism makes the paste more homogeneous and denser as for the distribution of the finer pores due to the pozzolanic reactions between the amorphous silica and Ca (OH)2H formed during the normal hydration process of cement. This positively affects the resistance of concrete [6,7]. So, it is not surprising that some advances in cement and concrete technology have occurred as a result of three driving forces: the speed of construction, durability of concrete and environmental friendliness of industrial materials [22-26]. The sulfate attack has been reported to cause a damage of concrete for over a century. The media containing sulfate ions lead to the aggressive attack of cement pastes, mortars and concrete. Some constituents of the cement can enter into some deleterious reactions with these ions [5-8]. At least, six types of reactions could be described by sulfate attack. The most common of which often used to explain the defined sulfate attack are ettringite and gypsum formation. The addition of supplemental cementitious materials such as Fa, GbfS and SF could improve the mechanical properties and durability of cement-based materials [27-29]. In Turkey, there are about 7500 million tons of perlite deposits, and this represents the 2/3 of it exists all over the world [30]. Perlite is a glassy volcanic rock that contains about 70-75% SiO2 and 12-18% Al3O2. 2-6 % of its combined water content causes its expansion till become a cellular material of an extremely low bulk density when heated to about 900 ᵒC. Hence,...
Ahmed A, Hurst G, Tedesco S, Peeters M
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 14, pp 1505-1511; doi:10.31031/rdms.2020.14.000830

Abstract:
Ahmed A1*, Hurst G2, Peeters M3 and Tedesco S2 1School of the Built Environment and Engineering, Leeds Beckett University, United Kingdom 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom 3School of Engineering, Newcastle University, United Kingdom. *Corresponding author: Ahmed A, School of the Built Environment and Engineering, Leeds Beckett University, United Kingdom Submission: September 03, 2020;Published: September 18, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2020.14.000830 ISSN: 2576-8840 Volume 14 Issue 1 Concrete is one of the most utilised materials in the world. It is used to construct buildings, bridges and highways and is comprised of four key ingredients: cement, sand, gravel, and water. Although, there are environmental implications regarding the use of concrete, e.g. high embodied CO2, it is a flexible material in that it is possible to incorporate waste materials whilst maintaining structural integrity. Very little work has been done in replacing or partially substituting water as the hydration of cement is a key reaction to strength development. This paper investigates the possibility of utilising wastewater sludge (WWS) from the brewery industry as a water substitute in concrete. With the adverse effects of climate change resulting in water shortages around the world, there are sustainable implications of finding water substitutes. Experiments were carried out by supplementing water by volume in concrete mixes with WWS at 25%, 50%, and 100% steps at the point of need. Results were compared with a control specimen, which was made with 100% pure water. The results showed impressive compressive strengths that were suitable for structural applications, even at 100% WWS content. The results showed good repeatability and highlight the potential of WWS as a water replacement, which could enhance the sustainability aspect of concrete. There is potential to use wastewater sludge as a partial water replacement in concrete. Concrete is made from four basic ingredients: cement (binder), sand (fine aggregates), gravel (coarse aggregates) and water. It is a predominant material used in construction worldwide and widely used in all types of civil engineering works, including infrastructure, buildings, housing, hospitals, and environment protection [1-4]. Proportions of each ingredient/constituents are adjusted to produce a well-balanced concrete. It is a versatile material with important properties such as strength, durability, versatility, affordability, fire-resistance, and thermal mass. Furthermore, it is locally produced and utilised in all countries. Although, there are sustainability issues with concrete especially the high embodied CO2, it is a flexible material whereby it is possible to replace the fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, and binder with other recycled or waste materials [4]. So far, there has been little research done on replacing the water which is an important constituent of concrete with most mixes containing approximately 180 litres per m3 of concrete. It is vitally important water is present to hydrate the cement otherwise this will adversely affect the mechanical properties. When cement is mixed with water it reacts and its constituent compounds undergo a series of chemical reactions that are responsible for hardening of the concrete [2]. This process is called the hydration of cement [3]. Cement usually comprises of four compounds: dicalcium silicate, tricalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium aluminoferrite. Specifically, water reacts with tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate, the most reactive compounds in cement. During this first reaction cement, the calcium silicates react chemically with water to produce a hard paste-gel (that coats the aggregates) made up of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) phase which is the major contributor to strength in concrete [1-9]. The first reaction involves tricalcium silicate: Tricalcium Silicate + Water ---> Calcium Silicate Hydrate + Calcium Hydroxide (lime) + Heat (reaction 1) The initial reaction also involves dicalcium silicate: Dicalcium Silicate + Water --->Calcium Silicate Hydrate+Calcium Hydroxide (lime) + Heat (reaction 2) A recent estimate [10] indicates that 380 billion m3 of wastewater is produced on an annual basis, which is expected to rise by nearly 50% by 2050. This water contains a substantial amount of nutrients, including a reported 16.6. Tg of nitrogen, which has potential to be used in agriculture or provide electricity. In the brewing industry, the average water consumption is estimated at ~5L/L beer [11]. Common brewery by-products are spent grain, spent yeast, and spent hops/hot trub in high volume (16.9 million tons/year of spend grain, 250 thousand tons/year of hot trub, 2.1 million tons/year brewery residual waste [12]), which create a valuable opportunity for utilising waste streams to optimise environmental and economic sustainability. There are several funding schemes available in the UK, especially targeted towards small scale companies including microbreweries, which are interesting opportunities to save on electricity costs while creating additional income. A 2010 study [13] collected data from 156 breweries, representing 62% of the total beer production volume in European countries, to demonstrate the commitment of the brewing industry to sustainability. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a typical technology adopted to valorise these brewery waste to bioenergy via production of a renewable gaseous energy carrier (biogas) and a liquid slurry by-product (digestate). The Renewable Heat Incentive that was introduced in 2011 offers up to 200kW rate at a rate of 0.065£/kWh for equipment running on biogas or biofuel. Digestate is the main by-product of the AD technology [14], usually employed as fertiliser. This allows to recycle nutrients and reduces the use of mineral fertiliser in agronomic plant production, which improves the sustainability...
