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Alireza Khoshnevisan, Sadat Kamali Z, Sana Mirahmadi M
Psychology and Psychotherapy Research Study, Volume 4, pp 1-8; doi:10.31031/pprs.2021.04.000598

Sadat Kamali Z1, Sana Mirahmadi M2 and Alireza Khoshnevisan3* 1Department of Psychology, Iran 2Islamic Azad University of Medical Sciences, Iran 3Associate Professor, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran *Corresponding author: Alireza Khoshnevisan, Associate Professor, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran Submission: April 19, 2021Published: April 30, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PPRS.2021.04.000598 ISSN 2639-0612Volume4 Issue5 Neuromodulation has been used in Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD) as a presumed intervention targeting diverse brain regions however, antidepressant properties of DBS for TRD in latest clinical trials are still under debate. We review the main putative neuroanatomical targets of DBS applied for the treatment of intractable TRD in this paper. Different researches imply that stimulation parameters and neuroanatomical locations could influence DBS-related antidepressant effects. Among different neuromodulatory targets that have been studied, DBS in the neuroanatomical structures of the Subcallosal Cingulate Gyrus (SCG), Anterior Limb of Internal Capsule (ALIC), Ventral Capsule/Ventral Septum (VC/VS), Medial Forebrain Bundle (MFB), and Nucleus Accumbans (NAcc) yielded more reliable antidepressant success rates in cases with TRD. Nonetheless, more well-designed randomized double-blind, controlled trials are necessary to entirely evaluate the efficiency, safety and compatibility of these DBS targets for the management of TRD. Keywords:Depression; Neuromudulation; Subsingular gyrus; Medial forebrain bundle Abbreviations: TRD: Treatment-Resistant Depression; SCG: Subcallosal Cingulate Gyrus; ALIC: Anterior Limb of Internal Capsule; VC/VS: Ventral Capsule/Ventral Septum; MFB: Medial Forebrain Bundle; NAcc: Nucleus Accumbans; DBS: Deep Brain Stimulation; PD: Parkinson’s Disease; TRD: Treatment-Resistant Depression; LHb: Lateral Habenula; ITP: Inferior Thalamic Peduncle; TRI: Treatment of Intractable; ACC: Anterior Cingulate Cortex; RSE: Retrosplenial Cingulate Cortex; AC: Anterior Commissure Treatment-resistant depression is a relentlessly disabling disease with no confirmed treatment choices once several drugs, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy have been unsuccessful. Even though neuromodulation (Deep Brain Stimulation) (DBS) is an conventional treatment option for Parkinson’s Disease (PD), essential tremor and movement disorders, and has been used in Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD) as a suggested intervention targeting various brain structures, antidepressant effects of DBS for TRD in latest clinical trials are still under debate. In this paper, we review main neuroanatomical targets of DBS proposed for the treatment of unresponsive TRD to verify which brain target(s) have the most successful results regarding acute and maintenance management of TRD. On the whole we considered seven distinct DBS targets that is: Subcallosal Cingulate Gyrus (SCG), Nucleus Accumbens (NAc), ventral capsule/ventral striatum, Anterior Limb of Internal Capsule (ALIC), Medial Forebrain Bundle (MFB), Lateral Habenula (LHb) and Inferior Thalamic Peduncle (ITP) for the Treatment of Intractable TRD. Electrical stimulation of these relevant brain frameworks revealed impacts on mood alteration in cases with TRD. Cingulate gyrus Cingulate gyrus represents an arcuated anatomical structure, which is settled in the medial part of the cerebrum [1], and it encircles the corpus callosum by a demarcating region called the callosal fissure. It emerges underneath the rostrum, arches over the anterior surface of the genu, and broadens alongside the dorsal surface of the trunk, and eventually joins to the hippocampal gyrus via narrow isthmus after terminating to the posterior surface of the splenium [2]. Concerning cytoarchitectural features, the cingulate gyrus comprises of following portions: Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and Subcallosal Cingulate Gyrus (SCG) as a subset of the anterior cingulate gyrus which is verticalized to the corpus callosum encompassing the 32, 25 and 24 Brodmann areas [1], posterior cingulate cortex and Retrosplenial Cingulate Cortex (RSE) [3]. The SCG could affect the pathophysiology of some neural dependent process leading to major depression like cognitive mechanism, mood condition, emotional interactions, reward process, cortisol modulations, circadian rhythm, appetite status ,and the processing of the pain, by synaptically connecting whether with subcortical or cortical structures involving in aforementioned aspects [4]. Herein SCG might play a crucial role in modulating the unpleasant emotions presenting whether in healthy or depressed individuals [5,6]. Here, we will review some of the most recent human research which has been done to explore the effects of SCG-DBS in Treatment Resistant Depressed (TRD) patients. The first double-blind randomized sham-controlled study conducted by Puigdemont and his co-workers [7] and elucidated that DBS (continuous electrical therapy) of SCG might represent a reliable and fruitful therapy for sustaining therapeutic impacts in those who presented with extreme depression. In sum, antidepressants impression of DBS has vanished following the discontinuation of the stimulations as we ascertain that clear relapse or exacerbating will be occurred following the withdrawal. Moreover, no side effects such as (paresthesia, headache, GI discomfort, dizziness) or serious adverse neuropsychiatric manifestations attributing to the stimulation were observed in the course of the exploration. A randomized sham-controlled trial by the leadership of Holtzhimer affirmed the achievability and safety of SCG-DBS as a novel therapeutic agent for TRD [8]. Albeit in the present study, it is not well established that active stimulation is significantly correlated with antidepressant effects. They bounded the participants up in following the steadily scheduled psychotherapies meeting as well as the sustained medication regimen....
Hanine D, D Hanine, B Rouijel, A El Baoudi, M Kisra
Research in Pediatrics & Neonatology, Volume 5, pp 450-454; doi:10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000618

D Hanine1,2*, B Rouijel1,2, A El Baoudi1,2 and M Kisra1,2 1Pediatric Surgery Department “A”, Children’s Hospital of Rabat, Morocco 2Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University Rabat, Morocco *Corresponding author:D Hanine, Pediatric Surgery Department “A”, Children’s Hospital of Rabat, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University Rabat, Morocco Submission: April 01, 2021 Published: April 29, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000618 ISSN: 2577-9200 Volume5 Issue4 Adrenal cortex is a cancer of the adrenal cortex, rare in children; it accounts for 0.2% of pediatric cancers with a ratio of 1.5 in girls and is sometimes part of predisposing syndromes. The clinical signs suggestive of adrenocortical carcinoma are most frequently endocrine, present in 90% of cases. The hormonal increased secretion is made up of cortisol, androgens, estrogen and more rarely, Aldosterone. Symptoms of virilization are most commonly seen and may or may not be associated with Cushing’s syndrome. Arterial hypertension (hypertension) caused by increased secretion of aldosterone is rarer. More rarely, the mode of discovery is the presence of an abdominal mass, most often associated with abdominal pain, or sometimes local signs of compression. The prognosis of these tumors, as well as the survival rate, is very variable depending on the tumor stage. It is very pejorative for stage III and IV tumors, compared to stage I and II tumors. The 5-year overall survival rate, all stages combined, fluctuates between 49% and 57% depending on the series, but it can vary between 20 and 90% depending on the tumor stages. Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment, hence the question all surgeons ask themselves: the possibility of complete excision. We report the case of an infant, brought to consult for a Genu Varum, who’s clinical and radiological investigations concluded in an adrenal cortex. The treatment was surgical with an anatomopathological study confirming the diagnosis. The outcome was favorable thereafter with regression of endocrine signs over a 6-month follow-up. At the end of this observation, we highlight this very rare pathology as well as its management. Keywords: Adrenocortical carcinoma; Virilizing tumors; Adrenal tumors; Child Adrenocortical Carcinoma (ACC) are rare tumors that have a bimodal distribution, the first peak is in children less than five years and the second around the fifth decade [1]. Although most adult ACC are non-functional, in the pediatric age group, nearly 95% are functional [2]. Virilization is the most common abnormality and Cushing’s syndrome and hyperaldosteronism are less frequent [3]. We begin the review with a clinical case of a 16-month-old infant, and then we will discuss this very rare pathology as well as its management. Our study was done in March 2021 at the pediatric surgery department “A” at the Children’s Hospital of Rabat, the case studied is a 16-month-old boy brought by his parents for hirsutism and genu varum. Without history, the child had since the first months a pubic hair. On examination, his weight was 12kg, height was 85cm and blood pressure was 90/60mmHg. He had no cushingoid face, no moon face, not stretch marks, but pubic and body hair well developed and gynecomastia. The external genitalia were male with normal sized testicles but an increased penis of 6cm in size. On the osteoarticular level, the articular amplitudes were normal. The clinical examination showed a harmonious bilateral genu varum. There were no neurocutaneous markers. There was no family history of malignancy. Laboratory investigations revealed normal hematological and biochemical parameters. Morning (0800 hours) serum cortisol was 2.9μg / Dl. Other hormonal levels were normal. Ultrasound of abdomen revealed a tissue mass at the level of the superior pole of the right kidney, heterogeneous hypoechoic, of regular contours, exerting a mass effect on the renal cortex without separating border; measuring 52x51x44mm. Computed Tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a right retroperitoneal mass, well-defined tissue, of regular contours, without calcifications, presenting a heterogeneous enhancement after injection of the contrast product; measuring 51x43x49mm (Figure 1). The extension assessment was negative. We decide to do a first surgery. Surgical exploration found a fully encapsulated right adrenal mass. This mass pushed back the inferior vena cava and the renal pedicle without infiltrating them with a separating border. The dissection of the mass above the liver was easy. We continued dissection down below the Kidney (Figure 2). We did a complete resection of the encapsulate mass (Figure 3). There was no locoregional ganglion. The anatomopathological study concluded in an Adrenocortical Carcinoma (ACC). The postoperative follow-up was simple with regression of signs of virilization in the postoperative months. Figure 1:Abdominal CT showing the tumor. Figure 2:Surgical exploration showing the mass at the upper pole of the Kidney. Figure 3: The fully encapsulated resected mass. Adrenal cortex in children is rare, accounting for only 0.2% of pediatric cancers. The incidence of ACC follows a bimodal distribution with a peak during the first ten years of life and particularly before four years. It is estimated at 0.4/million per year for the first four years of life [4]. The ACC can be on the right or left side, however some authors recognize a greater frequency of these tumors on the left side. Bilateral tumors have been reported in 2-10% of cases [5]. The sex ratio changes with the age at the time of diagnosis of the disease. There is an overall female predominance, accentuating among those under three (ratio: 1.7/1) and especially among those over 13 (ratio: 6.2/1) [2]. ACCs can occur as part of specific predisposing syndromes that are currently well identified, the two main ones being: [6]. Li Fraumeni...
Hanine D
Research in Pediatrics & Neonatology, Volume 5, pp 447-449; doi:10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000617

D Hanine1,2*, B Rouijel1,2, L El Aqqaoui1,2, H Oubejja1,2, H Zerhouni1,2, M Erraji1,2 and F Ettayebi1,2 1Pediatric Surgery Emergencies Department, Children’s Hospital of Rabat, Morocco 2Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University Rabat, Morocco *Corresponding author:D Hanine, Pediatric Surgery Emergencies Department, Children’s Hospital of Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University Rabat, Morocco Submission: April 01, 2021 Published: April 29, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000617 ISSN: 2577-9200 Volume5 Issue4 Trichobezoar is defined by the presence of an intragastric foreign body formed by hair or textile fibers. It is a rare condition that usually occurs in adolescents with mental health problems. The clinical symptoms are very varied and the diagnosis is often suspected on radiology and endoscopy, but sometimes certain complications such as peritonitis can be revealing. The treatment associates surgical and psychological care. We report the observation of a 14-year-old girl hospitalized with acute generalized peritonitis, clinical and radiological investigations concluded in a Trichobezoar complicated by gastric perforation. The treatment was surgical with pre and post-operative resuscitation. The evolution was favorable thereafter with a child psychiatric follow-up for the young adolescent. At the end of this observation, we highlight the possible complications of Trichobezoar and their management. Keywords: Trichobezoar; Bezoar; Gastric perforation The term bezoar refers to various foreign bodies found in the gastrointestinal tract. Most are formed in the stomach by the accumulation of non-digestible substances, such as certain plant fibers (phytobezoar), hair (trichobezoar), concentrated dairy products (lactobezoar), more rarely certain drugs (pharmacobezoar) [1]. Trichobezoars usually result from the accumulation of hair, but, in rare cases, it can be papier-mâché, wool from carpets or clothing [1]. Although rare, but not exceptional; the trichobezoar usually affects children or young adolescents with mental health problems [2]. Its clinical symptoms are very varied, ranging from simple epigastralgia to a complete occlusive syndrome complicated by digestive perforation which can be fatal. The diagnosis is often suspected on radiology and endoscopy. The treatment is essentially surgical associated with psychological care. This work consists of a review of the literature on the trichobezoar in children, with a brief presentation and some reflections concerning the management of this condition. Our study was done in January 2020 at the pediatric surgery emergencies department at the Children’s Hospital of Rabat, the case studied is a 14-year-old girl brought by her parents in an acute abdomen chart. Having as a history, chronic epigastralgia with retrosternal pain. The history of the disease was characterized by the onset one week earlier of acute abdominal pain with vomiting and fever. Clinical examination showed a teenage girl in poor general condition, fever at 39° with a septic face. Abdominal palpation revealed a mass of the left hypochondrium and left flank extending beyond the midline with generalized abdominal defense. The physical examination found also a slight alopecia of the scalp. The clinical diagnosis of acute generalized peritonitis was retained. X-ray examinations were performed to support the etiological diagnosis. An abdominal X-ray was performed showing an enormous pneumoperitoneum with probable mass pushing back the transverse colon and the digestive loops at the bottom (Figure 1). An abdominal ultrasound showed a peritoneal effusion of great abundance without objectifying mass. After stabilizing the patient preoperative resuscitation, a CT scan was performed for orientation before surgical exploration (Figure 2). Figure 1:Thoracoabdominal X-ray showing a huge pneumoperitoneum with backflow of the intestines at the bottom. Figure 2:CT image showing the gastric trichobezoard with a perforation in the fundus (arrow). This CT revealed an enormous intragastric mass extending to the pylorus with a perforation at the level of the Fundus (Figure 2) and a peritoneal effusion of great abundance. The supraumbilical midline laparotomy revealed a huge stomach that has been pulled out of the abdomen (Figure 3). After Gastrotomy, a large J-shaped Trichobezoar was removed which had the shape of the stomach (Figure 4). After abundant washing, an ulcerative perforation was found in the gastric Fundus with several false membranes around (Figure 5). We delimited the edges with suture in 2 planes as well as a suture of the gastrotomy in 2 planes. The postoperative followup was simple, marked by an exclusively parenteral diet for 5 days with resumption of transit and progressive enteral feeding. The short and long term course was good. Child psychiatric care was instituted for our young patient. Figure 3: Surgical exploration showing a huge gastric mass. Figure 4:Trichobezoard after being removed. Figure 5:Trichobezoard after being removed. Trichobezoar is a rare condition, and in children it accounts for 0.15% of gastrointestinal foreign bodies. The female sex is the most affected (90% of cases) and the age of onset is in 80% of cases less than 30 years, with a peak incidence between ten and 19 years [3], this was the case of our patient. It is important to note that environmental and psychological factors can constitute a predisposing ground for the development of Trichobezoars. The gastric localization is the most frequent, the curls of hair thus ingested are caught by the gastric mucosa to which they attach and form a more or less complex tangle, a kind of wire mesh at the level of which the food aggregates, forming a mass compact intimately attached to the gastric wall. The trichobezoar thus formed can spread to the small intestine, sometimes arriving at the last ileal loop, or even in the transverse colon, thus...
Hanine D, Rouijel B, El Baoudi A, Aboulam Z, Kisra M
Research in Pediatrics & Neonatology, Volume 5, pp 444-446; doi:10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000616

Hanine D1,2*, Rouijel B1,2, El Baoudi A1,2, Aboulam Z1,2 and Kisra M1,2 1Pediatric Surgery Department “A”, Children’s Hospital of RABAT, Morocco 2Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University Rabat, Morocco *Corresponding author:Hanine D, Pediatric Surgery Department “A”, Children’s Hospital of RABAT, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University Rabat, Morocco Submission: April 01, 2021 Published: April 29, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000616 ISSN: 2577-9200 Volume5 Issue4 We report the observation of a 5-year-old boy who consults for acute paroxysmal abdominal pain located in the right iliac fossa without other associated signs. The physical examination was completely normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed a multi-compartmentalized cystic mass, without vascular character on Doppler, without mass effect on neighboring structures; the mesenteric vessels were in the normal position. On computed tomography this mass corresponded to a mesenteric formation attached to the cecum containing several septas. The diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma or mesenteric lipoma was made. Surgical exploration confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric lipoma attached to the ileum. Resection with anastomosis was performed. The post-operative consequences were simple. Pathological examination confirmed the lipomatous nature of the mass. At the end of this observation, we highlight this rare pathology with possible complications. Keywords: Lipoma; Mesentery; Child Lipoma is a benign tumor made up of fatty tissue that usually does not cause complications [1]. Its mesenteric location is rare. Complications from mesenteric lipoma are exceptional, but remain possible, hence the importance of knowing them [2]. We report this condition in relation to a case in order to highlight its epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Our study was done in Marsh 2021 at the pediatric surgery department “A” at the Children’s Hospital of Rabat, the case studied is a 5-year-old boy brought by her parents in a table of abdominal pain from the right iliac fossa. Having as history, recurrent abdominal pain, often in the right iliac fossa and periumbilical, without fever, vomiting, rectal bleeding or transit disorders. Clinical examination shows a child in good general condition, of normal build, with well-colored conjunctivae. The abdominal palpation as well as the rest of the clinical examination is unremarkable. Figure 1:CT image showing a multi-compartmental mass between the digestive loops. A multitude of clinical diagnoses, both medical and surgical, have been mentioned. The laboratory tests were normal. X-ray examinations were performed to support the etiological diagnosis. An ASP was carried out without anomalies. Abdominal ultrasound, coupled with Doppler, showed a cystic, multi-compartmental mass of the right iliac fossa, devoid of vascularity, with normally located mesenteric vessels. Abdominal tomodensitometry objectified the presence of a voluminous oblong formation, mesenteric, attached to the cecal wall and to the right colon, insinuating between the digestive structures without pushing them back, of fluid density without clean wall, not enhanced after injection of the product. of contrast; first suspecting a cystic lymphangioma (Figure 1). We performed a laparotomy by a transverse incision at the Mc Burney point, after exploration of the ileocaecal intersection which is unremarkable. The entire small intestine was unrolled, a mass of macroscopically lipomatous nature was found in the ileum 50cm from the ileocaecal junction. This mass originates in the mesentery, and extends on either side of the latter by joining the digestive loop without a clear cleavage plane (Figures 2 & 3). The 2 layers of the mesentery are opened with total resection of the mass as well as the digestive loop to which it attaches (Figure 4), then end-to-end anastomosis and closure of the mesenteric breach. No other associated anomalies during exploration. The post-operative consequences were simple. Pathological examination concluded that lipomatous tissue was formed without signs of malignancy. Figure 2:Surgical exploration showing the anterior surface of the mass. Figure 3: Surgical exploration showing the posterior surface of the mass. Figure 4:Resected lipomatous mass carrying the digestive loop. Lipoma is a benign tumor made up of fatty tissue that usually does not cause complications [1]. In children, lipomas are superficial in the trunk. Deep lipomas can involve the thorax, the mediastinum and rarely the intestinal mesentery [3]. A positive diagnosis of mesentery lipoma is often made at the time of laparotomy, as the clinical symptoms are very polymorphic and nonspecific [3,4]. It can be asymptomatic, discovered by chance, or manifested by an abdominal mass with digestive signs giving rise to fear of a major complication such as occlusive compression syndrome or volvulus [4,5]. Current radiological investigations, including ultrasound and computed tomography, are an important part of the diagnosis. However, other types of fatty tissue tumors such as liposarcoma cannot be formally ruled out until there is histological evidence [3,5]. Ultrasound coupled with Doppler is an important contribution to highlight the mass when it is large or complications, namely a small bowel volvulus and its turns [6]. In addition, it makes it possible to evoke a suffering of the digestive loops in front of the thickening of the wall of the handles at the level of the volvulus [6,7]. Finally, this examination is easy to perform, non-invasive and painless [1]. In our patient, ultrasound revealed an avascular tissue mass, the nature of which has not been specified without any effect of mass on neighboring structures. The study carried out by Kisra M & Sarda [8,9] has shown that ultrasound is not always efficient, because the boundaries of the tumor are imprecise and the exact...
Janez Trontelj Jr
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 817-821; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000689

Janez Trontelj jr* University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, Ljubljana, Slovenia *Corresponding author:Janez Trontelj jr, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, Ljubljana, Slovenia Submission: April 05, 2021Published: April 19, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000689 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 3 Latest advances in integrated micro systems, incorporating the latest sensor technology, will enable affordable use of informatics in agriculture. This paper describes a method for a real-time prediction of soil properties using a portable, low-cost sensor incorporating an integrated circuit for soil impedance spectrometer. This new, application-specific integrated circuit was developed in our laboratory. The described method considers different soil sample properties variations of macro nutrients such as phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. The influence of machine learning parameters and soil categories was studied to obtain the most accurate model to meet the farmers’ requirements for realtime soil analysis in an agricultural field. The system’s portability allows the sensor to be attached to a tractor and quickly obtain a complete database of the field’s soil properties and further fertilizer plan optimization. Keywords: Soil sensor; Electrical impedance spectrum of the soil; Soil classificatory; Real-time fertilization plan Artificial intelligence is becoming more and more crucial in today’s industry and enables accurate predictions based on a statistical analysis of previously collected data and machine learning [1]. In our case, this considers numerical soil information on macro and microelements, ambient temperature, moisture content, pH, texture variations, and the like. Therefore, the most advanced technologies use multi-sensor systems that include expensive ion-selective sensors. These sensors require chemical solutions that are sensitive to specific elements. Such requirements are not suitable for a real-time application in a large area. Besides, large data sets are necessary to capture the multiparametric variation in soil properties for different areas. Therefore, the trade-off between price and prediction accuracy must be found independently for each task. This research aims to develop a method for predicting local soil properties for a real-time application. The prototype for soil property prediction design is validated in this research, including in our laboratory developed Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for impedance spectrometer. The advanced machine-learning model is introduced for local field property prediction. A limited number of agricultural fertilizers were used to provide soil nutrient variations. This research aimed to create a representative dataset that fits the soil properties under study (i.e., phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) and to study the influence of the machine-learning parameters on the prediction of the soil properties under predefined conditions. The electrical soil impedance spectrometer needs no chemical support. However, the main problem with the use of impedance sensors is their low selectivity. The literature reports their high sensitivity to soil texture, moisture content, presence of nitrogen and similar. Therefore, we performed the analysis for a local field having minimal texture variation. In the papers [2-4], the soil impedance spectrum concept has been published. However, to attract the farmers to accept it, a user-friendly and low-cost system needed to be developed. It turned out that the method based on the soil spectrum is susceptible to soil sample preparation. If the soil is dry, the impedance spectrum varies significantly with the soil type, its texture, and similar. The problem is the ohmic contact between the sensor electrodes and the soil. Poor ohmic contact may increase the real part of the impedance spectrum and disguises the relevant information about the soil impedance. Machine learning is also a crucial step. Decision tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are commonly used methods found in the literature. Based on a comparative analysis, we selected the machine learning method. Selecting appropriate categories for soil characterization is another critical issue in this study. The analysis can be performed with varying degrees of accuracy. The accuracy also correlates with the level of nutrients that need to be identified [5]. To estimate which method is most effective, we performed a comparative analysis. To our knowledge, there is no such analysis in the literature. Soil nutrients are characterized as very low, low, medium, high, and very high in some studies. Another soil approach uses the categories low, medium, and high [6]. The fertilizer recommendation may be increased or decreased by 25% or 30% of a general recommendation for the low or high category. However, the nutrient level categories are more based on the type of crop, yield level nature, and soil [7,8]. Different crops accumulate different amounts of nutrients from the soil and have different nutrient recommendations. Therefore, there is no uniform recommendation about soil categories. The correlation between different categories for data coding and prediction of soil properties using machine learning is studied to estimate the model’s sensitivity to the category. The simplified equivalent circuit of the soil sensor is presented in Figure 1, where 'RS 'is the ohmic part of the sensor electrodes contact to the soil surface, which is very variable with the soil moisture and with the contents of the non-soluble parts, like fine sand in the soil. The sensor plate to soil surface resistance 'RS' is highly dependent on the soil type and its moisture. The same is true for the resistors' Ri' and 'Rp', which also varies with the soil moisture level. Resistors 'Ri' and 'Rp' represent the soil's resistance where the...
Johannes Twardella
Psychology and Psychotherapy Research Study, Volume 4, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pprs.2021.04.000597

Johannes Twardella* Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany *Corresponding author: Johannes Twardella, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany Submission: April 05, 2021Published: April 14, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PPRS.2021.04.000597 ISSN 2639-0612Volume4 Issue5 Teachers are no psychologists: The logic that structures communication in school teaching is primarily a pedagogical one. On the basis of a pedagogical working alliance, teachers communicate with their students about a „subject matter“ with the aim of opening up this matter and the education of the students. In this process, particular didactics always come into play and education is always involved [1]. All actors-both teachers and students-participate in the classroom as subjects, each with their own history, participating as „persons in their entirety“, so that communication in the classroom always has a psychological dimension. And the actors are not always fully aware of this fact. Assuming that classroom communication also has a psychological dimension does not mean that teachers act therapeutically. Their action is primarily a pedagogical one. However, this action has a relation to therapeutic action, as argued by professionalization theory, insofar as teachers must be careful not to cause psychological injury to students [2]. Furthermore, it can be helpful for teachers to understand psychological aspects and processes that have an influence on pedagogical communication. If the psychological dimension of teaching, if the unconscious in teaching is to be taken into account, or more precisely, if it is to be tapped with the means of science, then psychological research based on behaviorist premises-which intends to measure factors that may influence instructional communication by operationalizing themis not suitable for this purpose [3]. Such psychological research using quantitative methods is fundamentally not able to adequately address the complexity of pedagogical communication in the classroom, which is always overdetermined. With psychoanalysis it is different. It is based on other anthropological premises, always takes the whole person into consideration, and can be combined with hermeneutic methods so that pedagogical communication in the classroom can be reconstructed in detail in its complexity [4]. In his outline „On the Psychoanalysis of the High School Student“ Sigmund Freud has set out what is to be assumed from the perspective of psychoanalysis, when the psychic dimension of classroom communication is to be considered: „Already in the first six years of childhood the little person has established the nature and affect tone of his relations to persons of the same sex and of the opposite sex“ [5]. This is true, of course, not only for the students on whom Freud focuses in his remarks, but also for the teachers. In the pedagogical communication in the classroom, all actors act against the background of their respective individual biographies. And for them, the early years, the relationships formed during this time with parents and siblings, are of particular importance. Through them, according to Freud‘s thesis, the „nature and affect tone“ of all future relationships are shaped. Freud uses the term „transference“ for the phenomenon that actors actualize „nature and affect tone“ from early relationships, that is, from family relationships, in other relationships - not one to one, but rather more or less strongly modified, but not completely different. Seen from a psychoanalytic perspective, pedagogical communication in the classroom always has a „double bottom“ because it is grounded by psychic processes of transference and countertransference. In relation to students, Freud roughly lays this out in his sketch: On the one hand, teaching communication is about the transmission and acquisition of knowledge, of scientifically based knowledge. On the other hand, however, it always has an „undercurrent“ (86), which results from the fact that students deal with the personality of teachers1. This confrontation is precisely shaped by experiences that students have had with their parents and siblings in early childhood. The ambivalence that adolescents develop in their relationship with their parents reappears in the discussion with their teachers and is transferred to them. Recalling his own school days, Freud writes: „We were from the outset equally inclined to love as to hate, to criticize as to revere against them“ (86). It is „a kind of emotional inheritance“ (87). For the male students, the experience of the Oedipus complex is particularly significant, in which the emotional ambivalence, „the tender and the hostile impulse against the father“ (87) is most prominent. In the struggle with the teachers, the struggle with the father is reproduced. On the one hand, Freud‘s reflections, which refer solely to the pupils, must be supplemented by those concerning the teachers. For them, too, it holds true that they participate in classroom communication with their individual history and that those experiences which they made during the first years of their lives are actualized in later relationships - also in those with their students. In the case of teachers, however, it is not only early childhood experiences, but also those experiences which they made with their teachers when they were students themselves, which are actualized in the relationships with their students. This means that transferences can also be made from these experiences to current situations. On the other hand, it should be remembered that for all actors in the classroom, not only diffuse relationships are significant, those that existed between persons in their entirety, but also relationships of a different kind, those that result from roles that the actors take on. As far as...
Leandro José Dallagnol, Juan Felipe Rivera, Keilor Da Rosa Dorneles, Paulo Cesar Pazdiora, Henrique Da Silva Silveira Duarte, Nathan Levien Vanier
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 811-816; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000688

