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Cognition, Communication, Discourse; doi:10.26565/2218-2926-2016

Human Geography Journal; doi:10.26565/2076-1333

Geographical Education and Cartography; doi:10.26565/2075-1893

Biophysical Bulletin; doi:10.26565/2075-3810

Social Economics; doi:10.26565/2524-2547

Nataliia V. Zahurska
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 8-14; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-1

Abstract:
This article considers the state of human beings in a post-postmodern conditions and focuses on obversion as one version of posthuman reality in polyversion, which is lusciousness. Obversion is regarded as a logical and at the same time dynamic figure of dis-identity and non-presence. Trying to find out if a real human being is written leads one to consider the relationship of real and written reality and the possibility of posthuman writing. Posthuman writing becomes apparent in tracks, traces, scars and vestiges such an @ as a signifier of becoming [email protected] The vestiges of a human being are being investigated through the appeal to an actual post-postmodern conceptions such as speculative realism, speculative posthumanism, dark ecology, etc. In the post-postmodern context concepts such as tru(s)t/h, faith and kindness as a counterweight to the excessive postmodern quotation and theorization are being examined. Thus, a human being as a post-postscript is becoming a preface at the same time. This article explores such crucial postmodern issues as iterability, signature and others in a contingent context, in which an immanence of living itself becomes a writing in the postdigitality, post-Internet and post-media extent in relation to the realization of the disaster of technical or even mechanical as human. This research realizes on a showcase of post-postmodern architecture as an immanent spatiotemporal contingency, en-vironment of a human being. It shows how a minimalistic style in post-postmodern ethics and aesthetics correlates with obversive rocking in contrast to binary opposition logic. Thus, it realizes a movement from human to posthuman as scriptor, writing a postscript, and beyond to post-posthuman as postscriptor, writing a post-postscript as a human being, writing itself in its contingent immanence.
Marina P. Smolyaga
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 70-78; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-8

Abstract:
The idea is considered that T. Hobbs’s “Leviathan” is not only a particular example and a representation of classical Western European thinking, but turns out to be some “metatheoretical” place, in which the very potentiated field of the opportunity of clarification, and very production of a social order problem, and, ambivalently – all socio-theoretical discourse is formed. According to the author, after T. Hobbes problems which are “strategic” for all modern theoretical sociology and which, at the same time, are constitutive for her can be put. What “art” – which is in the middle of the life, in the middle of human reality – can collect particular human existence in the uniform and coordinated been, acting for the benefit of all? How does it turn out in such a way that creation which “master”, according to Hobbes, is the person gains universal dimension? How is transition owing to which individual free figures get the lives unified way which substantially is represented the general state is carried out? Whether such a transition is possible? How to think of it? By what force on what basis, according to what principles, by the action of what algorithm, due to what structure small figures keep in borders of a body of the Leviathan? The solution which is proposed by Thomas Hobbes for a problem of social order – that is the public contract on the utilitarian basement – has, on the belief of the author, secondary value in the face of opening by Hobbes the matrix of the social-theoretical thinking. Thus, contradictions and discrepancies which can be found in the text by Gobbes, the author seeks to consider as “a point of growth of a discourse” and as fixing and registrations of potential opportunities of the discourse of social order, as well as the phenomenon of society itself.
Volodymyr O. Abashnik
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 90-98; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-10

