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Jeremmy Nathanael
Published: 23 December 2020
Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, Volume 16, pp 140-162; doi:10.26593/jab.v16i2.3811.140-162

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Ignatius Henry
Published: 23 December 2020
Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, Volume 16, pp 114-139; doi:10.26593/jab.v16i2.4219.114-139

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Agung Wiranto, Tania Adialita
Published: 23 December 2020
Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, Volume 16, pp 174-184; doi:10.26593/jab.v16i2.4261.174-184

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Eka Yulianti, Esi Fitriani Komara
Published: 23 December 2020
Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, Volume 16, pp 163-173; doi:10.26593/jab.v16i2.4318.163-173

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Renny Resiana
Published: 23 December 2020
Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, Volume 16, pp 185-206; doi:10.26593/jab.v16i2.4345.185-206

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Nicks Candra Putra, Carolin Carolin, Gabriel Jessye, Isaiah Abib, Michael Laurel
Published: 23 December 2020
Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, Volume 16, pp 103-113; doi:10.26593/jab.v16i2.3983.103-113

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Richard Theo Parulian, Kathleen Mintarja, Stella Claresta Alexander
Published: 13 December 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 137-158; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i2.4308.137-158

Abstract:
Sejak Desember 2019, COVID-19 telah menjadi pokok pembahasan dunia akibat dampaknya yang sangatlah destruktif bagi keberlangsungan hidup manusia dalam segala aspek, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Sebagai aktor dengan kekuasaan tertinggi, pemerintah negara telah menerapkan berbagai macam kebijakan yang diharapkan mampu menekan potensi merebaknya virus corona dan menjamin keamanan serta kesejahteraan masyarakat; salah satunya adalah pembatasan dan larangan ekspor untuk bahan pangan. Akan tetapi, kebijakan yang bervariasi ini mulai dianggap meresahkan, oleh karena dampaknya bagi negara pengimpor dan pertumbuhan perekonomian global. Maka dari itu, penelitian ini berupaya untuk mengangkat rumusan masalah: “Bagaimana kebijakan larangan ekspor bahan pangan diterapkan dan dampaknya terhadap dinamika perekonomian global?”. Dalam menganalisis, peneliti menggunakan konsep kepentingan nasional dan kebijakan proteksionisme perdagangan sebagai landasan berpikir. Berdasarkan studi pustaka yang dilakukan secara kualitatif, penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di balik kemandirian pangan yang berhasil dicapai sejumlah negara ekspor, terdapat gangguan dan risiko yang besar bagi rantai pasok pangan global dan pertumbuhan perekonomian global. Pada akhirnya, negara diharapkan untuk mulai berfokus dalam menemukan kebijakan alternatif jangka-panjang yang mampu menguntungkan lebih banyak pihak.
Jessica Ruth Andina
Published: 13 December 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 109-124; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i2.4291.109-124

Abstract:
The onset of the Covid-19 global pandemic in early 2020 forced many governments to quarantine their citizens within their own homes over the course of the year - namely from the early to middle months of the year. This was then followed by a surge of domestic violence cases against women, most often by their own spouses. This problem seemed to be a global problem as it affected any countries regardless of how high or low they score in the Gender Development Index. This paper attempts to discuss the factors behind such a phenomenon and scrutinise what it represents through the lenses of gender theories. The paper will also analyse the studied countries’ governments’ approach to this issue. To that end, three countries from three different levels of GDI rankings are studied: Australia (ranked high), Indonesia (ranked medium) and India (ranked low). A brief explanation regarding this non-endemic issue will also be drawn from each countries’ individual variables.
Jovita Komala
Published: 13 December 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 125-135; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i2.4281.125-135

Abstract:
AbstrakBerbagai dimensi dari konsep ketahanan energi menjadikannya topik diskusi besar di saat pandemi. Pergeseran dinamis dari ketahanan energi dapat dilihat baik dalam skala internasional maupun domestik. Makalah ini akan berfokus pada perubahan dinamis ketahanan energi di Indonesia dengan menganalisis kebijakan dan inisiatif energi di masa lalu dan saat ini sesuai dengan konsep yang dielaborasi oleh Melly Caballero. Perbandingan fokus Indonesia pada ketahanan energi sebelum dan selama wabah COVID-19 akan memberikan gambaran yang jelas tentang bagaimana Indonesia mengamankan energi. Argumen utamanya tetap bahwa Indonesia sekarang berfokus pada keamanan sebagai keterjangkauan, bukan ketersediaan dan keberlanjutan. Ini karena, peningkatan tagihan listrik rumah tangga yang dicatat PLN, berbeda dengan aktivitas industri yang menurun membuat permintaan energi nasional melonjak. Kebijakan energi yang disebutkan dalam makalah ini mengacu pada peraturan dan inisiatif pemerintah dari Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN). Makalah ini juga akan mengenali masalah yang sedang berlangsung tentang distribusi energi yang tidak merata di luar jaringan Jawa dan melihat bagaimana masalah ini dipengaruhi oleh pandemi. Kata Kunci:COVID-19, Keamanan Energi Indonesia, Kebijakan Energi AbstractMultiple dimensions from the concept of energy security makes it a big topic of discussion in times of a pandemic. The dynamic shift of energy security can be seen both in the international and domestic scale. This paper will focus on the dynamic shift of energy security in Indonesia by analyzing past and current energy policies and initiatives according to the concepts elaborated by Melly Caballero. A comparison of Indonesia’s focus on energy security before and during the COVID-19 outbreak will give a clear picture in how Indonesia is securing energy. The main argument remains that Indonesia is now focusing on security as affordability instead of availability and sustainability. This is because of the increased household electric bill recorded by PLN in contrast to the decreasing industrial activities. The energy policies mentioned in this paper refers government regulations and initiatives from the state-owned electric company (PLN). This paper will also recognize the ongoing issue of unequal distribution of energy outside the Java grid and see how this issue is impacted by the pandemic. Keywords: COVID-19, Indonesia’s Energy Security, Energy Policy
Venisa Yunita Sari
Published: 13 December 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 173-186; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i2.4284.173-186