Juan Felipe Rivera1, Henrique da Silva Silveira Duarte2, Keilor da Rosa Dorneles1, Paulo Cesar Pazdiora1, Nathan Levien Vanier3 and Leandro José Dallagnol1* 1Department of Crop Protection, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil 2Department of Crop Production and Protection, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR Brazil 3Department of Agroindustrial Science and Technology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil *Corresponding author:Leandro José Dallagnol, Department of Crop Protection, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil Submission: March 24, 2021Published: April 08, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000688 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 3 Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a strategic crop for food security, with significant economic importance for many countries. Silicon (Si) is a mineral element that increases both rice resistance to diseases and yield. In this study we evaluated, in two crop seasons, the effect of calcium silicate (source of Si), incorporated in the soil, on disease control, grain yield and its quality on three rice cultivars grown in flooded soils in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The leaf diseases only occurred at the end of the crop cycle and in low intensity. Plants grown on plots supplied with calcium silicate showed higher concentration of Si in leaves and lower intensity of two diseases (brown spot and leaf scald), but without significant effect on grain yield and on quality parameters (brown rice content, head rice yield and translucent rice content). Grain yield and quality parameters were only affected by cultivars. In conclusion, calcium silicate fertilization did not influence grain yield and its quality under low intensity and / or occurrence of biotic stress in final development stages of the plant. Keywords: Disease control; Oryza sativa; Rice quality; Silicon Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most widely grown and consumed cereals worldwide, and estimates are that demand will increase by 60% in 2050 [1]. Brazil is the ninth-largest rice-producing country, the largest outside Asia, with 11.75 million t in 2018, which represented approximately 1.5% of the world’s rice production [1,2]. The southern region of Brazil is responsible for 82% of Brazil’s rice production, mainly the states of Rio Grande do Sul (71.5%) and Santa Catarina (9.2%) [2]. Widely divergent environments, such as irrigated uplands and lowlands, flooded and rainfed lowlands, and rainfed upland ecosystems, are used to grow rice. In Brazil, rice production occurs predominantly in flooded lowlands, which are mainly Hydromorphic Planosol in the Rio Grande do Sul State [3]. Rice plant is susceptible to pathogens that may compromise it development and production by lowering the number and weight of grains and reducing grain nutritional quality by lowering the contents of carbohydrates and/or proteins [4,5]. The main diseases affecting rice plants in Brazil are blast (Magnaporthe oryzae Hebert), brown spot (Cochliobolus miyabeanus Ito & Kuribayashi), leaf scald (Monographella albescens Thuemen) and sheath blight (Thanatephorus cucumeris Frank) [6]. Resistant cultivars, healthy seeds and fungicide application are the main control alternatives used to manage these rice diseases [6-8]. A control measure that is gaining attention worldwide is the application of silicon (Si) fertilizer. Rice plants can accumulate Si up to 10% of dry weight [9], which was been associated to alleviation of abiotic stresses such as nutrient imbalance, salinity, drought and heavy metals as well as enhancing resistance against diseases and pests [10-15]. Although silicate minerals are dominant soil components, the available silicic acid may be scarce to plant uptake particularly in croplands due to continuous Si removal with crop harvest [16] becoming Si fertilization an option to increase plant’s resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and gain on yield. In this study we evaluated the effects of calcium silicate (a Si source) fertilization on diseases intensity, and yield and quality of grains produced by rice plants grown on flooded soil in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Experimental area, rice cultivars and climatical measurements. The experimental area used in the experiment is located in the municipality of Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil (31°48'29"S 52°28'52"W). The soil of the experimental area is classified as solodic eutrophic Hydromorphic Planosol with the characteristics as follows: pH water (1:1)=5.2; CEC pH 7=7.1cmolc; organic matter=1.38%; clay=25%; Ca=1.2cmolc dm-3; Mg=2.1cmolc dm-3; Al exchangeable=0.5cmolc dm-3; P available=8.1mg dm-3; K exchangeable=39mg dm-3. The concentration of available Si (extracted with 0.01M CaCl2) in the soil was 14.0mg dm-3. The experimental area was previously used for rice cultivation, but at the time of installation of the experiment it was two years of fallow. Seeds from the rice cultivars BRS Querência (Embrapa), BRS Atalanta (Embrapa), and Puitá INTA CL (BASF S/A) were used for experiment. The grain produced by these three genotypes are categorized as long slender and high amylose. Data on average rainfall, air humidity, and maximum and minimum daily temperatures were obtained from the Terras Baixas Meteorological Station of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) in Capão do Leão, RS (31°48'12"S, 52°24'40"W-altitude of 13.24m). Experimental design A randomized 3x2 factorial block design was used (three cultivars and two calcium silicate treatments - without (-Si) or with (+Si)), with four replications. Each replication consisted of 10m² (2×5m). The experimental units were separated from each other by 100cm and surrounded by a ridge (40cm tall and 60cm wide). The experiment was conducted twice (2016-17 and 2017-18 crop seasons). Soil management The calcium silicate (Agrosilício Plus®), which was composed of 25.0% calcium, 6.0%...
Masashi Okuro, Kazu Hamada, Yuta Igarashi, Kumie Kodera, Tazuo Okuno, Takuro Morita, Hiroshi Yano, Toshihiro Higashikawa, Osamu Iritani, Kunimitsu Iwai, et al.
Gastroenterology: Medicine & Research, Volume 5, pp 471-474; doi:10.31031/gmr.2021.05.000623

Kazu Hamada1,2, Tohru Itoh2, Ken Kawaura2, Hiroaki Kuno2, Junji Kamai2, Rika Kobayasi2, Sadahumi Azukisawa2, Hidekazu Kitakata2, Yuta Igarashi1, Kumie Kodera1, Tazuo Okuno1, Takuro Morita1, Hiroshi Yano1, Toshihiro Higashikawa1, Osamu Iritani1, Kunimitsu Iwai1, Shigeto Morimoto1 and Masashi Okuro1* 1Department of Geriatric Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University, Japan 2Department of Gastroenterological Endoscopy, Kanazawa Medical University, Japan *Corresponding author:Masashi Okuro, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 920- 0293, Japan Submission: March 24, 2021 ;Published: April 07, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/GMR.2021.05.000623 ISSN 2637-7632Volume5 Issue5 Total colonoscopy was performed on an 89-year-old man who was not treated with anticoagulation therapy. He had developed purpura in the rectum below the peritoneal reflection by the aspiration for endoscopic mucosal resection to rectal polyp. The purpura resulted in spontaneous cessation, but he had lower abdominal pain thereafter. He was diagnosed to have intramural hematoma of the rectum from rectosigmoid to above the peritoneal reflection by computed tomography and sigmoidoscopy. It disappeared with conservative therapy. We infer that it was secondary rectal intramural hematoma triggered by excessive straining against purpura. Keywords: Rectum; Intramural hematoma; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Abdominal pain; Straining Abbreviations: IH: Intramural Hematoma; TCS: Total Colonoscopy; RB: Rectum below the peritoneal reflection EMR: Endoscopic Mucosal Resection, PT-INR: Prothrombin Time-International Normalized Ratio; APTT: Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time; CT: Computed Tomography; RS: Rectum from Rectosigmoid RA: Rectum above the Peritoneal Reflection Intramural Hematoma (IH) of intestine is a rare condition [1] that may develop from esophagus to rectum. It often occurs in patients with anticoagulation therapy [2-4], hemophilia [5], amyloidosis [6], and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome [7], and occurs rarely without coagulation disorder. We report here a case of secondary rectal IH triggered by aspiration for endoscopic mucosal resection without coagulation disorder. Figure 1:Total colonoscopy showed a polyp which was 5mm in size on the rectum below the peritoneal reflection; 39cm from the anus. Purpura was caused by the aspiration for endoscopic mucosal resection. He was treated with medicines for high blood pressure hypertension, hyperuricemia, iron deficiency anemia, and insomnia. A cecal cancer was diagnosed in him by Total Colonoscopy (TCS) which was performed to check cause of fecal occult blood. We assessed that operation was necessary to cure the lesion. In addition, there was a semi-pedunculated polyp which was 5mm size on the rectum below the peritoneal Reflection (Rb) and we tried to perform Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR) for it immediately. However, we interrupted to perform EMR for it because severe purpura was caused by the aspiration for injection to submucosa (Figure 1). We confirmed spontaneous cessation of hemorrhage, and he was admitted to our hospital for observation of the progress on this day. He recognized only slight tenesmus and unpleasant feeling of anus, and his general condition was stable. So that, he was discharged 2 days later. He repeated straining excessively against these symptoms after TCS. The lower abdominal pain developed from the next day after discharge, and It rapidly got worse. Therefore, he visited our hospital again 4 days after TCS. On physical examination, blood pressure was 134/72mmHg, pulse was 66 beats per minute/regular, and temperature was 37.1 degrees. The auscultatory findings of lungs and heart were normal. The abdomen was soft-flat, bowel sound was normal, and there was no tenderness. In laboratory data, hemoglobin level was 12.0g/dL which was 12.3g/dL before TCS, and there was no appearance of anemia was. The platelet count was 19.2×104/uL, prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) was 1.02 and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) was 26.9 seconds, all of which were normal. The abdominal plain Computed Tomography (CT) showed a large highly absorbed mass in the rectum from Rectosigmoid (RS) to above the peritoneal Reflection (Ra) (Figure 2a). There were no definitive findings to suggest active bleeding with contrastenhanced CT (Figure 2b). Sigmoidoscopy demonstrated a large dark-red mass in the rectum from RS to Ra (Figure 3a). A rectal moderate stenosis was caused by the mass, endoscope passed there easily. On the anal side, there was a polyp which was interrupted to perform EMR the previous time. Purpura in the polyp and the mucosa around it was improved (Figure 3b). We diagnosed rectal IH. Since his general condition was stable and IH was examined as spontaneous cessation with CT, we decided to treat conservatively rather than surgically. He was admitted and received conservative therapy which were bowel rest and intravenous hydration. His symptoms improved in several days. We confirmed that IH did not grow with abdominal CT performed 7 days after admission. He was discharged 13 days later. Figure 2: (a): Sagittal section of abdominal plain computed tomography showed a large highly absorbed mass (white arrows) which was 9*9*5cm in size in the rectum from rectosigmoid to above the peritoneal reflection. (b): Axial section of abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed no definitive findings in it (white arrow heads). Figure 3: (a): Sigmoidoscopy showed a large dark-red mass in the rectum above the peritoneal reflection. (b): On the anal side, sigmoidoscopy showed a polyp (white arrows) which was interrupted to perform endoscopic mucosal resection in the previous time. Purpura in the polyp and the mucosa around it was improved. About two months later, sigmoidoscopy demonstrated that rectal IH disappeared (Figure 4). Cecal cancer operation was performed and examined as stage I/radical...
Mohammad Kamil, F Ahmad, El T Abdallah
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 504-508; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2021.05.000624

Mohammad Kamil*, F Ahmad and El T Abdallah Zayed Complex for Herbal Research and Traditional Medicine, UAE *Corresponding author: Mohammad Kamil, Zayed Complex for Herbal Research and Traditional Medicine, UAE Submission: December 11 ,2020;Published: April 07, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2021.05.000624 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue5 Plant‐derived antioxidants are molecules which donate electrons or hydrogen atoms. These compounds are able to form less reactive antioxidant‐derived radicals, which are efficiently quenched by other electron or hydrogen sources to prevent cellular damage. Therefore, they help to delay and inhibit lipid oxidation, protect human cells against oxidative damage, leading to a reduced risk of several oxidative stress associated degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular, or neurodegenerative diseases [1] and when added to foods tend to minimize rancidity, retard the formation of toxic oxidation products, help to maintain the nutritional quality and increase their shelf life [2]. Cressa cretica Linn. is a shrub belonging to the family Convolvulaceae which are weeds of pistachio orchards., distributed throughout middle east specially Iran, India, Timor, and Australia [3]? Very common along Abu Dhabi- Ras Al Khaima on raised sand and low dunes inland of sabkha; also, in plantations further east and north, always in sand [4]. Normally the whole plant is used as a tonic, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative and expectorant, and locally used for camel fodder (Fawzy Kotb, 1985). Boiled in water and taken internally as a tonic, aphrodisiac and expectorant. Dried leaves crushed with sugar taken as a treatment for jaundice [5-7]; (Figure 1). Figure 1:Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy Powdered plant material The material consists of the pounded aerial parts. It is a dark yellowish-green coarse، gritty، heterogeneous، somewhat fine powder with some comparatively larger fragments. It has a pleasant slightly spicy to straw-like odour and a salty taste. Microscopically، the powder shows numerous covering trichomes of various types and different lengths, but they are mostly long conical، tapering or broad T-shaped ones, and the majority are detached from tissues while glandular trichomes with oval to rounded heads are normally attached. The powder also shows many green fragments of the leaves at different orientations exhibiting the characteristics observed in the fresh sample. Also shown are stem fragments of dark brown bark cells with their observable thick cell walls and also long compact vascular tissues with their narrow vessels and fibers (Figure 2). Figure 2:Parts studied: leaf and stem. a) surface view of the leaf at the lower epidermis showing the intricate type of vascular network and some cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. b) TS of the leaf at the lower epidermis showing long conical trichomes and T-shaped trichomes. c) TS of the stem showing the different layers with the pith at the centre. Chemical compounds The isolation of syringaresinol-β-D-glucoside from Cressa cretica is reported. Coumarins، sterols quercetin and coumaranochromone glycoside [8]. N-Octocosanol، β-sitosterol، umbellierone، scopoletin، isopimpinellin، β-sitosterol D(+) glycoside and quercetin have been isolated [9]. The aerial parts revealed the presence of alkaloids، flavonoids، tannins، sterols and/or triterpens and coumarins [10]. The aerial parts of Cressa cretica L. yielded five flavonoids that were identified as: Quercetin; quercetin-3-β-O-D-glucoside; kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside; kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamno-(1-+6)-β-D-glucoside; quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamno-(1+6)-β-D-glucoside (rutin) [11]. Aquercetin glycoside detected [12]. Β-sitosterol، its glucoside، n-octacosanol، umbelliferone، scopoletin، isopimpinellin and quercetin isolated Β-sitosterol، its glucoside، n-octacosanol، umbelliferone، scopoletin، isopimpinellin and quercetin isolated [13]. The following chemical studies have been carried out on the aerial part of the plant Cressa cretica. a) Physicochemical Constants (%) b) Loss of weight in drying at 105 oC : 8. 60 c) Absolute alcohol solubility : 3.20 d) Water solubility : 14.40 e) Successive extractives (%) f) Petroleum ether (60-80 o) : 2.20 g) Chloroform : 1.70 h) Absolute alcohol : 15.70 i) Ash values (%) j) Total ash : 23.70 k) Water soluble ash : 14.10 l) Acid insoluble ash (10% Hcl) : 0.80 m) pH values (aqueous solution) n) pH of 1% solution : 6.816 o) pH of 10% solution : 5.577 TLC fingerprint of Petroleum ether (60-80 o track 1) and Methanol extract (track 2) Mobile phase Figures (1&2): Ethyl acetate, methanol, water (100:13.5:10); C: Toluene, ethyl formate, formic acid (5:4:1) D: Toluene, ethyl acetate (93:7) Detection B: UV366nm Derivatization A, C&D: Vanillin- Sulphuric acid-vis. The pharmacological and toxicological information reported in the literature about the plant Cressa cretica ethanolic extract produced contraction of the isolated guinea pig ileum and the effect was inhibited by the atropine treatment. However، the chloroform extract did not elicit any response of the muscle. Both ethanolic and chloroform extracts antagonized the effect of acetylcholine on frog’s rectus abdominis muscle to the same degree (Figures 3-7). The contraction of isolated diaphragm of rat induced by electrical stimulation of phrenic nerve were also inhibited، almost completely، in the dose of 4mg of ethanolic extract; the effect of chloroform extract was found less than the ethanolic extract quantitatively (Tables 1 & 2). The stimulation of sciatic nerve with 3V stimulus produced an appreciable contraction of gastrocnemius muscle، but these contractions were found gradually decreased on successive stimuli after the addition of a single dose of...
Irina Polyanskaya
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 499-499; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2021.05.000622

Irina Polyanskaya* Department of Hygienic Engineering and Design, Russia *Corresponding author: Irina Polyanskaya, Department of Hygienic Engineering and Design, Russia Submission: January 18, 2021;Published: April 07, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2021.05.000622 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue5 Thank God, not the IXX century, information is available on the Internet, including from official sources, there is a lot of this information, but sometimes, when “time is gold”, which in our era is marked as Alpha, in order to have time to save the situation before reaching Omega, we prepared recommendations in thesis form: For nutritional support in order to prevent all people under constant stress associated with the risk of infection, indirectly affecting the immune system, garlic, ginger, berries containing useful biologically active substances are recommended to increase the adaptive potential of the body, but it is noted that their preventive properties against COVID-19 infection have no evidence base. In general, a fullfledged, varied diet is needed, composed of traditional products, but with a slightly reduced calorie content, if physical activity is reduced due to quarantine. Reducing calories is achieved through the use of foods of “high nutritional density”, and it is recommended to maintain physical activity even in conditions of self-isolation, which can help, in particular, Internet fitness. Drinking regime includes 1 liter for children, 2 liters for adults, water including drinks. Products with “high nutritional density” include functional foods, biologically active additives, specialized products that allow you to supply the body with the optimal amount of complete protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, bioelements, without exceeding the daily calorie content and excluding the feeling of hunger. Limit salt, sugar, animal fats, trans fats and foods containing them. It is especially important to increase the adaptive potential of the optimal intake of high-quality protein, for example, a product from whey, vitamins A, E, D, C, bioelements zinc and selenium. With an acute infectious process with fever, patients can lose up to 6kg of muscle tissue with a loss of protein up to 200g per day. At the same time, along with negative nitrogen metabolism, polyhypovitaminosis is observed, a violation of water-electrolytic metabolism, and anemia may develop. In this case, diets reinforced with the aforementioned specialized foods are required. The patient should not be allowed to starve and then overeat, gaining excess weight. Given the state of the nervous system, strong coffee, tea, very strong broth is limited. Drinks that reduce stress are desirable, for example with motherwort, valerian, mint. Russian nutritionist M.I. Pevsner recommended that in acute infectious diseases patients who tolerate alcohol well, give 30-40g of cognac, adding it to tea, or, equivalently, natural wines mixed with water. In case of infectious-toxic shock in intensive care units - artificial balanced nutrition to stabilize the nutritional status. In Russia, specialized food products “Diso ®” “Nutrinor Ca” have been developed and their effectiveness has been proven in enhancing anti-inflammatory therapy in diseases with similar symptomatic fever, in particular tuberculosis. Prepared based on the materials of the Russian journal “Practical Dietetics”: Irina Polyanskaya, Vologda Dairy Academy, Vologda, Russia. © 2021 Irina Polyanskaya. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Ster Irmak Sav
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 500-503; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2021.05.000623

Tunay Dogan1 and Ster Irmak Sav2* 1Department of Basic Oncology, Division of Cancer Genetics, Istanbul University, Oncology Institute, Turkey 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey *Corresponding author: Ster Irmak Sav, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey Submission: February 12, 2021;Published: April 07, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2021.05.000623 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue5 Among all urological cancers, Bladder Cancer (BC) is the tenth most common type of cancer worldwide, with approximately 549,000 new cases per year and 200,000 mortality. It is four times more common in males than females and is frequently seen in the sixth and seventh decades [1]. In addition to its negative effects on public health, BC is one of the cancer types with the highest cost of treatment due to its frequent recurrence [2]. For these reasons, the role of dietary factors, especially vitamins, in preventing BC has been studied frequently. In this mini review, we aimed to summarize that experimental and epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between vitamin A and BC. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble micronutrient and must be taken with dietary or supplementary since it cannot be produced in the human body. When taken in excess, it can be stored in the liver and adipose tissue. The vitamin A family exists in two forms: preformed vitamin A (retinaldehyde, retinol, and retinoic acid) and provitamin A carotenoids (α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene). Provitamin A is the precursor of retinol, the most active metabolite. Retinol is found in high amounts in eggs, dairy products, and fish oils. Carotenoids are found in high amounts in orange and yellow fruits and dark green leafy vegetables. Although lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin are carotenoids, they do not have vitamin A activity biologically. In contrast, synthetic retinoid compounds have vitamin A activity [3]. Many studies have used human tumor xenografts in nude mice or human cancer cell lines to investigate the effects of vitamin A metabolites and synthetic retinoids on BC and other types of cancer [4]. The results report that these compounds have chemo preventive, therapeutic, or anticancer effects through cell differentiation, regulation of apoptosis, or cell growth arrest [5,6]. Because of their antioxidant activity, carotenoids have prompted researchers to investigate their modulatory effects on carcinogen metabolism [7], and the potential benefits of carotenoids in heavy smokers BC patients are often debated. One of the oldest studies examining the relationship between BC and vitamin A was conducted by Toyoshima et al. [8]. The researchers, in their studies using the NBT-II rat urinary bladder cell line, showed that adding 1UI/mL of vitamin A to the medium did not alter cell proliferation and aggregation, but inhibited keratinization reversibly [8]. A later study by Tchao et al. [9] was shown that vitamin A prevents keratinization in NBT-II cell aggregates but does not have an inhibitory effect on aggregate formation [9]. Cohen et al. investigated the effects of vitamin A level on N-[4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl] formamide-induced BC in rats and they reported that vitamin A deficient rats seemed to speed up the carcinogenic process, with Urinary Bladder Tumor (UBT) emerging earlier. In contrast, in hypervitaminosis A-rats, UBT development occurred more slowly, and squamous metaplasia and squamous cell neoplasia did not occur [10]. In the study conducted by Squire et al. [11], they reported that 13-cis-retinoic acid is protective on the development of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced BC in rats and inhibits the development of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in the bladder epithelium [11]. The study by Grubbs et al. [12] reported that 13-cis-retinoic acid inhibits the N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine-induced BC in rats [12]. Similarly, Sporn et al. [13] was reported that 13-cis-retinoic acid inhibited the development of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced BC in rats [13]. In the study by Becci et al. [14] was reported that 13-cis-retinoic acid inhibited N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine-induced BC in C57BL/6 mice [14]. In the study of Miyata, et al. was stated that rats with hypervitaminosis A have increased resistance to N-butyl-N-(4- hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine-induced BC [15]. In a study conducted by Becci et al. [14] with a different approach, BC was formed with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine in 344 rats, and the effect of delay in the administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid on BC inhibition was investigated. The results showed that the ability of 13-cis-retinoic acid to prevent bladder carcinogenesis was not weakened even by a nine-week delay in initiating retinoid feeding [16]. Mathews-Roth et al. [17] investigated the effect of supplementary β-carotene on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)- nitrosamine-induced BC in male B6D2Fi mice. Researchers reported that mice taking supplementary β-carotene developed significantly fewer tumors than untreated mice [17]. After experimental studies have shown its protective effects on BC, there has been an increase in epidemiological studies examining the relationship between vitamin A and BC. In the study conducted by Risch et al. [18] on 826 BC patients and 792 healthy control groups, it was reported that dietary β-carotene or retinol had no protective effect on bladder cancer [18]. In the study conducted by Steineck et al. [19] on 418 BC patients and 511 healthy control groups, no relationship was found between BC and dietary vitamin levels, but it was reported that intake of vitamin A supplements may reduce the risk of BC [19]. In the study conducted by Nomura et al. [20] on 261 BC patients and 522 healthy control groups, it was reported that dietary and supplementary (total) carotenoids, retinol, and vitamin A were not...
Regina Menino
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 808-810; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000687

Regina Menino1* and Daniel Murta2,3,4 1Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária, IP (INIAV), Av. da República, Quinta do Marquês, 2780-159 Oeiras, Portugal 2EntoGreen-Ingredient Odyssey SA, Santarém, Portugal 3CiiEM-Centro de investigação interdisciplinar Egas Moniz, Campus Universitário, Quinta da Granja Monte de Caparica, 2829-511 Caparica, Portugal 4CIISA, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal *Corresponding author:Regina Menino, Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária, IP (INIAV), Av. da República, Quinta do Marquês, 2780-159 Oeiras, Portugal Submission: March 26, 2021Published: April 05, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000687 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 3 The growing demographic pressure, worldwide, has been alerting our planet, in an increasingly alarming way, to a progressive food deficit and a growing degradation of the quality of the environment; thus, the urgent need for new alternatives for agricultural production (among others) has been revealing the potential of insects in the two aspects mentioned above. In this context, the black soldier fly has revealed an invaluable potential for the biological composting of the remnants of agricultural production, with the triple objective of eliminating potentially polluting products, producing food for livestock farming and producing organic fertilizers capable of competing with chemical fertilizers, without the harmful effects of the latter, and with a high potential for the sustainability of the productivity of agricultural soils. The present communication, based on the advances that scientific experimentation has shown in this area, intends to highlight the high potential of this dipteran in the desideratum in question, particularly in the context of a circular economy. Black Soldier Fly (BSF)-Curriculum vitae In reality, the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.), from the taxonomic family Stratiomidae, is not a fly, like the one that sometimes bothers us (the Musca domestica L.) and does not even belong to the same “taxonomic” family of the Muscidae. Perhaps that is why they do not tolerate each other and are constantly struggling, with a guaranteed victory for our heroine, the BSF, who gets to eliminate 94 to 100% of the larvae of the house fly, using bird dung as the battlefield-as Sheppard et al. [2] testified, in a composting experiment. But it is not her genealogy or her hatreds that interest us here, but her diverse gifts, which lead us to bring her together in our struggle for the long-term sustainability of agrarian soils, without detriment to current productivity and with the benefit additional cost savings. Coming from the hot and temperate regions of the New Continent, it arrived here in the middle of the last century, being immediately called to the battle, in battles that for here-in the context of this exhibition-are not necessarily called, but that reveal the diverse range of your potential. Among these, the following stand out: A. A very high adult prolificacy, of up to more than 600 eggs per female [3], which allows her, in just four days, to assemble an army from a platoon. B. A pantagruelian voracity of the larvae, which allows them to devour large amounts of organic waste in a short time. C. An ability of the larvae to accumulate food reserves in their bodies, which allows them to feed not only adults selected for reproduction, but also, together with pupae, to feed diverse animals and even humans [4]. D. A potential of the larvae, to accumulate a remarkable amount of fat in their bodies (up to 23%), which has revealed a good potential in the production of biodiesel. E. A proven potential of chitin present in the larvae epidermis, for the medicinal and cosmetic products industry [5]; F. And, last but not least, the fact that the larvae, in the composting process, produce high-value excreta as an organic fertilizer for a diverse range of crops. All of this evokes his military vocation and constitutes an invaluable collection of weapons, which this “soldier”, with impeccable behavior, is equipped with. If you don’t believe it, notice: A. The adults, who do not have a functional mouthpiece, feed exclusively on the abundant reserves accumulated during the larval stage and, therefore, do not harass humans and animals, thus not constituting themselves as a vector of diseases [6]. B. Their abundant stances compete with those of the house fly, thus reducing the number of larvae and adults of the latter. C. Endowed with a high spirit of sacrifice, for the benefit of humanity, it endures the most adverse conditions on the battlefield, reaching to feed exclusively on the waste of farm animals (and not only), despite its marked preference for the remaining debris agricultural crops-in particular horticultural and fruit crops. And if we abstain from more virtues to enunciate it is so as not to lose the reader’s attention. Even so, we dare to appeal to a little more of your patience, because before entering the chapter of the strategy and tactics of war that we intend to justify in this communication, it is necessary to mention the “political” context that justifies it. “Political” context As mentioned in the frame outlined in the “introduction” to this communication, the dramatic problem of hunger in the world, global adulteration of the environment, and climate change are the “axis” of the belligerent triad that confronts us in the current “third world war” against the humanity. The situation is serious, but not necessarily Armageddon, particularly if humanity is united in a global war against a powerful enemy - ironically generated by us, namely, by the following: A. The development of industries from the “modern age”,...
Miguel Ángel Pedraza Zárate, Juan Carlos Meza-Franco, Juan Pablo Solis- Pureco, Dimas Muñoz-Flores, Jose Luis Garcia-Pérez, Sile Araceli Ortiz Zavaleta, Anahari Uscanga- Montesano, Edith Guillen Salomon
Gastroenterology: Medicine & Research, Volume 5, pp 467-470; doi:10.31031/gmr.2021.05.000622

