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Hadi Gholami, Gholamali Gholami, Dieter Bosshardt, Reza Amid, Mahdieh Mirakhori
Modern Research in Dentistry, Volume 5, pp 453-461; doi:10.31031/mrd.2020.05.000603

Abstract:
GholamAli Gholami1, Dieter Bosshardt2, Reza Amid3, Hadi Gholami4* and Mahdieh Mirakhori5 1Professor, Department of Periodontics, School of dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran, Iran 2Professor, Head of the Robert K. Schenk Laboratory of Oral Histology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland 3Associate Professor, Department of Periodontics, Research Institute for Dental Sciences, School of dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran, Iran 4Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Tufts University, School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA 5Dental Research Center, Research Institute for Dental Sciences, School of dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran, Iran 6GPR Dental resident at West LA VA hospital, Los Angeles, CA, USA *Corresponding author: Hadi Gholami, Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Tufts University, School of Dental Medicine, 1 Kneeland St 02111 Boston, MA, USA Submission: February 28, 2020;Published: April 13, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/MRD.2020.05.000603 ISSN:2637-7764Volume5 Issue1 Objectives: To determine clinical, histological, and histomorphometrial results following ridge preservation via contour augmentation with high resistance biomaterials. Material and Methods: A 54-year-old female was referred by her general dentist due to her crowded and periodontally hopeless maxillary right canine and premolar teeth. Two dental implants were surgically placed in palatal positions. The exposed implant surfaces were covered with a slowly-resorbable, synthetic, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute and overbuilding was done with porous titanium granules (PTGs) mixed with the patient’s blood. A long-lasting collagen membrane was fixed over the graft sites. Patient was recalled six months later for the second-phase surgery. At that time, a core biopsy from the augmentation site was taken. Result: The patient’s cone beam computed tomography scan showed that hard tissue width and height increased from 8.4 and 10.6mm to 9.2 and 12.3mm, respectively. The histological sections revealed that new bone was bridging between the PTGs and neighboring particles. The new bone matrix consisted of 12.41% mineralized bone matrix and 2.82% osteoid. Concerning the osteoconductivity of PTGs, 27.0% new mineralized bone, 10.2% osteoid, and 62.8% soft tissue were found covering the titanium particles. Conclusion: Overbuilding the ridge via contour augmentation with non-resorbable titanium granules could serve as a valid approach based on optimal clinical and biological results. Clinical Relevance: Immediate implant placement and use of PTGs and collagen membrane all at the same time can improve clinical periodontal parameters and implant stability in the short-term. Keywords: Guided Bone Regeneration; Contour Augmentation; Ridge preservation; Titanium Granules Tooth extraction causes inevitable changes in the supporting structures, which may lead to complications for dental implant placement [1]. Since the 1960s, many studies have been conducted to assess the loss of hard and soft tissues after tooth extraction, and innumerable efforts have been made to prevent or minimize bone loss [2]. Different methods have been suggested to preserve and reconstruct bone volume and prevent alveolar ridge resorption following traumatic events such as tooth extraction. The guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique has presented promising results in repairing bone defects. Autogenous bone grafts are considered the gold standard for GBR, due to their osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic properties [3,4]. Despite their high efficacy for bone reconstruction, the need for a second surgical site, unpredictable remodeling rate and bone loss have been regarded as their main disadvantages. Thus, more recent studies have aimed to find a suitable alternative for autogenous bone grafts. Bone substitutes have found their niche within the field of dentistry and have shown promising results [5-7]. Hydroxyapatite-based materials are commonly used for this purpose. Rothamel et al. [8] evaluated the efficacy of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste; however, he claimed that it is not efficient for ridge preservation due to its unpredictable resorption pattern. Since nonresorbable materials can withstand external loads and are resistant to deformation, they can be used with high success rate in bone defect reconstruction, especially for contour augmentation [5, 7,9-11]. The biocompatibility of titanium has been proven in the recent years, and its use in implant dentistry and orthopedics is widely growing. Titanium is highly resistant to corrosion in body fluids. Furthermore, it is considered a potentially appropriate bone substitute material due to its nonresorbable properties [10,11]. Titanium particles can stimulate the activation of complement system and platelets and can consequently increase the level of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). PDGF has been shown to promote bone growth, and this capability along with large surface area is advantageous for bone reconstruction [12]. Porous titanium granules (PTG) (Natix™, Tigran Technologies AB, Malmo, Sweden) possess these properties and contain 700-1000μm diameter granules. The porous nature of these granules enables bone infiltration between the particles. PTGs consist of irregular, highly porous, nonresorbable granules of commercially pure titanium; they were first introduced for treatment of peri-implant defects. When implanted, the granules are able to interlock with each other, providing a suitable environment for intra- and inter-granule osteogenesis. A stable porous structure is formed as such, which provides an optimal environment for bone ingrowth. Moreover, PTGs have been successfully used in different circumstances within the specialty of implant dentistry. They have also been suggested for management...