Abstract:
This paper aims to analyze the policy responses undertaken by the Chinese government of the Xi Jinping era in dealing with the spread of the Covid-19 virus. Covid-19 is a real threat to humans and the state. The effects of Covid-19 are felt by all people in China. Since the spread of the coronavirus in China has continued to increase, the Chinese government immediately made countermeasures in the city of Wuhan and other infected areas. This research was conducted with a qualitative and descriptive method by using the analysis of securitization theory studies of International Relations and human security. The result of this research is the Chinese state has successfully arrested and handled the spread of Covid-19. Evidenced by the decline in the number of Covid-19 patients in China, the reopening of quarantined areas, and public places have been operational again. The Chinese government has also provided assistance to other countries affected by Covid-19. The efforts to deal with Covid-19 could be successful with the government's rapid response, compliant society, and are supported by China's three-stage strategy, namely self-isolation, mass mobilization, and the use of technology. Keywords— China, Covid-19, Securitization, Threat AbstrakTulisan ini bertujuan menganalisis respons kebijakan yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah Tiongkok era Xi Jinping dalam menangani penyebaran virus Covid-19. Covid-19 merupakan ancaman nyata terhadap manusia dan negara. Efek dari Covid-19 dirasakan oleh seluruh kalangan masyarakat di Tiongkok. Sejak penyebaran virus corona di Tiongkok terus meningkat, pemerintah Tiongkok segera melakukan upaya penanggulangan di kota Wuhan dan daerah lain yang terinfeksi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode kualitatif dan deskriptif dengan menggunakan analisis teori sekuritisasi studi Hubungan Internasional dan konsep keamanan manusia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa negara Tiongkok sudah berhasil menahan dan menangani penyebaran Covid-19. Hal tersebut dibuktikan dengan terjadinya penurunan angka pasien Covid-19 di Tiongkok, pembukaan kembali wilayah yang dikarantina, dan tempat-tempat umum kembali berjalan secara operasional. Pemerintah Tiongkok juga turut memberikan pertolongan kepada negara-negara lain yang terdampak Covid-19. Upaya penanganan Covid-19 dapat sukses dengan adanya respons pemerintah yang cepat, masyarakat yang patuh, dan didukung oleh strategi tiga tahap Tiongkok, yaitu isolasi mandiri, mobilisasi massa, dan penggunaan teknologi. Kata kunci—Ancaman, Covid-19, Sekuritisasi, Tiongkok
Kirana Mahdiah Sulaeman, Fenny Rizka Salsabila
Published: 13 December 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 159-172; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i2.4283.159-172