Pelin Günç Ergönül, Zeynep Aksoylu Özbek, Kıvılcım Çelik
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-9; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000605

Abstract:
Zeynep Aksoylu Özbek, Kıvılcım Çelik, Pelin Günç Ergönül* Manisa Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Yunusemre, Manisa, Turkey *Corresponding author: Pelin Günç Ergönül, Department of Food Engineering, Turkey Submission: June 24, 2020;Published: September 16 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000605 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue1 The aim of this study is to identify the edible oils and fat consumption habits of Turkish consumers. A questionnaire to evaluate the attitude of consumers toward various edible oils and fats was administered to 300 individuals in Manisa central districts. Olive and sunflower oils were reported to be consumed daily, while hazelnut and corn oils were not preferred. “Brand” (35%) was the primary influencer of edible oil purchasing decision of Turkish consumers. On the other hand, the most important criterion in the oil consumption of the respondents was “flavor” (41%). The present study also showed that Turkish consumers have positive attitudes towards olive oil and other vegetable oils. Keywords: Consumer; Consumption; Turkey; Fat; Manisa; Oil; Questionnaire Proteins, carbohydrates and fats play important roles in a balanced diet. Among these three essential nutrients, the highest energy is provided by fats. Today, especially in developed countries, consumers willing to pay attention to their health also change their eating habits. In this context, edible oils and fat choices have been influenced by healthy diet trend. However, this change highly depends on cultural habits of consumers. Fats and oils are among our indispensable food sources in terms of their ability to carry fat-soluble vitamins. Moreover, they contain some essential molecules that cannot be synthesized in the human body [1,2]. Fats have great importance in human nutrition as an energy source. As a comparison, 9.3 calorie are produced as a result of 1 gram of fat, whereas 1 gram of protein gives 4 calories, and 1 gram of carbohydrate give 4.5 calories to human body [2-4]. In addition to meeting the energy needs, fats contribute to many physiological and biological functions in the body [5]. Fat-soluble vitamins are responsible for many biological functions in the body as well as they act as structural material of all cells and organs [2]. Fats and oils are essential components of foods. It creates the desired texture and flavor in addition to the fullness of the products [6,7]. Additionally, they create the feeling of satiety in humans [8]. They serve as insulators in maintaining body temperature [6]. Oils are located among the protein layers in cell membrane and act as filter for the substances to be taken by a cell [8]. Furthermore, they and/or their products are used for non-food applications [2,4]. They are essential to transfer heat in food processes [2]. In a regular diet, 25-30% of the total daily energy requirement should be provided by fats [4,9]. However, energy obtained from oils should not exceed 35% of the total energy, while it should not be less than 20%. Excess fat is stored in the human body and might cause cardiovascular diseases. Another issue to be considered in daily oil consumption is the saturation degree of the oil. The American Heart Association [10] recommends that 1/3 of your daily need be made from saturated (i.e. butter, margarine), 1/3 of unsaturated (i.e. olive oil), 1/3 of polyunsaturated (i.e. sunflower, corn, soybean oil) fatty acids. A person who weighs an average of 70kg needs at least 1700kcal every day. When it is accepted that 35% of the daily energy need, which is 1700kcal according to healthy nutrition conditions, 595kcal should be provided by oils and fats [4]. According to regular nutrition rules, liquid foods contribute to 1/3 of the daily fat intake, while solid fat consumed at breakfast contribute to 1/3, and other foods including cheese, milk, and nuts contribute to 1/3 of the daily fat intake [3]. An adult need to consume 24kg of fat per year for balanced nutrition [11]. According to 2016 data, including olive oil, in Turkey 966 thousand tons of vegetable oil are produced. The amount of vegetable oil per person was determined as 21.9kg [3,12]. However, per capita vegetable oil consumption is 19kg in Turkey [11]. On the other hand, vegetable oil consumption per person is 15kg in India, 26kg in China, 57kg in the USA and 60kg in EU countries [3]. Compared to developed countries, per capita consumption of vegetable oil in Turkey seems to be lower. Fats used in human nutrition are classified in various ways. Edible oils are divided into two main classes, animal and vegetable oils. Of these, oils of animal origin, fats obtained from bovine and ovine animals and their milk and various fish. Vegetable oils are obtained from seeds and fruits of plants. Vegetable oils are divided into two groups as fats and oils. Solid vegetable oils are generally grown in tropical regions and are obtained from the fruits of cocoa, coconut and palm plants. These vegetable oils are solid at room temperature and rich in saturated fatty acids. Fats produced by hydrogenation of vegetable oils and margarines containing water or milk in emulsion are also included in this group [4,13]. On the other hand, liquid vegetable oils are mostly obtained from seeds such as sunflower, soybean, canola and cotton, and 97-99% of the compositions of these vegetable oils consist of triglycerides [14]. Products rich in olive oil in the Mediterranean region, rapeseed in Europe, sesame oil in India and soybean oil in China have been extensively used. Today, 80% of the world's edible oils and fat production is made from vegetable oils, and soybean oil is the most widely used oil [6]. In Turkey, sunflower, corn, peanut, soybean, cotton, canola and palm oil as well as butter, margarine and olive oil are frequently consumed [4,5,11]. So far, many studies have been...