Anuradha G, Arvind Muthukrishnan, Vishnupriya Veeraraghavan, Gautham Kumar N
Published: 12 August 2020
Modern Research in Dentistry, Volume 5, pp 504-505; doi:10.31031/mrd.2020.05.000613

Abstract:
Anuradha G1*, Arvind Muthukrishnan2, Vishnupriya Veeraraghavan3 and Gautham Kumar N4 1Prof & Head, Dept of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Madha Dental College, Chennai, India 2Prof & Head, Dept of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India 3Prof, Dept of Biochemistry, Sabetha Dental College, Chennai, India 4Prof, Dept of Periodontics & Implantology, Madha Dental College & Hospital, Chennai, India *Corresponding author: Anuradha G, Prof & Head, Dept of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Madha Dental College, Chennai, India Submission: June 08, 2020;Published: August 12, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/MRD.2020.05.000613 ISSN:2637-7764Volume5 Issue3 Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency or its ineffectiveness. Successful management of diabetes involves constant monitoring of the glycemic status of the patient which is usually done by estimating the glucose concentration in blood. However, drawing blood is always an invasive procedure which has prompted researchers to look at alternative biofluids as a reliable substitute to blood for glucose estimation. This mini review examines various biofluids including urine, tears, sweat, and saliva as possible candidates for glucose estimation in diabetic patients. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion and/or reduction in the biological effectiveness of insulin or both [1]. Due to the burden of this disease across the globe, diabetes mellitus is considered as one of the priority non communicable diseases and various measures have been put forward for an effective screening, diagnosing and monitoring the diabetic status in patients [2]. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and other symptoms of diabetes include tiredness, blurred vision, fatigue, headache, slow healing of wounds and itchy skin. Diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and microvascular angiopathy leading to cardiovascular diseases are long term complications [3]. The estimation of blood sugar levels have always been the gold standard in estimating the diabetic status of individuals. Since blood testing is invasive, painful and also leads to anxiety, risk of infection and also needs a skilled phlebotomist to withdraw blood, blood testing may result in noncompliance with healthcare services to perform a blood test to diagnose or monitor the glycaemia status in patients [4]. So recent advances focus on various biological fluids other than blood in diagnosing and monitoring the blood glucose level in patients [5]. Since 1841, urine has been used as a diagnostic fluid for diabetes assessment. It has been extensively studied as it is very easy to collect and is composed of metabolites such as glucose, proteins and other dissolved salts [6]. Glucose can be found in urine when it is excreted from blood in elevated levels and as a result, this fluid has been investigated for the diagnosis of diabetes [7]. But the main disadvantage of using urinary glucose in diagnosis and screening of diabetes mellitus includes marked individual variations in the renal threshold for glucose, poor reflection of changing levels of hyperglycemia and lack of specificity and sensitivity of various qualitative and semi quantitative procedures [8]. The other physiological fluid used in monitoring glucose levels is the interstitial fluid, Blood and surrounding vascularized tissue readily exchange biological analytes and small molecules by diffusion with the interstitial fluid. Methods of monitoring glucose via the skin has become popular and counteract the challenges associated with patient compliance and invasive monitoring. The Glucowatch was developed as a wearable device which used reverse iontophoresis to extract interstitial fluid through skin and measure glucose levels [9]. Although Glucowatch was a considerable advancement towards noninvasive and continuous glucose monitoring, the approach was hampered by the need of periodic recalibration, thereby resulting in increase in cost for testing equipment and patient care. Other drawbacks include long warm up times, sweating and skin rash with irritation which subsequently resulted in product removal from the market [10]. Sweat was also tried for diagnostic purposes in diabetes mellitus but the analytes contained in sweat varied significantly between basal and exercising states as well as between individuals [11]. There are various researches including eye glasses bio sensor system, watch sensing platform for glucose sensing in sweat, glucose sensor integrated into a wearable wrist band for monitoring glucose levels using sweat. Although sweat sensing for diagnosis is very promising there are also some concerns associated with this sensing fluid [12]. The main challenges include limited fundamental knowledge about this sensing fluid compared to blood, sampling issues associated with sweat production by exercising, surface contamination due to skin impurities and variability in the rate of sweat production. Ocular fluids have also been analysed and this fluid is excreted from the body in the form of tears. Analytes found in this fluid includes glucose, ascorbic lactate, proteins, hormones and can offer great insight into individuals health status [13]. As a result, ocular fluid was investigated for noninvasive and continuous glucose monitoring. A smart contact lens was created and was correlated with the blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Using contact lens as a sensing platform had many advantages including real time continuous and noninvasive glucose monitoring. However, the disadvantages include production of corrosive hydrogen peroxide as a bi product in the electrochemical sensing approach used in the smart lens and blinking causing artefact in the sensor signal. The human saliva, an exocrine fluid secretion has high...
Nidhi Sharma, Mahalakshmi Saravanan, Lakshmanan Saravanan, Sindhu Narayanan
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/prm.2018.03.000553

Abstract:
Nidhi Sharma*, Mahalakshmi Saravanan, Lakshmanan Saravanan and Sindhu Narayanan Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, India *Corresponding author: Nidhi Sharma, Seethapathy Nagar Velachery, Chennai, Tamilnadu-600042, India Submission: October 27, 2018;Published: November 26, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2018.03.000553 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume3 Issue1 The oocyte and the granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte in the griffin follicle are together called as the Cumulus oophorous complex. The granulosa cells synthesize estrogen from the androgens by aromatization under the influence of follicle stimulating hormone. The androgens are derived from theca cells under the influence of Luteinizing hormone from anterior pituitary. This makes the follicular milieu estrogenic. This is the paracrine influence of cumulus cells on oocyte. There are also trans zonal cytoplasmic extensions of oocyte that communicate with granulosa cells by gap junctions. This narrative review aims to highlight the cumulus oophorous interdependence and role of partial cumulus denudation in improving the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Keywords:Cumulus Oophorous Complex; Partial Oocyte Denudation; Embryo Quality; Complete Oocyte Denudation Cumulus-oocyte signaling interactions during oocyte maturation and fertilization are very characteristic. Two types of interactions take place-paracrine and gap junctions. A network of trans zona pellucida gap junctions within the cumulus-oocyte complex enables cumulus cells to communicate with the oocyte. Cumulus-oocyte communications have been found to be essential in substrate transfer (ions, nucleotides, amino acids, metabolites, and regulatory molecules) during intrafollicular oocyte growth and for final nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Several key molecules are produced by oocytes (growth differentiation factor 9 or bone morphogenetic protein 15) that help in granulosa cell function (synthesis of estradiol by aromatization) and differentiation. The intracellular pH of growing oocyte is controlled by pH regulatory mechanisms that lie in cumulus cells. Oocyte also promotes its own development by metabolically cooperating with cumulus cells and inducing amino acid uptake and glycolysis. On removal of cumulus cells or disruptions of cumulus oocyte communications, cyclic adenosine 3’, 5’ monophosphate level does not drop, and oocyte spontaneous meiotic resumption is prevented. Denuded oocytes may also have accrued less intracellular glutathione. When oocyte matures and resumes meiosis the trans zona pellucida cytoplasmic processes are withdrawn and gap junctional connection is lost. Paracrine communications compensate for this loss and become more active. This is evident by many studies showings that results are much better in those embryos when cumulus cells are removed post IVF than when the cumulus cells are removed pre-IVF. It is physiological to leave most cumulus oophorous cells intact 24 hours past syngamy in order to increase the embryo quality and pregnancy rates. Cumulus cells ensure complete nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of oocyte, promote gamete interaction and embryogenesis. There may be an additional benefit of enhanced in vitro maturation in immature germinal vesicle stage and MI stage oocytes if homologous cumulus cells are left intact. Additionally, cumulus cells may have direct influence on embryonic metabolism by increased gene expression or help indirectly by reducing the oxidative stress. When cumulus oophorous complex physical integrity is intact during in vitro maturation (IVM) and IVF, the developmental competence of such oocytes is better as compared with oocytes that are inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection after oocyte denudation. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is routinely done after denuding the oocytes of cumulus cells, assessing the maturity, grading and identifying the position of polar body. Oocyte denudation allows for correct positioning of polar body at 12 o’clock position while injecting and thereby minimizing the damage to the mitotic spindle. However, denudation may compromise oocyte because a no physiologic, spontaneous resumption in meiosis that occurs in vitro when Cumulus oophorous cells are prematurely removed from the meiotic- inhibiting environment of the follicle. Complete oocyte denudation can also lead to poor sperm-oocyte interaction. Interestingly, denuded oocytes cocultured with isolated cumulus cells partially can recover meiotic and developmental competence as revealed in human [1], mouse [2,3] and cow studies [4-7]. Numerous studies provide the data on cumulus oocyte interactions, and role of cumulus cells in vitro maturation of oocytes [7-10]. The most physiological way of improving blastomere quality will be by identifying, rectifying and minimizing oocyte and embryo damage. This in vitro analysis also helps in understanding the exact paracrine cumulus -oocyte interactions as the growth of oocyte till post fertilization Day 5. In the currently practiced Conventional ICSI cumulus cells are completely removed from zona pellucida using micropipette of appropriate diameter. Because special care is taken not to harm the oocyte mechanically (displacement of polar body, distortion, dislocation), the final denudation step can take up to 1 minute. In case several cumulus cells remained attached to zona, they are removed immediately before ICSI using the holding and the injecting pipettes [11-13]. In the new technique of partial denudation micro pipetting is done with large diameter pipettes. Partial denudation is done until cumulus complex tissue no longer interfere with ICSI or hinder further evaluation of oocyte morphology [14]. An average of 300- 500 cumulus cells per oocyte are not removed. Morphology check is done for all MII oocytes (clear, moderately granular cytoplasm, a small perivitelline space, an intact first polar body and a colorless zona pellucida). All ICSI zygotes (2...
Iffat Fatima, Abdul-Aziz Khan, Zainab Rehman
Perceptions in Reproductive Medicine, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/prm.2018.03.000552

Abstract:
Iffat Fatima*, Abdul-Aziz Khan and Zainab Rehman Iffat Fatima, Department of Animal Sciences, Pakistan *Corresponding author: Iffat Fatima, Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Animal Sciences, Pakistan Submission: August 15, 2018;Published: November 26, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/PRM.2018.03.000552 ISSN: 2640-9666Volume3 Issue1 Initiation and progression of puberty is a critical event for mammals. Various neuronal and hormonal cues are required for normal onset of puberty. GnRH is the major hormone involved in regulation of these mechanisms. Regulation of this complex process is controlled by multiple genes which encode respective proteins used as stimulatory inputs like glutamate, kisspeptin etc. or inhibitory inputs. These genes include KISS1/Kiss1, KISSR, Kissr, Tac3, TacR3, LEP, EAP1 etc. Findings of different studies are reviewed. Significance of Tac3 and TacR3 is evaluated by administering its agonist senktide in prepubertal female rats which results in increased LH secretion. Moreover, expression of Kiss1 gene is more sensitive to negative feedback effect of sex-steroids early in puberty than Tac2 expression. EAP1 is essential for normal menstrual cycle in female monkeys. LIN28A and LIN28B are considered essential for pubertal development and are good candidate genes for monogenic ICCP. Similarly, mutations in Leptin gene (LEP) result in abnormalities including obesity, delayed puberty and CDGP etc.. Keywords:Puberty genes; Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH); Kisspeptin Abbreviations: IHH: Ideopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism; CCP: Central Precocious Puberty; ICCP: Ideopathic Central Precocious Puberty; CDGP: Constitutional Delay in Growth and Puberty; LEP: Leptin Gene The pulsatile release of GnRH from hypothalamus is essential for induction of initiation and progression of puberty in mammals. A network of neurons located in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) in primates is the source of GnRH release into portal vessels which makes a connection between brain and pituitary gland. Alterations in neuronal and glial inputs to GnRH producing neurons control its periodic secretion. Regulatory mechanisms of this process at transcriptional level are not well understood, but it is apparent that several genes are involved [1]. Glutamate and kisspeptin signaling provides excitatory input whereas, (GABA) ergic and opiatergic neurons constitute inhibitory neuronal network. Glial cells mediate GnRH secretion via intercellular communication though various growth factors. Regulation of pubertal process by functionally linked genes provides the polygenetic evidence rather than specified by a single gene [2]. Evidences from various puberty related defects support the significance of the respective genes in puberty onset. These include GnRH1, GnRHR, KISS1, KISS1R, Tac3, TacR3, Eap1, Lin28, LH receptor gene and FSH receptor gene etc. It can be exemplified by loss of function mutations in KISSR in humans result in IHH whereas, gain of function mutations can lead to CPP (central precocious puberty) [3]. Previous studies reveal that pubertal onset involves additive effect of various genes however monogenic basis of Ideopathic central precocious puberty is also suggested [4]. Kisspeptin has key role in the onset of puberty. It stimulates Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the GnRH neurons present in the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin works through its receptor named GpR54 [5]. Mutations in genes encoding Kisspeptin and its receptor provide the evidence for its role in puberty onset. This is revealed by infertility and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism resulted due to mutations in these genes. Moreover, exogenous administration of GnRH compensates the effect of mutation of KISS1R/kiss1r. Mayer et al. [6], found that in spite of ablation of Kiss1 expressing cells in brain of female mice, normal puberty onset and fertility is exhibited, challenging the significance of Kiss1 neurons for reproduction. Differential requirement of Kiss1 expression for successful reproduction in male and female mice: Popa et al. [7], devised an experiment to prove the significance of kisspeptin genes, according to which normal reproduction can be supported by minute amount of kisspeptin. In this experiment mice (Kiss1-CreGFP) severely deficient in Kiss1 expression, were used. It was observed that female Kiss1/Cre/Cre mice showed reduced ovulation and impaired fertility whereas; male Kiss1Cre/Cre mice sired normalsized litters. Thus, it is concluded that females require higher levels of Kiss1 expression for competent reproduction as compared to males which require only 5% of normal Kiss1 expression for normal reproduction. Evidence from mutation for importance of Kiss1 gene: Silveira et al. [3] reported the identification of a KISS1 mutation associated with male CPP (Central precocious puberty). It was found that kisspeptin resistance to in vitro degradation is increased which suggests that kisspeptin bioavailability is enhanced which may cause precocious puberty phenotype. Study was done on the role of KISS1 gene mutation in a boy attaining precocious puberty early at 1 year of age. Kisspeptin amino-acid sequencing revealed that proline in position 74 is very important in maintaining the kisspeptin structure. Mutation of proline at 74 position was noted in the subject. So, it suggests that p.P74S makes kisspeptin stable and less degradable due to which its bioavailability increases and CPP results. Mutations of KISS1 gene may cause GnRH-dependent disorders such as central precocious puberty and isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). In females attaining CPP before 6yr of age, another mutation p.H90D was identified in the homozygous State. Mutations in KISS1 and KISS1R are not common causes of ICPP in girls. Neurokinin B (NKB) and its receptor, neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R), (encoded by Tac3 and TacR3 respectively) are considered essential elements for normal reproduction. Navarro et al. [8], performed an experiment...