Abstract:
This article discusses the social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women globally. Various health protocols have been implemented by more than 100 countries since March 2020 to deal with COVID-19, especially lockdown and work from home (WFH) regulations. These protocols have caused various effects, include the downfall of the world economy. This article seeks to answer the question of how the impact of WFH and economic downfall on women. This question arises because women have already faced inequality and vulnerability even before COVID-19. To answer this question, the author will use data from mass media, journal articles, and various official documents. the author uses the perspective of feminism in International Relations to analyze the issue. This study finds that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is not gender-neutral. However, it is hitting women even harder with three main impacts, first, is the double burden of childcare and work. Second, is the threat toward the possibility of domestic violence (KDRT), and the third is the inequality treatment in the economic sector. Artikel ini membahas dampak sosial pandemi COVID-19 secara global terhadap kaum perempuan. Berbagai protokol kesehatan telah diberlakukan oleh lebih dari 100 negara sejak Maret 2020 untuk menangani COVID-19, terutama aturan lockdown dan work from home (WFH). Hal ini telah menimbulkan berbagai dampak sampingan, terutama, memburuknya kondisi perekonomian dunia. Pertanyaan penelitian yang berusaha dijawab dalam artikel ini adalah bagaimana dampak kebijakan WFH yang disertai kesulitan ekonomi terhadap perempuan? Pertanyaan ini muncul karena sebelum COVID-19, sebagian kaum perempuan telah berada dalam kondisi ketidaksetaraan dan kerentanan. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini, penulis akan menggunakan data-data dari media massa, artikel jurnal, dan berbagai dokumen resmi. Penulis menggunakan perspektif feminisme dalam Hubungan Internasional untuk menganalisis isu ini. Temuan dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa imbas pandemi COVID-19 sesungguhnya tidaklah netral bagi semua gender, namun memukul perempuan lebih keras dengan adanya tiga dampak utama, yaitu pertama, beban ganda dalam pengasuhan anak dan pekerjaan. Kedua, yaituancaman terhadap kemungkinan terjadinya tindakan Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga (KDRT), serta yang ketiga, yaitu ketidaksetaraan perlakuan dalam sektor ekonomi. This article discusses the social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women globally. Various health protocols have been implemented by more than 100 contries since March 2020 all countries in the world to deal with COVID-19, especially lockdown and work from home (WFH) regulations. These protocols have caused various side effects, one of which isinclude the downfall of the world economy. This article seeks to answer the question of how the impact of WFH and economic downfall on women. This question arises because, women have already faced inequality and vulnerability even before COVID-19, some women were already experiencing inequality and vulnerability. To answer this question, the author will use data from the mass media, journal articles, and various official documents. To analyze, the author uses the perspective of feminism in International Relations to analyze the issue. This study finds that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is not gender-neutral. However, it is hitting women even harder with three main impacts, first, is namely the double burden of childcare and work.Second, is, the threat of toward the possibility of dDomestic vViolence (KDRT), and the third is the inequality of treatment in the economic sector.
Bella Aprilia, Florencia Maria Surya, Mentari Svarna Pertiwi
Published: 13 December 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 91-108; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i2.4294.91-108

Abstract:
ABSTRAK COVID-19 merupakan salah satu permasalahan global yang sedang dihadapi oleh banyak negara di seluruh dunia. Selain menyebabkan krisis kesehatan internasional, pandemi COVID-19 juga mengancam dinamika kehidupan masyarakat secara luas, baik itu di tingkat lokal, regional, hingga internasional. Tak hanya memberikan ancaman multidimensional, besarnya dampak yang diakibatkan oleh pandemi ini juga turut menguji kepemimpinan para pemimpin negara dalam mengendalikan rantai penyebaran COVID-19 secara efektif. Lebih jauh, berbagai pihak pun mengaitkan kesuksesan seorang pemimpin negara melalui kacamata gender. Pasalnya, terdapat stigmatisasi pada karakteristik perempuan yang kerap kali dianggap tidak mumpuni untuk memimpin dan membuat keputusan secara rasional. Dengan menggunakan perspektif feminisme, tulisan ini akan membahas bagaimana karakteristik feminitas dan maskulinitas yang tercermin dalam preferensi kebijakan Kanselir Jerman Angela Merkel, Perdana Menteri Selandia Baru Jacinda Ardern, dan Presiden Taiwan Tsai Ing-wen, secara efektif dapat mengendalikan penyebaran COVID-19 dan pemulihan kondisi multidimensi negara. Keberhasilan ketiga pemimpin perempuan dalam menangani COVID-19 ini menunjukkan adanya perspektif baru dalam kepemimpinan politik yang tidak dapat dibatasi oleh stigma gender terhadap kemampuan perempuan. Kata Kunci: pemimpin perempuan; kepemimpinan politik; pandemi COVID-19; feminisme; kebijakan publik ABSTRACTCOVID-19 is a global problem that is being faced by many countries around the world. Apart from causing an international health crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic also threatens the dynamics of people's lives, be it at the local, regional, and international levels. Not only provide a multi-dimensional threat, but the impact caused by this pandemic also tests the leadership of state leaders in controlling the spread of COVID-19 effectively. Furthermore, various parties try to associate the success of a state leader through a gender perspective. This is due to the stigmatization of women's characteristics who are often considered incompetent to lead and make rational decisions. With a feminist perspective, this paper will discuss how the characteristics of femininity and masculinity reflected in the policy preferences of German Chancellor Angela Merkel, New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern, and Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen, can effectively control the spread of COVID-19 and multi-dimensional recovery of the country. The success of the three female leaders in dealing with COVID-19 shows a new perspective in political leadership that cannot be limited by gender stigma on women's abilities.
Giandi Kartasasmita
Published: 11 December 2020
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, Volume 16, pp 159-178; doi:10.26593/jihi.v16i2.4204.159-178