Juan Carlos Meza-Franco1, Miguel Ángel Pedraza-Zárate2*, Juan Pablo Solis- Pureco1,, Dimas Muñoz-Flores1,, Jose Luis Garcia-Pérez1,, Anahari Uscanga- Montesano3, Sile Araceli Ortiz Zavaleta1, and Edith Guillen Salomon4 1Emergency Service, UMAE Hospital de Especialidades # 14 CMN Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, IMSS, Veracruz, Ver, Mexico 2Coordination of Nutrition and Dietetics, OOAD Veracruz Norte, Mexican Social Security Institute, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico 3Division of Education UMAE Hospital de Especialidades # 14 CMN Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, IMSS, Veracruz, Ver, Mexico 4Coordination of planning and institutional liaison OOAD Veracruz Norte, Mexican Social Security Institute, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico *Corresponding author:Miguel Ángel Pedraza Zárate, Coordination of Nutrition and Dietetics, OOAD Veracruz Norte, Mexican Social Security Institute, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico Submission: December 17, 2020;Published: March 29, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/GMR.2021.05.000622 ISSN 2637-7632Volume5 Issue5 Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is a common disease, characterized by inflammation and destruction of the pancreas. There are multiple scales for its assessment within which are the Ranson prognostic scale and the Apache II scale. Our objective is to know the prognostic evaluation between Apache II and Ranson scales in severe acute pancreatitis in the emergency department. Objective: To know the prognostic evaluation between Apache II and Ranson scale in severe acute pancreatitis, in the emergency department. Material and methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, comparative and observational study was carried out in patients older than 18 years with acute pancreatitis in a period of 3 months, the Apache II and Ranson scale were applied; They were classified as: mild and severe. Non-probabilistic samples, for convenience. The severity predictors were compared using the confidence intervals, area under the ROC curve (Receiver Operating Characteristics), significance level of p: Results: Mild pancreatitis was higher, Ranson being 39% mild, 21% grave, and Apache II scale, 57% mild, and 43% grave. The APACHE II scale has a higher sensitivity (65.52) compared to the RANSON scale (43.10). In our environment, it obtained a fairly acceptable value, compared to the Ranson scale. Conclusion: The APACHE II scale presented a higher sensitivity with respect to the RANSON scale. Keywords: Apache II scale; Ranson scale; Severe acute pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of other regional tissues or distant organs [1,2]. The Atlanta classification defines AP as mild where organ dysfunction is minimal, usually self-limited and with an uncomplicated and serious recovery which is characterized by multiple organ failure and local complications such as necrosis [3-5]. Mild acute pancreatitis occur in 80% of cases and severe pancreatitis in the remaining 20%, its annual incidence ranges from 50 to 500 cases per million inhabitants [4-7]. At present, it continues to be a disease characterized by significant morbidity and mortality, with an overall mortality of 5% [6,8]. In Mexico it is the 20th cause of mortality, causing 0.5% of deaths in the country [6-9]. It is important to detect and staging patients with AP in order to decide who requires an intensive care unit [10]. Therefore, several prognostic scoring systems have emerged which are used to predict the severity of the disease in the first days of diagnosis, among which are Ranson and Apache II [6]. The Ranson scale is important in assessing severity, in which values greater than 3 indicate severity data, although it has the disadvantage of requiring a complete assessment at 48hrs [6,11,12]. On the other hand, the Apache scale II can be calculated at any time during the BP, even during the first hours, where a count greater than or equal to 8 points indicates severe pancreatitis, it has the advantage of being the most accurate predictor with acceptable rates of sensitivity and specificity [3,10,13,14]. Both multifactorial clinical scoring systems have been useful in assessing the severity of acute pancreatitis, although the disadvantages of these scoring scales are that they are not designed to predict possible complications of the disease [6]. Therefore, all patients admitted to the emergency department with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis will have to be evaluated with the Apache II and Ranson prognostic scales with the intention of determining those who potentially develop a severe acute pancreatitis picture. In Mexico the evaluations of the prognostic scales or parameters for acute pancreatitis have been little studied, which is why it is of vital importance to evaluate and review them, fifteen therefore, the objective of this present is to know the prognostic evaluation between Apache II and Ranson scale in severe acute pancreatitis, in the emergency department Retrospective, cross-sectional, comparative and observational design, in 60 patients older than 18 years of age, with a clinical picture suggestive of acute pancreatitis in the adult emergency department in a period of 3 months, demographic variables and Apache II scale and scale of Ranson. Acute pancreatitis cases were classified as: Mild and severe according to the Atlanta consensus of 1992; The general objective was to determine the prognostic efficacy between the Apache II scale and the Ranson scale in severe acute pancreatitis and as specific objectives to determine the degree of mortality and determine complications according to gender. Non-probabilistic samples, for convenience. The study was carried out with prior authorization from the local ethics and research committee of the medical unit. Statistical analysis: Prognostic scales were used through their sensitivity, specificity and prediction values, the predictive capacity of each indicator was estimated by the area under the ROC curve...
Lakshmi Sundararajan, Heera Tharanendran, Ramesh Babu
Research in Pediatrics & Neonatology, Volume 5, pp 441-443; doi:10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000615

Lakshmi Sundararajan1*, Heera Tharanendran1 and Ramesh Babu2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, India 2Department of Pediatric Urology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education & Reasearch, India *Corresponding author: Lakshmi Sundararajan, Department of Pediatric Surgery, CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, Chennai, India Submission: February 02, 2021 Published: March 26, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000615 ISSN: 2577-9200 Volume5 Issue3 A six-year-old boy with kidney matrix stones in solitary kidney is presented. Kidney matrix stones present in adults with atypical calcification on X-ray and CT, in the setting of recurrent urinary tract infections and instrumentation. These stones are not amenable to ESWL due to low calcium content. Complete stone clearance and prompt treatment of UTI are essential.ith Trichobezoar, to highlight psychological disorders that can cause trichotillomania and trichophagia. Keywords: Kidney; Matrix stones; Urolithiasis; Ureteroscopy; Pyelolithotomy; Children Introduction Kidney matrix stones are soft, pliable and amorphous calculi, reported only in adults [1- 4]. We herein report a child with solitary kidney and recurrent renal calculi with atypical calcification on imaging identified as kidney matrix stones. This case is presented for its rarity and to create awareness about the entity. A six-year-old male child presented with acute renal failure and obstructive uropathy, elevated blood urea and serum creatinine, hyperkalemia, acidosis and urosepsis (elevated c-reactive protein and total count). The patient had undergone right nephrectomy and left pyelolithotomy two years earlier for bilateral staghorn calculi elsewhere. An X-ray abdomen showed multiple large calculi of varying size in left renal fossa with eggshell type calcification (Figure 1A). Figure 1: A. Plain X-ray abdomen showing, radiolucent calculus with peripheral rim enhancement in the left renal pelvis and a radiopaque calculus in lower pole calyx B. CT KUB showing heterogeneous incomplete stag horn calculus with denser calcification at the center and atypically low Hounsfield units (+120HU) C. RGP showing a tight stricture at ureter pelvic junction. Ultrasonogram (USG) of the abdomen revealed gross pyonephrosis of the solitary left kidney filled with multiple calculi. Patient was stabilised with a period of hydration, intra venous antibiotics and catheter drainage. Under general anesthesia a cystoscopic retrograde left Double-J (DJ) stent placement was performed; negotiation was difficult but succeeded with c-arm imaging. Computerised Tomography (CT) post-stabilisation showed heterogeneous incomplete calculus (Figure 1B) with denser calcification at the centre and atypically low Hounsfield units (+120HU). A percutaneous nephrolithotomy was planned but a Retro Grade Pyelogram (RGP) revealed a tight stricture at uretero pelvic junction (Figure 1C). Hence, open pyeloplasty, pyelolithotomy and antegrade stenting was performed. The retrieved stones were soft white and fleshy (Figure 2A) Histological assessment of the retrieved material showed lamellated appearance of pink amorphous acellular material (Figure 2B) with areas of calcification. Stone analysis revealed fine orthorhombic crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate and protein material. Figure 2: A. Gross specimen showing Soft, white, fleshy mass B. Histopathological examination showing Lamellated pink amorphous material. At the time of planned DJ Stent removal after 6 weeks, an RGP showed a large recurrent filling defect in pelvis. Hence, rigid ureteroscopy was done, and the residual recurrent fleshy masses in the pelvis, which were extracted with grasper (Figure 3A). The matrix calculi appear fleshy like a white grape at ureteroscopy (Figure 3B). During the 6-month follow-up he passed some more whitish rounded fleshy mass in the urine exactly similar to what was seen at ureteroscopy. Repeat CT at 1 year follow up showed no residual calculi. A metabolic work up for stone disease was uncharacteristic. Figure 3:Rigid ureteroscopy showing A. Recurrent fleshy mass in the pelvis being extracted with basket B. White grape like structure represents matrix calculus. Renal matrix calculi are a rare subtype of kidney stones which were first reported 100 years ago by Gage and Beal1 and have also been called fibrinomas, colloid calculi, or albumin calculi. While more frequently encountered calcigerous stones tend to be brittle, matrix stones by contrast are soft, amorphous, and pliable. On average in this subtype of calculus, the noncrystalline, mucoprotein matrix accounts for 65% of its dry weight, compared to just 2.5% in more conventional stones [2]. Analysis by Boyce and Garvey 3 found the matrix to consist of mucopolysaccharide (one-third) and protein (two-thirds). They have predominantly been reported in adult women. The main risk factors for this type of stones are previous surgery for stone disease and/or recurrent UTIs, especially due to Proteus mirabilis or Escherichia-coli [4]. Proteinuric patients with glomerulonephritis on dialysis are also at high risk of developing matrix calculi. The child in our report had also undergone multiple procedures previously for stone disease and had recurrent urinary tract infections. The clinical presentation of patients with matrix stones is similar to those with calcigerous stones. Because of the soft consistency of matrix stones, they may conform to the shape of renal pelvis and ureter thereby causing gradual urinary obstruction and renal failure [5]. Singh H et al. [6] & Matthews LA et al. [7] described cases of bilateral ureteric obstruction and acute renal failure secondary to bilateral matrix calculi. Patients can also rarely develop emphysematous Pyelonephritis [8]. Imaging appearances vary depending on the mineral composition and the pattern of distribution within...
Ayşe Yeşilayer
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 803-804; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000685

Ayşe Yeşilayer* Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University, Agricultural Faculty, Plant Protection Department, Tokat, Turkey *Corresponding author:Ayşe Yeşilayer, Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University, Agricultural Faculty, Plant Protection Department, Tokat, Turkey Submission: February 18, 2021Published: March 25, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000685 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 2 One of the methods used to reduce their negative effects in pest control with synthetic pesticides is biological control. Phytoseiid mites are used as biological control agents for management of pest mites of agricultural and horticultural plants. These mites are efficient predators able to control plant parasitic mites and small arthropods. This review provides overview biological control and using predatory mites. Initially, during the centuries development of agriculture, the use of all kinds of technical and technological tools to meet the needs of people was very important. Therefore, the use of chemical pesticides in traditional agriculture has been used frequently and intensively during pest and disease management. These pesticides, which are used to control pests in industrial agriculture, have caused damage to humans and the environment over time. Up to now (presently thoruought out the globe) approximately more than two million tons of synthetic pesticides are used, of which 47.5% herbicides, 29.5% insecticides, 17.5% fungicides [1]. Pesticides use is estimated to reach 3.5 million tons, in 2020 [2]. Nowadays, applications that are precision to human and environmental health have started to attract increasing attention. The European Union states that the use of pesticides should be reduced by 50% until 2030 for the sustainability of Farm to Fork (F2F) and Biodiversity (BDS) [3]. Biological control applications, in which the control of pests and benefits included in the integrated control management (IPM), are used all over the world. Living organism live in harmony with each other in nature. Biological control includes predators, parasitoids and entomopathogens used in the control of pests such as insects, mites, fungi, viruses and weeds that cause damage in cultivated plants [4]. Biological control against insects and mites is part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), in many parts of the world and it’s very important to IPM [5]. There are many pests in the greenhouse and open field. One of the important groups is mites. Mites are smal arthropods, and most of them are tiny less than 1mm lenght. They have been seen for the first time Rober Hook [6]. Plant parasitic mites are consisting of about 55.00 species and an estimate 1 million more species await discover [7]. Plant pest mites so called Spider mites (Tetranchidae-Acari) are polyphagous herbivors. Phytoseiid mites play role control to phytophagus mites, esspecially eriophyid and tetranychid mites [8,9]. Two of the natural enemies used in the biological control of red spiders, Phytoseilus persimilis and Amblyseius californicus. Phytoseilus persimilis is the natural enemy of the red spider and its origin is the Mediterranean, it reproduces faster than prey and they finds prey easily. It is produced commercially in Turkey and Europe [10]. Amblyseius californicus is also known as Neoseiulus californicus. Although the origin of this mite is in California and Florida, it is also common in the Mediterranean [11-13]. Both predator mites are applied against harmful red spider [14] in ornamental plants, agriculture and horticulture plants, very successfully. Phytoseiid mites that are able to reduce the population of spider mites. Biological control is not based on the production of beneficial and natural enemies, but on the protection of those present in nature. Lastly, in the control of pests, less use of chemicals will be increase the success of biological control in the future. In addition the biological control is sustainable and has no negative effects on the environment, it makes it more advantageous than other control methods. © 2021 Ayşe Yeşilayer. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Yoshifumi Murata, Chieko Maida, Kyoko Kofuji
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 15, pp 1635-1638; doi:10.31031/rdms.2021.15.000853

Yoshifumi Murata*, Chieko Maida and Kyoko Kofuji Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hokuriku University, Japan *Corresponding author: Yoshifumi Murata, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hokuriku University, Japan Submission: March 15, 2021;Published: March 24, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2021.15.000853 ISSN: 2576-8847 Volume 15 Issue 1 Film Dosage Forms [FDs] prepared using water-soluble polymers are a strategy for drug delivery to local disease sites. In this study, we prepared FDs incorporating rebamipide as a model drug using various types of sodium alginates [Alg-Nas] as the film base via the casting method. Both the dissolution profile of each FD and the drug dissolution profile from the FD were investigated in a limited amount of physiological saline. A thin film incorporating rebamipide was obtained when either 2-4% low-molecular-weight Alg-Na or 1.5% high-molecular-weight Alg-Na containing chitin were used as the film base. When the FD was brought in contact with the test medium, the film matrix swelled and disintegrated. The disintegration profile of the FD differed according to the type of Alg-Na. However, the disintegration of the FD film matrix did not affect the drug dissolution rate. All materials used for the preparation of the FDs were selected according to their safety for oral administration; therefore, FDs may be an attractive therapeutic form for use in the oral cavity. Keywords: Sodium alginate; Film dosage form; Rebamipide; Film disintegration profile; Drug release profile Sodium alginate [Alg-Na], an algal polysaccharide consisting of α-L-guluronate and β-D- mannuronate, is used as a food ingredient [1]. Some species of Alg-Na have been widely utilized as excipients in drug products and/or as impression materials in dentistry due to their polymeric properties and safe oral intake [2-4]. Alg-Na itself enacts a protective effect on the gastric mucosa; thus, it has been used as a medicine for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease [5,6]. Rebamipide [RM] has been used as a gastroprotective drug against gastric ulcers [7,8]. RM is also used in patients with dry eye disease for its mucosal-protective effect, and its efficacy has been reviewed [9,10]. Recently, RM has been approved as a therapeutic agent for oral mucositis or ulcers by local application. For example, RM mouthwash has been used to treat oral mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy [11-13], and some attempts have been made to deliver RM to the local disease site [14,15]. A Film Dosage form [FD] is a thin film containing active compounds. FDs prepared using water-soluble polymers can quickly swell and disintegrate in a small amount of liquid, such as saliva. Therefore, water-soluble polysaccharides, such as Alg-Na, have been studied as base materials to prepare FDs, through which drugs can be efficiently delivered to local disease sites. We have reported Alg-Na as a useful polymer for preparing FDs, because thin films can be formed using this polysaccharide as a film base by simple methods that do not require dissolution in organic solvents [16]. In the present study, FDs containing RM were prepared via the casting method using some species of Alg-Nas as the film base. When FD is prepared with a water-soluble material such as Alg- Na, the disintegration profile of the film matrix is an important factor that characterizes the dosage form. Thus, the dissolution profiles of FDs were investigated using a colorimetric assay that measured the amount of Alg-Na in aqueous solutions [17]. The dissolution profiles of RM from the FDs were investigated in a limited amount of medium. As the film base, we used two species of high-molecular-weight Alg-Na, Alg-A [300cps, Nacali Tesque Inc., Kyoto, Japan], Alg-B [500cps, Nacali Tesque Inc.] and two species of low- molecularweight Alg-Na, Alg-C [I-1G, Kimica Co., Tokyo, Japan], Alg-D [IL-1G, Kimica Co.]. RM was purchased from Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. [Tokyo, Japan]. Chitin [Crab Shells, Nacali Tesque Inc.] and chitosan [fine powder, degree of deacetylation: 75-85%, Kimitsu Chemical Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan] were used as additives to FD. Water-soluble carbodiimide, 1-Cyclohexyl-3-[2-morpholino ethyl] carbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulfonate [CMEC] were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co. [Milwaukee, WI, USA]. All other chemicals were of reagent grade and were obtained from commercial sources. FD preparation FD was prepared as follows: 10ml of the base solution containing RM was dispersed in deionized water to prepare the film base solution. The mixture was thoroughly mixed by sonication and poured [3g each] into individual plastic Petri dishes [diameter, 54mm]. The dishes were kept at 40 °C for 24h, after which the circular films formed were transferred into a desiccator. The thickness was measured at 10 points on each film using a micrometer [CLM1-15QM; Mitutoyo, Kawasaki, Japan] with a set pressure of 0.5N. Measurements were taken using three films, and the mean thickness was calculated for each type. Film disintegration test A film was placed in a plastic dish, and 10ml of physiological saline preheated to 37 °C was added. The dish was then shaken [300rpm] in an incubator [SI-300; As One Co., Osaka, Japan] set at 37 °C. The medium [0.3ml] was periodically removed using a plastic syringe and filtered through a syringe-driven filter unit [pore size: 0.45μm]. An equal volume [0.3ml] of physiological saline at 37 °C was added to the dish in the incubator to maintain a constant volume. Aliquots [0.1ml] of the filtered solution were combined with 0.9ml of ion-exchanged water in the test tubes before thorough mixing with a vortex mixer. The amount of Alg-Na in each sample solution [ml] was measured using the method described below. Each test was performed in triplicate. Alg-Na assay in a colorimeter The reagent solutions used were 20mM HX in ion-exchanged water and 0.1M CMEC in 2% pyridine-HCl buffer [pH...
Yungnane Yang
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 497-498; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2021.05.000621

Yungnane Yang* Department of Political Science, Taiwan *Corresponding author: Yungnane Yang, Department of Political Science, Taiwan Submission: February 08, 2021;Published: March 24, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2021.05.000621 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue5 The purpose of this article is to report and analyze a food security case happened in Taiwan through three element model. It showed both failure and successful stories under Taiwan’s food security system. Readers are able to know how the system worked in Taiwan based on this paper. There was a food security case happened in Taiwan around September of 2014. The Chang Guann Company (CGC), located in Ping-tung County of Southern Taiwan, collected and reproduce used cooking oil for sale illegally. A 60-year-old farmer, living nearby the company, reported the case to local governments for 5 times owing to strong odor from the company. But no evidence of violation was found by local public health officials. The farmer reported again the 6th time to Taichung Branch of Criminal Investigation Bureau in Middle Taiwan. The evidence was found that CGC violated food security laws and was prosecuted. But CGC’s cooking oil had been circulated and used by customers in Taiwan for years. The case showed both successful and failure stories. CGC had produced illegal edible oil for some time. Both government and market failure were clear. A farmer was able to crack down the food security case. It meant the resilience of the food security system in Taiwan. The purpose of this paper is to explore how Taiwan’s food security system functioned for the 2014’s case. Food security system included central government, local government, non-profit organization, and community [1]. It could be stated that local government, the Ping-tung County, did not perform well to stop the case. The farmer together with judicial institutions stop the case. The intervention was initiated by judicial institutions, which were governed by central government. Media could be treated as non-profit organizations owing to publicness characteristics. Community could be explained as friends and relatives surrounding the farmer. Yang [2] pointed out that there were institutional problems including transparency of reporting process, lack of bureaucratic accountability, lack of trust in elected officials, little coordination among local judicial institutions, and civic food safety groups were simply not active enough. These were also problems of local governance in Taiwan. The problems could be explained by North’s [3] theory of institutions. Human behaviors were determined by institutions, including formal and informal constraints, which affected functioning of food security system. However, opportunities were given to the farmer to file complaints across county border under the institutional arrangements. In order to improve the effectiveness of food security, [4] proposed coalition and networking among local agencies including District Attorney, local Public Health Agency, Police Organizations, and environmental groups. It was because the coalition model had been successfully implemented in cases of environmental pollution. Food security authority of local public health agencies, which were responsible for implementing food security laws and regulations, might be influenced by local politics directly and/or indirectly. Under the support of District Attorney, local public health agencies were empowered to work on food security regulation. Three element model developed by Yang [5] could also be used to analyze the operation of food security system and to design strategies of dealing with food security problems. The three elements, including information, mobilization, and interorganizational cooperation, could be treated as independent variables. And effectiveness is dependent variable. Information is the key of making food safety possible. Without accurate information, food security effectiveness could not function. But the information has to be taken care seriously by judicial institutions, which are a centralized system in Taiwan (Figure 1). Figure 1:Conceptual framework for food security system. Information could be linked with media owing to transparency purpose. The above food security case was widely reported by Taiwan media. Judicial institutions were forced to take actions for the case effectively. Related resources were mobilized to deal with the case. This indicates freedom of speech of institutional arrangements in Taiwan. Mobilization means related resources could work actively to solve food security problems including policy, management, and technical issues. And most resources were controlled by organizations. Inter-organizational collaboration became important to improve effectiveness of food security. It proves the importance of coalition and networking among different agencies as mentioned above. © 2021 Yungnane Yang. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Anderson Nonato Do Rosário Marinho, Daniela Cristiane Da Cruz Rocha, Érica Kássia Sousa Vidal, Débora De Castro Costa, Karina Lúcia Silva da Silva
Gastroenterology: Medicine & Research, Volume 5, pp 462-466; doi:10.31031/gmr.2021.05.000621

Daniela Cristiane da Cruz Rocha, Érica Kássia Sousa Vidal, Débora de Castro Costa, Karina Lúcia Silva da Silva and Anderson Nonato do Rosário Marinho* Evandro Chagas Institute, Laboratory of Bacterial Enteroinfections, Brazil *Corresponding author:Anderson Nonato do Rosário Marinho, Evandro Chagas Institute, Laboratory of Bacterial Enteroinfections, Brazil Submission: March 01, 2021;Published: March 23, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/GMR.2021.05.000621 ISSN 2637-7632Volume5 Issue5 In recent years there has been a rapid increase in bacterial resistance in Brazil and worldwide. Among the mechanisms described, Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases (ESBL) are of great importance. The continuous assessment of bacterial resistance have fundamental importance in preventing the occurrence of outbreaks and the spread of resistance, especially in the Amazon due to the relative isolation of cities and difficulties in epidemiological surveillance in the region. In the present work we approach the use of phenotypic and genotypic characterization in Enterobacterial isolates by determining the resistance profile to β-lactam antimicrobials by antibiogram and the search for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV genes associated with β-lactam resistance. Thus, 88 samples from outpatients from 14 regions in northern Brazil, belonging to the Brazilian Amazon, were analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Of these, Salmonella Typhi (57/64.77%), Salmonella spp. (26/29.54%), Shigella flexneri (2/2.27%), Shigella dysenterie (1/1.14%), Shigella sonnei (1/1.14%) and diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (1/1.14%). As for the resistance profile, only Escherichia coli showed resistance to first, second, third and fourth generation penicillins and cephalosporins and the aztreonam monobactamide, the other isolates did not show resistance profile according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards (CLSI) standards. The evaluation of the blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV genes showed positive results only for the blaCTX-M gene in the Escherichia coli sample, with no amplifications being observed in the other analyzed samples. Although resistance was observed in only one sample, the data suggest the circulation of β-lactam resistance genes in Enterobacteria and, therefore, we suggest that continuous resistance evaluation can prevent the spread of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteria, evidencing the importance of continuous monitoring and efficient strategies to reduce the spread of these agents by preventing outbreaks by resistant strains. Keywords: β-lactamases; ESBLs; Antimicrobial resistance; Enterobacteria, PCR In recent years there has been a rapid increase in bacterial resistance in Brazil and worldwide, the occurrence of this phenomenon in regions such as the Brazilian Amazon is still poorly known, but they are already observed in populations in northern South America in hospital cases and in localized outbreaks [1,2]. The production of Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamase (ESBLs) is an important mechanism of resistance in Enterobacteria. The emergence and spread of ESBL among family members has been described worldwide as a point of clinical urgency due to the high incidence of these isolates in infections related to health care, such as urinary and intestinal infections, pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis, among others [3,4]. The main genera producing ESBLs, among the Enterobacteria, are Escherichia coli and Klebisiella pneumoniae [5]. Currently, increasing resistance to antimicrobials is a highly complex problem for global health that is often associated with the widespread and sometimes indiscriminate use of antimicrobials that work in the selection and dissemination of resistance [6-8]. Resistance to the vast majority of beta-lactams, including carbapenemics in ESBL-producing and KPC-type bacteria, is often concomitantly associated with resistance to other classes of antimicrobials, such as aminoglycosides and fluorquinolones. Because of this, the rapid identification of strains that produce these enzymes is of fundamental importance in the selection of the appropriate antimicrobial for the treatment [9-11]. The need for speedy identification of antimicrobial therapy is due to the fact that bacteria have a great capacity to conserve and transmit plasmids, as well as other mobile elements that contain resistance genes, such as beta-lactamase genes, thus facilitating the spread of Anti Microbial Resistance (AMR). The presence of these resistance mechanisms has a direct interference in the treatment of the patient, reducing the therapeutic alternatives available, arising the need to resort to the latest generation of antimicrobials, which increases the selective pressure and can cause the appearance of new types of resistance, restricting increasingly possible treatment options [12-16]. 88 pathogenic strains isolated from species belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were analyzed, collected from 2012 to 2014 (2012-27 samples; 2013-19 samples and 2014-42 samples) from clinical cases treated in the Brazilian Amazon from 14 municipalities outpatients infected with pathogenic Enterobacteria. CAAE Ethics Committee: 52530916.0.0000.0019 Instituto Evandro Chagas (CEP/IEC/SVS/MS). The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was assessed by the disc diffusion method according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute- (CLSI, 2012) [17] and by the automated system Vitek 2 (BioMèrieux) following the manufacturer's recommendations. As controls for the susceptibility tests to antimicrobials, the strains American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603 producer of ESBL and E. coli ATCC 25922 were used. For the extraction of bacterial DNA, the DNA IQ kit (Promega) was used, following the manufacturer's recommendations. For the amplification of the blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV genes, the primers described by Schmitt et al. [18], Nasehi et al. [19] and...
Felipe Cruz García, Javier Andrés Juárez Díaz, Yuridia Cruz Zamora
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 803-807; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000684