I-Ping Chen, Do Hyeon Kim, Bruce Cha, Jin Jiang
Published: 19 August 2020
Modern Research in Dentistry, Volume 5, pp 506-512; doi:10.31031/mrd.2020.05.000614

Abstract:
Do Hyeon Kim1, Bruce Cha2, Jin Jiang2 and I-Ping Chen2* 1Private Practice, Bridgeport, CT, USA 2Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT, USA *Corresponding author: I-Ping Chen, D.D.S., Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Connecticut Health Division of Endodontology, Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, 263 Farmington Avenue Farmington, CT 06030-3705, USA Submission: July 28, 2020;Published: August 19, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/MRD.2020.05.000614 ISSN:2637-7764Volume5 Issue3 Thorough understanding of root canal anatomy is a prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. The failure of root canal treatment of maxillary molars is highly associated with missing the second mesiobuccal (MB2) canals. Aim: we aim to assess the prevalence and morphology of MB2 canals of first (1st) and second (2nd) maxillary molars based on CBCT images. We further compared the treatment rate of MB2 canals to the rate identified from CBCT imaging analysis. Methodology: Pre-operative CBCT images of 400 maxillary 1st molars and 264 maxillary 2nd molars in a cohort of 661 subjects were examined. Parameters studied were: Result: 99% of maxillary 1st and 89.77% of 2nd molars had three separate roots with 2nd molars showing higher morphological variability. MB2 canals were found in 77% of maxillary 1st molars and 46.9% of 2nd In 3-rooted molars, the most common Vertucci classifications for MB canals in 1st molars were Type II (37.63%) and in 2nd molars Type I (47.26%). When MB2 orifices were not at the pulpal floor level (~50% of cases), the average distance below the pulp floor was 0.94mm in maxillary 1st molars and 0.92mm in 2nd molars. Clinically, the rates of MB2 canals being treated of 1st and 2nd molars were 67% and 37.8%, respectively. With MB2 identified in CBCT images, 86.6% were obturated in maxillary 1st and 80.64% in maxillary 2nd molars. Conclusion: Despite the resolution limit, CBCT remains a widely accepted non-destructive tool to study canal morphology and is readily available to many endodontists. When it is beneficial to patients and cost or radiation exposure is not a concern, pre-operative CBCT images should be thoroughly analyzed before treatment to ensure treatment quality and to limit iatrogenic complications. Keywords: CBCT imaging; MB2 canals; Maxillary molars; Fused roots The morphology of maxillary molars has been extensively studied, particularly the prevalence of a second mesiobuccal (MB2) root canal. Despite of this effort, the high failure rate of root canal treated maxillary molars remains tightly associated with untreated MB2 canals. There is a significant increase in the incidence of MB2 canals in retreatment cases, suggesting that these canals are frequently missed in the initial treatment [1]. Moreover, maxillary 1st molars with missed MB2 canals were 4.38 times more likely to be associated with a periapical lesion and, surprisingly, MB2 canals were unfilled in almost half of endodontic cases (46.5%) [2]. To maximize the success rate of root canal treatment, it is important for endodontists to be aware of anatomic variations. Since the first report of MB2 canals in maxillary molars in 1925 [3], the prevalence of MB2 canals has been examined by many techniques, which may explain the variable results between studies. Some commonly used methods include clearing and staining of extracted teeth [4], various sectioning techniques [5,6], conventional/digital radiographs [7,8], root canal treatment under microscope in vitro [9], and micro-computed tomographic imaging [10]. The incidence of MB2 canals in the literature ranges from 18-96% [11]. Studies using clearing and staining techniques of extracted teeth revealed that more than 90% of maxillary molars have multiple canals in MB roots [12,13]. On the other hand, clinical studies reported lower incidence (18-73%) of MB2 canals [14-16]. Such discrepancies could also be attributed to different selection criteria of sample population, such as ethnic background or age. Numerous studies have been conducted to establish a reliable and efficient clinical method to help locate MB2 canals [16-18]. In recent years, 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been used for identifying root canal configurations [10,19,20]. It can confirm the presence of MB2 canals as well as locate and orient a canal in relation to MB1, distobuccal, and palatal canals [19,21]. As a non-destructive tool, CBCT imaging offers not only high-resolution images in all spatial planes with minimal distortion but also reconstructs the volumetric images [22,23]. The aim of this study is to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary 1st and 2nd molars based on pre-operative CBCT images and associate the MB2 detection rate of CBCT with those being treated in clinic. Subjects The protocol of this study was approved by the Pearl Institutional Review Board, Indiana, USA (19-KIM- 101). The study included pre-operative CBCT images of 400 maxillary 1st and 264 maxillary 2nd molars taken from 661 subjects between August 2014 and March 2019 for diagnostic purposes. The number of CBCT scans to be included in the study was determined by a power analysis using a sample size calculator (www.qualtrics.com) with a significant level of 0.05 and 99% power. Inclusion criteria for CBCT images were as follows: Pre-operative evaluation of CBCT images CBCT images were taken with a Carestream CS 9000 3D (Carestream Dental, Atlanta, GA) using the following parameters: 70kVp, 10mA, 10.8 second exposure time, 76mm voxel size, and 50mm x37mm scan field of view. Images were viewed with a 27-inch monitor (Samsung T27B350ND) at a screen resolution of 1920x1080 and luminance of 300cd/m². Serial sagittal, coronal, and axial views of CBCT images were evaluated. In axial view, the axis of slicing was rotated to intersect with the long axis of the root. The presence of additional...