Abstract:
This paper aims to explain the securitization process of China’s technology companies by the U.S Government. Whilethe U.S has been aware of the cyber threat since 1998, before Trump's presidency, the U.S. Government had nevertaken drastic measures against foreign technology companies based on national security pretext. This paper revealedthat the U.S. Executive has succeeded in securitizing the Chinese hardware and software companies, proved by theincreasing number of U.S. Citizens, see China as a major threat to the U.S.
Arief Rachman, Marissa Aulia, Nigin Abdulrab, Yulius Purwadi, Mia Dayanti Fajar, A.A.S. Dyah Ayunda
Published: 11 December 2020
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, Volume 16, pp 259-276; doi:10.26593/jihi.v16i2.4422.259-276

Abstract:
Konflik berkepanjangan yang terjadi di Afghanistan telah menghancurkan kehidupan masyarakat terutama, kaum perempuan dan anak. Tidak sedikit upaya telah dilakukan oleh pemerintah Afghanistan untuk menyelesaikan konflik demi menciptakan perdamaian. Salah satu upaya perdamaian yang dilakukan pemerintah Afghanistan ialah meningkatkan peran dan pemberdayaan perempuan. Indonesia yang juga terlibat dalam Komisi Status Perempuan PBB turut mendukung upaya pemerintah Afghanistan. Pemerintah Indonesia sendiri menyadari bahwa hal tersebut merupakan komitmen internasional Indonesia dalam menjaga perdamaian dunia. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian ini menganalisis diplomasi Indonesia dalam mengupayakan proses perdamaian di Afghanistan melalui penguatan komitmen pemberdayaan perempuan. Penelitian ini menggunakan kerangka pemikiran soft power yang dapat menjelaskan diplomasi yang dilakukan oleh Indonesia dalam melaksanakan kebijakan luar negerinya. Selain itu, tulisan ini juga menggunakan konsep soft power currency dalam menjelaskan sejauh mana diplomasi yang dilakukan oleh Indonesia. Metode kualitatif digunakan dalam penelitian ini dengan menggunakan teknik pengolahan data process-tracing. Dengan demikian, temuan dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa praktik diplomasi Indonesia dalam upaya mendukung proses perdamaian di Afghanistan, khususnya dalam bidang pemberdayaan perempuan sesuai pendekatan soft power currency yang terdiri dari tiga konsep, yaitu beauty, brilliance, dan benignity.
Hasnan Bachtiar
Published: 11 December 2020
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, Volume 16, pp 179-193; doi:10.26593/jihi.v16i2.3427.179-193

Abstract:
This paper evaluates the larger pattern of American interest in the Arab Gulf. It questions whether the pattern is based on ideological or economic interest. It also critically examines various data and interprets following their (data) social, economic and political interlinks and special topics that have been significantly proposed in the state policy. This paper argues that the US foreign policy represents two larger directions of its interest: economy and ideology. Both have linked together and interrelatedly have determined and have been determined by strategic culture of the states in the region and its complexities covering all national, interstate, regional, broader regional (Middle East) and global levels. This paper also arguably states that there is no single interest that can be oversimplified, but it has remained highly dynamic or has demonstrated multiple complexities of the interest in which they are represented by issues of oil, war on terrorism, nuclear weapon and Israel.
Hardi Alunaza, Musfiroh Musfiroh
Published: 11 December 2020
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, Volume 16, pp 195-209; doi:10.26593/jihi.v16i2.3421.195-209

Abstract:
China's foreign policy has attracted the attention of many parties. Various views emerged after knowing the spread of Chinese influence, especially in the Asia Pacific Region. Foreign aid is the main tool used by China to approach developing countries. The existence of China indirectly threatens old donor countries that have helped development in developing countries. This article is discussing the involvement of China with old donors such as New Zealand and Australia in trilateral aid cooperation in the Pacific. Trilateral cooperation involves old donor countries, recipient countries, and new donor countries, namely China. This research uses the approach of engagement concept through descriptive research and qualitative approaches with sources of literature study data from books, journals, research reports that support the final results of the analysis. Increasing Chinese aid in the Pacific is seen as a threat to old donor countries in the region. This attitude can indirectly inhibit China in articulating its interests in the Pacific. The results of this paper indicate that China uses engagement strategies through a trilateral assistance cooperation approach to change the behavior and views of old donors on the existence of China in the Pacific. China's role has succeeded in reducing the views and behavior of old donors who consider it as a threat. China also proves the success of exploring broader cooperation with countries in the Pacific.
Falhan Hakiki
Published: 11 December 2020
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, Volume 16, pp 127-142; doi:10.26593/jihi.v16i2.3476.127-142