Javier Andrés Juárez Díaz1, Yuridia Cruz Zamora2 and Felipe Cruz García2* 1Departamento de Biología Comparada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México 2Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Méxicon *Corresponding author:Felipe Cruz García, Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Mx., 04510, México Submission: March 12, 2021Published: March 19, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000684 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 2 Several barriers occur among flowering plants to prevent self-fertilization by increasing and maintaining the species genetic variability. From all these barriers, self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most effective avoiding endogamy. Genetic control in SI relies on the polymorphic S locus, where both pollen and pistil S determinants are encoded. Based on the pollen S phenotype, diploid or haploid, there are two kinds of genetic control in the SI systems: the sporophytic and the gametophytic. In the gametophytic SI systems, two mechanisms are currently unraveled. One exclusive to Papaveraceae and the other one, known as the S-RNase-based SI, which is present in more divergent taxa: Plantaginaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and Solanaceae. The more in-depth studies on the molecular mechanism have been mainly done in Solanaceae, particularly in Petunia and Nicotiana, achieving significant advances by different genetic, molecular, biochemical, and cellular approaches, resulting in two models to encompass further evidence to explain it: the collaborative and the compartmentalization model. Both models, however, seem to be excluding each other. Here we will discuss the evidence and the information around these explanations and will discuss the possibility of why it has been so challenging to find an integrative hypothesis to understand this critical evolutionary process within angiosperms. Keywords: Self-incompatibility; Solanaceae; Pollination; S-RNase, SLF, Nicotiana, Petunia, Collaborative; Compartmentalization Abbreviations: SI: Self-Incompatibility/Self-Incompatible; SSI: Sporophytic SI; GSI: Gametophytic SI; PCD: Programmed Cell Death; PT: Pollen Tube; EM: Extracellular Matrix; STT: Stylar Transmitting Tissue; MG: Modifier Gene; Trx: Thioredoxin Self-Incompatibility (SI), defined as the inability to produce zygote after self-pollination in fertile plants [1,2], is one of the main barriers in plants preventing inbreeding while promoting genetic variability in future generations. Among angiosperms, SI is broadly classified as heteromorphic and homomorphic systems [1]. Heteromorphic SI is exhibited in species with two (distily) or three (tristily) floral morphs, while homomorphic one is in species with only one floral morph [3,4]. The homomorphic SI systems have been extensively studied and analyzed under genetic, biochemical, and molecular approaches, exhibiting significant advances in understanding the pollen rejection molecular basis. SI is a selective mechanism that discriminates between self- and non-self-pollen, preventing self-fertilization by rejecting self-pollen (incompatible cross). Pollen rejection occurs as the result of a complex pollen-pistil interaction network, that is, as the starting point, genetically regulated by the single multiallelic S locus [5,6], except for some grasses (Poaceae), in which two loci (S and Z) control self-pollen rejection [7,8]. Both male (pollen expressed) and female (pistil expressed) specificity determinant-encoding genes are tightly linked within the S locus. In the pistil -formed by diploid cells-, both S alleles are codominant, and therefore, it can recognize and reject any pollen portraying any of the same S alleles. Recognition and rejection of self-pollen occur when the pollen S-allele matches one of the pistil S-alleles in a heterozygous plant [9]. On the pollen side, the S product may have a sporophytic origin or a gametophytic one. In the sporophytic SI (SSI), the pollen exhibits a diploid S recognition phenotype determined by the mother plant. In the gametophytic SI (GSI), the pollen S phenotype depends on its haploid genotype after meiosis giving origin to the S haplotype. In SSI, the pollen compatibility phenotype is granted by the anther (a diploid tissue), while in the GSI, the compatibility phenotype derives from the pollen haploid genotype [10,11]. The SSI is a more restrictive pollen rejection mechanism because pollen will carry on its surface two S-proteins synthesized by the anther tapetum. For example, an S1S2 plant will deposit the S1 and S2-proteins on the pollen grain exine. If this pollen lands on an S1S2 stigma, it will be rejected. Even more, if pollen lands on S1S3 or S2S4 stigmas, it will also be rejected, but no for S3S4 stigmas. By contrast, GSI is slightly more flexible. For instance, in a plant S1S2, 50% of the pollen grains will display S1 haplotype and 50% S2. The pistil will reject either pollen grains (Figure 1). However, pollen may come from a close-related individual. For example, in an S1S2 X S1S3 cross, only S1 pollen will be rejected but not S3 (Figure 1), which does not occur in SSI (where pollen would display an S1S3 phenotype). Therefore, while in SSI, there are only compatible and incompatible crosses, semi-compatible crosses may occur in GSI. Figure 1: S-specific pollen rejection response in the gametophytic self-incompatibility system (Nicotiana alata). An S1S2 plant expresses both S alleles in the pistil and produces pollen with S1 and S2 haplotypes (50% each). When the pollen grains (asterisks) land on the stigmatic surface, they germinate, and the pollen tubes (arrows) start to grow through the extracellular matrix of the stylar transmitting tissue. The pistil recognizes and rejects pollen with either S1 or S2 haplotype (incompatible; left...
Hanan S Abushwereb
Interventions in Obesity & Diabetes, Volume 5, pp 425-427; doi:10.31031/iod.2021.05.000605

Hanan S Abushwereb* Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Department, Libya *Corresponding author:Hanan S Abushwereb, Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Department, University of Tripoli, Faculty of Pharmacy, Libya Submission:February 15, 2021;Published: March 18, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/IOD.2021.05.000605 ISSN 2598-0263Volume5 Issue1 Obesity has become a disease of the age, and there are many innovative methods used to fight obesity, as every new day we find innovations in the world of slimming and weight loss. Obesity known to increase the risk of a number of health disorders such as heart, diabetes and cancer, in addition to reducing people’s life expectancy. It is well known that sugar and carbohydrates in general give energy to the body. Recently, nutrition scientists stating that excess sugar is not burned, and therefore the body does not need it to generate energy, and it is often converted into other natural substances such as fat that accumulate in large quantities in the body. It is considered as the main cause of serious and chronic diseases that harm human life over time. Therefore, to combat this phenomenon, which is obesity, efforts should be intensified with more studies calling for modern diets that focus on reducing refined and harmful carbohydrates without depriving the body of reaching a state of satiety and activity. By prescribing it to lose excessive body weight, reduce diseases and infections that affect the quality of life to reach healthy bodies and minds enjoying vitality and intelligence. Keywords:Carbohydrates; Insulin resistance; Metabolic syndrome; Glycemic index; Obesity; Diseases Carbohydrates are among the main food groups, along with proteins and fats. Many food groups fall into the carbohydrate group, such as sugars or starches, and are composed primarily of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. One of the most important functions of carbohydrates is energy production. Where, after digestion, it turns into mono-glucose. Which in turn nourishes the cells of the body. As carbohydrates convert faster and easier to glucose than proteins and fats, so they are the main source of energy that the body needs to carry out vital functions. The prevailing belief persisted by people who consider it as the main body’s food source of energy [1]. No one can deny the importance of the presence of carbohydrates in the human diet for the body to perform its vital functions, just as we cannot also deny that carbohydrates have serious harm that threatens human life. With the rapid development and change in lifestyle and the resort to fast and ready-made foods containing high levels of carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates such as bread, sugars and starches [2,3]. We have seen many unknown-source diseases, symptoms and infections that have recently appeared on the human body and its health, which disturbed and bothered him. As in recent years, the introduction of high rates of processed carbohydrates has increased in food products in the world markets. Whether are candies, starch, or local corn syrup, with juices, drinks sweets and baked goods, which led to an increase in diseases and infections that now we see a day even in children and young people. Diseases such as overweight or obesity, insulin resistance, fatty liver [4,5], high triglycerides, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, gout [6], cancers [7,8] and the list goes on. One of these dangerous and causative factors is insulin resistance [9]. The majority of people with accumulated belly fat have a condition called insulin resistance [9]. A condition precedes diabetes in which the body’s cells reject or block insulin. Since the cells’ sensitivity or sensing to insulin is low, it will stimulate the work of the pancreas to make more. People who have insulin resistance have four to five times the amount of insulin in their bodies even when they are fasting. One of the symptoms of insulin resistance is cravings for sweets, dissatisfaction after eating that cannot last for long without hunger [10,11]. Good mood with eating, fluid retention, frequent urination at night, polycystic ovary syndrome or polycystic ovaries [12]. On the other hand, dietary factors play an important role in the development of chronic heart disease through their effects on body weight and serum lipid levels [13-15]. It is widely accepted that dietary carbohydrate intakes increase the risk of stroke. Recently, several studies have raised the issue of the relationship between carbohydrate related factors (Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL)) and chronic heart disease risk factors [16]. In general, more refined or processed carbohydrates have a higher GI. This in turns makes cells in muscles, fat, and liver do not respond well to insulin and cannot use glucose from blood for energy. Over time, the blood sugar levels go up and the pancreas makes more insulin ending to insulin resistance. So far, dealing with insulin resistance seems the only way to fix a slow and stubborn metabolism, and the solution is to follow a lowcarb diet and stay away from substances that would raise the blood sugar level [17]. However, the body still needs very little complex carbohydrates that come from vegetables, green leaves and grains such as legumes and seeds, not simple carbohydrates such as sugars and starch, which quickly turn into blood sugar and thus lead to the health problems we see today [18]. Things do not stop here, as “Covid-19” the virus that baffled the world in 2020 is still spreading rapidly among people, causing shortness of breath and severe acute pneumonia that leads to death. Covid-19 affects patients who complain of obesity are more likely to die from complications from the disease compared to people who are of a healthy weight [19]. As a recent study revealed that obesity, increases the risk of death by nearly 50 percent among “Covid-19” patients who suffer from obesity and the prospective vaccine may be less...
Nefeli Lagopati, Lagopati N, Pavlatou Ea
Interventions in Obesity & Diabetes, Volume 5, pp 419-424; doi:10.31031/iod.2021.05.000603

Lagopati N1,2* and Pavlatou EA1 1Laboratory of General Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Greece 2Laboratory of Histology-Embryology, Molecular Carcinogenesis Group, Faculty of Medicine, Greece *Corresponding author:Nefeli Lagopati, Laboratory of General Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens, Greece Submission:April 14, 2020;Published: March 16, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/IOD.2021.05.000603 ISSN 2598-0263Volume5 Issue1 Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary scientific field with a great number of applications, which are developed in order to improve the quality of life. Nanomedicine is a specialized branch of medicine that applies the fundamentals of nanotechnology to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is considered to be among the major afflictions of modern western society. The common approach of this condition is a prescribed insulin replacement therapy, including injections of long-acting insulin at mealtimes. Regarding the everyday routine, insulin injections and glucose tests can be painful and time consuming for diabetic patients. Many efforts are given to overcome the drawbacks of injection therapy, but there is the need for new safe and cost-effective technologies for diagnosis and treatment. Nanotechnology has obtained increasing importance in the research of diabetes. Nanotechnology-based tests can provide more accurate information for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Several therapeutic methods have been proposed for non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose, based on nanotechnology. Some representative achievements include the molecular diagnosis of diabetes, the oral delivery of insulin with the use of nanospheres as biodegradable polymeric carriers, the development of artificial beta cells and artificial pancreas. The aim of this review is to provide insights into the role of nanotechnology in diabetes diagnosis and treatment, shedding light on the potential of nanotechnology in this field and discussing the future prospects. Keywords: Nanomedicine; Nanotechnology; Diabetes mellitus; Nanomaterials; Diagnosis; Treatment Nanotechnology is a scientific and technological combination, integrating various fields, such as physics [1], chemistry [2], biotechnology and engineering [3]. It is considered as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers [4]. The interesting potential of nanotechnology, due to the special properties of nanomaterials, leads to a great number of applications, which are developed in order to improve the quality of life [5]. Nanomedicine is a specialized branch of medicine that applies the fundamentals of nanotechnology to the prevention and/or the treatment of various diseases [6]. Thus, nanomedicine involves the utilization of nanostructured materials for diagnosis, delivery, detection or actuation purposes in a living organism [7]. There are numerous companies specializing in the fabrication of new forms of nanosized matter, with anticipated applications that include medical therapeutics and diagnostics, energy production, molecular computing and structural materials [4,8]. Nanotechnology can enhance drug delivery to those areas which were unfavorable for macromolecules to approach [9]. Furthermore, it offers new implantable sensing technologies, providing accurate medical information [10]. Cancer and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis and treatment, dental applications and development of bone implants are among the most famous applications of nanomedicine [11-16]. Diabetes is considered to be among the major afflictions of modern western society. Recent studies demonstrated that around approximately 9.3 percent of the global adult population suffered from diabetes in 2019 [17]. According to mathematical models, based on clinical data, by the year 2045, this percentage is expected to rise to almost 11 percent [17,18]. Diabetes is typically characterized by increased thirst, excessive weight loss or excessive desire to eat, increased urge for urination and thus resulting in abnormal increase in blood glucose level [19,20]. It is classified as Type 1, Type 2 or gestational diabetes mellitus, depending on the reason for high blood sugar [19-21]. In type 1-diabetes, the body cannot produce insulin due to loss of β-cells, as a result of T-cell mediated autoimmune attack [22]. The common approach of this condition is a prescribed insulin replacement therapy, including injections of long-acting insulin at mealtimes [23]. An insulin-resistance combined with insulin deficiency is found in patients, suffering from type 2-diabetes [24]. Exercise and regulation of the meals is suggested for the initial treatment of type of diabetes [25]. Diabetes can lead to serious long-term health complications, such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, stroke, foot ulcers, damage to the nerves, damage to the eyes and cognitive impairment and is among the top ten leading causes of death worldwide [26,27]. Regarding the everyday routine, insulin injections and glucose tests can be painful and time consuming for diabetic patients [28]. Many efforts are given to overcome the drawbacks of injection therapy [29]. Several technologies have been developed, such as continuous glucose monitors and insulin pumps to improve patient compliance [30]. But there is the need for new safe and costeffective technologies for diagnosis and treatment, since there is still risk of patient’s infection and scarring due to implanted sensors and cannulas [31]. All the widely used devices must be frequently replaced and maintained with a high cost for the patients and the health systems worldwide [32]. Nanotechnology has obtained increasing importance in the research of diabetes [33]. It can provide more accurate information for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus [34]....
Camilla Krizhanovskii, Stelia Ntika, Linda Tracy, Sven Bringman, Per Lundquist
Interventions in Obesity & Diabetes, Volume 5, pp 419-424; doi:10.31031/iod.2021.05.000604

Stelia Ntika1,2, Sven Bringman3,4, Per Lundquist4, Linda Tracy2 and Camilla Krizhanovskii1,2* 1Karolinska Institutet, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Sweden 2Department of Research, Södertälje University Hospital, Sweden 3Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Sweden 4Department of Surgery, Södertälje University Hospital, Sweden *Corresponding author:Camilla Krizhanovskii, Karolinska Institutet-Södertälje hospital, Department of Research, Lagmansvägen, Sweden Submission:February 13, 2021;Published: March 16, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/IOD.2021.05.000604 ISSN 2598-0263Volume5 Issue1 Context: Bariatric surgery can be considered metabolic surgery, with important weight loss-independent effects on metabolism. Altered secretion of the intestinal hormone Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) may be an important factor in the metabolic success of bariatric surgery. GLP-1 is an important regulator of glucose metabolism, reducing glycemia by regulating insulin and glucagon secretion, slowing gastric emptying, and lowering the desire for food intake. A potentiating effect of bariatric surgery on postprandial GLP-1 secretion is well documented and contributes to the increased insulin secretion and sensitivity that precedes weight loss. However, studies on patients with Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT) are relatively few, and a clear consensus is still lacking in terms of potential effects of bariatric surgery on fasting GLP-1 levels in obese subjects with NGT. Objective: To investigate fasting and postprandial levels of GLP-1 in obese women with NGT before and after bariatric surgery. Design: Plasma GLP-1 was quantified at fasting and during an Oral Meal Tolerance Test (OMTT) in female patients with NGT subjected to Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG) or Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Insulin resistance was quantified using HOMA-IR, and beta cell function using the Oral Disposition Index (DIo). Setting: This study was performed at Karolinska Institutet, Södertälje Hospital south of Stockholm, Sweden. Patients and participants: Eleven female patients aged 18-65 years with a BMI≥40 kg/m2 and NGT were included. Exclusion criteria were T2D (based on the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2014)), prior GLP-1 based therapy or insulin therapy, and history of substance abuse (drugs or alcohol). Main outcome measures: Outcome measures were fasting and OMTT plasma levels of insulin and GLP-1. Results: Fasting GLP-1 levels were decreased 3 months postoperatively compared to baseline (12.3±1.5 vs. 20.1±3.4 pmol/L, p=0.05). Meal-stimulated GLP-1 secretion was significantly increased 3 months postoperatively in association with increased insulin sensitivity and enhanced beta cell function. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery reduces fasting plasma GLP-1 levels, while significantly increasing meal-stimulated plasma GLP-1 levels, in obese women with NGT. Keywords:Bariatric surgery; Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT); Obesity; BMI; Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) Abbreviations: GLP-1: Glucagon-Like Peptide-1; NGT: Normal Glucose Tolerance; OMTT: Oral Meal Tolerance Test; VSG: Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy; RYGB: Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass; T2D: Type 2 Diabetes; IGT: Impaired Glucose Tolerance; ADA: American Diabetes Association Obesity is increasing worldwide, associated with the epidemic increase in Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), and thus constitutes a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, placing an enormous burden on healthcare systems. Bariatric surgery is the best available treatment of severe obesity and has been associated with T2D remission [1,2]. Two of the most popular bariatric surgical procedures -- Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) -- are sometimes referred to as metabolic surgeries because they affect metabolism by weight loss–independent mechanisms. Understanding the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery, and the mechanisms that mediate metabolic success and weight loss, is key to developing novel, less invasive and superior strategies to treat obesity and metabolic disease. Increased endogenous Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling has been considered a primary pathway leading to postsurgical weight loss and improvements in glucose metabolism following VSG and RYGB. GLP-1 is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone derived from tissue specific posttranslational processing of proglucagon and is one of the two incretin hormones increasing meal-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, GLP-1 stimulates β-cell proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, exerts protective effects on cardiomyocytes, reduces insulin resistance, reduces glucagon concentrations by restoring hyperglycemic responses of the α-cells, while also inhibiting gastric emptying, and food intake [3]. Attenuated GLP-1 responses to meals have been demonstrated in obese adolescents [3,4]. Other studies show no difference in fasting and stimulated GLP-1 between normal-weight and obese individuals [5]. Weight loss has been indicated to decrease [6], increase [4] or exert no effect on fasting and stimulated GLP-1 levels [7]. Increased postprandial GLP-1 secretion has repeatedly been shown following VSG as well as RYGB, with both total and active levels of GLP-1 increasing, and the intact hormone reaching nearly 10 times higher concentrations after RYGB and VSG [8]. Some studies have suggested that RYGB increases postprandial GLP-1 to a greater extent than VSG [9,10]. However, most studies demonstrate similar postprandial increases in active GLP-1 following both procedures [11-13]. Although many of these studies include patients with T2D or Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT), complicating the interpretation of the results, bariatric surgery is consistently associated with increased postprandial GLP-1 also among individuals with NGT. However,...
, Papadopoulos T, Michalakelis C
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-7; doi:10.31031/prm.2021.04.000592

Ioannis-John Kosmas*, Papadopoulos T and Michalakelis C Department of Telematics and Informatics, Harokopio University of Athens, Greece Introduction *Corresponding author: Ioannis-John Kosmas, Department of Telematics and Informatics, Harokopio University of Athens, Greece, Email:[email protected] Submission: March 5, 2021;Published: March 16, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2021.04.000592 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume4 Issue4 People nowadays are living in the era of advanced technology in their everyday live. In the context of the Internet of Things (IoT), the internet connectivity has been extended beyond standard devices, such as desktops, laptops, smartphones and tablets, to any range of traditionally dumb or non-internet-enabled physical devices and everyday objects. In recent years, IoT has taken over most of the industrial area, especially automation and control [1,2]. At the same time, IoT is applicable to other crucial sectors and especially health, since it offers numerous opportunities to improve health services and also enables health professionals (doctors, nurses, etc.) to make decisions based on real data. The IoT provides many additional health applications with the specific aim of monitoring patient progress and providing doctors with information on decision making. IoT health concerns and future prospects are presented in this paper based on a thorough survey of previous literature. Inspection of the results reveals that some health-related services are not yet sufficiently developed and interestingly enough the literature is limited in these services and there is no knowledge about the implementation of IoT in the health sector. This paper attempts to investigate the scientific gap in the IoT healthcare sector and it also gives interesting directions for future researches regarding the implementation of health data. Keywords: IoT; Healthcare; Survey; Systematic literature review People nowadays are living in the era of advanced technology, where every part of their daily lives is related to some kind of technology in one way or another. A frequent phenomenon, which proves the above assumption, is the direct relationship of almost everyone with the mobile phones. People today have the opportunity to use the variety of software applications, via the Internet, and be informed about the weather forecasting, the banking and stock trading, the airline flights and other interesting aspects of their everyday life by either paying for these services through in-app transactions or not. Living in a connected world creates a grid of relationships but not only for smartphones and tablets. In the context of the Internet of Things (IoT), the internet connectivity has been extended beyond standard devices, such as desktops, laptops, smartphones and tablets, to any range of traditionally dumb or noninternet- enabled physical devices and everyday objects. Embedded with technology, these devices can communicate and interact over the internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled. In light of this, a great variety of additional smart devices of all sorts, equipped with sensors like home appliances, vehicles, energy consumption, temperature, medical devices, square measurements are dynamically connected to the net. These devices communicate with one another via Machine-to-Machine (M2M) technology. In the context of M2M the devices communicate and exchange information, either wired or wireless, through advanced next generation (NGAs) networks. In recent years, IoT has taken over most of the industrial area, especially automation and control. At the same time, IoT is applicable to other crucial sectors and especially health, since it offers numerous opportunities to improve health services and also enables health professionals (doctors, nurses, etc.) to make decisions based on real data. There is a powerful interest in wireless sensing element networks (the basic trigger mechanism for IoT primarily based systems), like the event of routing protocols and a spread of applications like medical imaging [3,4]. The connections in the context of IoT health sector, refer to objects such as patient devices, physician patients, doctor-based devices, sensor-to-device devices. The IoT provides many additional health applications with the specific aim of monitoring patient progress and providing doctors with information on decision making in this respect [5-10]. Various medical devices, sensors, diagnostic and imaging devices seem to be good devices or objects and represent a significant a part of IoT. Internetbased healthcare services are expected to increase quality of life and enrich the user expertise. On the provider’s perspective, IoT has the power to reduce time-consuming of the device by providing a distant management. Taking into account previous literature, IoT health concerns and future prospects are presented in this paper. Thorough inspection of previous literature reveals that some health-related services are not yet sufficiently developed and interestingly enough the literature is limited in these services and there is no knowledge about the implementation of IoT in the health sector. This paper attempts to investigate the scientific gap in the IoT healthcare sector and it also gives interesting directions for future researches regarding the implementation of health data. The thought of net of things (Internet of Things or IOT) isn’t new, the mix of computers and networks for observation and dominant the devices has been used for many years. One example of this, since the late Nineteen Seventies, was the telecommunication systems of electrical networks via phone lines wherever they were commercially used [11]. Today, the Internet of things is being exploited in many areas of everyday life, providing the convenience of technology to reach people’s goals. Despite its wider expansion, there is no specific definition. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has...
Yasushi Rino, Toru Aoyama, Yosuke Atsumi, Hiroshi Tamagawa, Norio Yukawa, Takanobu Yamada, Takashi Oshima, Tsutomu Sato
Gastroenterology: Medicine & Research, Volume 5, pp 460-461; doi:10.31031/gmr.2021.05.000620

Yasushi Rino1*, Toru Aoyama1, Takanobu Yamada2, Yosuke Atsumi1, Hiroshi Tamagawa1, Takashi Oshima2, Tsutomu Sato3 and Norio Yukawa1 1Department of Surgery, Yokohama City University, School of Medicine, Yokohama, 3-9, Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama city, 236-0004, Japan 2Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, 2-3-2, Nakao, Asahi-ku, Yokohama city, 241-8515, Japan 3Gastroenterological Center, Medical Center, Yokohama City, Yokohama, 4-57 Urafune, Minami-ku, Yokohama 232-0024 Japan *Corresponding author:Yasushi Rino, Department of Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9, Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan Submission: March 03, 2021;Published: March 15, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/GMR.2021.05.000620 ISSN 2637-7632Volume5 Issue4 Vitamin B12 absorption has two mechanism that are passive and active one. The active mechanism, controlled gastric intrinsic factor, occurs through the ileum and is efficient for small oral dose of vitamin B12. After gastrectomy, there is little intrinsic factor. Especially, after total gastrectomy (TG), intrinsic factor is lost. Cumulative vitamin B12 deficiency rate was 100% for TG after surgery. Usually, intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency after gastrectomy is performed. Recently, oral vitamin B12 replacement was reported. 500μg vitamin B12 replacement orally is maybe effective and necessary. Keywords: Vitamin B12; Replacement therapy; Total gastrectomy; Gastric cancer; Oral vitamin B12 replacement Abbreviations: TG: Total Gastrectomy; DG: Distal Gastrectomy Mechanisms of vitamin B12 absorption Mechanisms of vitamin B12 absorption has been known widely. The Mechanisms are classified into two mechanisms. One is passive, occurring equally through buccal, duodenal, and ileal mucosa; it is rapid but extremely inefficient, with Loss of vitamin B12 absorption mechanisms after gastrectomy A variety of factors affects some patients after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Some nutrition deficiencies result from disturbance of the normal anatomic and physiologic mechanism that control gastric function. After gastrectomy, patients commonly lose weight rapidly. The cause of weight loss, fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, and bone disorders after gastric surgery generally are decreased dietary intake or malabsorption [3-5]. Active mechanism of vitamin B12 absorption is almost lost after gastrectomy. Especially, after total gastrectomy (TG), patients have only passive mechanism of vitamin B12 absorption. Because of it, vitamin B12 deficiency after gastrectomy is common complication as malnutrition [6,7]. Frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency after gastrectomy As above, cumulative vitamin B12 deficiency rates were 100% for TG and 15.7% for distal gastrectomy (DG) 4 years after surgery. The median time to vitamin B12 deficiency was 15 months after TG, whereas the median time was not reached after DG [8]. We reported that about 9 months was the median time to vitamin B12 deficiency after TG [9]. Normally, between 2-3mg vitamin B12 are stored in human body. Because of this, vitamin B12 deficiency would not be occured. May TG progress a daily choler excretion or a consumption of the vitamin B12? Most gastric cancer patients are complicated with atrophic gastritis. A severe lack of intrinsic factor due to gastric atrophy [1]. Vitamin B12 storage before TG would be decreased in gastric cancer patients with gastric atrophy. If this hypothesis is correct, it can be inferred that the median time to vitamin B12 deficiency after TG is shortened. Treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency after gastrectomy In spite of vitamin B12 administration orally is not a reliable route after TG, Kim et al. [10] previously reported that serum vitamin B12 increased after oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 in TG patients. In this report, for the oral vitamin B12 replacement, mecobalamin was administrated. The dosage comprised 1500μg mecobalamin daily [10]. But we reported that 500μg vitamin B12 replacement orally is maybe effective [9]. In the future Even after TG, patients have passive mechanism and can absorb little of oral intake vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 replacement therapy should be necessary and continued routinely. IM is a reliable therapy. But IM needs to go to clinic a month and is painful. According to our results, one tablet PO a day is enough [9]. And now, we planned clinical study to clarify 500μg vitamin B12 replacement orally for TG patients. The authors declare no conflicts of interest in association with the present study. None © 2021 Yasushi Rino. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Petros Gkogkos
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 800-802; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000683