Viktor Dmitrienko, Domarenko V, Dmitrienko V, Pshenichkin A, Peregudina E, Arinova A
Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science, Volume 5, pp 613-614; doi:10.31031/amms.2020.05.000617

Abstract:
Domarenko V, Dmitrienko V*, Pshenichkin A, Dmitrienko I, Peregudina E and Arinova A Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia *Corresponding author: Viktor Dmitrienko, Senior Specialist,PhD, Engineering School of Advanced Manufactured Technologies, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia Submission: September 05, 2020;Published: September 15, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/AMMS.2020.05.000617 ISSN 2578-0255Volume5 Issue4 The prospect of the integrated development of the world’s largest deposits of sedimentary oolitic iron ores of the West Siberian belt is examined. It is shown that the use of modern geotechnological methods: underground leaching of oolitic ores with the integrated use of peat in chemical and metallurgical processes will allow to quickly develop the rich potential of the Bakcharskiy ore cluster. Keywords: West Siberian iron ore belt; Bakcharskiy ore cluster; Integrated development; Oolitic ores; Underground leaching; Peat The world reserves live of iron ores by the beginning of the XXI century has averaged 150-200 years, but for some countries it has barely reached 5-10 years [1]. Therefore, today it is necessary to contemplate about a new raw material base for ferrous metallurgy, about the transition to new modern and cheaper technological schemes of extraction and redistribution of iron ores [2]. Such a reserve is the largest West Siberian iron ore belt, which has been able to meet the needs for iron, phosphorus, and vanadium for centuries [1]. The West Siberian iron-ore belt of coastal-marine chemogenic oolitic goethite-hydro goethite-leptochlorite ores is a strip about 150km wide and about 6000km long from the basin of the Turukhan and Bolshaya Kheta rivers in the northeast to the headwaters of the river Om in the southwest, flanking the West Siberian Lowland from the east and south with a total area of up to 300,000km2. Lisakovskoye and Ayatskoye deposits (Republic of Kazakhstan) are located on the western edge of the belt, Kolpashevsky and Bakcharsky ore clusters (the largest objects) are located on the eastern edge, within the limits of Tomsk region. Their reserves are not even taken into account by the balance of the country due to low iron content in the ores (30-40%) and their poor washability, as well as due to very difficult mining conditions of operation, both using mine and open-pit methods due to a significant water cut of the overlying rocks and ore bodies [1,3]. The use of this richest potential of iron ores is possible by means of a modern geotechnological method-the underground leaching method [3], which has found wide application in the exploitation of epigenetic deposits of uranium [4], gold and other minerals occurring in porous water-flooded rocks. The idea of underground leaching of minerals is increasingly attracting the attention of the mining industry, in particular, for extraction of uranium, gold and some other elements, but it seemed unacceptable in the development of iron ores that require huge volumes of productive solutions (mineral acids), special methods for separating iron from solutions, and the solution of a number of technological issues [3]. We are considering the possibility of the integrated use of the territory [5,6], which is based on a favorable combination of natural resources (ore, peat, chloride brines) and allowing solving problems that seem not to be solved (the development of swamps in Western Siberia, extraction of iron, phosphorus, vanadium, aluminum, production of electricity). The spatial coincidence of two unique basins, namely iron ore and peat, contributes to the development of a single process chain, which allows developing on a large scale two types of deposits previously referred to as off-balance, the development of which was considered unprofitable from modern economic positions [3]. The cost of the resulting products with the appropriate technological analysis of the processes will be significantly cheaper than using mine or open-pit mining methods [3]. The use of the given method allows consistently increasing the extraction of iron up to thousands and millions of tons with a gradual increase in capital investments, with a simultaneous increase in extraction and processing of peat [5]. This method allows, as experience is accumulated, to involve all new landfills at the lowest cost. The proposed process flow diagram allows achieving the following results: Financial support by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No 19-45-700001\19) is gratefully acknowledged. © 2020 Viktor Dmitrienko. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Hickmann T
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 14, pp 1502-1504; doi:10.31031/rdms.2020.14.000829

Abstract:
Hickmann T* Eisenhuth GmbH & Co. KG, Germany *Corresponding author: Hickmann T, Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nigeria Submission: August 28, 2020;Published: September 15, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2020.14.000829 ISSN: 2576-8840 Volume 14 Issue 1 Modern energy systems such as redox flow batteries (RFB) or biological fuel cells (BFC) are becoming increasingly popular in the specialist trade [1-5]. Despite a number of demonstrative tests and the increasing number of media representations [4-7], up to now the systems are cost-intensive and for some components like bipolar plates are only a few materials are usable like original carbon materials. So, the development and knowledge in processing of the components are essential for the economic efficiency of the systems. However, it is necessary to look at the surface structure of the materials as one of the parameters defined by different production methods and after-treatment. There are some measurement methods commercially available, which are tested on different samples and generate different values. It can be concluded that optical methods are more suitable than mechanical ones. Keywords: Vanadium redox flow batteries; Biological fuel cells; Graphite compound; Bipolar plates;Surface roughness In order to define the surface roughness, it is necessary to define the parameters. Common parameters are the arithmetic average called Ra and the average of maximum peak to valley height of profile called Rz. The arithmetic and averaged maximum peak height are looked for in order to describe the surface quality of graphite compound panels from different manufacturing and aftertreatment processes. The corresponding measurements are taken relatively locally so that either a wide range of measuring points or always the same points have to be checked in order to obtain comparable, meaningful results. The surface roughness has a significant impact to the contact resistivity of the graphite material to the connecting parts like electrodes [8]. Figure 1: Pictures of some of the samples. The red lines show exemplary the starting and end point of one measurement run. In this study samples like shown in Figure 1 are used for the evaluation of the measurement methods. The samples 1, 2, A and B are made by injection moulding and are partially sand-blasted. In the case of samples A and B different sand-blasting materials are used. The sample 3 is made by compression moulding and is milled afterwards. The samples are samples out of production (samples 1-3) or specially produced specimens for different tests (samples A-B). The analysis works with the measuring device MicroProf®, which operates based on a white light distance measurement. The measuring process uses the chromatic aberration of lenses, thus the wavelength dependent refraction index, with the sample being lighted by focused white light (halogen lamp). A system of passive lenses with large chromatic aberration vertically subdivides the white light into focusing points of different colours and height. When focused light hits a surface, this light - contrary to non-focused light - is perfectly reflected. It arrives through the same system of lenses and a fiber optic cable at a miniature spectrometer. Thus, the wave length (colour) of the electric light indicates via a calibration table the distance between sensor and sample. The vertical resolution capacity amounts to 10nm, the lateral resolution capacity is defined by the size of the light spot with a diameter of 1-2μm (Figure 2). Figure 2: Measuring principle of the white light distance measurement with a chromatically coding sensor. Parallel tot he optical measurement, a surface roughness tester SRT 5000 was used.. This device measures via a lens the roughness of a surface by means of the deflection of a needle, which connected to a spring is drawn or scratched respectively in parallel with the surface. The spring is connected to a height measurement device. The roughness tester is checked prior to the measurement on a calibration object. In the Table 1, the results of the two measurement methods are recorded and compared. Strong differences can be noticed between the results. On the other hand, the deviations between the results of one method of the three measuring lines are relatively similar. With regard to the interpretation of the measured results and the recorded differences between the methods the sample 3 shows the maximum surface quality, assuming a relative accuracy of the white light process. Table 1: Measurement results of surface roughness for samples 1-3. The sample 3 has been machined, whereas the sample 2 with the highest roughness has been sand-blasted, a fact that goes with the high value. The sample 1 shows at the measurement with the needle process the lowest value, but also the biggest difference referred to the results by the white light measurement. This is in line with the origin of the sample as it stems from injection mould and being composed of a significantly more fluid material. As the calibration of the surface roughness tester has been accomplished successfully, intuitively the differences between the results of the two measuring methods should not be so dramatic. However, the surface seems damaged by the scratching of the needle, so it is assumed that the results are lower than they should be. This was confirmed by a microscopy of the samples, shown in Figure 3. As the tested material is a graphite compound, it appears to be too soft for the method. Additionally, as described above the sample 1 consists of a more fluid material and is therefore much softer according the material data sheets. Figure 3: Microscopy pictures of the surfaces of sample 1 (left) and 3 (right) after the mechanical roughness measurement. Results of the optical surface roughness test from samples A and B are listed in Table 2. Sample A is sand-blasted with glass pearls like the sample 2. Sample B...