Abstract:
Etiopia merupakan negara yang telah sering mengalami kekeringan dan fenomena El Nino. Hal tersebut telah terjadi begitu lama yang mengakibatkan dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan seperti krisis pangan yang menyebabkan kelaparan hingga menimbulkan korban jiwa. Pada artikel ini, penulis menganalisis dampak krisis pangan yang terjadi di Etiopia yang mengakibatkan terganggunya human security di Etiopia menggunakan konsep human security dan food security, dimana menurut United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) bahwa ketika salah satu aspek human security sebuah negara terganggu, maka juga berdampak kepada human security suatu negara, termasuk Etiopia dimana aspek food security yang terganggu berdampak kepada human security. Kemudian penulis menganalisis dampak dari krisis makanan terhadap human security di Etiopia dapat dari tiga dimensi Human Development Index (HDI), yaitu angka harapan hidup, standar hidup dan pendapatan, beserta tingkat pendidikan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dari tiga dimensi HDI, krisis pangan tidak memberikan pengaruh terhadap human security di Etiopia, walaupun krisis pangan mengakibatkan jatuhnya korban jiwa, penyakit, dan malnutrisi.
Ni Made Laksmi Udayani, Andi Akhmad Basith Dir
Published: 11 December 2020
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, Volume 16, pp 227-241; doi:10.26593/jihi.v16i2.3478.227-241

Abstract:
Food security become very important as food crisis occurred in 2008. Under the administration of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in 2009 to 2014, the crisis due to increase in population in Indonesia encourages increase in food demand. However, to fulfill Indonesia’s food demand it still depends on the availability from international market. This research aims to analyze why countries like Indonesia dependent on international markets for food security aspect despite having the capability to achieve fulfillment on food. To analyze the reasons, the concepts of comparative advantage, dependency, and national capabilities will be use to analyze the factors on why nations depend on international market to achieve its food security. Accompanied by a comparison between Indonesia with Vietnam, Malaysia, and United States to see the similarities and differences to achieved food security in the international market. With qualitative research methods and comparison focus on explanative research also using literature studies in data collection. The results of this study finds that Indonesia dependence are influenced by comparative advantage policy of other countries which in this case are Vietnam and Malaysia, the international market system that encourages dependency, and Indonesia inability to maximizing its national capability compared to United States. Keywords: dependency, comparative advantage, national capabilities, Indonesia, food security.
Naufal Muhammad Firdaus
Published: 11 December 2020
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, Volume 16, pp 211-226; doi:10.26593/jihi.v16i2.3510.211-226

Abstract:
Konflik interal yang terjadi di Sierra Leone pada tahun 1991 merupakan salah satu contoh sifat konflik yang mulai berubah semenjak berakhirnya Perang Dingin dimana konflik antarnegara mulai berkurang dan berubah menjadi konflik internal di dalam sebuah negara. Dalam hal ini upaya resolusi konflik pun perlu melakukan perubahan dimana dalam hal ini terdapat 2 badan yang memiliki legitimasi yaitu PBB dan PMC yang dalam resolusinya pun berbeda satu sama lainnya, dalam hal ini PBB lebih menggunakan cara persuasif dengan mengajak kedua pihak yang berkonflik untuk merundingkan bagaimana mengakhiri konflik secara diplomatis dan tanpa kekerasan dengan melakukan gencatan senjata, sedangkan PMC sendiri menggunakan cara kekerasan dalam resolusi konfliknya dengan membantu pemerintahan yang sedang berjalan untuk menanggulangi masalah gerilyawan tersebut secara militer dan memaksa mereka untuk berdamai dengan pemerintah, kedua hal ini memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing namun pada akhirnya ternyata cara penggunaan kekerasan dalam resolusi konflik terbukti lebih berhasil dalam mengurangi intensitas konflik yang terjadi.
M.A Shary Charlotte Henriette Pattipeilhy, M.S Reni Windiani
Published: 11 December 2020
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, Volume 16, pp 243-257; doi:10.26593/jihi.v16i2.3306.243-257

Abstract:
This article seeks to analyze the social situation in Indonesia, where the conflict that occurred overseas manifested into violent actions against person or group within the country, who is considered to have a similar identity with overseas perpetrators. This pattern of violence is perpetrated against minority groups in Indonesia who have no involvement in conflict abroad. Some impacts of the Rohingya crisis in Indonesia are ranging from forced closure threat to Vihara in Medan, a demonstration on Buddhist religious symbols, beating against a Buddhist monk, and even bomb terror in Vihara. In social psychology theory, this violence is part of Freud's Defense Mechanism theory called Displacement. Furthermore, to answer why this displaced aggression can occur in Indonesia, I use Social Identity theory that the reductionist view of singular affiliation creates a gap in understanding of 'Self' and 'Other.' It then creates an intergroup bias when individuals tend to prioritize their group (in-group) compared to other groups (out-group). At last, this situation also reaffirms the concept of imagined community by Benedict Anderson.
Farandy Nurmeiga, Henny Saptatia Drajati Nugrahani
Published: 11 December 2020
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional, Volume 16, pp 143-158; doi:10.26593/jihi.v16i2.3422.143-158