Petros Gkogkos1* and Dimitris Skalkos2 1Green Box Publications SA, 105 57 Athens, Greece 2Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina 45110 Ioannina, Greece *Corresponding author: Petros Gkogkos, 1Green Box Publications SA, 105 57 Athens, Greece Submission: February 22, 2021Published: March 11, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000683 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 2 The deep existential nature of authenticity combined with the change towards green sustainability can transform the concept of brand authenticity, an inspiring tool for food industry and agricultural business in order to build a new brand image that will enable them to capitalize on the economic post pandemic era. Keywords: Brand Authenticity; COVID-19; Food branding; Marketing; Agriculture Looking beyond the short term COVID-19 and quarantine current period, researchers picture the future of food and food industry with regards to health values, environmental sustainability and locality [1]. In that concept Brand Authenticity seems to be gaining a new importance and especially for those brands and regions that represent a production model based on added value inherited [2]. In order to capitalize this upcoming bull market, adoption and change must be implemented, and it seems that some brands have already made major steps towards this [3]. In times of uncertainty, the factor of authenticity tends to become an essential human aspiration, making it a key issue in contemporary marketing and a major factor for brand success [4]. Authenticity describes a place and the factors behind the particular place (people, history, culture) that is genuine, unaltered and without hypocrisy [5], borrowing those terms from phenomenological and existential philosophy [6]. Regardless of the historical time or the geographical, technological, and social situation, people will always need place to refer to. We identify ourselves with place as integral part of what and who we are as human beings [7]. In the beginning of 21st century, brand authenticity in the context of academic research remained in an archaic phase even though consumers’ demand for authenticity has existed for hundreds of years [8]. Today one of modern marketing’s central themes is the tension between authenticity and in- authenticity [9]. Four dimensions of authenticity have been identified, which are: continuity, originality, reliability, and naturalness [4]. They were identified by literature review and several studies with different consumers and brands, and by developing a scale for measuring the strength of consumers’ perceived brand authenticity. Relatively recent research found that brand authenticity is a critical determinant of impression in memory, lifestyle-congruence, and brand love [10]. In the world of international brands, a lack of authenticity has been observed, which stimulates even more consumers’ desire for authentic experiences and genuine brands that undercovers the impact of heritage, of quality and labelling schemes on consumer-brand relationships [11]. In the field of health functional food products and other specialties, it has been proved that brand authenticity is an important antecedent for forming brand trust and brand relationship quality with consumers, suggesting that authenticity is an important factor in brand management of health functional food and other products [12]. By linking geographical origin and ecosystem services with food production European Union developed geographical indication schemes that aim to protect specific know how, authenticity and agro-environmental conditions [13], paving the way for a pan- European food brand that can increase traditional food products competitiveness. The exact same high value recognition of these products led to economically motivated product adulteration in many cases with a big number of reviews, that provide evaluation methods used for the determination of provenance and authenticity of these products [14]. This attention seems to imply important competitiveness that the concept of food brand authenticity may give to industries and foods. Brand authenticity during the lock-down period Now more than ever, because of the pandemic crisis and the uncertainty of our times consumers tend to reach out for authentic products and brands that can guarantee authenticity. A study on consumers shopping during the first two weeks of lockdown in Spain, showed that products with geographical indication, linked to quality assurance and food safety, increased their importance [15]. It was observed that 61.4% of consumers modified their buying behavior at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. This crisis displays characteristics that differ from other economical downcycles and the first approaches show that despite the economical sovereignty consumers are willing to pay more for their groceries and other food related services [16]. At the same time, word of mouth has it that e-commerce is expanding. Social distancing is leading to a shift to online shopping among many consumers and online stores are experiencing enormous increases in turnover [16]. In addition to this, brands seem to engage in innovative initiatives such as the case of CK Mondavi wines, a winery that is now running virtual educational tastings for their Aloft and Dark Matter wine brands [17]. Brand Authenticity refers both to the product and the company [4]. Charles Taylor has pictured the impact of COVID-19 in advertising, citing that during the pandemic advertisement focused especially on corporate social responsibility coloring mostly the aspects of consumer safety, employee welfare, honoring first responders, donations to charity [17]. Post covid era predictions The current global pandemic prompted many companies to step up and provide products and services urgently needed during the crisis and therefore expectations on companies are elevated because people have grown accustomed to...
Blandón Díaz Ju, Högberg N, Grönberg L, Widmark Ak, Yuen J
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 790-799; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000682

Blandón Díaz JU1,2*, Högberg N2, Grönberg L2, Widmark AK2 and Yuen J2 1Department of Plant and Forest Protection, National University of Agriculture (UNA), Managua, Nicaragua 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Sweden *Corresponding author: Blandón Díaz JU, Department of Plant and Forest Protection, National University of Agriculture (UNA), Managua, Nicaragua Submission: February 23, 2021Published: March 10, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000682 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 2 The late blight pathogen, P. infestans, is a hemi biotrophic, heterothallic, diploid oomycete that remains a major constraint for potato and tomato production worldwide and causes economic losses yearly calculated to be over four billion euros. This study was undertaken to test the following hypotheses: i) P. infestans isolates from Nicaragua do not differ in their aggressiveness toward potato or tomato; and ii) the P. infestans population from Nicaragua is formed exclusively by a single clonal lineage. Five SSR multilocus genotypes among 72 isolates of P. infestans were detected and all of them were of the Ia mtDNA haplotype and A2 mating type. The NI-1 single multilocus genotype continued to be dominant within the clonal lineage. The genotypic analysis revealed neither host specificity nor population differentiation between potato and tomato isolates. Aggressiveness tests revealed that tomato isolates showed a general, but not exclusive, host-specificity and were more aggressive on tomato. In contrast, potato isolates showed host-preference toward tomato leaflets and were more aggressive on them. The findings of this study provide useful information regarding late blight disease management on potato and tomato crops in Nicaragua. Keywords: Quantitative pathogenicity; Plant pathogen diversity; Molecular markers; Population structure The late blight pathogen, P. infestans, is a hemi biotrophic, heterothallic, diploid oomycete that remains a major constraint for potato and tomato production worldwide and causes economic losses yearly calculated to be over four billion euros [1]. In compatible interactions with potato, the biotrophic phase of P. infestans can last from three to five days, after which macroscopic symptoms are evident (necrotrophic phase). In tomato leaves, an extended period of biotrophy has been observed due to a compatible interaction with tomato-specialized isolates [2-4]. As a heterothallic oomycete, P. infestans possesses two compatibility groups, referred to as mating types A1 and A2, which enables the production of oospores in locations where both A1 and A2 mating types are present contributing in that way to its overwintering survival and shaping the nature of its population structure [5]. In locations where only the asexual cycle is found, P. infestans survives as mycelium in infected potato tubers and debris [6] and also probably in alternate wild hosts. Prior to the 1980s, worldwide populations of P. infestans were dominated by a single clonal lineage known as the US-1 “old” genotype, having the A1 mating type [7,8]. On the contrary, in the Toluca Valley in central Mexico the A1 and A2 mating types were present in approximately equal frequencies and the populations of P. infestans were entirely different from populations in other locations [5,9]. Since the mid-1980s changes in the population structure of P. infestans outside Mexico have been reported [10]. These changes brought about the displacement of the ‘old’ genotypes by ‘new’ ones, which are characterized by increased fitness and aggressiveness in addition to metalaxyl resistance [11]. Migration has played an important role in the observed changes in global population structure of P. infestans in the latter part of the last century [5]. In some areas where both mating types are present, it has been shown that late blight epidemics start earlier than before due to the presence of oospores as initial inoculum. There are also reports of more aggressive isolates, which has resulted in an increase in the use of fungicides for the disease control [12,13]. Suggested management strategies for this disease include use of clean seed, elimination of real and potential sources of inoculum (infected cull piles, volunteer potato plants, and wild alternate hosts), fungicides, Decision Support Systems (DSS), intercropping, cultivar mixtures and extended crop rotations (3-4 years) to avoid early infections developed from oospores. Along with these strategies, the use of resistant cultivars against late blight is of utmost importance, especially in locations where environmental conditions are conducive for disease development and potato growers cannot afford the numerous fungicides required to control the disease [5,12,14-16]. However, the development and use of resistant cultivars may depend on the variability of the pathogen, including isolate aggressiveness. In plant-pathogen interactions, “aggressiveness” or quantitative pathogenicity [17], refers to the ability of a given pathogen to induce severe epidemics on compatible hosts. The quantitative traits frequently used to measure aggressiveness are infection efficiency, latency period, sporulation rate, infectious period and lesion size [18]. Differential interactions for aggressiveness components between current population of P. infestans and cultivars have been studied [15,19-21]. The host range of P. infestans, generally, has been considered to be restricted to two important crops, potato and tomato, and various solanaceous weeds [22], but the factors determining this host range remain unknown [23]. P. infestans has been reported affecting various species in the genus Solanum and also non solanaceous host plants [24-26]. Some degree of pathogenic specialization of P. infestans to potato or tomato has been shown in the early 1900’s and later...
Scaruffi P, Stigliani S, Anserini P
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/prm.2021.04.000591

Scaruffi P*, Stigliani S and Anserini P UOS Physiopathology of Human Reproduction, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy *Corresponding author: Scaruffi P, UOS Physiopathology of Human Reproduction, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy Submission: March 5, 2021;Published: March 10, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2021.04.000591 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume4 Issue4 On 2013 for the first time, we discovered both cell-free genomic DNA (cf-gDNA) and cellfree mithocondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) in spent culture media of human cleavage-stage embryos [1]. Analysis of DNA profiles of day 3 spent media demonstrated that cf-mtDNA/cf-gDNA ratio was correlated with embryo quality, and in particular it was significantly associated with degree of embryo fragmentation. Based on our results, the higher cf-mtDNA/cf-gDNA ratio was associated with blastocyst’s developmental competence, trophoectoderm quality, and implantation [2]. In a prospective, blinded, multi-centric study we confirmed that the cf-mtDNA/cf-gDNA ratio in day 3 spent culture medium, combined with embryo morphology, improved the prediction upon blastulation compared to morphology alone, without any influence from patient and treatment-related factors [3]. Our opinion is that the cf-mtDNA in the embryo spent culture media would inversely mirror the overall embryonic mtDNA content, in line with recent studies suggesting that mtDNA abundance within blastomers may be correlated to aneuploidy, low embryo viability and development [4-6]. Undoubtedly, a direct comparison of mtDNA content between embryo and medium would provide a definitive demonstration of this hypothesis. The first criticism about the utility of cf-mtDNA as embryo biomarker was the potential genetic contamination from embryo-associated structures (i.e., cumulus cells, polar bodies or sperm) and human serum albumin supplement of the culture medium [7]. In reality, the levels of cf-mtDNA were considerably higher for media co-cultured with embryos respect to the low baseline level of control samples [7,8]. Because of mtDNA has a cytoplasmatic localization, the developing embryo may release it into the culture media through mechanisms that are independent of the nuclear DNA. It is reasonable that the cf-mtDNA could be generated from dead or fragmented blastomeres-that’s why higher cf-mtDNA was associated with increased levels of day 2-3 embryo fragmentation [1] or actively secreted throughout pre-implantation development in a stage-specifically way - here because cf-mtDNA increased from the cleavage to the blastocyst stage and the highest amount of cf-mtDNA was found in continuous single-culture media [7]. Such a stage-specifically mtDNA release by embryos could further explain the discrepant conclusions reported on the basis of which stage of embryo development the cf-mtDNA was evaluated [9,10]. We believe that cf-mtDNA could be a novel, non-invasive, easy accessible, molecular-based marker of optimal development potential, increasing the productivity of the merely morphological analysis on which embryo evaluation is traditionally based. Nevertheless, we are aware that some questions are still open and need to be answered to validate cf-mtDNA as a reliable predictor in clinical practice: a. To uniquely define at what timing (i.e., on day 3, day 5) the cf-mtDNA quantification should be performed to be used as a biomarker, in combination with embryo morphology/ morphokinetics parameters. b. To identify for which embryological/clinical outcome (i.e., blastulation, euploidy, implantation) the combined morphology-cf-mtDNA data could be useful. c. To optimize the best methodological approach, concerning the most appropriate target gene(s) to represent the copy number of cf-mtDNA and the most sensitive and specific technique (i.e., quantitative-PCR or digital PCR). For this purposes, randomized controlled studies should be performed on large set of samples applying robust univariable and multivariable analyses and complex statistical methodologies, i.e., a generalized estimating equation model to consider the issue of subsequent cycles in the same woman, embryos from the same woman, etc. © 2021 Scaruffi P. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Wlodzimierz S Erdmann
Significances of Bioengineering & Biosciences, Volume 4, pp 395-399; doi:10.31031/sbb.2021.04.000593

Wlodzimierz S Erdmann* Faculty of Physical Culture, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland *Corresponding author: Wlodzimierz S Erdmann, Faculty of Physical Culture, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland Submission: January 26, 2021 Published: March 05, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/SBB.2021.04.000593 ISSN 2637-8078Volume4 Issue4 The article is devoted to the support by engineering to the one of medical branches, namely orthopedics and its extension, i.e., rehabilitation. Human life gives large amount of congenital disorders, victims of disasters and accidents. In order to execute surgical operation physicians need special equipment. During the operation they apply different devices in order to bring back patients as much as possible to the society. During rehabilitation process people with disabilities use many simple or advanced equipment, facilities, outdoor parks. People with disabilities need to take care of themselves. They want to participate as much as they can in many aspects of healthy members of the society. Here they are helped by simple or sophisticated devices, e.g., orthoses, implants, prostheses, wheelchairs, specially designed sport equipment. Advanced approach to people with disability was presented during “Cybathlon” competition held in Zurich in 2016, i.e., robotic prostheses for upper and lower extremities, exoskeletons and other [1]. Keywords: Engineering; Orthopedics; Rehabilitation; Orthoses; Prostheses; Implants Human life changes as the technology changes. There are many approaches of technology which improved human life in almost every aspect. People take care about their health, they use more convenient clothes, introduce ergonomic devices, work stands and vehicles, organize more safety environment at home, at work, during leisure time [2]. On the other hand, many people do not care about their health and safety and they are subject to many pathological states. For few hundred years humanity witnessed tremendous changes in production, services, transportation, communication and several other aspects of human life. Unfortunately, with the development of technology the number of its victims also developes. There were more industrial accidents, especially within the heavy industry and mining, more traffic accidents, more victims of fires. This fatal trend was reversed at the second half of the 20th century since several precautions were introduced. It is not good to be overloaded, but it is also not good to be almost fully unloaded. Human body needs optimal loading. In this case muscle system could properly act against some of the sources of disability. Despite tremendous progression of the quality of human life there is enormous number of disabilities. About one billion people, or 15% of the world’s population, experience some form of disability. Onefifth of them experience significant disabilities [3]. There are different sources of disabilities. Among pathological sources there are: congenital disorders, sickness, effects of accidents, disasters, wrong doings (e.g., access of eating and lack of movement that leads to obesity). There are also ontogenetic disabilities of infants and elderly people. One can say both sources of disabilities, i.e., pathological and ontogenetic constituent a quarter of world population disabled. Human race since its appearance was involved in movement. This is an indispensable aspect of life. Humans used movement for building, hunting, defence, production, transport, also for cultural activities like dancing. For a long time, engineering was involved in better production process where the amount of human physical work was diminished and in many industries was substituted by automation process and then by manipulators and robots. People were also involved in exercising which later on turned to be a sport for all or sport for the whole life. There is also a competitive approach to the movement which in modern times developed as amateur and professional sport. Here engineering was involved in obtaining better sport results and better refereeing. If there is an accident medical specialists (rescuers, physicians, physiotherapists) want to have better equipment and medicines to provide their duties. Patients need better orthoses, prostheses, better approach to the facilities, better movement along the streets [4]. All above mentioned improvements in ordinary life, in production and transport, in exercises and sports, in medical procedures are the core engagement of engineering. Engineering process takes into account: a) idea of new device, which can be a result of thinking of a creator or can be an answer to the current needs of people; b) design of new products; c) materials of which a product will be built; d) energy, facility, and manpower that will be needed for production; e) construction and testing of models, sometimes smaller and sometimes larger than the future original; f) construction and testing the real product (a prototype); g) elaboration of mass production-tools, machines, assembly lines, robotization, energy sources; h) elaboration of instruction manuals and exploitation, workshops for conservation and fixing, utilization [5]. Medicine is a large area of interests of many people. One can say everybody in some period of his or her life was, is, or will be in contact with medicine. Some people say if somebody declares he or she is healthy, it means he or she has had no sufficient medical examination. Medical procedure encompasses: a) rescue and emergency procedures, b) diagnosis, c) therapy, d) rehabilitation, e) sanatory (convalescent house) care, f) elaboration of prophylaxis warnings. One of the most often needed medical branches is orthopedy. After orthopaedic activities comes a process of rehabilitation. Orthopaedics devices Movement (musculoskeletal) system is very important for humans. It is a system for support, locomotion, defence, fight, for home and...
Chhangte Lz, Zoliana B, Sahoo Bk, Sapra Bk, Pachuau Z, Zirlianngura
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 15, pp 1630-1634; doi:10.31031/rdms.2021.15.000852

Chhangte LZ1*, Zoliana B2, Sahoo BK3, Sapra BK3, Pachuau Z4 and Zirlianngura5 1Department of Physics, Govt. Zirtiri Residential Science College, Aizawl, Mizoram, India 2Department of Electronics, Govt. Zirtiri Residential Science College, Aizawl, Mizoram, India 3Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India 4Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, India 5Department of Chemistry, Govt. Zirtiri Residential Science College, Aizawl, Mizoram, India *Corresponding author: Chhangte LZ, Department of Physics, Govt Zirtiri Residential Science College, Aizawl, Mizoram, India Submission: February 03, 2021;Published: March 05, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2021.15.000852 ISSN: 2576-8847 Volume 15 Issue 1 Annual inhalation dose of indoor radon and thoron have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type-ІІ) based Twin Cup Dosimeter with single entry and Direct Progeny Sensors (DPS) in Mizoram, which has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in India. The measurement was carried out in 50 dwellings selected primarily from the background gamma radiation level measured using Micro-R survey meter and the construction type of the building. The annual inhalation dose of indoor radon and thoron are found to be 1870.68±10μSv/y and 631.7±4μSv/y respectively which are higher than the global average values but within the ICRP recommendation. About 87% of the radiation dose received by mankind is due to natural radiation sources and the remaining 13% by anthropogenic radiation [1]. The worldwide average natural radiation dose to humans is about 0.3-1.0mSv/year which is four times higher than the world average of artificial radiation exposure [2]. The most important component of natural radiation exposure to the public is due to the inhalation of indoor radon, thoron and their decay products which constitute about 54% of natural radiation [3]. As radon/thoron gases are inhaled, densely ionizing alpha particles emitted by the short-lived decay products of radon/thoron can interact with biological tissue in the lungs leading to DNA damage and results into lung cancer [4]. Since majority of the residents use to spend most of the time at indoors, the knowledge of the indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progenies is of utmost importance. To calculate the annual indoor inhalation dose of radon and thoron, their indoor concentration, progenies concentration and their equilibrium factors must be calculated first. In the present study, passive measurement technique has been followed for measurement of indoor radon and thoron concentration, using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 Type-II) in Pin-Hole Based Twin Cup Dosimeters with single entry developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai [5]. To measure the progenies concentration, deposition base Direct Radon/Thoron Progeny Sensor (DRPS/DTPS) were used [6-8]. Dwellings were selected according to the gamma level measured using Gamma Survey Meter and the building type. The GPS co-ordinates have also been recorded for each dwelling in which dosimeters and DRPS/DTPS were installed for proper location assessments. The geographical location of the study area is Saiha and Lawngtlai districts of Mizoram, India within Latitude-220 29’ 28.3” to 220 36’ 59.4” and Longitude 920 59’ 14.3” to 920 52’ 22.0” with altitude ranging from 1866±10 feet to 3807±10 feet from the sea level. Indoor radon & thoron The LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors (SSNTDs) kept in the Dosimeter was deployed in 50 dwellings of 8 different villages of Lawngtlai and Saiha District, Mizoram India from 3rd July 2015 to 22nd June 2016. Due to maximum occupancy, bedrooms were chosen for deployment of the dosimeters. After more than 90 days of exposure in dwellings, the detectors were removed and subjected to chemical etching in 2.5N NaOH solutions at 60 ˚C for 90 minutes in a constant temperature bath. Then these films were washed and dried. The track density was obtained by using the standard spark counter (Model PSI-SC1) with operating voltage (500V) and the pre-sparking voltage (900V) of the spark counter, which has been established before these measurements [9] (Figure 1). Figure 1: Pin-hole base dosimeter. The track density recorded on the detector in the Radon Chamber and Radon+Thoron Chamber were converted into radon and thoron concentrations according to the following formulae where CR is the radon concentration and TR are the tract density of detector in Radon Chamber. Calibration factor used=0.0172±0.002 [5]. where CT is the thoron concentration, TF is the track density of films in Radon chamber and TP is that for Radon+Thoron chamber. Calibration factor used=0.010±0.001 [5]. Progeny measurement The concentrations of progenies are determined through Equivalent Equilibrium Radon/Thoron Concentrations (EERC & EETC). The EEC of radon/thoron is equal to that quantity of radon/ thoron concentration which is in secular equilibrium with its progeny nuclides giving equivalent potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) for the progeny nuclides actually present in the atmosphere. EERC and EETC were measured by deposition based Direct Progeny Sensors (DRPS/DTPS) in bare modes [8] (Figure 2). Figure 2: DRPS & DTPS. DTPS element is made up of LR-115 type II mounted with 50μm aluminized mylar to selectively detect only 8.78MeV alpha particle emitted from 212Po; while DRPS is made up of LR-115 type II mounted with aluminized mylar plus cellulose nitrate of effective thickness 37μm to detect mainly 7.69MeV alpha particle emitted from 214Po. The basic principle of operation of these sensors is that the detector detects the alpha particles emitted from the deposited progeny atoms. The tracks formed are recorded in the exposed LR-115 type II film is related to Equilibrium Equivalent Progeny Concentration (EEC) using the sensitivity factor [6]. The...
Dimitris Skalkos
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 787-789; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000681

Dimitris Skalkos* Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Food chemistry, Ioannina 45110, Greece *Corresponding author: Dimitris Skalkos, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Food chemistry, Ioannina 45110, Greece Submission: February 16, 2021Published: March 04, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000681 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 2 Traditional Foods (T.F.) in Europe constitute a minor part of the food chain, with the production and consumption remaining within certain territories. They are healthy, unique innovative products, attractive to the end consumer. COVID-19 will have an impact on the whole process from the field to the consumer concerning issues such as food safety, food security bioactive ingredients, production, processing, distribution. The current article explores the potentials of T.F. in the economic era after the pandemic crisis. T.F. have the opportunity to grow and expand beyond their local areas in Europe, becoming major part of the food chain for the benefit of regional producers and communities. Keywords: Pandemic; COVID-19; Traditional foods; Food chains; Agriculture The European (EU-28) food and drink industry with an annual turnover of €1,1 trillion and €230 billion in value added in 2018, is the largest manufacturing industry in the EU [1]. In half of the EU’s 28 Member States, the food and drink industry are the biggest employer within manufacturing employing 4,57 million people. In 2017, extra-EU exports reached €110 billion, with a trade surplus of €35 billion. The household expenditures, the second largest in EU, is in food and drink products reaching 13,8%. The industry includes 294,000 Food and Drink companies operating in the EU-28, with 99,1% of them SMEs, employing 4.57 million people. The European food companies are mostly micro companies by 80%, employing nine people or less. SMEs are limited in their means allocated to market research and to research and development [2]. Europe cannot be regarded as a homogenous food culture. Noticeable differences exist not only at a national level but also at a more regional/local level in terms of food preferences, habits, food related behavior, and attitudes [3]. The existence of cultural variations in food choices throughout Europe has been demonstrated at different levels: the composition of protein diets [4], importance of food risk communication strategies [5], attitudes to food, nutrition and health [6] or food behavior [3]. This variability is even greater when dealing with Traditional Food Products (TFP) and traditional cuisine that are based mainly on the natural resources available in the area. Southern European countries have a more traditional food character due to a greater market share of small companies and a better climate, which supports a more widespread availability of traditional food products [7]. The study of traditional foods provides an important insight into dietary patterns and how they have evolved over time. The fact that inhabitants had to adapt to different or adverse climatic conditions determined their dietary patterns, since people developed specific methods of cultivation, processing as well as preservation in order to ensure their self-sufficiency. In this way, dietary patterns have become an integral part of society’s collective identity [8]. Traditional foods reflect cultural heritage, history, customs, way of life and even religion, representing key elements of dietary patterns in different countries and thus they are important for accurate calculation of dietary intake of population [9]. They have played a historically important role in traditions of different cultures and regions contributing to their sense of identity and pride [10]. The European Commission gave the following definition of “traditional” related to foods in 2006: “Traditional means proven usage in the community market for a time period showing transmission between generations; this time period should be the one generally ascribed as one human generation, at least 25 years” [11]. Apart from the commercial interests, the definition of the term "traditional" is an important issue addressed through the European Food Information Resource (FIR) FP6 Network of excellence [12]. This is an elaborative definition, which includes statements about traditional ingredients, traditional composition, and traditional type of production and/or processing [9]. In Europe, the only formal definition found for traditional food products comes from the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, that defines TFP as “Agrifood products whose methods of processing, storage and ripening are consolidated with time according to uniform and constant local use” [13]. Although these definitions try to capture the different dimensions of the concept of traditional food products, there is still one perspective that is still missing, namely a definition of this concept seen from the consumer’s point of view. The European Union in order to promote and protect names and quality of TFP defined three schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties. As early as 1992 [14], the European Union laid down specific rules defining the status under which products are designated as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Traditionally Specific Guaranteed (TSG). This encourages the production of unique foods based on their soil, synthetic and sensory characteristics, as well as their preparation methods. This type of food enjoys a higher value, both in the domestic and international market. The above regulations in 2006 were amended to 510/06 and 509/06, respectively shortly after the Euro FIR London Congress [15,16]. As traditional food products are highly valued for their authenticity, their main purpose is to maintain a strong link between customers and traditions and the area of origin [17]. Mainly produced by small...
Darweesh Hhm
Research & Development in Material Science, Volume 15, pp 1630-1639; doi:10.31031/rdms.2021.15.000851