Anna Trojanowska
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.04.000598

Abstract:
Anna Trojanowska* Department of Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland *Corresponding author: Anna Trojanowska, Department of Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland Submission: February 10, 2020;Published: February 19, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.04.000598 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue5 19th century; Prisoner nutrition; Rumford soup At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Europe saw the birth of prison reform. The repressive approach to prisoners underwent gradual changes. The penalty of the deprivation of liberty lost its character of revenge, was supposed to be educational and to serve social rehabilitation. Starvation as a deterrent to crime was considered too cruel. However, punishment had to be severe and acute, and poor diet was one way of mortifying the body. Therefore, the prisoners' diet was to meet the needs of physical workers, but at the same time it had to be unvarying and cheapest. It was modeled on a peasant diet, consisting mainly of plant products. Prison reform was also introduced in Poland. In 1819 ‘The Prison Reform Project [1] was established in the Kingdom of Poland, and in 1823 ‘The Prison Instruction [2] regulating prison administration and economic affairs was published. It was recognized then that prisons should have such conditions that prisoners could preserve their moral and physical health. The food was supposed to be simple, easily digestible, but without spices, so as not to whet prisoners’ appetite, because it was thought that light, homogeneous food made a man calm, obedient, capable of hard work and more resilient. Once a day prisoner got a warm meal called the Rumford soup consisting of interchangeably peas, cabbage, potatoes and buckwheat or barley groats, and additionally rye whole meal bread with salt and drinking water. Depending on the type of prison (There were six types of detention centers in the Kingdom of Poland), various menus were used-the heavier the prison, the more severe and monotonous diet, deprived of meat, on some days deprived also of a hot meal. In a fortified prison in Zamość (in the Kingdom there was only one prison of this type), the Rumford soup was served for two days, and every third day only bread and water. The type of soup was changed once a week. In heavy prisons, the type of soup was changed every three days; on Friday prisoners only got bread and water. In lighter prisons, the soup was to be changed every day, and on holidays about 100 grams of meat per person was added to it. In all prisons, apart from a hot meal, daily portions of whole meal rye bread (0.8kg for men, 0.6kg for women), 6.5g of salt and 13g of lard (butter on fasting days, fat on other days) were issued. Another menu was provided for sick prisoners, nursing mothers, Jews, and sometimes political prisoners had a separate kitchen. The 1823 instruction had a number of additions and modifications, usually detrimental to prisoners [3]. In 1845 the amount of bread was reduced by 25%, butter was removed from the diet of healthy prisoners, and oil was introduced; and the number of public holidays on which meat was served was limited to five a year. This change reduced the nutritional value of the diet (on average around 2234kcal) and contributed to the deterioration of prisoners' health. In 1859 another ‘Instruction for Penitentiary Institutions [4] had been introduced, and, with minor changes, stayed in force until the outbreak of the Great War. Meat was excluded from the menu, only bacon, oil or a bit of butter was envisaged as supplementations. Sour soup from flour, dumpling soup or gruel (portion approx. 0.5l) were prepared for breakfast for dinner-interchangeably: potatoes or sauerkraut, peas, and barley in various combinations. Prisoners got 0.6kg of whole meal bread and 13g of bacon (for Christians) par day, or on fasting days-oil; butter was provided for Jews. According to the calculations of one of the prison doctors, Leon Wernic, this diet contained on average: 111g protein; fat 8g; carbohydrates 354g (about 3023kcal per day) and in terms of caloric content was insufficient for hard-working people [5]. It lacked meat, dairy and fat. It was also monotonous, which led to a loss of appetite. A similar diet was introduced in Prussian prisons, and meals were prepared in the form of unpalatable soups and gruel, which quickly caused aversion to food, and consequently led to the destruction of body and even the death of prisoners. After the introduction of more varied meals (more meat, cheese and fish were served), prisoners’ mortality decreased. In the Kingdom of Poland, when the nutrition tariff of 1866 was being prepared, the case was consulted with the Medical Council which proposed: limiting the amount of potatoes and replacing them with more valuable products (dumpling soup and cabbage with peas), increasing the daily bread ration to 0.8kg for working prisoners; oil was to be replaced with butter; healthy prisoners were to receive meat (200g twice a week). These changes were supposed to reduce the morbidity and mortality of prisoners, and thus also the expenses for medicine, but they increased the cost of food. Not all proposals came into existence. Only a new type of soup was introduced for breakfast-beetroot soup, and instead of potatoes, peas and cabbage were served once a week, as more nutritious and healthier. Prisoners demanded mainly fat, bought it for money earned in prison workshops, or asked doctors for oil [6]. The following years brought a further increase in food prices, which adversely affected the nutrition of prisoner’s dependent on the treasury. However, in some prisons, including prisons in Kalisz, Piotrków and Łomża, efforts were made to enrich and diversify the diet-a small amount of meat was served three times a week; in the evening, hot water was given to the tea. The diet after changes contained more protein (121g animal protein, 19g vegetable), fat (20g) and...