Abstract:
Tahun 2019 ditandai sebagai 56 tahun berlangsungnya hubungan diplomatik antara Turki dan Uni Eropa. Selama hubungan diplomatik tersebut berlangsung, Turki juga berupaya untuk menjadi bagian dari keanggotaan penuh Uni Eropa. Uni Eropa memiliki kepentingan untuk bertindak sebagai kekuatan normatif di Turki selama proses negosiasi keanggotaan. Namun, proses negosiasi tidak berjalan dengan mudah terutama pasca terjadinya kudeta militer 15 Juli 2016 di Turki. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan proses de-Eropanisasi pasca peristiwa kudeta dan pengaruh legitimasi Uni Eropa dalam menjalankan peran sebagai kekuatan normatif sehingga terjadi de-Eropanisasi di Turki. Penulis menggunakan konsep de-Eropanisasi dan teori legitimasi untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif yang datanya diperoleh dari studi pustaka berupa buku, artikel jurnal, berita, dan internet. Penelitian ini memiliki temuan bahwa tindakan yang diambil Presiden Erdoğan dan partai AKP dalam merespons kudeta militer tidak mencerminkan nilai demokrasi, aturan hukum, dan HAM yang diagungkan oleh Uni Eropa. Hal ini juga dipengaruhi oleh lemahnya legitimasi Uni Eropa di Turki akibat dari bangkitnya pemahaman xenophobia serta Islamophobia di Eropa. Selain itu, Uni Eropa juga gagal menepati janji untuk memberikan hak bebas visa kepada Turki.
Michelle Fiona Sutrisno ; Alexander Sastrawan
Published: 10 December 2020
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 69-85; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4418.69-85

Abstract:
- The shopping center as one of the commercial buildings becomes a building that The shopping center as one of the commercial buildings becomes a building that accommodates various groups of people. In this day and age, especially in urban areas, going to a shopping center has become a necessity for the community so that activities in a shopping center must also be able to keep up with the times that make the shopping center not only function as a shopping place but also must be able to function as a place recreation and socializing for the community. The combination of shopping, recreation and socializing has become a lifestyle for urban communities to reduce the level of depression. The convenience offered in a shopping center is an important point for achieving a shopping center's success. Confusing visitor circulation will certainly disrupt the comfort of visitors when in a shopping center. The possibility that causes visitors to feel confused is the circulation itself or the presence of multi-entrance in a shopping center. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the multi-entrance at Paskal 23 Shopping Center causes visitors to feel confused when they are inside the building and how it affects. The method used is a qualitative method, data obtained from literature studies, direct collection to the field, and interviews with visitors to Paskal 23 Shopping Center. Such a conclusion was obtained when discussing multi-entrances at Paskal 23 Shopping Centers can give visitors consent to the building. The multi-entrance system must have its own elements and have a strong character to be able to access the location of each entrance. The existence of this element is not seen in the multi-entrance Paskal 23 Shopping Center which in turn causes confusion for visitors in circulation.
Winega Sutoko ; Franseno Pujianto
Published: 10 December 2020
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 86-101; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4419.86-101

Abstract:
- In 2007 the people of Nglepen Village in Yogyakarta were relocated to an aid settlement area built by the Dome For The World Foundation. This relocation was carried out because the Nglepen Village community house was destroyed after the 2006 earthquake. The condition of the housing aid which has physical characteristics is very different from the house in general, triggering the Nglepen Village community to make adaptations. This study discusses the classification based on the background of the adaptation triggers to the adaptation classification based on the space, and shape of the people of Nglepen Village. This research was conducted to find out how the characteristics of the adaptation products produced are based on the background of adaptation drivers in an effort to accommodate daily activities.The research used a descriptive method with a qualitative approach by describing the existing condition of the dome house along with the background of the changes. The research sample in this adaptation classification is determined by the people of Nglepen Village who want to make habitation of their dwelling. Data collection was carried out through a process of observation and interviews with dome dwellers and literature studies. The analysis was carried out based on the theory of adaptation strategies and factors influencing adaptation behavior to look for the classification of adaptation based on the background of the influencing factors.The results of the classification based on background and classification based on space, and shape are the characteristics of each adaptation based on the background of the adaptation trigger. Characteristics of adaptation include the nature of the space between closed or open, then the addition of mass that affects the shape include the addition towards the front, back, and separate in the dome house.
Agung Pyawi Rahmanda ; Yasmin Suriansyah
Published: 10 December 2020
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 18-35; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4415.18-35