Darweesh HHM* Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, Egypt *Corresponding author: Darweesh HHM, Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, Egypt Submission: February 08, 2021;Published: March 04, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/RDMS.2021.15.000851 ISSN: 2576-8847 Volume 15 Issue 1 More undesirable wastes or by-products are generated from the coconut and coir industry as coir pith. The raw coir pith was fired up to 500 ºC inside a suitable oven to obtain Coir Pith Ash (CPA). The effect of CPA as a supplementary cementitious material on the various specific characteristics of Portland cement pastes was investigated. Results illustrated that the blaine fineness of the whole cement blend, water of consistency and setting times increased with the increase of CPA addition. The bound water content and bulk density as well as flexural and compressive strengths improved and enhanced with the addition of CPA only up to 12wt % CPA (CP4), and then sharply decreased suddenly with further increase of CPA content (CP5). The free lime content of the blended cement pastes containing different ratios of CPA decreased at all hydration times and were being lower than those of the blank (CP0). The apparent porosity also gradually reduced with cement pastes containing up to 12wt % CPA as in the cement blend CP4, but then increase with further increase of CPA content > 12wt% CPA as in the cement blend CP5. The Ultrasonic Pulse Velosity (USPV) test showed that the matrix conformities of the various hardened cement pastes with CPA are well sticky and good quality. Keywords: Cement; CPA; Consistency; Setting; Free lime; Porosity; Strength Scope of the problem The utilization of by-products from the various sectors of industry and agriculture as supplementary cementitious materials is gaining popularity between researchers worldwide. These materials are not only improving the quality of products of blended cements, but also it reduces the cost and adverse effects of cement production. The fly ash [1-6], granulated slag [7,8], silica fume [6,9,10], metakaolin [9,11], sugarcane bagasse ash [12-15], wheat straw ash [16-19], corn stalk ash [17-21], rice husk ash [22-26], saw dust ash [27-32], palm ash [33], sunflower ash [34], and many others are examples for these materials. The importance of these materials is often due to it possess pozzolanic reactivity from the active amorphous silica which undergoes secondary reactions with the released free lime, Ca(OH)2 from the hydration of the silicate phases of the cement forming additional cementitious materials. The annual production of coconuts in some countries like Spain, Brazil and India is nearly about 12-15 tons annually. The spongy appearance of coconuts is known as “coir pith”, which is generated from coir processing unit. It could be considered as a by-product. Also, it is very interesting to note that the coir pith (CP) constitutes is about 70% of the total weight of a coconut husk [35]. Also, the rate of CP production is ranging to be 1.6 tons per 10000 coconuts [36,37]. The collected CP is usually dumped in heaps or hills. This creates many environmental problems. This is essentially attributed to its slow decay or disintegration, and moreover to its high phenolic content. In a recent study, the coir pith ash (CPA) passing through 200 μ sieve has been found to possess pozzolanic characteristics and the replacement of cement by CPA improved the mechanical performance of concrete [38]. Objectives of the study The objective of this study is to evaluate and follow the influence of coin pith ash (CPA) on the specific characteristics of Ordinary Portland cement. The obtained results were confirmed by Ultrasonic Pulse Velosity (USPV) test. Raw materials The used raw materials in the present research study are Ordinary Portland cement (OPC Type I- CEM I 42,5R) with Blaine surface area 3400cm2/g, and Waste of Coconut Pith (WCP) as a source of active nanosilica with fineness 6450cm2/g (Figure 1). The Blaine surface area was applied by the “Air Permeability Apparatus”. The OPC sample was provided by Sakkara cement factory, Giza, Egypt, and its commercial name is known as “Asmant El-Momtaz”, while WCP sample was provided from a local plant, Giza, Egypt. The WCP sample was first processed and washed with running water, and also with distilled water, and then let to dry under direct sun and open air for few days. The dried WCP was subjected to firing at 500 ºC inside a suitable muffle furnace for five hours soaking time, and then was left to cool gradually to room temperature to produce what is known as Coconut Pith Ash (CPA) as shown in Figure 1. Then, the resulting CPA was screened to pass through 200μm standard sieve [38]. Figure 1: Coin pith (CP) and Coin pith ash (CPA). Table 1: Composition of the used raw materials, mass %. Table 2: Mineralogical composition of the used OPC sample, mass %. Table 3: The batch composition of cement mixtures, mass %. The chemical composition of the OPC and CPA measured by X-ray Florescence Technique (XRF) is shown in Table 1. The mineralogical phase composition of the used OPC as calculated from Bogue equations [39,40] is given in Table 2, while the mix composition is illustrated in Table 3. The CPA nanoparticles are amorphous and crystalline, and it is mainly composed of a large percentage of nano-SiO2 and a lower percentage of nano-Al2O3. There are eight cement batches from OPC and CPA as 100:0, 97:3, 94:6, 91:9, 88:12 and 85:15. These cement batches were given the symbols: CP0, CP1, CP2, CP3, CP4 and CP5, respectively. The blending process was mechanically made in a porcelain ball mill containing three balls for one hour to assure the complete homogeneity of all cement batches. Before casting of cement cubes, all moulds were oiled with a thin film of motor engine oil, to facilitate the release of the cubes...
Fang-Qiang Zhou
Interventions in Obesity & Diabetes, Volume 5, pp 415-418; doi:10.31031/iod.2021.05.000602

Fang-Qiang Zhou* Fresenius Medical Care, Dialysis Centers in Chicago, USA *Corresponding author:Fang-Qiang Zhou, 200 W. Sahara Ave., Unit 604, Las Vegas, NV 89102. Email: [email protected], phone: 1-708-785-3568. Submission:February 18, 2021;Published: March 04, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/IOD.2021.05.000602 ISSN 2598-0263Volume5 Issue1 Pyruvate of sodium salt has been studied, in vitro and in vivo, in animals and humans since as early as the 1930s. In past over half a century it was extensively and intensively investigated in laboratories as well as clinical tests. Numerous findings demonstrate that pyruvate is a unique anion, superior to prevailing anions in current medical fluids: acetate, bicarbonate, chloride, citrate, gluconate, lactate, phosphate and even malate [1]. The paramount biomedical advantages of supraphysiological doses of exogenous pyruvate are potently protective of organ metabolism and function in various pathogenic attacks, including anoxia, hypoxia/ischemia, trauma/burn, infection/sepsis, hypo/hyperglycemia or diabetes and even poisoning. The beneficial biological and pharmacological features underlying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of pyruvate protection from a diverse of pathogenic insults, specifically as to high glucose or diabetes [2,3], are summarized below. Enhancing anoxia/hypoxia tolerance By the reductive reaction with Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) free of energy, exogenous pyruvate reduction spontaneously coupled with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide reduced form (NADH) oxidation generates lactate and oxidized form (NAD+) on an equal molecular basis in anoxic conditions, consuming hydrogen (proton, [H+]) in cytosol. Thus, the LDH reduction is a systemic alkalizing reaction throughout the body; the reaction results in raising the NAD+/NADH ratio that is essential for glycolysis at glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-3PD) and improving glycolysis-rate limiting enzymes, like phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) and Pyruvate Kinase (PK), which are pH-sensitive, contributing to preservation of canonical glycolytic pathways [1,4,5]. Therefore, exogenous pyruvate maintains anaerobic glycolysis and glycolytic-ATP generation that are indispensable for cellular basic activities, such as Na+-K+-ATPase and islet insulin secretion [6-8]. Further, exogenous pyruvate can reactivate the depressed Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) activity-induced by various insults, including hypoxia and high glucose or diabetes, via the direct inhibition of promoted PDH Kinase (PDK) activity as a PDH stimulator like Di Chloro Acetate (DCA) free of oxygen [3,4,9]. Furthermore, pyruvate also prompts the anaplerotic flux via the Pyruvate Carboxylase (PC) in the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle though no direct evidence yet in diabetes [4,10]. As a result, pyruvate additionally as an energy substrate stimulates the TCA cycle in mitochondria, enhancing lactate oxidation and mitochondrial ATP production in hypoxic/ischemic and diabetic conditions. Notably, diabetes may initiate with the PK and PDH inhibition, leading to glucometabolic disorders as the Warburg effect as pseudohypoxia with the NADH/NAD+ rise [11,12]. Hypoxia in tissues is also involved in diabetes development. Accordingly, exogenous pyruvate can improve these aberrant metabolic alterations, promoting glucose oxidation and reversing the Warburg effect [3,11,12]. A scheme of the post-pyruvate metabolic profile was illustrated previously [1,3-5]. Correcting severe acidemia Hypoxic lactic acidosis and diabetic ketoacidosis, which both are fatal complications of critical illnesses with or without diabetes. By the renovation of lactate and ketone oxidation in the TCA cycle with pyruvate stimulated PDH, [H+] is consumed in addition to the LDH reduction with [H+] consumption. Besides, pyruvatebased gluconeogenesis in cytosol is additionally a process of [H+] consumption, thereby preventing [H+] accumulation in hypoxia/ ischemia [1,4]. Alternatively, the lower pyruvate dissociation constant (pKa) of 2.49 (weaker buffering capacity) quickly facilitates a higher intracellular pH [4]. Therefore, only can pyruvate correct hypoxic lactic acidosis with survival improvement in resuscitation from severe shock, neither lactate, nor citrate, acetate or bicarbonate can do in shocked animals, despite equimolar alkalizers administration [13-15]. It is worthy to note that diabetic patients with ketoacidosis show more lower PDH activity relative to non-ketoacidosis patients [3]. It is potentially perspective that intravenous pyruvate may cure ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis in diabetic patients even without insulin addition in selective clinical conditions [3,4]. Exerting powerful anti-oxidative stress/inflammation/ apoptosis Exogenous pyruvate can directly react with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (oxidative or nitrosative stress) in a nonenzymatic and stoichiometric manner, producing carbon dioxide or acetate and water. It also indirectly exerts as an anti-oxidation by increasing the redox potentials. In addition, pyruvate is an inhibitor of inflammatory mediators (cytokines, TNF-α and NF-kB) and inflammatory cell (neutrophils) infiltration in tissues [3,16]. Also, pyruvate protects mitochondrial function and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from stress and apoptosis induced by hypoxia and high glucose [2,9]. Importantly, all these pathogenic factors participate in the initiation and progression of diabetes, specifically Type 2 [3,11]. Stimulating insulin secretion from islets and inhibiting AGEs Other than previous conception, recent findings are preliminarily considered effective of sodium pyruvate as an insulinstimulator. Pyruvate metabolism in mitochondria is critically involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and the PC that pyruvate partially depends on in enhancement of the anaplerotic flux also plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion from islets [17,18]. Thus, exogenous pyruvate facilitates insulin secretion in islet...
Kaleab Tesfaye Tegegne, Eleni Tesfaye Tegegne, Abiyu Ayalew Assefa, Mekibib Kassa Tessema
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 491-496; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2021.05.000620

Eleni Tesfaye Tegegne1, Kaleab Tesfaye Tegegne2*, Mekibib Kassa Tessema3 and Abiyu Ayalew Assefa2 1University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Nursing, Gondar, Ethiopia 2Department of Public Health, Hawassa College of Health Science, Hawassa, Ethiopia 3Leishmania Research and Treatment Center, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia. *Corresponding author: Kaleab Tesfaye Tegegne, Hawassa College of Health Science, Department of Public Health, Hawassa , Ethiopia Submission: February 05, 2021;Published: March 04, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2021.05.000620 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue4 Background: According to recent data from the Ethiopian demographic and health survey (EDHS), national prevalence of underweight among men and women aged 15-49 years is 27%. This study aims to: (1) assess the prevalence of underweight (2) describe variations in underweight by socio demographic factors age, wealth, residence, and education etc. in Ethiopia. Methods: The present study was performed using the EDHS 2016 dataset. Socio demographic variables were selected based on their availability in the dataset Nutritional status of men and women age 15-49 years measured by their BMI cut-off point of 18.5 kg/m2 is used to define underweight. Descriptive statistics were employed to show the distribution of socio-demographic characteristics. Complementary log log regression model used to determine the true association between underweight and basic socio-demographic factors. Results: Of the total sample of 27289 of men and women age 15-49 years at the time of survey, 27 % (n = 6645) have underweight in Ethiopia, with underweight mainly concentrated among adolescent (57.96%). About 61 % of the variation in the outcome variable (underweight) is explained by the independent variables included in model. Men and women in the 15-19 age group (ARR=4.882, 95% CI 4.516-- 5.278) and Men and women age 15-49 years in urban areas (ARR=1.650, 95% CI 1.494-- 1.822) were found to be major contributing factors to the under weight Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of underweight among men and women age 15-49 in Ethiopia Age and residence are socio demographic factors that show a statistical significant association with underweight among Men and Women age 15-49 in Ethiopia It is important to target adolescent and urban areas during implementing nutritional interventions in Ethiopia. Keywords: Underweight; Socio demographic; EDHS; Ethiopia Abbreviations: ARR: Adjusted Relative Risk; BMI: Body Mass Index; CED: Chronic Energy Deficiency; CI: Confidence Interval; COR: Crude Odd Ratio; DHS: Demographic Health Survey; EDHS: Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey; ICF: Inner City Fund; SNNPR: Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region; WHO: World Health Organization. In 2014, WHO estimated that around 462 million adults were underweight (18 years or older) [1]. Some evidence in developing countries indicate that malnourished individuals, that is, women with a body mass index (BMI) below 18.5, show a progressive increase in mortality rates as well as increased risk of illness [2]. Women who receive even a minimal education are generally more aware than those who have no education of how to utilize available resources for the improvement of their own nutritional status and that of their families. Education may enable women to make independent decisions, to be accepted by other household members, and to have greater access to household resources that are important to nutritional status [3]. A comparative study on maternal nutritional status in 16 of the 18 DHS studied countries [4] and a study in the SNNPR of Ethiopia [5] showed that rural women are more likely to suffer from chronic energy deficiency than women in urban areas. These higher rates of rural malnutrition were also reported by local studies in Ethiopia [6,7]. Similarly, studies on child nutrition [8,9] also showed significantly higher levels of stunting among rural than urban children. Women’s age and parity are important factors that affect maternal depletion, especially in high fertility countries [6]. DHS surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, Namibia, Niger, Senegal, and Zambia show a greater proportion of mothers aged 15-19 and 40-49 that exhibit chronic energy deficiencies (CED). A local study in Ethiopia also showed that women in the youngest age group (15-19) and women in the oldest age group surveyed (45-49) are the most affected by undernutrition [5]. Findings of the 2000 Ethiopia DHS [10]. Showed that 25 percent of women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) fall below the cutoff of 18.5, indicating that the level of chronic energy deficiency (CED) is relatively high in Ethiopia. This also indicates that the prevalence of undernutrition in Ethiopia is about 1.5 times greater than the Sub Saharan average prevalence of 20 percent during the period 1980- 1990 [11]. In adolescence, a young woman’s nutritional needs increase because of the spurt of growth that accompanies puberty and the increased demand for iron that is associated with the onset of menstruation [12]. Data on nutrition coverage is limited yet; the lack of nationally representative data on status of underweight among men and women aged 15-49 impedes countries ability to guide policy and programs. To address this gap, we used Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to describe the status of underweight using BMI among men and women aged 15-49 at the country levels. The objectives are to: a. assess the prevalence of underweight. b. describe variations in underweight by socio demographic factors age, wealth, residence, and education etc. This study is intended to provide policymakers and program implementers with information on the state of underweight and its socio demographic determinants among men and women aged 15- 49 at country level. Data and Variables The data used in this study were derived from the EDHS conducted in 2016. In the...
Othman Rizk A Mishref, Abdelrahman A Beridan, Amr Abdelmordy E Samaka
Research in Pediatrics & Neonatology, Volume 5, pp 437-440; doi:10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000614

Othman Rizk A Mishref*1, Abdelrahman A Beridan2 and Amr Abdelmordy E Samaka2 1Pediatrics & Neonatology Department, Kuwait Hospital, Kuwait 2Cardiology Department, Wara Hospital, Kuwait *Corresponding author:Othman Rizk A Mishref, Pediatrics & Neonatology Department, Kuwait Hospital, Kuwait Submission: December 23, 2020 Published: March 04, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000614 ISSN: 2577-9200 Volume5 Issue3 Protein S deficiency is a major risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Unprovoked life-threatening pulmonary embolism is uncommon in children; however, it can pose a diagnostic challenge, presenting in a non-specific and subtle way, masked by lack of typical presentation. Therefore, it is important for pediatrician to consider pulmonary embolism as a differential diagnosis for young patients presenting with severe unexplained parasternal chest pain with strong family history of thrombophilia and to have a low threshold for requesting appropriate investigations. Here we present a young patient with acute pulmonary embolism who was finally diagnosed as Type III Protein S deficiency. Keywords: Protein S deficiency; Pulmonary Embolism; Venous Thromboembolism; Thrombosis A previously healthy 12-year-old boy presented overnight to the accident and emergency unit with dull aching left parasternal chest pain. The patient denied any history of trauma, heavy muscular exercise, fever, chocking, cough, respiratory infection, drug intake, gastroesophageal reflux disease, cardiac problems, or skin rash. His vital signs were normal, oxygen saturation was 96% on room air, unremarkable systemic examination and chest x-ray was normal. This patient is obese, his height is 155cm (>75th percentile), weight is 70kg (>95th percentile) and BMI is 28.2. He was given nonsteroidal analgesic and sent home. Unfortunately, one hour later, the patient came back with severe agonizing left parasternal chest pain associated with difficult breathing in the form of tachypnea (respiratory rate, 32/m) and intercostal retraction, tachycardia (heart rate, 120b/m), Blood pressure 100/60mmHg. Spo2 was 88% in air, high-flow Oxygen 10L/m was applied by high flow mask, Spo2 improved to 98%, and an arterial blood gas showed an evidence of type 1 respiratory failure (pH 7.43, pO2 56mmHg, pCO2 30mmHg, Hco3 18.2). ECG showed sinus tachycardia, evidence of right ventricular strain and suspected pulmonary embolism in the form of SI, QIII, TIII (deep S wave in lead I, Q wave and inverted T wave in lead III). The patient was given morphine 5mg/kg intramuscular. Urgent Echocardiography was done and revealed mild tricuspid regurgitation. An urgent CT pulmonary angiogram was requested and showed an evidence of sub-massive pulmonary embolism. The legs were free of edema and there was no calf tenderness or erythema. Otherwise, systemic examination was unremarkable. He had no previous thrombotic events. No past medical history of Neurological disorder, stroke, slurring of speech, headache, blurring of vision, or loss of consciousness or seizures. No history of gout, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking or chronic kidney disease. Tracing the family history, his uncle died suddenly at the age of 20 years old without any obvious cause and there is a history of hypercoagulability and venous thromboembolic disease in the other branch of the family of the father, but he does not know the exact cause, this information was missed initially by the father because of his anxiety. Initial blood work on presentation showed a WBCs 11.3 x 103/ uL hemoglobin of 15g/dL (normal range: 13.5-17.5), HCT 44.6 %, platelets 268 x 103/uL (normal range: 140-440), reticulocyte count 1.8 % (normal range: 0.5-2), Coagulation profile (APTT: 33.2 sec, PT: 15.3 sec, Pc 84.9%, INR: 1.17, fibrinogen was 5.25 g/L, lactate dehydrogenase 213U/L (normal range: 140-271), Peripheral blood film was negative for schistocytes, and haptoglobin 132mg/ dL (normal range: 34-200mg/dL). COVID-19: Negative, CK-MB: 1.0 (N. 0.00- 4.3ng/mL), Troponin: 0.85 (N. 0.00- 0.40ng/mL) Electrolytes, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, Liver Function Tests and lipid profile all were normal. Urine analysis and microscopy were normal and there were no red blood cells. A thrombophilia screening profile of this patient identified protein S deficiency (free protein S activity: 23%, and normal total protein S level). The activity of protein C and antithrombin III was within the normal limits (80% and 111%, respectively). Other results, including levels of homocysteine, factor II Prothrombin mutation G20210, factor V Leiden G1691A, anti-cardiolipin antibody, and anti-β2-glycoprotein IgM and IgG, all were negative. Therefore, a diagnosis of type III protein S deficiency (low free protein S activity and normal total protein S level) was established. CT angiography showed picture suggestive of sub-massive acute pulmonary embolism including segmental and sub-segmental branches of both pulmonary arteries bilaterally (right more than left). There is patchy consolidation of the basal segment of the left lung with mild left pleural effusion. Furthermore, Leg veins color Doppler ultrasound was done and demonstrated no evidence of Deep Venous Thrombosis; moreover, in addition to, non-contrast Brain CT showed no acute abnormalities. The patient’s father had been thrombosis-free, but he was also found to have PS deficiency with low PS activity (25%). No additional abnormalities were found in any of the subjects after testing for anticardiolipin antibodies, protein C level and activity, APCR-assay, factor V Leiden, and prothrombin G20210A. Coagulation profile was repeated after starting therapy (APTT: 35 sec, PT: 14.5 sec, Pc: 96.3%, INR: 1.2 Repeat WBCs 7.9 x 103/uL hemoglobin of 13.7g/dL (normal range: 13.5-17.5), HCT 42 %, platelets 314 x 103/uL (normal range: 140-440), lactate dehydrogenase 213U/L (normal range: 140-271), Peripheral blood film was...
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 783-786; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000680

Wheat rusts and blotch diseases are notable diseases of wheat grown in temperate climates worldwide. In this research, we highlight the importance of blotch diseases on wheat in Mediterranean climates like Greece. We discuss the weather factors which influence blotch diseases of wheat development. Finally, our analyses show that applying only Propiconazole at GS37/39 wheat growth stage, Propiconazole is capable of inhibiting disease development with a significant effect on wheat yield.
Igor A Filimonov
Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science, Volume 6, pp 720-721; doi:10.31031/amms.2021.06.000635

Igor A Filimonov* Merzhanov Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science RAS, Russia *Corresponding author: Igor A Filimonov, Merzhanov Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science RAS, Chernogolovka Moscow Region 142432, Russia Submission: February 22, 2021;Published: March 01, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/AMMS.2021.06.000635 ISSN 2578-0255Volume6 Issue2 The scientific community interest to phenomena of synchronization in wildlife is associated, first of all, with a desire to describe the functioning of living cells. Nevertheless, it is clear that the number of objects of unanimated nature significantly exceeds the number of living organisms. Moreover, each living organism or a cell is built from unanimated elements of the periodic table. Therefore, each manifestation of synchronization in non-living systems is more exciting and interesting than the conventional synchronization inherent to living cells or viruses, both in terms of the emergence of the terrestrial life on and in terms of the greatest coverage of natural phenomena and processes (Figure 1-3). Spin combustion has been studied and detected extensively in different systems. From the gas- solid systems similar to [1] up to termites [2,3]. Both experimental [1-3] and numerical data [4-6,7] concerning this phenomenon have been obtained up today. Nevertheless, both the volumes of these data were analyzed separately in fact. Therefore, some important peculiarities of spin combustion have been actually lost and need to be pointed out especially now. I am only going to remind again results [1] to a reader, and to conduct here their joint analysis with calculations [4-7] in terms of modern achievements of the theory of complex systems [8]. The analysis allows me to argue that spin combustion itself behaves like complex systems. In particular, when spin combustion is initiated, the clustering effect which is schematically illustrated in (Figure 1). happens as a rule already at the earliest stage of spin ignition (see also data [9]). clustering at first not seen in an early work [10], was revealed later in 3-dimensional modeling [11]. Figure 1: Single-headed spin combustion ignition. Side view of the recalculated results [1] at 0 Figure 2: Clustering of a single-headed spin into double-headed or triple-headed spin combustion modes consistently at t=tb≈>1.29 ta. Top view of the recalculated results [1] schematically. Figure 3: Formation of a saw-tooth structure, STS, (was observed numerically only [7]) Top view of STS schematically at t=tc>≈2.58 ta. One may conclude that spin combustion may be attributed to complex systems. This work was carried out in the framework of governmental program for ISMAN (topic no. 44.1). © 2021 Igor A Filimonov. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Li Huicheng, Xu Bijing, Ren Zhenhai, Zhu Fuqiang
Aspects in Mining & Mineral Science, Volume 6, pp 718-719; doi:10.31031/amms.2021.06.000634

Li Huicheng*, Xu Bijing, Ren Zhenhai and Zhu Fuqiang Zenith Steel Group Company Limited, Changzhou Jiangsu 213011, China *Corresponding author: Li Huicheng, Zenith Steel Group Company Limited, Changzhou Jiangsu 213011, China Submission: February 11, 2021;Published: March 01, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/AMMS.2021.06.000634 ISSN 2578-0255Volume6 Issue2 The 220mmx260mm section continuous casting billet in the company of electric furnace was the research object in this paper. At the same time, according to the theory of solidification shell thickness calculation formula combining design measure specific location of the solidification shell thickness test. It can provide reliable basis for the subsequent F-EMS optimization and basic data support for the transformation and improvement of solidification structure of billet under soft reduction. Accurately determine the casting billet specific location of the solidified shell thickness and solidification coefficient for optimal setting at the end of the end of the electromagnetic stirring (F-EMS) and light pressure parameters, maximum play F-EMS and gently press down at the end of the effect of center segregation and osteoporosis has important reference meaning, at the same time, according to the thickness of the solidified shell can be used to analyze cause of forming defect, the rationality of the secondary cooling water distribution system, and forecast the potential of improving continuous casting speed, etc [1-4]. The action areas of the final stirring electromagnetic stirring are the liquid core and the paste area of the continuous casting billet. By adjusting the electromagnetic parameters of the final stirring, a clear white bright band can be produced in the cross section of the billet, according to which the thickness of solidified billet shell at the final stirring position can be judged [5-7]. Using 45 steel as the research object, the superheat was controlled at about 25 ℃, the drawing speed was 1.05m/min, the secondary cooling water ratio was 0.25L/kg, the final stirring position was 10.15m away from the moon surface, the electromagnetic stirring intensity at the end was adjusted to make the solidification structure produce white bright band, and the shell thickness of solidification billet was determined according to the position of the white bright band on the cross section of the casting billet (Figure 1). At the same time, the comprehensive solidification coefficient K is calculated according to the calculation formula of solidified shell thickness in solidification theory. Figure 1: Macro-structure of continuous casting billet under test parameters. Where, δ is the thickness of the blank shell, unit is mm; L is the distance between the position of measuring the thickness of the billet shell and the meniscus (unit is m); V is the pulling speed, unit is m/min; K is the comprehensive solidification coefficient, the unit is mm/min1/2. According to the measurement, the position where the white bright band appears at the end of electromagnetic stirring is 80mm from the surface of the casting billet, so the thickness of solidified billet shell at the final stirring position can be determined to be 80mm.By putting the data of final stirring position, drawing speed and solidification shell thickness into Equation 6, it can be concluded that the comprehensive solidification coefficient of the test caster under this cooling intensity is 25.73mm/min1/2. © 2021 Li Huicheng. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Ebrahim Khodadady
Psychology and Psychotherapy Research Study, Volume 4, pp 1-9; doi:10.31031/pprs.2021.04.000596

Ebrahim Khodadady1* and Zahra Hosseini Zahani2 1Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran 2Iran Language Institute, Iran *Corresponding author: Ebrahim Khodadady, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran Submission: February 02, 2021Published: February 26, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PPRS.2021.04.000596 ISSN 2639-0612Volume4 Issue5 This study explored how the three distinct fields of psychiatry, psychology and religion treated a “self” in terms of its constituting features and cognitive taxa. To achieve the objective the micro structural approach of schema theory was applied to the representative texts of these fields by specifying and analyzing all the tokens of “self” and its derivatives. When statistical tests were applied to the data it was found that psychiatry, psychology and religion differed significantly from each other in the number of tokens. The reduction of tokens to types and the assignment of types to their hierarchically established cognitive taxa showed that religion treated the “self” more comprehensively and objectively than psychiatry and psychology did. The results are discussed in terms of the cognitive taxa to which psychiatry, psychology and religion assign the “self” to. Keywords: Self; Schema theory; Constituting features; Cognitive taxa “Self” is one of the key mental concepts or schemata addressed in psychiatry, psychology and “religion. No scholar has, however, examined how these three fields address it. This study was, therefore, designed to explore the “self” in psychiatry, psychology and “religion by resorting to schema theory and textual analysis. The theory has been applied to experiences a given “self” gains either macro structurally or micro structurally. The former is defined in broad and vague statements such as “the fundamental elements upon which all information processing depends” [1]. In spite of its dominance in the literature, the macro structural approach of schema theory has not been operationalized successfully by any scholar for two main reasons. First, “there is no generally agreed upon formal definition of a schema” [2]. Secondly, it has failed to describe cognitive processes such as reading comprehension ability and its assessment via multiple choice items [3,4]. For these reasons Khodadady [5] developed its micro structural approach and defined a schema as any concept realized in a word or phrase, syntactic or semantic, closed or open, syntagmatic or paradigmatic, which can stand by itself or combine with other concepts to produce an idiosyncratic image in the mind of a given person. This image has a direct relationship with the person’s experiences with the concept gained through its application with other semantically and syntactically related concepts. Schemata are idiosyncratic because individuals differ from each other in terms of their experiences (p. 111). Table 1: Hierarchically related cognitive taxa of “human” and “dog” and their features. The definition above provides a strong rationale to study a “self” objectively. It can also be related to other schemata by assigning it to hierarchically related levels [6]. As a representative text of psychiatry, “Kaplan & Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry” [7], for example, places the schema “self” in certain phrases, clauses, sentences, subheadings, headings, and chapters which form its hierarchically related linguistic levels. Along with linguistic levels, a “self” can be assigned to biological levels or taxa. As the first botanist, Linnaeus [8], for example, established eight taxa into which he placed his schemata of interest, i.e., species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain. Azabdaftari [9] followed Linnaeus’ taxonomy and presented the schema of “dig” in the biological taxa of familirais, canis, canidaex, carnivore, mammalian, chordate, animalia, and organism (Table 1). Along with “dog”, the schema “human” has been placed in the biological taxa presented in Table 1 above to show how they converge and diverge from each other on their constituting features. As can be seen, there are no family taxa for “human” other than “their fossil ancestors (fossil hominids) in the genus” (Oxford Dictionary of Science, 2005, p. 398). This vary application of micro structural approach of schema theory (MICAST) to the study of “human” and “dog” does, therefore, reveal a very important fact, i.e., science has been unable to provide living features for humans at “Hominidae” and “Homo sapiens” taxa. In other words, humans differ from other organisms such as “dogs” in not having any genus and family. A “self” as a human also differs from a “dog” in a number of features whose cognitive taxa have already been established via the MICAST. It is, for example, the “self” who motivates itself as a sighted [10] and blind [11] individual to learn the English language not only in institutes but also in public boarding schools [12], develops an identify for itself in the language [13], relates it to its religious orientation [14] and spirituality [15] and translates dentistry texts to other languages [16]. In addition to specifying the cognitive taxa of various features of a “self”, the MICAST allows researchers to study it across texts. Three individuals as distinct “selves”, for example, wrote the textbooks “World English” [17], “Top Notch” [18], and “American English File” [19] and claimed that they had adopted a global approach toward English. Khodadady [20] analysis of the textbooks, however, showed although these selves aimed to “address the...
Muhammad Anas
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/prm.2021.04.000590