Liang Hong
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000566

Abstract:
Yi’en Zhou1 and Liang Hong2* 1,2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Singapore *Corresponding author: Liang Hong, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Singapore Submission: July 14, 2020;Published: August 13, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000566 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue4 When a cool N2-CO2 co-gas stream flows over superheated activated carbon (AC) flakes, a vortex field near the interface is induced as a consequence of the confrontation of the cool co-gas stream and the hot vaporized carbon stream, where the pre-deposited Pt atom clusters on AC catalyze gasification of AC by CO2 to produce CO, and the CO undergoes immediate disproportionation to release carbon atoms in vapor form. The vortex field functions as a dynamic template for deposition of carbon vapor, leading to the proliferation of nano-sized carbon needles with characteristic spikes (ca. 1µm) and short in length through an anisotropic assembling of carbon atoms. A trace amount of Pt pre-coated on the AC flakes is sufficient to catalyze gasifying AC by CO2. This phenomenon is the first observation over the surface of amorphous carbon via catalytic pyrolysis without electric potential assistance. Keywords: Nano carbon spines; Polypyrrole; HEC polymer; Raman spectra; Dendritic nano carbons; AC catalyze gasification; catalytic pyrolysis; Pt atom; CO gas treatment; Reverse boudouard reaction; AC flakes Dendritic growth is characterized by the presence of side branches that evolve under two different ways when the latent heat of fusion is removed from the interface [1]. Growth resulting from an undercooled melt (usually in alloys) results in equiaxed dendritic crystal formations when latent heat is dissipated through the cooler fluid at the interface whilst directional solidification or constrained growth results when the latent heat is dissipated swiftly. This study unveils that the Pt atom clusters assist the generation of carbon atoms forming a vapor stream via a two-step reaction mechanism, which is responsible for the growth of dendritic dense carbon nanofibers from a porous carbon flakes. Such dendritic growth has been observed previously in cells [2-5], crystals [6,7] and metal alloys [8-13] with a characteristic tree-like structure, which is considered as the result of mass transfer under meta-stable thermodynamic state. Namely, the growth happens through a series of thermodynamic instabilities when the growth rate is limited by the rate of diffusion of solute atoms to the interface and the material is supercooled at the same time [14]. Dendrites have shapes that are most suitable for heat and mass transfers at small scales and hence, are highly attractive for applications seeking these properties. Numerous studies undertaken over the years offered the insights in dendritic growth of crystals [7], as well as mathematical models and simulations [6, 12-13,15-18] about the growth. These growths are a result of faster material packing along energetically favorable crystallographic directions and may be due to anisotropy in the surface energy. In trying to minimize the area of these surfaces with the highest surface energy, the dendrite would exhibit a sharper and sharper tip as it grows [19]. When the crystallization front becomes morphologically unstable, small perturbations at the interface will lead to the formation of various polycrystalline structures, especially so for dendritic growth. The dendritic growth theory using Ivantsov transport theory relating to the dendrite tip radius and velocity of growth to the tip has been found to predict the growth rates and limitation of the existence of dendrites in 2D fairly accurately [1,14]. To the best of our knowledge, no reports or discussions on the dendritic carbon spinal growth in N2-CO2 co-gas atmosphere have been published nor observed before. Contrary to the growth of porous carbon fibers described explicitly in our previous work [20] caused by the random stacking of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the axial direction leading to the formation of fibers, this work proposes a different gowth path catalyzed by platinum atom clusters that assist with generation of CO via the reverse Boudouard reaction [21], which subsequently releases carbon atoms in vapor form that condense to form dense dendritic structures in the vortex field as illustrated in Figure 1. Although the incubation environment of this study is similar to that reported in [20], the resulting growth looks drastically different due to mediation by Pt atom clusters or colloids spread on the surface of the sample prior to the co-gas treatment. This paper aims to report and explain the growth mechanism we observed in detail. Figure 1: Preparation of AC Flakes An initial sample of 2-Hydroxyethyel cellulose (HEC) is carbonized by the method discussed elsewhere [22]. The resulting carbonaceous material from HEC was then activated at 700 oC under CO2 for 1 hour and cooled in an Ar purging stream. The carbon powder obtained was washed in water until the filtrate became colorless. This protocol resulted in an AC powder consisting of dense carbon flakes, which was used as the starting material for the preparation of the carbon needles. Carbon Spinal Growth and Characterizations Two separate, independent methods were employed to incorporate platinum onto the samples. The final carbon samples obtained from both Pt-deposition methods were characterized by electron microscopy (JSM-6700F Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), JEOL), Raman spectroscopy (Renishaw in Via Raman Microscope), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Bruker D8 Advance, Cu Ka radiation, l=1.54Å) using Cu target Ka-ray (40kV and 30mA) as X-ray source, respectively. Formation of Dendritic Structures Over the Surface of AC Under Purge of CO-Gas Under close examination using the transmission electron microscope (TEM), tree-like dendritic structures are observed to have formed from the sputtering...