Abstract:
- The energy crisis is caused by uncontrolled energy consumption that is increasing beyond the availability. The biggest energy consumption in buildings is energy to cool the room using Air Conditioning (AC). This happens because the design of the building envelope cannot effectively reduce heat transfer from outside to inside the building. GBCI (Green Building Council Indonesia) determines the appropriate building envelope design standards in conserving energy stated in OTTV (Overall Thermal Transfer Value) not more than 35 Watt / m2.Emersia Lampung Hotel is a 4 star hotel that did renovations in 2012. Judging from the design of the building, the architect is trying to make a hotel that is environmentally friendly. Starting from the north-south building orientation, external shading in each opening, to the addition of secondary skin on the west side of the building. But after calculating the OTTV, the Emersia Hotel building envelope still has problems with the building envelope in reducing heat transfer. The OTTV value of this hotel is still above the criteria of 40.19 W / m2, therefore it is necessary to do research on the building envelope elements in order to reduce the building OTTV value. This study aims to find out the cause of the heat problems that occur and provide suggestions for improvements that can reduce heat transfer in the envelope of the Emersia Hotel Lampung building so that it meets the OTTV value standards issued by the GBCI (Green Building Council Indonesia).The research method used is descriptive-evaluative. The study was conducted by analyzing the elements of the building envelope Emersia Hotel. Then analyze how the effort to reduce heat transfer in the building envelope. The results of the study are recommendations for improvements to the building envelope that can reduce the value of OTTV in Emersia Hotel.The results showed that the main cause of the high heat transfer that occurred in the envelope of the Emersia Hotel Lampung building was a large WWR value on all three sides of the building and lack of sun shade, especially on the east side causing the radiation and conduction value of the window to become large. In addition to these two things, the trees and vegetation around the site are still small so that the area of the site has minimal shadowing and causes high temperatures. Efforts such as reducing the value of WWR to the replacement of glass material with a small Uf value can reduce the value of building OTTV up to 24.05 W / m2. Other efforts such as increasing the shade ratio to changing the orientation of the openings can also reduce the value of OTTV, but the decline does not occur up to the specified OTTV standards.
Clarissa Clarissa ; Rahadhian P. Herwindo
Published: 10 December 2020
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 1-17; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4414.1-17

Abstract:
- Classical Indian architectural principles and traditions has been collected and preserved in a vast body of literature collectively known as the Vāstuśāstra. This branch of classical Indian knowledge is a realization of Hindu ideals in terms of architectural edifice, which significantly influence the religious architecture of the Indian cultural sphere which extends to the medieval Island of Java. Indian influence can be seen in Hindu temples of Java during the Śailendra’s dynasty even though some of it’s architectural elements can’t be found in vāstuśāstra. However, in contrast of Hindu’s vāstuśāstra, Buddhism has no architecture guideline and free standing structure as of sources that are used as it’s guide are questioned, especially Buddhist Temples in Central Java during ancient Mataram’s Dynasty of Śailendra. Although Buddha’s teachings and some parts of vāstuśāstra are known to play a role in the construction of Buddhist Temples in Indonesia, how far they are applied is difficult to observe, giving the absence of special studies and free standing temple references to build Buddhist Temple, and it’s interviewees are gone. By finding information about architecture’s theory of Buddha’s teachings that entered Indonesia and identify as well as compare the relevant parts of vāstuśāstra, then the architectural elements that are part of the concept of Buddha’s teachings and vāstuśāstra can be seen.In this research, descriptive method and qualitative approach are used by the author. The author focused in terms of figure and ornament as well as mass and spatial order. This research collects and compares parts of vāstuśāstra that are relevant as well as Buddha’s teachings concept to compare them with datas from the twelve samples of Buddhist Temples in Central Java during ancient Mataram’s Dynasty of Śailendra. Comparison by the author shows a number of results. Firstly, the concept of mahāyāna, vajrayāna, and mānasāra book applied in terms of figure, ornament, mass, and spatial order are seen in Central Java’s Buddhist Temples. However, various architectural details of these elements have marked differences from what is instructed in the Vāstuśāstra. The distinctive Javanese Kala-Makara for example, does not conform the mānasāra book. Secondly, the application of mānasāra book concepts in Central Java’s Buddhist Temples prove the influence of Hinduism which was affected by the harmonious relationship between Buddhism and Hinduism during that time. Lastly, the first free-standing Buddhist Temples is 5th Batujaya Temple/Blandongan Temple (2-3 CE and 7-10 CE) because the Mahabodhi Temple in India was built as we see today during the 6th restoration phase (8 CE).
Aysha Saffana Mazaya Reza ; Purnama Salura
Published: 10 December 2020
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 52-68; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4417.52-68

Abstract:
- Indonesia is one of the many muslim-majority countries in the world. The extensiveness of muslim population in Indonesia has resulted in high demand of mosque buildings. A mosque is a particular building which primarily function as a community’s house of worship where muslims perform the religious ritual of shalah in congregation (jamaah).As a house of worship, ideally mosques should have the appropriate spatial aspects consistent with characteristics of all activities inside the building. Specifically, the religious ritual of shalah in congregation (jamaah) bears certain prequisites and directions. Therefore, the management and character of mosques are different from other types of building.Over time, the architecture of mosques continues to evolve. Structural and technology advancement leads to innovations in terms of mosques architectural shapes that are both diverse and captivating. Al-Ahdhar Mosque is one interesting example. Its unique shape of building which is very much different from many other mosques has made it an interesting object of study. It is very interesting to discover whether or not the architectural design of this mosque has also serves the function well. This study is specifically aimed to expose the consistency and interpretation of the concept of space of religious jamaah ritual in Al-Ahdhar Mosque as the chosen study object. Research is made by observing aspects of religious jamaah rituals and henceforth determining the building’s property and composition aspects that complements such concept. Furthermore, evaluation is made towards the implementation of the space concept of religious jamaah rituals based on the building’s anatomy theory. The result of this research hopefully present a contribution towards the study of architectural designs, specifically in designing mosques. Therefore, although the architecture of mosques may vary, the basic requirements of religious practices is fulfilled.
Ametha Safa ; Yohanes Basuki Dwisusanto
Published: 10 December 2020
Riset Arsitektur (RISA), Volume 5, pp 36-51; doi:10.26593/risa.v5i01.4416.36-51