Muhammad Anas* and Gina Noor Djalilah Medical Faculty, Indonesia *Corresponding author: Medical Faculty, Indonesia Submission: February 12, 2021;Published: February 25, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2021.04.000590 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume4 Issue3 The patient was a 35-year-old pregnant (G3P2A1) woman at 31 weeks of gestation who had a fever and cough for six days, relatively normal clinical laboratory results, and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on June 26th, 2020. After self-isolation for 14 days, and she got symptomatic treatment and supplementation daily RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 evaluation tested, and the results were negative. After that, the patient-controlled every two weeks until 38-39weeks of gestation. The baby was labor by normal delivery with the consideration that the mother had negative results evaluation for SARS-CoV-2. The baby was born on August 23rd, 2020, with Apgar, score 7, and 8 with oxygen saturation up in range 96-98, the normal value of the vital sign. The Newborn was transferred to the mother room and got early initiation of breastfeeding. The Newborn had an evaluation laboratory with a result of haemoglobin levels 16.9g/dl, leucocytes 9.2x 109L-1, platelets 171x103, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 57.4, random blood sugar 63, and C-reactive protein 18.8mg/L. The newborn on the second day of ages got a rapid test for SARS-CoV-2 with IgG positive, Ig M negative, level of quantitative 95.03. The baby in stable condition and regularly home after three days in the hospital due to an increase in CRP levels. The mother had a fever and cough for about six days on 31 weeks of gestation. Mild or moderate flu-like symptoms were the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 disease. Some women may have fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Older women who are immunosuppressed or have chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and chronic lung disease will have pneumonia, and significant hypoxia is mostly. However, there can be a group of asymptomatic women or those with minor symptoms carrying the virus; the incidence of such women is unknown [1]. The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still controversial from the infected pregnant woman to the fetus. Viremia is seen in only 1% of COVID-19 cases, suggesting that placental and fetal seeding might be quite rare [2]. The newborn was transferred to the mother room and got early initiation of breastfeeding. The optimal delivery method of infected mothers is still controversial [3]. In pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is not an indication for routine cesarean delivery except for obstetrical reasons, but cesarean delivery was preferred mostly to reduce the length of hospital stay, minimize the chance of cross-infection, reducing maternal physical exertion during delivery, and ensuring the safety of other people at the clinic [4]. The newborn got early initiation of breastfeeding. The mother and infant should be enabled to remain together while rooming-in throughout the day and night and to practice skin-to-skin contact, including kangaroo mother care, especially immediately after birth and during the establishment of breastfeeding, whether they or their infants have suspected or confirmed COVID-19 [5]. The newborn got breastfeeding from her mother. WHO recommends that mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should be encouraged to initiate or continue to breastfeed. Mothers should be counseled that the benefits of breastfeeding substantially outweigh the potential risks for transmission [5]. Breastmilk is generally considered safe against viral infections because of its protective contents such as immunoglobulins and other bioactive compounds. Breast milk may contain anti- SARSCoV-2 antibodies in infected mothers, but there is no data yet on this issue. On the other hand, various case reports have concluded that breast milk does not contain the virus RNA (CDC) [6]. The baby had complete blood count laboratory results with hemoglobin levels 16.9g/dl, leucocytes 9.2x 109L-1, platelets 171x103, lymphocyte 36.6%, monocyte 6%, granulocyte 57.4%, erythrocyte sedimentation rate 57.4, random blood sugar 63 and C-reactive protein 18.8mg/L. Whether suspected or confirmed, asymptomatic infants should have a complete blood count, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and Real Time-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. It is preferable to take the samples at least from 2 sites, including the upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract, or blood. Feces may be obtained and kept for further analysis (Diagnosis and management of new coronavirus infection) [7]. The baby had laboratory result evaluation on the second day of ages with a rapid test for SARS-CoV-2 with IgG positive, Ig M negative, level of quantitative 95.03. IgG is passively transferred across the placenta from mother to fetus beginning at the end of the second trimester and reaches high levels at the time of birth [8,9]. Maternal IgM does not cross the placental barrier intact; therefore, positive IgM in early infants is potential evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission [10]. The duration of passive immunity from maternal IgG is still unclear. However, IgG is transferred passively from mother to fetus through the placenta [10]. In a study of mothers with SARS, the placentas of 2 women who were convalescing from SARS-CoV infection in the third trimester of pregnancy had abnormal weights and pathology [11,12]. © 2021 Muhammad Anasi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Desak Made Wihandani
Medical & Surgical Ophthalmology Research, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/msor.2021.03.000556

Audrey Rachel Wijaya1 and Desak Made Wihandani2* 1Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Indonesia 2Department of Biochemistry, Udayana University, Indonesia *Corresponding author: Desak Made Wihandani, Head Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia Submission: January 26, 2021;Published: February 24, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MSOR.2021.03.000556 ISSN 2578-0360 Volume3 Issue2 Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in the working-age in developed countries. The development and progression of DR are affected by both internal and external risk factors. Recently, the genetic risk factor is heavily studied regarding its association with DR in type 2 diabetic patients. There are some emerging concepts through its essential genetic roles related to DR progression and development. Genetic factors should be highly considered as it may be accountable for around 25- 50% of risks in developing DR. several genes are accountable for the progression of DR in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, including Aldose Reductase, Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). As the most frequent cause of visual impairment, it is important for people to know more about the genetic risk factors towards DR progression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this paper, the author wanted to discuss more the emerging concepts about the association between genetic risk factors and the occurrence of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic retinopathy; Genetic polymorphism Abbreviations: DM: Diabetes Mellitus; DR: Diabetic Retinopathy; SNP: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism; ENOS: Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase; RAGE: Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts; VEGF: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; AGEs: Advanced Glycation Endproducts; IGF: Insulin-like Growth Factor; AR: Aldose Reductase Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder in which the body is unable to maintain the sugar in the blood causing an elevated blood sugar level [1]. Prolonged high blood sugar level may result in vascular complications including macrovascular and microvascular complications [1]. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most usual microvascular complications which take place as the leading cause of visual impairment. Recent studies showed that Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) of some genetic region including Aldose Reductase (AR), Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) could be linked in worsening the progression of DR [2-4]. DR is a chronic condition that develops progressively and might be causing a visual impairment through a prolonged state of uncontrolled hyperglycemic condition [5]. It is found that DR is the leading cause of vision loss in patients aged 20 to 74 years old [6]. Some factors may contribute to the formation of DR which can be divided into internal and external factors. Internal factors are the factors that are unable to be modified, including duration of diabetes, age, and genetics [7-10]. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemic are some external factors that may affect the progression of DR [7,11,12]. several pathways can be surpassed in accelerating the development of DR, such as (DAG)-PKC pathway, polyol pathway, increased VEGF, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) expressions, accelerated formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), oxidative stress, and leukostasis [13]. The destruction of vascular endothelial cells or hypoxic cells injury can be induced by the expression of VEGF. Not only does VEGF expression induce more damage to cells, but also triggers angiogenesis and disrupts blood-retinal barriers by increasing vascular permeability. These activities stimulate the growth of the endothelial cells resulting in neovascularization. Besides, VEGF expression may induce leukocyte adhesion in retinal endothelial cells resulting in some damages in retinal, retinal bleeding, and visual impairment [14]. Clinically significant variations in DR onset and severity cannot be entirely explained by acknowledged risk factors like duration of diabetes, glycemic control, or vascular disease comorbid [15]. Some people may have DR even if they have good glycemic control and short duration of DM, while other patients, on the other hand, have poor glycemic control and long duration of DM but still may not develop DR. The chances of developing DR also depend on ethnicity. Reports from various countries show that African and Afro-Caribbean, South Asian, Latin American, have considerably higher recorded rates of DR than European derived people. In other words, Hispanics, people of African descent, and Asians are more susceptible to DR [16-18]. Genetic diversity may define why the incidence and progression of DR differ significantly, even among patients with identical metabolic factors [19]. DR was hypothesized as a complex genetic disease or polygenic diseases that are associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. These genetic factors are commonly referred to as variants or polymorphism rather than mutations. Variants can be correlated with either increased or decreased risk of disease, whilst polymorphism is generally characterized as a gene variant found in 1% or more of the general population. These variants of genes may interfere with environmental factors in unknown ways [20]. Most of the candidate gene studies investigated the genetic variants involved in the development of diabetes or metabolic pathways including polyol pathway, Advanced Glycation End products (AGE), and vascular endothelial growth factor which mediated the angiogenesis in hypoxia. Almost all of the published studies on DR genetics have involved four genes in DR pathogenesis. AR is present in large amounts in...
Marcos Pedro Guedes Camandaroba, Rasha Ibrahem Salama, Aya Mohamed Mahros
Gastroenterology: Medicine & Research, Volume 5, pp 457-459; doi:10.31031/gmr.2021.05.000619

Facanha ALBP1, Junior JEBR1 and Marcos Pedro Guedes Camandaroba1* 1Department of Clinical Oncology, Ac Camargo Cancer Center, Brazil *Corresponding author:Marcos Pedro Guedes Camandaroba, Medical Oncologist, Antonio Prudente Street, São Paulo, Brazil Submission: February 09, 2021;Published: February 24, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/GMR.2021.05.000619 ISSN 2637-7632Volume5 Issue4 A case of NICTH secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is described, male patient admitted to the emergency referring asthenia and drowsiness, and measured blood glucose of 20mg/dL. Patient continued to present episodes of recurrent hypoglycemia: 33/55/32mg/dL, even with continuous reposition of 10% glucose solution. Hypoglycemia can be related to several tumors, including islet cell and non-islet cell tumors. Non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a rare and serious complication of malignancy, and its presence is usually associated with a poor prognosis. The most common cause of this type of hypoglycemia is tumor overproduction of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), which stimulates the insulin receptor, leading to decreased insulin and glucagon levels. The diagnosis of NICTH is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Patients with NICTH have low serum concentrations of insulin and C-peptide during hypoglycemia. The treatment of this condition is related to the control of the underlying neoplasia. In patients who are unable to undergo invasive procedures, the use of corticosteroids is a good treatment option, leading to normalization of glycemia. Its management is of unquestionable importance to ensure the patient’s quality of life. A review of the literature on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of this complication follows. Keywords: Hypoglicemia; Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors Several types of tumors are associated with Non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), although gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), is rarely involved [1,2]. These tumors are usually large and located in the chest or retroperitoneum [1]. NICTH is associated with the production of IGF-II, which stimulates the insulin receptor, leading to decreased insulin and glucagon levels, consumption of glucose by tumor cells, reduction ketogenesis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, reduction of lipolysis and glucose storage in skeletal muscles; it also binds to IGF-I receptor, leading to decreased growth factors and IGF-I levels [3,4]. The treatment of this condition is related to the control of the underlying neoplasia, being indicated cytoreductive surgery or tumor embolization, for patients that don’t have a controlled disease with the regular treatment used for GIST (bases on tyrosine kinase inhibitors) [5,6]. In patients who are unable to undergo invasive procedures, the use of corticosteroids is a good treatment option, leading to normalization of glycemia [6,7]. Although, hypoglycemia can reoccur once they are discontinued [7]. We report a rare case of a metastatic GIST and refractory hypoglycemia, followed by a review of the diagnostic literature and treatment of this complication. A 50-years-old Brazilian man, diagnosed with GIST of the small intestine, was admitted to the emergency room reporting asthenia and drowsiness, in addition to abdominal pain and progressive increase in abdominal volume. Upon admission, he presented a blood glucose level of 20mg/dL. He had a medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, currently using metformin 850mg per day. As GIST treatment, he had been taking Sorafenib 800mg per day for about a month, as fourth-line systemic treatment. The previous systemic treatment options were Imatinib, Sunitinib and Regorafenib. Due to episodes of recurrent hypoglycemia, he was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Despite of continuous replacement of 10% glucose solution, it persisted with glycemia lower than 60mg/dL, and treatment with glucagon 0.1mg per hour was started, with partial improvement of hypoglycemic episodes. Dexamethasone 12mg per day was associated, achieving better glycemic control, but still with occasional episodes of hypoglycemia. The serum insulin level was less than 1mU/L with the patient’s body mass index (BMI) equal to 31.55kg/m2 (reference value for BMI above 30kg/m2: 2 to 23mU/L) and the C-peptide value was 0.02ng/ml (reference value: 1.1 to 4.4ng/ml). IGF1 was 33ng/mL (reference value for age 25- 54 years: 105-362ng/mL). On the 5th day of hospitalization, no more hypoglycemia episodes occurred (Table 1). After 48 hours without a blood glucose level lower than 60mg/dL, the patient was discharged using corticosteroids (Dexamethasone 8mg per day), with a scheduled return for tumor embolization. Table 1:Blood glucose values during hospitalization. H: Hours; HD: Hospitalization Day; Blood Glucose: mg/dL Hypoglycemia can be related to several tumors, including islet cell and non-islet cell tumors [2]. NICTH is a rare and serious complication of malignancy, and its presence is usually associated with a poor prognosis [2,5]. Several types of tumors are associated with NICTH, most commonly mesenchymal tumors, fibroids, carcinoids, myelomas, lymphomas, hepatocellular and colorectal carcinomas; and GIST is rarely involved [1]. Symptoms of hypoglycemia occur more frequently in the fasting state and may include confusion, lethargy, diaphoresis, or progressive drowsiness, with some patients presenting coma as the initial manifestation of hypoglycemia [5]. The diagnosis of NICTH is based on clinical and laboratory findings [5]. Medical history and physical examination can usually help to find the cause of hypoglycemia in a patient with a known tumor burden. The causes of tumoral hypoglycemia include extensive liver or adrenal infiltration by the tumor, resulting in the destruction of the liver or adrenal glands; tumor production of high levels of IGF-II; or rarely, insulin production by the tumor cells [3,4]. The...
Sergio Manieri, Maria P Mirauda, Carmela Colangelo, Rosa Lapolla, Luciana Romaniello, Donatello Salvatore, Paolo Caiazzo
Research in Pediatrics & Neonatology, Volume 5, pp 433-436; doi:10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000613

Sergio Manieri1*, Maria P Mirauda1, Carmela Colangelo1, Rosa Lapolla1, Luciana Romaniello1, Donatello Salvatore1 and Paolo Caiazzo2 1Department of Pediatrics, San Carlo Hospital, Potenza, Italy 2Pediatric surgery unit, San Carlo Hospital, Potenza, Italy *Corresponding author: Sergio Manieri, Department of Pediatrics, San Carlo Hospital, Potenza, Italy Submission: February 11, 2021 Published: February 24, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/rpn.2021.05.000613 ISSN: 2577-9200 Volume5 Issue3 Bezoar is an accumulation of organic substances in the gastrointestinal tract. This condition is extremely rare, their incidence in the pediatric population is unknown. Bezoars usually occur in females, adolescents, and children with psychiatric or neurological disorders. Trichobezoar refers to the accumulation of hair usually in the stomach and even beyond it (Rapunzel syndrome). We present the clinical case of a schoolage female patient who started with neurological symptoms (headache, syncope) and then developed gastrointestinal symptoms. Only later was clarified a history of bullying at school and consequent anxious behaviors (trichotillomania and trichophagia). It’s very important a thorough medical history, especially in patients with Trichobezoar, to highlight psychological disorders that can cause trichotillomania and trichophagia. Keywords: Trichobezoar; Trichotillomania; Trichofagia; Laparoscopy Bezoar is an accumulation of exogenous matter in the stomach or intestine. Rapunzel syndrome refers to a trichobezoar that extends from the stomach into the entire small bowel [1]. Bezoars are classified on the basis of their composition [2]. Trichobezoars are composed of the patient’s own hair. Phytobezoars are composed of a combination of plant and animal material. Trichophytobezoars are mix composition. It’s defined Orthobezoar when mineral salt are deposited on a nucleous of animal or vegetable. Lactobezoars were previously found most often in premature infants and may be attributed to the high casein or calcium content of some premature formulas. Shallowed chewing gum may occasionally lead to bezoars. This condition is extremely rare, their incidence in the pediatric population is unknown [3]. Most bezoars have been found in females with underlying personality problems or neurologically impaired individuals. About 70% of patients with trichobezoar intestinal obstructive syndrome are women under age 20 years [4]. Bezoars can be fatal because they can cause gastric and bowel perforation, peritonitis, bleeding, or ischemic to necrotic changes of the gut [5]. Patients diagnosed with a bezoar usually are asymptomatic for many years [6]. Some bezoars are found incidentally with imaging, where they appear as masses or filling defects on abdominal radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans. Therefore, a thorough medical history is important, especially in patients with Trichobezoar, to highlight psychological disorders that can cause trichotillomania and trichophagia. In fact, about 6% of patients with Tricotillomania develop a trichobezoar [5]. Diagnosis can be established by an upper endoscopy with extraction sampling to determine the composition or extract the whole bezoar in fragments if it is only in the stomach and/or proximal bowel. Although endoscopy is the preferred diagnostic study to differentiate bezoars, but only a few cases in the literature describe the complete endoscopic removal of a trichobezoar after mechanical or chemical fragmentation, and these cases refer exclusively to pediatric patients in whom presumably the total foreign body mass was easier to handle [7]. Conventional laparotomy is the treatment of choice for trichobezoar with satellite fragments beyond the stomach or extending into the small bowel as in Rapunzel syndrome [1-5]. We present the case of a trichobezoar intestinal obstructive syndrome in a 12-year-old girl. The girl was hospitalized for recurrent syncopal episodes, which started a few months ago, some of which with doubtful loss of consciousness. In addition, frequent headache episodes were reported for about 3 years, well responsive to paracetamol. The medical history did not highlight family pathologies, while the pathological history showed the presence of hepatic hemartoma, diagnosed at the age of 2, for which periodic ultrasound examinations are performed, and an episode of Schonlein-Henoch purpura at the age 5 years old. Physical examination revealed a palpable tumor within the epigastrium, initially interpreted as referable to hepatic hemartoma, for which we planned a control abdominal ultrasound. During the hospitalization, several tests were performed including blood biochemical examination, routine electrocardiogram, dynamic electrocardiogram, echocardiography, vestibular examination, eye examination, electroencephalogram, head magnetic resonance imaging (RMI), excluding the organic disease of nervous system and circulatory system. All tests were substantially normal. Subsequently, in light of all this, psychological consultation was also performed suspecting psychological involvement, which detected a condition of psychological distress due to anxiety disorder, for which child neuropsychiatric consultation was planned. In the meantime, a few days after admission, another abdomen ultrasound was performed which showed a mass in the stomach that was not well interpretable, for which a CT of the abdomen was performed which showed the presence of solid tissue in the epigastric area not well defined, extending for about 6 cm, with no evident cleavage plane towards the head of the pancreas, the gastric antrum (apparently infiltrated) and the duodenal C. For further study, MRI of the abdomen was performed which interpreted the abdominal lesion as likely pancreatic nature (annular pancreas?). In the meantime, the symptoms had changed as the girl began to present abdominal pain and vomiting and appeared particularly dejected. Apart from hypochromic and...
Suresh G, Sudhakara Babu Sn, A Aziz Qureshi
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 775-777; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000678

Suresh G*, Sudhakara Babu SN and A Aziz Qureshi ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030, Telangana State, India *Corresponding author: Suresh G, Crop Production Division, Indian institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad, India Submission: February 09, 2021Published: February 24, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000678 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 1 Low productivity of oilseed crops in India is due to their majority cultivation under rainfed condition in low soil fertility and prone to erosion. Conservation agricultural practices viz., reduced tillage, crop residue cover, crop rotation play an important role in initiating changes in physical, chemical and biological properties which in turn enrich carbon pools and improve the crop yields sustainably. Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat based cropping systems in Indo-Gangetic plains are huge success and gaining popularity. Conservation agriculture can be seen as a new way forward for conserving resources and enhancing oilseed productivity to achieve goals of sustainable agriculture and nutritional security in India. However, it demands development of location specific CA technologies and combination of institutional and policy support. Keywords: Oilseed crops; Reduced tillage; Resource conservation; Soil fertility Abbreviations: CA: Conservation Agriculture; ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research; SAT: Semi- Arid Tropics; SDG: Sustainable Development Goals Conservation Agriculture (CA) has been established as a resource-saving agricultural production system to achieve production intensification and high yields along with enhancing the natural resource base through the positive interplay of related principles of minimum soil disturbance, crop residue cover and crop associations and cover crop [1,2]. In India, vegetable oils are critical for nutrition, energy and economy of the country and in global commodity supplies. In terms of acreage, production and economic value, oilseed crops are second only to food grains. But self-reliance in edible oils is not in sight and the country imports almost half of its edible oil requirements. With its rich agro-ecological diversity, India is ideally suited for growing all the major annual oilseed crops. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, seven are of edible oils (soybean, groundnut, rapeseed-mustard, sunflower, sesame, safflower and niger) and two are of non-edible industrial oils (castor and linseed).Low and unstable yields of most oilseed crops, and uncertainty in returns to investment, is due to their majority cultivation under rainfed conditions in poor soils with low organic carbon, high climate risk production environments leading to the situation of unsustainability and wide demand-supply gap. Low-cost technologies with high impact on productivity and emphasis on ecofriendliness, high input use efficiency such as CA is the new way forward for enhancing the oilseed productivity and nutritional security on a sustainable basis. Different oilseed crops are grown under unique and specific agro-ecologies of soil, season and cropping systems that require specific packages of CA practices. The present review focusses on global status of CA, its benefits and the need for adopting CA practices for enhancing the oilseed productivity on a sustainable basis in the changing climatic scenario. Status of CA This technology has been widely adopted globally on more than 157M ha in over 50 countries, largely in rainfed areas. The major countries are USA, Australia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and New Zealand. In India, the benefits of CA were proven on zero-till wheat in north-western India, primarily through the efforts of IRRI, CIMMYT and World Bank funded NATP [3]. The spread of CA technologies is growing in the irrigated regions in the Indo-Gangetic plains for rice-wheat cropping systems. Research on Conservation agriculture systems in other major agro-ecoregions like rainfed semi-arid tropics and the arid regions of the mountain agro-ecosystems and shallow soil types is in its infancy and needs intensification. Benefits of CA Agriculture’s contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) requires climate-smart and profitable farm innovations such as adopting conservation agricultural practices [4]. CA practices on smallholder farming systems with zero-till in combination with crop residue retention and crop rotation/ associations has significantly increased rainfed crop productivity in dry climates of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia [5]. Burning of crop residues causing pollution, greenhouse gas emission and loss of plant nutrients can be reversed for benefiting, improving soil health and environment through CA practices. Through CA crop residues are retained on soil surface and in combination with reduced tillage, it initiates processes that enrich carbon pools and lead to improved soil quality and resource enhancement [6,7]. Intensive agricultural systems with green revolution technologies (high yielding varieties, fertilizer and agro-chemicals, irrigation, fine tilth, minimal crop rotation, manure and crop residue cover etc) has caused exploitation of natural resources resulting in degradation of natural resources, soil health and environment. Energy requirement has increased many folds resulting in high input costs. CA offers one of the viable options to the farmers for crop diversification overcoming the fatigue of resource management to improve and sustain the productivity. Conservation agriculture helps in sequestering atmospheric carbon in soil-plant system through favourable agricultural operations and management practices. Conservation tillage along with efficient management of inputs viz. irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides facilitate low erosion, high residue cover and higher microbial activity. Land use change and conventional intensification of agricultural practices are major contributors...
Süleyman Taban
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 778-782; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000679

Hanife AKÇA and Süleyman TABAN* Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, 06110 Ankara, Turkey *Corresponding author: Süleyman TABAN, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, 06110 Ankara, Turkey Submission: January 29, 2021Published: February 24, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000679 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 1 Zinc deficiency causes the major health problems in human. Deficiencies of zinc affect over one-half of the world’s population. Food fortification provides especially the improvement of the microelement content of the nutrients and thus the healthy nutrition and the increase of the microelement bioavailability. Progress has been made to control micronutrient deficiencies through food fortification, but new approaches are needed, especially in developing countries. Biofortification is the process of increasing the natural content of bioavailable nutrients in plants. Biofortified crops can reduce the problem of micronutrient malnutrition in a cost‐effective way. Different and effective fertilization strategies could be a rapid solution to the zinc deficiency in crops. Keywords: Biofortification; Zinc; Crops The balanced and healthy nutrition of our population will be one of the priority issues in the future, as it is today. All living organisms need microelements such as: Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo as well as macro elements to maintain their metabolic activities, and they meet this need with nutrition [1]. Malnutrition is seen by WHO as a worldwide health risk factor as well as infectious diseases and obesity [2]. The malnutrition problem is common in low and middleincome countries. Micronutrient deficiencies such as iron, zinc, and vitamin A are a global health risk in worldwide. Micronutrients play key roles in the normal functioning of the human body system [3]. It has been determined that two thirds of the world population face serious health problems due to not getting one or more of the mineral elements at a sufficient level. Today, it has been determined that people are most commonly affected by zinc [1,4] and iron [1,4- 6] deficiency. Zinc deficiency is an important problem especially in cereal-based diets. The mortality rate in children under the age of 5 who cannot get enough zinc from the food they eat has been determined as 4.4% worldwide [7]. Zinc deficiency causes infertility in humans, delayed healing of wounds, mental retardation, etc. it has many negative effects. Besides, zinc is an element that has very important functions in the human body and is necessary for the growth and reproduction of all cells. It is also involved in the structure of enzymes and proteins that play a role in removing free radicals from to cell or cell wall, which are the cause of tissue damage and cell death. The main reason for Zn and Fe deficiency in humans is due to the widespread nutrition of grains and legumes and the low bioavailability of these elements in cereal and legume groups [8]. The high content of phytic acid, fiber, and tannins in this group of plants significantly reduces the bioavailability of Zn and Fe elements [9]. Therefore, increasing the Zn and Fe contents and/or phytic acid, etc. It is of great importance to increase the microelement content of basic foods in human nutrition by reducing the factors that negatively affect microelement usefulness. The amount of zinc in the soil varies depending on the properties of the main material of the soils. For example, although the zinc concentration is high in soils composed of basic volcanic rocks, the zinc concentration is low in soils composed of the parent material with high silicon content. Similarly, sandy soils contain less zinc than soils with high clay content. Soil pH is quite effective parameter on the solubility of zinc in soils. Under conditions with soil pH+2 form of Zn is dominant, whereas under pH>7 ZnOH+ is dominant. Under conditions where soil pH is 5, the amount of Zn+2 is 6.5mg kg-1, while it decreases to 0.007μg kg-1 when the pH is 8 [10]. Zinc: forms soluble complexes in the soil with chlorine, phosphate, nitrate and sulphate ions, and the solubility of the compounds formed with neutral sulphate and phosphate ions is higher. The ZnSO4 compound increases the solubility of Zn+2 cations in the soil and the Zn availability increases with the application of fertilizers with a physiological acid character for instance, ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4. Zinc forms both soluble and insoluble organic complexes with organic matter in the soil, and soluble complexes with organic acids with low molecular weight, and consequently the amount of soluble Zn in the soil increases. The increase in the amount of soluble Zn in the soil with the application of organic fertilizers and it can be explained by the formation of solubility. Zinc is one of the essential microelements for the normal and healthy growth and reproduction of plants. Zinc is included in the group of essential trace elements and also defined as a micronutrient element due to its low concentrations of 5-100mg kg-1 in plant tissues. Among these elements, iron, copper, zinc, manganese as well as cobalt, chromium, iodine and selenium are important microelements in the food chain [11]. Zn plays a role in the activity of many enzymes such as functional, structural and regulatory in plants [12]. Moreover, zinc is effective on carbohydrate metabolism, sucrose and starch formation, protein metabolism, membrane integrity and auxin metabolism in the plant. Zinc plays important role in the cellular functions of all living organisms and also plays a role in the development of the human immune system. The optimum daily intake of Zn in adults should be 15mg. Zinc acts as a catalytic or structural component in various body enzymes in humans as well as in plants [13,14]. Zinc is a key component of many important enzymes such as RNA polymerase,...
Samina Rafique
Psychology and Psychotherapy Research Study, Volume 4, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/pprs.2021.04.000595