André C Zingano
Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science, Volume 5, pp 620-625; doi:10.31031/amms.2020.05.000618

Abstract:
André C Zingano* Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil *Corresponding author: André C Zingano, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Submission: August 06, 2020;Published: September 15, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/AMMS.2020.05.000618 ISSN 2578-0255Volume5 Issue4 The coal seam strength and the failure criteria that represents the behavior of the coal seam are very important for mine section and pillar design. In addition, the same to roof and floor layers, which will form the roof-pillar-floor system. Therefore, the rock mass characterization is the most important job and it is the beginning of the underground ground control design. Another issue is the distribution or behavior of the coal seam strength for the whole mine area. Sometime, the coal seam strength assumed the same for entire area, but it is not true because the coal seam is heterogenic and anisotropic, and also the coal strength gets some effects due to faults and spacing between fractures. This paper has the objective to demonstrate the use of themethodology for geomechanics characterization to determine the strength for the Bonito coal seam and discuss the coal seam strength distribution around the entire mine area. The intact coal strength considered the laboratory tests that were proceeded during the lasts 17 years, including triaxial and uniaxial strength tests. It was note that there is a strong correlation between all laboratory strength tests with 90% of interval confidence. The explanation for this coal seam strength variation is the presence of the discontinuities and their variation in quantity and quality at each location in the mine area because the coal seam rock classification and its behavior will be affected by the quantity and quality of fractures. Keywords: Coal strength;Rock mass classification;Failure criteria The coal mining companies in Santa Catarina State apply the room-and-pillar mining method due to some features of the coal seam, like the shallow depth of the coal seam, but the reason is that subsidence is not allowed since 80’s. There are two mineable coal seams: (i) Barro Branco and (ii) Bonito seam. Both seams are almost flat and cut by faults. The faults cause relative movement between blocks, which change the depth of the coal seam in each block. These tectonic forces also cause changes in the coal seam strength due to fractures and joints. The coal seam strength is very important for mine section and pillar design, and the failure criteria that represents the behavior of the coal seam. In addition, the same to roof and floor layers, which will form the roof-pillar-floor system. Therefore, the rock mass characterization is the most important job and it is the beginning of the underground ground control design. The coal seam geomechanics characterization takes into account the description the core from drilling in terms of RQD, quantity and quality of the discontinuity, and laboratory tests, mainly uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength for intact rock. Based on the geomechanics description, the rock mass classification can be applied using GSI, RMR and CMRR rock mass classification approaches for the coal seam, and roof and floor layers. After that, the failure criteria using Hoek and Brown approach was considered to determine the rock mass mechanics properties (friction, cohesion, and strength) for coal seam. Another issue is the distribution or behavior of the coal seam strength for the whole mine area. Sometime, the same coal seam strength is assumed for entire area, but it is not true because the coal seam is heterogenic and anisotropic, and also the coal strength gets some effects due to faults and spacing between fractures. Despite the coal mining in Brazil exists since the beginning of the last century, some geomechanics characteristics still need some study, like the influence of the discontinuities on the coal seam strength. This paper has the objective to demonstrate the use of the methodology for geomechanics characterization to determine the strength for the Bonito coal seam and discuss the coal seam strength distribution around the entire mine area. In the almost last 20 years, a lot of geomechanics characterization for different proposes is done, but the main reason was to determine the coal strength and pillar design for both coal. Some of the effort to estimate the seam strength was in-situ tests and laboratory tests considering geomechanics characterization seams [1-3]. At the end of 90s, the Bonito coal seam began to be mined at the Treviso and Lauro Muller counties area, including the total five underground room-and-pillar mines. Many borehole samples from these mines were tested and geomechanics description done during these last years. Uniaxial and triaxial tests performed to complete the geomechanics description of the borehole samples, including quantity and quality of the discontinuities (spacing, RQD, and roughness). The coal seam strength was estimated (or calculated) using the Hoek-Brown failure criteria [4]. Those laboratory tests in different laboratories and in different test machines were made (both servo-controlled and non-servo-controlled devices). However, this could be a challenge or a problem when all the results of the tests had been together in a same database. The geomechanics characterization is the approach to estimate the rock mass strength, which consider the rock sample strength (uniaxial and triaxial strength), the description of the discontinuities in terms of quantity (spacing and RQD) and quality (mainly roughness). The geomechanics classification (RMR, CMRR and GSI) and finally the failure criteria by Hoek-Brown failure criteria [4] to determine the coal seam strength are applied. To obtain the parameters necessary to determine the RMR it is necessary to get the information of structural geology, water content and the strength of the rock. Laboratory tests (uniaxial and triaxial tests) estimate the...