Abstract:
- House is a consequence of cultural phenomena, its form and organization are strongly influenced by the cultural environment to which it belongs. Sociocultural itself defined as a product of mind and intellect made by human, which exists by living among society. The results of this cultured process produce various manifestasions, such as art, beliefs, and even architectural form. Tepal Village, which is located in Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara, is one of the few secluded village in the island of Sumbawa that still retains traditions and customs inherited by their ancestors. Its architectural form is inseparable to the values and traditions that apply. This can be seen in the physical form, measurement system, and other elements within the house. The formulation of problem that forms the basis of this research covers how sociocultural aspects affect the spatial configuration and space forming elements of Tepal House. This study aims to explain the forces in terms of sociocultural aspects that affect the spatial configuration and space forming elements of traditional house in Tepal Village, Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara. The method used in this study is a descriptive qualitative method by observing the physical form of the village that strongly influenced by the sociocultural aspects of the prevailing customs. The findings of this research analysis suggested that there are evidences the influence of sociocultural values on the spatial configuration and other elements related to it. Philosophy and values such as beliefs, gender roles, age, routines, and economy affect the interior and exterior spatial arrangement as well as the space forming elements in the house.
Faisal Mustaqim, Wilson Kosasih, Ahmad Ahnad
Published: 27 October 2020
Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri, Volume 9; doi:10.26593/jrsi.v9i3.4023.153-162

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Fani Puspitasari, Parwadi Moengin
Published: 27 October 2020
Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri, Volume 9; doi:10.26593/jrsi.v9i3.4093.201-212

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Desrina Yusi Irawati, Melati Kurniawati
Published: 27 October 2020
Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri, Volume 9; doi:10.26593/jrsi.v9i3.4109.213-224

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Wilson Kosasih, Iphov Kumala Sriwana, Rico Adhesi
Published: 27 October 2020
Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri, Volume 9; doi:10.26593/jrsi.v9i3.4043.163-170

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Ni Luh Saddhwi Saraswati Adnyani, Rajesri Govindaraju
Published: 27 October 2020
Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri, Volume 9; doi:10.26593/jrsi.v9i3.4065.177-188

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Andira Andira, Johan K. Runtuk, Anastasia Lidya Maukar
Published: 27 October 2020
Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri, Volume 9; doi:10.26593/jrsi.v9i3.3769.145-152

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, Wilcha Anatasya Veronica
Published: 27 October 2020
Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri, Volume 9; doi:10.26593/jrsi.v9i3.4059.171-176

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, Zamri Zamri Zamri, Juniawan Preston Siahaan, Yuniar Endri Priharanto, M. Subroto Alirejo, Mega Lazuardi Umar
Published: 27 October 2020
Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri, Volume 9; doi:10.26593/jrsi.v9i3.4075.189-200

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Cheryl Pangestu
Published: 24 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 1-14; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4189.1-14

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José António De Sousa Pinho
Published: 24 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 40-52; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4192.40-52

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Reza Aulia Rakhman
Published: 24 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 30-39; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4191.30-39

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Enrico Nataniel
Published: 24 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 90-107; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4196.90-107

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Aloysius Efraim Leonard, Richard Theo Parulian, Ruth Latreia T. Saphira
Published: 24 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 62-74; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4194.62-74

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Vanessa Arieputri
Published: 24 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 53-61; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4193.53-61

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Mai Thi Khanh Van
Published: 24 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 15-29; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4190.15-29

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Alfin Febrian Basundoro, Allysa Ramadhani
Published: 24 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 75-89; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4195.75-89

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Ignatius Hubert Tantra
Published: 19 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 2, pp 42-54; doi:10.26593/sentris.v2i2.4164.42-54

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Alrafsya Mahendra Saputra
Published: 19 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 2, pp 1-13; doi:10.26593/sentris.v2i2.4148.1-13

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Raviq Ayusi, Siti Nurhasanah
Published: 19 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 165-180; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4175.165-180

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Joe William
Published: 19 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 70-89; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4168.70-89

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Aufar Rizki
Published: 19 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 39-69; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4167.39-69

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Kathleen Mintarja, Priscilia Christian Kadim, Stella Claresta Alexander
Published: 19 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 2, pp 32-46; doi:10.26593/sentris.v2i2.4179.32-46

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Raihan Zahirah Mauludy
Published: 19 August 2020
Jurnal Sentris, Volume 1, pp 139-149; doi:10.26593/sentris.v1i1.4173.139-149

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