E Santacesaria, M Cozzolino, R Tesser, M Di Serio
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-11; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000560

Abstract:
E Santacesaria1*, M Cozzolino2, R Tesser3 and M Di Serio3 Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Slovenia *Corresponding author: E Santacesaria, Eurochem Engineering srl, Via Codogno 5 (IT-20139) Milano, Italy Submission: April 16, 2020;Published: March 16, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000560 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue2 Metal alkoxide grafting technique can be used for changing the acid-base and/or the redox properties of the surface of an oxide rich in hydroxyls. The preparation of catalysts by grafting different commercial available alkoxides, such as: Si, Ti, Zr, and V on the surface of oxides, such as: SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2, is reviewed. The performances of the acid catalysts were evaluated by adequate test reactions such as: methanol dehydration, skeletal isomerization of 1-butene and alkane isomerization and cracking. The redox properties of vanadium based catalysts, obtained by grafting vanadyl alkoxide on SiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 supports, have been tested in reactions, such as: the SCR of NO with NH3, the Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethanol and methanol to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, the ODH of propane, isobutane and n-butane. Keywords: Grafting; Metal alkoxides; Silica; Alumina; Titania; Vanadia Metal alkoxides are nowadays largely employed for preparing ceramic materials, for thin coating films and for supports and catalysts preparation using in the different cases the sol-gel technique or the chemical vapour deposition [1]. Although very promising, less popular is the employment of metal alkoxides for preparing supports and catalysts by using the grafting technique. This technique can usefully be used for deeply changing the acid-base and/or the redox properties of the surface of an oxide rich of hydroxyls. As the catalytic properties depends almost exclusively on the surface properties of the solid used as catalyst, modifying opportunely the surface by contacting it with reactive substances like the metal alkoxides can give surprising results in terms of activity and selectivity in different reactions. In particular, the properties of the new surfaces obtained by reacting the superficial hydroxyls with a metal alkoxide, after a stabilizing treatment of hydrolysis and calcinations, are quite different from the original surface. A systematic work has been made on the subject by our research group in the past and a review of the most significant obtained results is reported in this paper. Summary of the properties of some alkoxides affecting the grafting procedure Metal alkoxides are characterised by the presence of M-O-C bonds. Due to the strongly electronegative character of oxygen (3.5 in the Linus Pauling electronegativity scale) the ionic character of the metal-oxygen bond would be preminent. Metal alkoxides exhibit both Lewis and base properties. It could be expected 80% of ionic character for the more electropositive metals (electronegativity in the range 0.9-1.2, that is, alkaly metals, alkaline earths and lanthanons, while, it could be expected 65% of ionic character for metals having electronegativity values in the range 1.3-1.5 such as in the case of aluminium, titanium and zirconium [2]. However, some of the mentioned alkoxides show a fair degree of volatility and solubility in common organic solvents, that is, have properties which can be considered characteristics of covalent compounds. The attenuation of the polarity of the metal-oxygen bond can be attributed to two main factors: The oligomerization of alkoxide complexes [M(OR)n]x depends on a number of factors such as: Bradley [2] suggested the following rules: Examples of aluminium alkoxides association are reported below: Silicon and Germanium alkoxides are all monomeric (see Mehrotra et al. [3]). Summary of the properties of some oxide surface that can be used as support for grafting Alumina is an amphoteric oxide with a moderate basic character having a ZPC (Zero Point Charge) = 8-9. According to Peri [4], on the alumina surface there are 5 different type of hydroxyls A, B, C, D and E, as it can be seen in Figure 1. The difference is given by the number of groups O2- surrounding the hydroxyls and clearly these hydroxyls have different acid-base characters. Figure 1: Different types of hydroxyls on the surface of alumina [4]. Moreover, Tanabe [5] has demonstrated that on alumina there are both acid sites of Bronsted & Lewis character in an approximately equal amount. However, considering an amphoteric oxide in acid environment the hydroxyls of the support will react as it follows S- OH + H+ A- ↔ S- OH2+ A- (3) On the contrary, in a basic environment the reaction will be: S- OH + B+ OH- ↔ SO- B+ + H2O (4) The hydroxyls on the silica surface are more uniform and have a moderately acid character being the ZPC=1-2. No Lewis acid sites are present. Description of the grafting technique The grafting technique [6-8] consists in putting in contact a metal alkoxide pure or dissolved in a opportune solvent with the surface of an oxide rich of hydroxyls. By grafting a metal alkoxide on a support it is possible: The grafting operation occurs through three different steps that are: A. Grafting: Reaction between the metal alkoxide and the superficial hydroxyls. This reaction can occur with different a stochiometry according to the type of alkoxide employed and the surface density of the hydroxyls: B. Steaming or burning: Have the scope of stabilizing the obtained surface eliminating the organic groups bonded to the grafted metal. C. Calcination: A dehydration occurs and the original oxide surface is more or less coated with another different oxide. Metal alkoxides eventually can also be modified before grafting for a better control of the properties of the heterogenized catalytic site: By changing the alkoxide groups through equilibrium exchange reactions of the type: Me(OR)n + nR’OH ⇄ Me (OR’) + n ROH (6) By introducing other elements changing the electron density on the...
Lozano-Hernández R
Integrative Journal of Conference Proceedings, Volume 1, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/icp.2018.01.000504

Abstract:
Lozano-Hernández R* Center of Infertility and Gynecological Diseases, University of Los Andes, Venezuela *Corresponding author:Ricardo Lozano-Hernández, Center of Infertility and Gynecological Diseases (CEDIEG) “Dr. Giovanny Vivas-Acevedo”, University of Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela Submission: August 02, 2018;Published: September 18, 2018 Volume1 Issue1 September 2018 Dyslipidemia, hypertension and other symptoms are part of the well-known metabolic syndrome (MS). MS is extended well beyond the cardiovascular system. In infertile men the androgen deficiency is associated with increased triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Increase T levels are associated with lower risk in men and with higher risk in women. It is necessary to keep in mind that cardiovascular diseases can be influenced by sex hormones and other types of hormones. Testosterone is a pleiotropic hormone that plays an important role in the human body. Through its conversion to E2, T affects bone health, including bone density. BMI has been correlated with the value of systolic blood pressure, ratio LH/FSH and T, and it was inversely correlated with the hormones FSH and PRL in infertile woman with polycystic ovary. The influence of many hormones on the cardiovascular function also depends on act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, which can result in the development of new medicines. In conclusion, cardiovascular diseases may be the main or associated cause of reproductive failure in infertile couples: however, the interactions that exist between the cardiovascular system and the endocrine reproductive system must be focused on each patient individually. Keywords: Dyslipidemia; Hypertension; Metabolic syndrome; Infertility Abbreviations: BMI: Body Mass Index; DHEA-S: Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulphate; E2: Estradiol; FT: Free Testosterone; HDL-C: High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; LDL-C: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol; PCO: Polycystic Ovary; PRL: Prolactine; T: Testosterone; TC: Total Cholesterol; TGs: Triglycerides Dyslipidemia and hypertension are frequent symptoms in infertile couples. These symptoms in compilation with other as central obesity and insulin resistance are part of the well-known metabolic syndrome (MS). Initially MS was used to predict cardiovascular disease, it is now clear that the molecular and physiologic abnormalities seen in metabolic syndrome extend well beyond the cardiovascular system. Growing evidence has linked MS and its individual symptoms to the increasing prevalence of infertility [1]. Hypertension and dyslipidemia increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes [2], which are disproportionally more harmful in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries [3]. The relationship between androgen deficiency and atherosclerosis is controversial. Studies suggest that androgen deficiency is associated with increased triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in infertile men. The androgen therapy has been associated with increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C and may improve reverse cholesterol transport [4]. The incidence of obesity (18%), overweight (30.2%), diabetes mellitus (4.7%), glucose intolerance (15%), hypertension (26%) and dysplipidemia (65%) was observed en infertile men. The dyslipidemia was isolated hypercholesterolemia, isolated triglyceridemia or both. In them a positive correlation between estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was observed when estradiol levels exceed 50pg/mL [5]. In men with coronary artery disease Gensini score (to reflect the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis) didn´t show correlation neither with the number of involved segments nor with the androgen levels. TGs, TC and LDL-C levels also had no correlation with testosterone (T), free-testosterone (FT) nor dehydroepiandrosterone- sulphate (DHEA-S). However, FT showed negative correlation with lipoprotein (a) and C-reactive protein [6]. Another heart disease recently associated with hormonal changes is atrial fibrillation, which is the most common serious abnormal heart rhythm, and a frequent cause of ischaemic stroke. Increase T serum levels were associated with lower risk in men and with higher risk in women. So that low testosterone levels are associated with increased risk of future atrial fibrillation and/or ischaemic stroke in men, while they are protective in women [7]. Low T serum levels are observed among men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and are inversely related to insulin resistance. T in diabetic men has been inversely related to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and glucose tolerance, pre and post insulinemia and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) [8]. BMI has positive relation with the value of systolic blood pressure, ratio LH/FSH and T, and negative correlation with FSH and PRL in infertile woman with polycystic ovary (PCO). Last patients with BMI >24kg/m2 showed higher systolic pressure and DHEA- S and post insulinemia levels in comparison with a It is necessary to keep in mind that cardiovascular diseases can be influenced by sex hormones, such as other types of hormones. T is a pleiotropic hormone that plays an important role in the human body. Through its conversion to E2, T affects bone health, including bone density. There has been a renewed interest in the systemic role of T in pain, well-being, and cardiovascular function in women and men alike. It´s necessary to revisit the clinical role of T given its potential for applications to treat...