Omorogiuwa Eseosa
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 14, pp 1499-1501; doi:10.31031/rdms.2020.14.000828

Abstract:
Omorogiuwa Eseosa* Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Nigeria *Corresponding author: Omorogiuwa Eseosa, Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nigeria Submission: August 26, 2020;Published: September 14, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2020.14.000828 ISSN: 2576-8840 Volume 14 Issue 1 High initial cost of acquisition and installation The high initial acquisition cost when compared to utilizing the conventional sources from power utility companies has resulted to a serious setback in the use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) as an alternative to power generation in developing countries. Cost of acquiring renewable energy system increases as the power system capacities increases whether mini, micro and macro. It should be worthy of note that acquiring and installing RES for power generation is beyond the reach of an average individual in terms of his/her income. One –fourth of the world population resulting to well over 1.6 billion people live without access to electricity. Three hundred and thirty three (333) million Africans live below poverty line of one dollar per day and in every minute that passes by, there is every likelihood that three Africans are likely to fall within this poverty bracket. Moreso, cost of acquiring the least rated capacity of renewable energy is far above the minimum wage as earned in most developing nations. Government policies and will towards enhancing and promoting the development of renewable energy in developing nations The demand for electricity is rising at what could be at least 2.5kW per person using Nigeria as an example of the most populous developing nation. If at a conservative figure of 180 million population, then what is required is about 450GW of electricity to effectively service the energy demand, thus the need for government policies to favor the utilization of RES. Unfortunately, there are no effective policies that favor the utilization of RES and as such have discouraged the investment of individuals, corporate organizations, and companies towards investing in this sector for power generation. There is also little or no serious commitment by the government towards mitigating environmental pollution via utilization of fossil fuels. There should be favorable government policies on power generation for RES that will be different from the conventional fossil fuel generating sources. These policies should favor reduction or total exemption in tax payment, tariff plan, low interest loans, subsidies in RES utilization, custom duty waivers, tax rebate to encourage people to own solar powered plants, government sponsored programs on RES, etc. Lack of adequate user awareness RES penetration is yet to reach the critical stage of mass awareness creation to enable greater number of the populace to buy into the concept and then see it as a must have though it is still at its infant stage. Starting from basic education down to nursery, primary, secondary and tertiary institutions, there is very poor awareness of RES utilization by individuals. Serious enlightenment on discouraging the use of fossil fuels due to its negative impact on the overall ecosystem and the immediate environment in terms of pollution and health implication should be the new narrative and transferred to future generations. RES awareness should also cut across individuals, corporate organizations, companies, business owners, decision makers, owners of business and personnel involved in the business of RES technology and its utilization and the public. Insecurity and fear of unknown affecting foreign investment Policy inconsistencies, poor governance, insecurity, kidnap, insurgency, political apathy, human rights violation, hostage taking etc has negatively affected the attraction of foreign investors to developing nations. These have resulted to a very big threat to the overall development of the developing nations socially, politically, economically and infrastructurally. Foreign partners are highly reluctant and discouraged to neither invest a penny nor even give credit supports and facilities because of the very high level of insecurity and volatility. Myth and believe of some heliolatry worshippers Some people still belief that the sun is the link between them and their life and as such, the sun is seen as their God of wisdom, justice, beneficiary and spiritual bond. This has resulted to the sun been revered and prayers and supplications rendered to it. Some heliolatry worshippers revere the sun and as a result see it as very wrong to tap and convert the solar energy into electricity utilization. Same ideology also goes for the wind and hydro. Lack of trained manpower in renewable energy One of the major challenges of RES development in developing countries is the lack of skilled/trained manpower. RES technology is evolving very fast, however skilled and trained manpower to match this pace of development is obviously lacking. The shortage of manpower and competency level has resulted to poor or no consideration of solar insolation, panel efficiency, specific consideration of geospatial angle of installation of the panels among others. Further research has showed that most RES programs are not too satisfactory in their course content, such that the RES industries do not find their relevance in tackling challenges ( be it practical or otherwise).This has resulted in making some of the RES industries to either hire skilled personnel or do in-house trainings through experts from developed nations. This in turn is very expensive for the company to also handle but they have no choice. Poor research facilities from the government and private bodies From International Renewable Energy Agency records (IREA), RES is expected to provide above 85% of global energy by 2050. In order to meet this projection, most developed countries and industries alike have all established state of the art research institute and learning centers equipped with...