Juliana Mendanha Brandão*1 and Elizabeth do Nascimento2 1Psicologia, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Brazil 2Psicologia, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil *Corresponding author: Juliana M Brandão, Department of Psicologia, PUCMinas, Brazil Submission: February 15, 2021Published: February 22, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PPRS.2021.04.000595 ISSN 2639-0612Volume4 Issue4 Background: During transitional period from adolescent to adulthood significant changes occur in the personality and behavior of the individual which are determined mainly by genetics but transaction with social environment also plays a role. Hence adolescents living away from family in hostels of higher educational institutes may get influenced by the environment there in. This study investigated the perception of female students about the environment of hostels and its impact on personality development. Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out in a public sector university through a questionnaire. The responses about the various effects of hostel life were measured on a 5-point likert scale. Two groups of the study participants were then created according to age and results were dichotomized for statistical analysis. Chi-square test was applied for comparison among the two study groups. Results: The results showed that from amongst the various factors enlisted in the questionnaire, management skills were most agreed characteristic (92%) achieved by residing in hostel. Similarly, expense management, emotional stability and public dealing were agreed upon by 86%, 85% and 86% respectively. While 199 out of 272 respondents confessed to gain confidence and 230 hostel residents realized that they became more groomed. The results were significant at p Conclusion: Hostel residence besides providing opportunity for higher education to the students of distant towns can modify the behavior and personality of the residents in a positive manner. Keywords: Hostel life; Behavior modification; Personality development Conclusion: Hostel residence besides providing opportunity for higher education to the students of distant towns can modify the behavior and personality of the residents in a positive manner. Keywords: Hostel life; Behavior modification; Personality development Student’s life in universities is a transitional period from adolescence to adulthood after which individuals normally settle into their adult roles. It is a turbulent stage of evolution which involves noteworthy changes in the personality and behavior of the students. Personality attributes/traits may be described as temperament and propensity to think, feel and act. Studies suggest that genetics and environmental influences work together to endorse personality development during transition to adulthood [1,2]. Family environment has a significant effect on the personality traits leading to modifications in behavior and adjustments through the course of life [3]. However, for the pursuit of higher education many people have to depart from their homes and have to stay away in hostels where environment is entirely different to that in the home. In Pakistan the word “Hostel” refers to student accommodations, which are usually provided by the educational institutions under the supervision of university/college staff. It has been observed that distinct atmosphere of hostels can influence individual’s behavior and life style pattern [4]. Hostels can be described as “a practical human laboratory “that shapes, sharpens and refines the individual’s personality and conduct [4]. The environment of hostels can be more favorable for study and is self-governing [5]. Hostels allow social interaction because residents have to share rooms and communal areas such as lounges, kitchen, dining hall and internet café etc. Thus, residents learn new experiences of life with their fellow mates and get trained for teamwork, through helping, caring, sharing, and developing sense of responsibility. All these factors can influence the shaping of personality [6]. Moreover, the residents have to abide by certain rules which make them more disciplined and punctual. According to a study [7] hostel residents are more determined, self-sufficient, and confident and possess more optimistic attitude than non-resident students. Like many countries of the world, in Pakistan, higher education institutions are set up in the suburbs of big cities. A large majority of the aspiring students belong to distant smaller towns thus have to reside in hostels. Consequently, given the young age at which this happens, the educational facility and hostel environment plays a pivotal role in the development of their personalities. However, the studies pertaining to the role of hostel residence on personality attributes of individuals are very limited in Pakistan and most of these only appraise the academic advantages of the boarding system over the day scholar system [8,9] Therefore the present study was planned which aimed to explore the perception of female university students about the impact of hostel life on their psychological and behavioral development. The results of the study may help parents and teachers to understand the phenomenon of adjustment through social exposure during this important transitional period of a student’s life and the significance of living on campus in shaping personality of individuals. The study was approved by research committee, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. This study was conducted in Bahauddin Zakariya Uinversity, Multan during March 2019. There are 7 girls hostel situated on the campus premises with more than 600 students in each hall of residence. Depending upon the degree program, a student has to live for 2-4 years or more (in case of a doctoral degree) in the hostel. Sample size was calculated to be 341 and participants were recruited by convenient sampling method. In order to...
Juliana Mendanha Brandao
Psychology and Psychotherapy Research Study, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pprs.2020.04.000594

Juliana Mendanha Brandão*1 and Elizabeth do Nascimento2 1Psicologia, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Brazil 2Psicologia, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil *Corresponding author: Juliana M Brandão, Department of Psicologia, PUCMinas, Brazil Submission: February 15, 2021Published: February 22, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PPRS.2020.04.000594 ISSN 2639-0612Volume4 Issue4 This article presents a case study that contributes to the field of research on resilience. It has the trajectory-based approaches as its starting point, aiming to obtain the description and the understanding of the processes of coping with adversities throughout life, identifying different coping trajectories, differentiating them according to the outcome of each one, and revealing resilience factors. Through phenomenological analysis, it was possible to raise nine adverse events faced by a person and six types of coping trajectories: resistance; minimal-impact resilience; emergent resilience; gradual recovery with turning point, with residual pain; mild-to-moderate persistent distress and delayed dysfunction with gradual improvement and turning point, with residual pain. The proposed design proved to be promising for understanding individual resilience as a complex, dynamic, and contextual process. Keywords: Resilience; Coping; Adaptability; Psychological stress Throughout life, people experience stressful or traumatic situations, which require coping efforts. Studying resilience implies trying to understand how successful processes of coping with these situations occur, as well as what factors contribute to their results [1]. As of the 2010s, the field of research on psychological resilience was enriched by studies of trajectory-based approaches that investigated the clinical consequences of stress and potentially traumatic events [2]. In these approaches, longitudinal designs and statistical models of data reading are used to identify distinct groups of subjects according to their trajectories of coping with adversities. Different types of trajectories are identified graphically from the statistical analysis of data related, for example, to physical and mental health, wellbeing, psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affects. These data are measured some time before the subject faces the stressful event, during the coping period, and after the end of the adversity, whether it is acute or chronic [3,4]. These studies have identified that people subject to adversities may have minimal-impact resilience (which describes a relatively stable, healthy adjustment reaction after the acute stressful event); emergent resilience (when, after the end of chronic adversities, the positive outcome emerges); stress resistance(when the person remains healthy in the face of the adversity); chronic dysfunction (when the person does not recover after the end of adversity); delayed dysfunction (when the dysfunctions emerge a while after the end of the stressful event); post-event growth (when the person becomes healthier than before after facing his or her adversity); in addition to other trajectories. The studies of these approaches represent an advance in the field of research on resilience because they show that people with similar outcomes after facing a certain adversity may have done it in different ways. This results in overcoming the binary view of resilience in which a person is classified only as resilient or non-resilient, depending only on the assessment performed after facing an adversity. This assessment by results ends up giving resilience a trait conception and disregarding the process the person experienced. When studying trajectory-based approaches, researchers usually seek to identify how different people face the same adversities. Seeking to advance in the understanding of the phenomenon of resilience and the processes of coping with adversities, we investigated how the same person faces different adversities throughout life. The focus shifted from interpersonal to intrapersonal. We defined resilience as a successful process of coping with adversities that can be achieved through several possible trajectories. We chose to assess the result using the “positive mental health” construct that goes beyond the absence of mental disorders and includes a state of well-being [5]. A woman who had faced several adversities in her life was chosen for this study and a qualitative research about her life story was carried out through the methodology of the case study. The woman investigated was 45 years old at the time of the research and had faced the following identified adversities: bullying; appendicitis; brother’s anorexia; lymphoma; a treatment to get pregnant which resulted in three miscarriages; conflicts at work; and her father’s cancer and subsequent death. In-depth interviews were conducted, and the data of the interviews were analyzed according to the phenomenological method. In this analysis, six types of coping trajectories were identified: resistance to stress; minimal-impact resilience; emergent resilience; gradual recovery with turning point, with residual pain; mild persistent distress; and delayed dysfunction with gradual improvement and turning point, with residual pain. The positive factors, associated with the positive outcomes of the coping processes, were recurrently recognized: the need for emotional balance; the need to be supported by the family; family support; hardiness; direct coping; and her expectations. The first two were triggers of emotional regulation. Expectations had both positive and negative effects. When this woman had an expectation that certain adversity was normal or that her suffering was expected, she had a good result in relation to that adversity. When she built highly positive expectations about something and it did not go as expected, her suffering was great, and the result of the coping...
Rajasekhar Kali Venkata
Interventions in Obesity & Diabetes, Volume 5, pp 409-414; doi:10.31031/iod.2021.05.000601

Rajasekhar Kali Venkata1* and Srinivasan MV2 1Director of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Hyderabad, India 2Associate Professor in Physical Education, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, India *Corresponding author:Rajasekhar Kali Venkata, Wellness and Sports Sciences Researcher, Director of Physical Education and Sports, University of Hyderabad, India Submission:January 11, 2021;Published: February 22, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/IOD.2021.05.000601 ISSN 2598-0263Volume5 Issue1 Presence of excessive body fat percentage in the body than the normal proportion may be considered as obesity. The measure of Body Mass Index (BMI) is considered still as the population parameter to specify the overweight and obesity. The advent of several advanced scientific methods like Bio-impedance electrical technology etc. are able to measure the body composition more precisely and now the understanding on the obesity is more specific. Childhood obesity measure is not universal as there are several exogenous and endogenous causes for childhood obesity. The possibility of obese children grow into obese adults is more and may lead for health disaster for countries high with childhood obesity. The spread of childhood obesity seems very severe, alarming and epidemic like, the countries like Canada, USA, China, India etc. are facing this problem more severely. Increasing physical inactivity, aberrant food habits like eating junk and processed foods are the biggest factors that are causing the childhood obesity across the globe. Epigenetic studies are also indicating that the childhood obesity is mostly due to the exogenous factors of lifestyle than endogenous factors. Effective strategies to counter the childhood obesity need to be implemented with immediate effect to mitigate the economic cost and also to alleviate the misery from the premature deaths of young people. Encouragement to recognize aesthetics in daily life among children is an effective strategy to offset the childhood obesity. Keywords: Body fat percentage; Body mass index; Childhood obesity; Physical inactivity; Epigenetic studies The present scenario in the entire globe with respect to the Obesity seems increasingly threatening. The problem of Obesity has almost reached to the extent of pandemic and is causing severe health consequences. The obesity per se may not be a disease, but the condition of obesity among individuals could cause for several problems including immune suppression, cardiovascular health issues, metabolic health issues etc [1]. The World Health Organization has identified over weight and the obesity of individuals basing on the Body Mass Index indicator. The WHO has identified that the individuals as overweight who are with 25 BMI to below 30 BMI and those with above 30 BMI as obese individuals. However, the credibility of the measure of BMI seems questionable as the BMI do not consider the fat portion of the individual, but simply takes into cognizance only the body mass. Several studies clearly indicated that the sportspersons, body builders, high intensity sportspersons etc. may show higher BMI though their fat percentage is low because of the higher lean body mass like higher muscle and bone density. But, still the measure of BMI is extensively used as a population measure to understand the obesity [2]. Using the measure of BMI for individual obesity evaluation could be unscientific. The emergence of the other scientific methods like Bio impedance electrical analysis technology (BIA), Computer tomography (CT scan), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) etc., made the identification of body composition very specific and near accurate, through which the fat percentage of the individuals may be assessed more precisely. The precise operational definition for Obesity is still to come, but the scientific studies accepted that the obesity may be recognized as presence of excessive body fat in the body. But the range of body fat percentage and the scales to identify the Obesity basing on the body fat percentage seems more of specific population wise than a generic and worldwide common standard [3]. The same is also true and valid for the childhood obesity, and there is not universally acceptable cut off point for body fat percentage or for BMI to measure and identify the childhood obesity. There were several regional scientific studies, mostly conducted with an initiative from the regional governments, identified their population specific cut off points for body fat percentages or using the BMI to identify scales for Obesity measurement among children which are specifically useful for their respective regions or countries. Williams et al. [4] conducted a study on 3,320 children in the age group of five to eighteen years and identified that the body fat percentage in excess of 25 as obese for male and 30 percent for female children but may not be extended to the children in general. The problem of childhood obesity is growing in an alarming ratio across the globe, without any delimitations [5]. Though initially, the childhood obesity was a big concern among the high-income countries like Canada [6], USA etc. now the childhood obesity is raising pandemic alarms even in the low income and undeveloped countries. The urban areas of the world in general without any exception are experiencing this childhood obesity in extremely high proportions and the impact due to this may be a catastrophe [7,8]. The speedier economic growth in china caused for childhood obesity across many Chinese cities [9]. In the European Union, one among every three children is either overweight or obese [10]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the children in several European cities is highly worrying [11]. The discussion on the etiology on obesity and preventive strategies are the main concern in this article and hence the epidemiological data like definition, measurement and prevalence part of obesity is not fully elucidated. There are many...
Yu Ling
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy, Volume 8, pp 773-774; doi:10.31031/mcda.2021.08.000677

Yujian Mo1 and Yu Ling1,2* 1College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China 2Shenzhen Institute of Guangdong Ocean University, China *Corresponding author: Yu Ling, College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China Submission: February 01, 2021Published: February 19, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/MCDA.2021.08.000677 ISSN 2637-7659Volume8 Issue 1 Global warming triggers complicated heat stresses to crop production on the Earth. Previously, most breeding programs focus on producing crop tolerate with short-term extreme high temperature stress. Hence, few recent studies have suggested that the plants adapting to extreme heat stress may be not always suitable for long-term mild high temperature stress. Therefor we propose challenges in crop production/ breeding which need to be conquered in the future. Different kinds of high temperature stresses on the earth As we known that global warming results in happenings of extreme weathers, including extreme hot weathers. The mean temperatures anneal increase from 1880 to 2000 in general, especially in the duration of 1961-2000, within which there was significant drop in crop yields [1], though drop in yields resulted from complexed impacts in combination of temperature and other kinds of environmental factors. In the case of temperature itself, the situation is also complicated, because there are several temperature-related variables, such as the anneal mean temperature, the maximum temperature, the frequency of extreme high temperature, and the high temperature duration. In southwest of China, it has been shown that all increase mildly during the period of 1975- 1994, thus these factors increase sharply from 1995 to 2014. Further analysis revealed that the extreme temperature increases much faster than that of average temperature [2]. Supportively, observation from world-wide range also suggested that in addition to mean temperature, extreme high temperature days per year increased in most areas around the world in the past decades [3]. Challenge for crop production in resistant to different high temperature stresses Figure 1: Heat-damage of maize plants. A. Maize plants at vegetative stage, B. Maize plants at reproductive stage with sterile stamens. In our experience there are different biases in research interests between different researchers. When we talk about global warming, ecologists are concerned more about the negative impact of long-term global warming on the stability of ecosystem, whereas scientists working on plants, including researchers in crop genetics and breeding, plant physiology and molecular biology, may be interested more in effects of severe short-term high temperature stress on crops, because extreme hot weathers happened occasionally may be disastrous to some crops. For example, there were 5 days with continuously extreme high temperature excessing 39 ℃ (from 5th May 2020 to 9th May, 2020) in a city, Baise, which is located at southwest of China. Consequently, maize plants at different developmental stages were suffered from significant heatdamage, with burned young leaves and sterile stamens (Figure 1). Because of the fact that the disastrous damage of extreme hot weathers to crop production, in the past breeders may prefer to select crops that perform better in tolerating short-term extreme high temperature stress. Thus, to what extent this selection strategy benefits for crop tolerating complicated high temperature stress conditions in future is not clear yet. Because there are studies suggesting that plants may use different mechanisms to tolerate different kinds of high temperature stresses. In Rice, ‘N22’ was supposed to be a heat tolerant variety, whereas recent studies found that the trait of heat tolerant from N22 was only performed at basal heat tolerance. People found this rice variety was more sensitive to recurred high temperature stress than another rice variety ‘Nipponbare’, which has been considered to be heat sensitive variety [4]. More recently, another study demonstrated that the modern tomato cultivars lose the capacity to tolerate with heat priming (temperature increasing slowly) because of selection for genotypes those tolerate severe high temperature stress (sudden temperature elevation) [5]. These examples bring challenge for breeders who work in breeding heat-tolerant crops, because varieties with capacity in tolerating a kind of high temperature stress may be more fragile to other kinds of high temperature stresses. As global warming is going to continuously impose considerable impacts on the occurrence of heat events. In the future, to mitigate the impact of high temperatures to food security, we should continue to strengthen the basic research of plant response to distinguished high temperature stresses, uncover molecular mechanisms of plants in responding to varied high temperature stresses, and promote the research of heat-tolerant crop breeding in turn. In addition, targeted planting program should make according to different high temperature stresses predicted, from selection of crop species/genotypes to field managements. © 2021 Cenk PASA. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Tsabang Nolé
Interventions in Obesity & Diabetes, Volume 4, pp 405-408; doi:10.31031/iod.2021.04.000600

NoléT1* and Wilfried Lionel TD2 1Higher Institute of Environmental Sciences, Cameroon 2Centre de Cardiologie et Medical, Yaounde, Cameroon *Corresponding author:Tsabang Nolé, Higher Institute of Environmental Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon Submission:February 08, 2021;Published: February 19, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/IOD.2021.04.000600 ISSN 2598-0263Volume4 Issue5 One of the reasons for the failures of treatments for diabetes mellitus in African medicine is the lack of knowledge of the different types of diabetes and the existence of the mechanisms of action of plant extracts or their secondary metabolites responsible for antihyperglycemic activities, called active ingredients. The different types of diabetes are not taken into account by local therapists. The present work investigates the pathways of action of herbal products and secondary metabolites necessary for the management of diabetes. To achieve this objective previous article were searching systematically using “herbal products and secondary metabolites necessary for the management of diabetes” as engine to access Google, PubMed and Google scholar databases. All the relevant articles, published in English language between 1914 and 2018 were collected for widespread review. The mechanisms of action of the active compounds like charantin, momordicoside S and its aglycones momordicosides, polypeptide-p, vicine, and momordin, in herbal medicines with relevance to their glucose-lowering identified are: inhibition of intestinal absorption of glucose, suppression key glycogenic enzymes, decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis, AMP-activated protein kinase activator, reduced expression Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase, reduced glucose and lipids and upregulation of insulin signaling pathway-associated proteins. This knowledge is of extreme importance in order to establish the best possible herbal treatments of diabetes. Keywords: Type 1;Type 2 diabetes mellitus;Gestational diabetes;Antidiabetic activity;Herbal medicines;Previous mechanisms of action Abbreviations: PEPCK: Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase; HCS:Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin; NAFLD: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; AMPK: Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Historical aspects 1500 years after Jesus Christ, a European doctor (Paracelsus) revealed in the urine of diabetics a substance which appeared as a white powder. 100 years after this revelation, the urine of diabetics was found to have a sweet taste. The term diabetes mellitus was used for the first time [1,2]. Improvements in medicine and technology have now made it possible to better define, diagnose, prevent, treat, classify diabetes into three large groups and identify its complications. These are type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. Today it globally knows that diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with impairment of either insulin secretion or the action of insulin, or both. In early time diabetes was consider as disorder of the elderly people. But now it becomes a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting the youth and middle aged people. Complications As it progresses, diabetes can cause serious complications affecting the brain (Cerebrovascular damage), the heart (heart failure and ischemic heart disease), blood vessels (peripheral arterial disease), eyes (retinopathy), kidneys (diabetic nephropathy) and nerves (neuropathies). Other complications include diabetic foot, infections, bone damage and cancer. Therefore diabetes mellitus is a common consequence of uncontrolled high blood glucose and it is related with long-term destruction, dysfunction, and failure of numerous organs. Nonetheless, good disease management can meaningfully decrease the risk of these complications [3]. Prevalence Diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. In 2003, the International Diabetes Federation estimated that 194 million people had diabetes worldwide. By 2025, it is expected to reach 333 million, or 6.3% of the world’s population [3]. Particularly in Cameroon, the prevalence of diabetes in 2018 is 4.5% for men and 4.9% for women, for 4.7% in total. Management Effective prevention and controlling programs are needed; the ongoing substantial upsurge in diabetes will have severe consequences on the health and life expectancy of the global population, and also on the economy worldwide. Lower costs supplements can be used to correct nutritional insufficiencies or to maintain an adequate consumption of certain nutrients, usually used as treatments for diabetes. They are more accessible or “natural” compared to pharmaceutical products. Several vitamins, minerals, herbal medicines, and secondary metabolites have been reported to stimulate beneficial antihyperglycemic activities in vivo and in vitro. However, until now, the data remain inconsistent. Many pharmaceutical drugs generally used today are fundamentally derived from ethno pharmacological research. Medicinal plants most frequently used in Cameroon to control blood sugar level published by our research team include: Momordica charantia Lin. (Cucurbiataceae), Laportea ovalifera (Schumach. & Thonn.) Chew (Urticaceae), Catharanthus roseaus Lin. (Apocynaceae), Allium cepa Lin. (Amaryllidaceae), Allium sativum Lin. (Amaryllidaceae) and Morinda lucida Benth. (Rubiaceae). In majority of the herbal medicines and secondary metabolites used in the treatment of diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve: Type 1 diabetes It is an autoimmune disease which begins when the immune system destroys insulin and amylin-producing β cells, found in pancreatic islets. Why the immune system attacks the β cells remains unknown. Herbal medicines in type 1 diabetes are extra pancreatic compounds like Polypeptide-p which is sometimes referred as “plant insulin. They can inspire endogenous renewal pancreatic β cells. Type 2 diabetes The interface between numerous...
Ahmad Arabi, Brown K Bs, Grimm L Ma, Mowl S Bs, Beltsos A, Jeelani R, Kamel L Daom
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/prm.2021.04.000589

Ahmad Arabi MD1*, Brown K BS2, Grimm L MA2, Mowl S BS3, Beltsos A MD4, Kamel L DAOM5 and Jeelani R MD4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA 2Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA 3 Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Department of Psychology, Flint, MI, USA 4Vios Fertility Institute, Chicago, IL, USA 5Allied Modern Health, Chicago, IL, USA *Corresponding author: Ahmad Arabi, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Submission: January 28, 2021;Published: February 17, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2021.04.000589 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume4 Issue3 Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the implantation and clinical pregnancy rates of patients undergoing elective, individualized pre-and post-embryo transfer acupuncture compared to receiving no acupuncture on day of transfer. Design: In this retrospective chart review, 430 records from May 2018-September 2020 were reviewed to assess the effectiveness of the elective, individualized pre- and post-embryo transfer acupuncture (n=262) on implantation rate (positive β-hCG test) and clinical pregnancy rate (intrauterine gestational sac confirmed on ultrasound) compared to those patients who did not receive acupuncture (n=168). Methods: Patients meeting Vios Fertility Institute’s clinical standards for having a frozen embryo transfer can elect to have individualized pre- and post-embryo transfer acupuncture performed by licensed acupuncturists on-site, 30 minutes before and immediately after embryo transfer. All single embryo transfers with known Pre-Implantation Genetic Testing (PGT), acupuncture, and Endometrial Receptivity Array (ERA) data, as well as pregnancy outcomes, were queried for this study. Transfers were conducted at a single fertility center in Chicago, IL. A binomial logistic regression was performed to determine the effects of acupuncture on the rate of implantation and clinical pregnancy. The model was used to estimate the OR of implantation and clinical pregnancy rates after adjusting for age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Anti- Mullerian Hormone (AMH), PGT, ERA, day of transfer, and embryo morphology. Result: The percentage of embryo transfers resulting in implantation was positively associated with the use of acupuncture. 76.7% in the acupuncture group compared to 65.2% in the control group in the PGT tested subset of embryos, and 62.1% compared to 51.52% in the embryos without PGT. This difference was found to continue throughout clinical pregnancy rates (71.1% compared to 56.5% in the subset of PGT tested embryos; 55.3% compared to 46.5% in the subset without PGT). A multivariate logistic regression model was then used to isolate the impact of acupuncture from other confounding variables. When compared with the group without acupuncture, significantly increased implantation rates were observed in the acupuncture group (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58). Clinical pregnancy rates were also noted to be significantly increased (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.05-2.56). Conclusion: Overall, individualized acupuncture performed on the day of embryo transfer was significantly associated with higher implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Follow-up research will investigate the difference in live birth rates and cost-effectiveness of additional treatments Acupuncture is a practice that originated in China approximately 3,000 years ago. Acupuncture was first described within the framework of diagnosis and treatment in The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine, dating back to 100 BCE [1]. Within Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), needles are inserted at specific points (acupoints) along a meridian (energy channel), through which qi (life force energy) flows. Within TCM, it is believed that needling specific points affect specific organ systems, primarily by removing blocks, or stagnation, on a meridian. The overall goal of acupuncture is to bring the body into balance, such that disease and disorders do not occur [2]. Acupuncture was brought to America and Britain’s attention when Ten Rhijne, a European physician, created the first medical description of acupuncture in 1680 [1]. Following this introduction to the West, acupuncture publications began appearing in modern medicine journals during the first half of the 19th century. Until recent years, western medicine had the consensus that acupuncture was a sham. There is now significant evidence showing both its efficacy and effectiveness. Acupuncture has a wide scope of conditions that have been proven to be successfully treatable. Conditions range from emotional, psychological, and musculoskeletal conditions, to immunity, nausea, migraines, and infertility [3]. The use of acupuncture in modern medicine has become increasingly common, as it allows for a whole-body approach, filling the gaps that modern medicine is not equipped to fill. During embryo transfer procedures, there is minimal control physicians have over implantation success. It has become common for acupuncture to be offered to patients seeking in-vitro fertilization (IVF), with the purpose of increasing implantation rates [4]. Multiple physiological mechanisms have been considered to be influenced by acupuncture treatment. A randomized control trial examined the effects of acupuncture treatment before and after an embryo transfer procedure on women undergoing IVF [5]. The women in the experimental group were shown to have significantly increased implantation success rates and significantly lower anxiety levels [5]. Another randomized control trial examined the effects of acupuncture on implantation success and found that acupuncture treatment before and after the embryo transfer procedure resulted in a significant increase in success rates [6]. A systematic review and meta-analysis concluded that acupuncture may be effective when compared to a...
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