Farhana Haque
Integrative Journal of Conference Proceedings, Volume 1, pp 1-10; doi:10.31031/icp.2019.01.000509

Abstract:
Farhana Haque* and Stephen C Druce Farhana Haque, Academy of Brunei Studies, Brunei *Corresponding author:Farhana Haque, Academy of Brunei Studies, Brunei Submission: January 15, 2019;Published: April 04, 2019 Volume1 Issue2April, 2019 In Bangladesh the situation of women is vulnerable. The patriarchal society is not giving them their actual value and proper rights. But now the government of Bangladesh did set some fruitful goals to create equality between men and women. SDGs which is now desired goal to set up for minimize the inequality between men and women in Bangladesh from different areas such as education, employment, health and nutrition etc. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as Global goals which is supposed to bring protection, peace and prosperity for the entire human race regardless men and women. However, as we know the society of Bangladesh is centered on the leadership of males. Here in this country patrilineal and patriarchal kinship which do enforces the economic and social system of women. Women are mostly dependent on men; therefore, the status of women is comparatively lower than men. To reduce the problem of gender disparity, the government of Bangladesh is working in different sectors such as education, health, employment etc. But still there is the presence of extreme inequality in those sectors. When the male inhabitants of Bangladesh are getting higher facility in the areas of education, health and employment, but on the other hand’s women are lagging behind to participate in various activities and rights from society. Gender disparity has emerged as the prime impediment in acquiring the development goals. But the rays of hope are still peeping from the dark side of gender inequality in Bangladesh through the emergence of SDGs. Keywords: Gender disparity; Gender equality; Bangladesh; Vulnerable situation; Men; Women; Education; Health; Employment; SDGs; MDGs Gender disparity in Bangladesh is the outcome of constant and continuous discrimination between men and women in different sectors, therefore it has it evidence in various ways such as race, class, culture, politics, and economic condition. The further feature of gender disparity upon women has another harmful branch such as violence against women. As we know that generally gender inequality happens on both the male and female inhabitants of a country in individual situations. And the discrimination against women remains established global epidemic. As we know that globalization is the worldwide movement in all spheres of life but in this era of globalization gender inequality is the most terrific matter and our utmost concern. To join in any public activities women’s involvement got changed in recent decades. In Bangladesh some major progress we have noticed in school enrolment at both primary and secondary levels, where the number of female students has increased. Besides the sector of education, there we saw another progress to close the gender gap which is garment industry. A large number of official sectors jobs have approved for women specially. Though we know the society of Bangladesh is male-cantered, which we call patriarchal society. Hence gender discrimination is very common in every levels of community. Women are dependent on men throughout their whole life time. The dominant members of patriarchal society start from home, such as father, husband, brother sons. In Bangladesh we have our own constitutional oaths regarding gender equality, but the law-enactment of this country always ignore the proper rights of women. From child to the adult level, all types of female children, young girls and adult women are deprived to access the realm of education, employment, health care etc than men in society. Women are only entitled for reproductive purpose and bound to do their household works, and they are not allowed to work outside of home. Gender equality which is considered as an influencing factor of violence against women results from the persistent discrimination of one group of people based on gender. It also manifests itself differently based on race, culture, politics, country and economic situation. Although men and women are subjected to gender discrimination in the individual level, discrimination against women has become a global contagion. Thus, the attainment of sustainable development depends to a large extent on ensuring equality in women’s empowerment and promoting gender equality. Realizing the significance of gender equality and women empowerment, UNDP along with other UN partners and the rest of the global community has been working hard since 2000. As a result of their persistent hard work, they have achieved remarkable successes in different aspects of women’s empowerment. For instance, the number of schools going girls has exploded as compared to 15 years ago, and thus gender parity in primary education has been reached in most regions of the world. Even the contribution of women outside agriculture has been strengthened as they now make up to 41 per cent of paid workers as compared to 35 per cent in 1990. This write-up provides a brief overview about the state of gender equality and its challenges in the context of Bangladesh as one of the main goals of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the outline to achieve a better and more trustworthy future for all. SDGs got some prominent aims to reduce the global challenges people are facing including the areas of poverty, inequality in the sectors of education, employment, health and nutrition, climate, the issues of environmental degradation, peace and justice. The goals of SDGs are interconnected and they are supposed to acquire their goal and target by 2030. Among all other goals, gender equality is one of the 17 goals in the agenda for sustainable development. Among all other established achievements in different sectors, SDGs make sure that...
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