Annals of Chemical Science Research; doi:10.31031/acsr

Abstract:
Annals of Chemical Science Research is devoted to publishing articles on topics of current interest and importance in coordination of chemistry, interface of chemistry, chemical engineering, inorganic, organic and polymer chemistry, and includes aspects of organometallic, theoretical and bioinorganic chemistry, materials chemistry, medicinal chemistryphysical chemistry
Navarrete Jm, Morales Oy, Zúñiga Ma
Journal of Biotechnology & Bioresearch, Volume 2, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/jbb.2020.02.000542

Abstract:
Navarrete JM1*, Morales OY1 and Zúñiga MA1 1Faculty of Chemistry, Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry Department, National University of Mexico *Corresponding author: Navarrete JM, Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Mexico Submission: August 25, 2020;Published: September 11, 2020 Volume2 Issue4September, 2020 Fulvic acids, as well as aminoacids,are well known by its great importance to maintainactive the metabolism in living matter, butfulvic acids are created by one very long oxidation process, after the metabolism of living matter has been interrupted, to create bigger molecules with greater reactive capacity than pure aminoacids.Till now, organic fertilizers have been used by its evident effect on agricultural crops, but fulvic acids effect on animals metabolism, particularly vertebrates, has been scarcely studied. In Mexico, have been produced fulvic acids for human consumption, using sugar as raw material, and the purpose of this paper is to insist, once again, on the directinfluence of fulvic acids on animal vertebrates metabolism, particularly on the IgG antibodies multiplication support. If metabolism is defined as the whole and continuous process of chemical reactions taking place in organic tissues, which preserve both vegetable and animal life, then it is concluded that organic acids, such as amino and fulvic acids, should be extremely important reactives to maintain living processes. If aminoacids is the term used to define organic acids which include NH2 in their molecules, then fulvic acids are produced by complete oxidation of organic matter, after long time its metabolism has been interrupted. So, both of them are natural organic acids in living matter, but fulvic acids dispose of greater number of active terminals in bigger molecules, which explains their use as soil fertilizer in agriculture since historical times. Therefore, if aminoacids have an important role in vegetal and animal metabolism, they might be associated with fulvic acids produced by long time dead organic matter. Then, this paper attempts to introduce the role of fulvic acids in vertebrate animals metabolism, once their importance as soil fertilizer has been very well known. Ground fertilizers are so much as countries and types of soil, even when it is possible the synthetic, industrial production of them, by using sugar as raw material. In any case, it is possible the complete separation of fulvic acids from natural fertilizers, eliminating heavy metals and any other possible toxic compounds, if they are to be tested in human and animal species. So, fulvic acids industrially produced have been used in Mexico for human consumption, and their effect tested on the laboratory mice and rats immune system. The adopted procedure was to feed identically two groups of twenty mice and twenty rats, divided in four groups of ten each, but while one group drank pure water, the other group drank a solution of commercial Fulvi-H solution, authorized and sold in Mexico for human consumption. The mice total average weight was 35 grams, while rats total average weight was 350 grams, and the fulvic acids daily dose drank by mice and rats was 15mg/ml [1,2]. Also, the fulvic acids action on aminoacids absorption by vegetables was tested, by using two poblano chili crops in presence and absence of Fulvi-75 organic fertilizer 1mg/ml, both irrigated with same volume of 15 aminoacids labelled with total 11,1d/m-ml of 14C solution, Perkin Elmer Product [3]. If the idea or presunction that aminoacids are one very important factor to maintain the metabolism equilibrium in living organic matter, through continuous organic chemistry reactions, and fulvic acids are associated with them in some way, then the spontaneous creation of antibodies IgG when some organic virus attacks it, is supported by the ingestión of fulvic acids filtered from digestive track to blood in animals, and from soil minerals to vegetable tissues, as it seems to show the results obtained when fulvic acids have been ingested by mice, rats and chili crop. So, the results obtained by ingestión of fulvic acids during two months by mice and rats are as follows, when Elisa method for antibodies IgG (mg/ ml) and a light refractometer for total number of antibodies IgT (mg/ml) have been used [1,2]: Number of mice: 9 (one mice was dead by fight) IgG average with no FA (fulvic acids): 6.4mg/ml (std. dev. 4.5) IgG average with FA (fulvic acids): 26.6mg/ml (std. dev. 11.1) Increment IgG: 315%% IgT average with no FA (fulvic acids): 60.8mg/ml (std. dev. 7,85) IgT average with FA (fulvic acids): 70mg/ml (std. dev. 4.2) Increment IgT: 15.1% Number of rats: 10 IgT increment average with no FA (fulvic acids):67.5mg/ml (std. dev. 1.79)-66mg/ml (std, dev. 2.13)=1.5mg/ml (2,3%) IgT increment average with FA (fulvic acids):70mg/ml (std. dev. 1.41)-64.3mg/ml (std. dev. 2.36)=5.7 mg/ml (8.9%) In relation to fulvic acids and aminoacids absorption from the soil by vegetables, it has been found that 15 aminoacids at different concentrations (from glutamic acid 16.15% to metionine 0.73%), all of them labelled with 14C, have been absorbed 2.76 times more (276%) if they are associated with fulvic acids in poblano chili crops [3]. © 2020 Navarrete JM. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Taikai Liu, Zou J, Wen K, Song C, Liu T, Deng C, Liu M, Yang C
Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science, Volume 5, pp 606-607; doi:10.31031/amms.2020.05.000616

Abstract:
Zou J1,2, Wen K1, Song C1, Liu T1,*, Deng C1, Liu M1 and Yang C3 1Institute of New Materials, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Materials Surface Engineering Technology, The Key Lab of Guangdong for Modern Surface Engineering Technology, China 2School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, China 3School of Environment and Energy South China University of Technology, China *Corresponding author: Taikai Liu, Institute of New Materials, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Materials Surface Engineering Technology, The Key Lab of Guangdong for Modern Surface Engineering Technology, China Submission: August 11, 2020;Published: September 11, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/AMMS.2020.05.000616 ISSN 2578-0255Volume5 Issue4 As one of the most promising candidates to provide metallic interconnector the ability against oxidization at elevated temperature, conductible spinel has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. However, it is suffering poor stability during the preparation process, such as plasma spray. This work is proposed to concentrate on the preparation of highly conductible spinel coating. MnCo2O4 spinel coatings are successfully obtained by atmospheric plasma spray. Conductivity test is carried out at 700 °C with duration up to 15 hours. Stability and variation in microstructure are characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Resultantly, coatings are found intensively densified that cracks and gaps are expelled, and number of pores is reduced. The as-sprayed coatings are found of more CoO and less MnCo2O4, while the densified coatings are composed of more MnCo2O4 and less CoO. The measured conductivity of samples is 7.99S/cm, 4.00S/cm and 39.4S/cm for sample No.1, No.2 and No.3 respectively. Sample No.3 exhibit the best stability with the lowest specific heat flux of 0.8mW/mg and the biggest average grain size of 227nm while the specific heat flux of sample No.2 is as high as 1.8mW/mg and the average grain size is 83nm. Both the densification, phase composition and the grain size contribute to the conductivity of the coatings. Keywords: MnCo2O4 spinel; Metallic interconnect; SOFC; Conductivity; Densification; Phase composition As one of the most important components of SOFC stack, interconnector provides current conduction, thermal conduction and mechanic support to cells. Replacing ceramic interconnector, such as LaCrO3, by metallic interconnector allows lower operating temperature of SOFC. Due to the relatively low cost, good workability and excellent resistance to thermal oxidation, ferritic stainless steel is considered as the most promising candidates of interconnector materials. However, the use of ferritic stainless steel also brings problems, the existence of Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) causing higher ohmic resistance [1] and the evaporation of Chromium to cathode leading to cell performance degradation [2-4]. Spinel has been intensively studied as promising protective coating [5-11]. However, currently most of the methods to prepare Mn-Co spinel coating either costs too high, or deposits too slow, or is of low scalability. Plasma spray, as a surface modification technology, has been widely used to fabricate coatings on surface to endure production new properties [12,13]. However, for maintaining the performance of SOFC stack, the protective spinel coating shall be thin, dense and stable. Hu et al. [14] successfully applied plasma spray to prepare Mn-Co spinel coating [14]. The measured ASR of coated metallic interconnector is as low as 13mWcm2 after sintered at 800 °C for 200h, whilst the spinel coating is 100µm thick. Moreover, the spinal phase is suffering the poor stability when exposed to hot plasma. Therefore, this work is proposed to study the influence of thermal condition during the preparation on spinal coatings and clarify the effect of heating treatment on the microstructure of spinal coatings. In this work, commercial spinal powder is used as raw material to prepare spinal coatings by plasma spray process. MnCo2O4 spinel coatings are obtained with controlled spray conditions. The conductivity of obtained MnCo2O4 spinel coatings are measured. The stability and microstructure of spinel coatings are characterized. The effect of heating treatment on spinel coatings is estimated. Coating preparation Three sets of spinal coatings are obtained by atmospheric plasma spray. The setup of the spray system is described elsewhere [15]. The raw material used is spherical Mn1.5Co1.5O4 powder with average diameter of 28.5µm. The spinal powder is fed at a rate of 20g/min. Ceramic sheets with dimension of f1.85cmx2mm are employed as substrate to allow conductivity measurement. More details are available in (Table 1). Table 1: Parameters to prepare coatings and the thickness of obtained coatings. Conductivity measurement The four-point method is employed to measure the conductivity of obtained coatings. The testing sample is placed in a tubular furnace with f50mm orifice at two ends. All measurements are performed at 700 °C with duration up to 15 hours. Constant current of 0.2A is applied, the corresponding voltage is recorded for conductivity calculation according to a method reported in the literature [16]. Characterizations 30mg of raw powder and obtained samples are placed in Al2O3 crucible for DSC test. The test was performed from room temperature to 800 °C with heating rate of 5 °C/min. The test chamber was protected by Argon (99.99%). Phase composition and micromorphology of raw powder and coatings are characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. Confirmed by XRD, the raw powder consisted of MnCo2O4 (PDF#23-1237) and Mn1.5Co1.5O4 (PDF#18-0409) as shown in Figure 1. The phase of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 is considered as a mixture of Mn3O4 and Co3O4, both of which belong to F3dm space group. Since both Co3O4 and Mn3O4 are unstable at elevated...
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