Abstract:
In the article, a little-studied question of the critical interpretation of the philosophical and psychological position of the representative of Scotland tradition James Mill (1773–1836) in the university philosophy, especially in the work of Kharkiv Professor Fedor Zelenogorskii (1839–1908) is presented. At first, the main periods of scientific and creative career of Fedor Zelenogorskii, including his studying at the Kazan Clerical Academy (1862–1864) and the historical-philosophical faculty at the Kazan University (1864–1868) are considered. Then his scientific internship from 1871 till 1873 in Germany and Switzerland is emphasized. During that period, he attended lectures of such famous Professors as Moritz Drobisch (Leipzig), Eduard Zeller (Heidelberg), Friedrich Albert Lange (Zurich, and Marburg), who was the author of the work “Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart” (1866). Then the features of the teaching and the publications of Fedor Zelenogroskii in his “Kharkiv period” (1874–1908) are pointed out, during which he was, at first, private docent, then extraordinary and ordinary professor of philosophy. Fedor Zelenogorskii’s works at this time comprise three areas: 1) Antique philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Aristippus of Cyrene), 2) works in the history of philosophy, for instance, Kharkiv university philosophy and Ukrainian philosophy (J. B. Schad, A I. Dudrovich, M. N. Protopopov, G. S. Skovoroda, at al.), 3) logic, psychology and pedagogic. In the last group, his doctoral monograph “On mathematical, metaphysical, inductive and critical research and proof methods” (1877) was of great importance. Fedor Zelenogorskii’s very important work was his monograph “Essay of Development of Psychology from Descartes to our Time” (Kharkiv, 1885). The positions of well-known philosophers (Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Berkley, Leibniz, Locke, and John Stewart Mill) and less-known thinkers (Glisson, Bonnet, and James Mill) were here analyzed. Fedor Zelenogorskii’s critical interpretation of the psychological viewpoint of James Mill in his two volumes work “Analysis of the phenomena of the human mind” (1829, 1869) occupies an important place in this analysis. According to him, Chapter III. “The Association of Ideas” of James Mill's work played a key role. James Mill appears here as a representative of associative psychology (David Hartley, Thomas Brown, J. F. Herbart, John Stewart Mill). The Kharkiv philosopher gave credit to James Mill for his contribution to the development of the causal law in Chapter “XXIV. The Will” of this work. In turn, Fedor Zelenogorskii’s important achievement was the popularization of the ideas of the Scotland philosopher and psychologist James Mill, in particular, because of his translation of extracts from the work “Analysis of the phenomena of the human mind”.
Vladimir V. Prokopenko
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 53-62; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-6

Abstract:
The article discusses the concept of political Gnosticism, developed by the philosopher Eric Voegelin. This concept is one of the main elements of Voegelin’s political philosophy, in which he answers the question about the essence of modern politics. Voegelin believes that modernity is the result of the historical victory of the ideology of “Gnosticism”. The historical roots of Gnosticism, says Voegelin, should not be sought in late antiquity, but in the Middle Ages. Based on the ideas of Christian mystics, such as Joachim of Flore, an ideology of Gnosticism was formed, which spread in the Western world and became a powerful political force. This force accomplished the “great Gnostic revolution” and shaped modern society. Examples of modern Gnostic regimes are progressivism, positivism, Marxism, psychoanalysis, communism, fascism, National Socialism. Modern political science is not able to give a critical understanding of Gnosticism, since it itself is a product of Gnostic ideology. Therefore, modern political science needs to restore its fundamental principles, which were established by ancient philosophers, the founders of the philosophy of politics. Voegelin calls this the reteoretisation of political science. The author of the article analyzes the theoretical and historical grounds of Voegelin’s concept and concludes that one of the sources of his theory of political Gnosticism is Hegel’s doctrine of unhappy consciousness. The article also proves that Voegelin’s concept of Gnosticism is not identical with historical Gnosticism. The author also analyzes the reasons why political science of the twentieth century did not accept this concept and did not draw conclusions from criticism of political science in the work “New Science of Politics” by Voegelin. The article concludes that the changes that are taking place in the modern world force us to reconsider and overestimate Voegelin’s concept, which, in our opinion, has great heuristic potential.
Tetiana P. Zaika
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 193-204; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-21-1

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problem of coherence of the categorical apparatus of researches of the competence approach in the cultural and philosophical context. Researches of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of cultural competence are analyzed by the author. The main approaches to understanding the content and scope of the concept of “cultural competence” are presented. It is determined that the formation of a culturally competent personality is connected with the process of inculturation and socialization, that is, with decoding of cultural codes and social roles that determine the content of socio-cultural existence of a person. Correlation of etymologically similar concepts of “cultural”, “general cultural”, “sociocultural”, “ethnocultural”, “intercultural” and “cross-cultural competence” is carried out. The author has established that general cultural competence, as the individual’s ability to navigate in the spiritual and cultural space of interpersonal interaction, and sociocultural competence, as the individual’s ability to organize their own life in accordance with social roles and behavioral scenarios, is varieties of cultural competence. A pattern has been established: 1) if the context of the study is a monoethnic cultural space, then the concept of “ethnocultural” and “cultural competence” is synonyms, and this does not require their differentiation; 2) if the context of the study is a multiethnic culture, then the concept of “ethnocultural” and “cultural competence” must be distinguished semantically. The communicative skills of the individual are an important aspect of the formation of cultural competence. The article argues that the realization of intercultural competence takes place in the space of communicative interaction. Cultural and intercultural competences have been identified as both coherent and relevant phenomena; and that the concepts of “cultural” and “cross-cultural competence” are concepts of different cognitive order. The relation of intercultural to cross-cultural competence is also not synonymous. Cross-cultural competence as a fact of communicative interaction is a semantic part of intercultural competence for which, in addition to communication, it is important to be aware of its causes and consequences.
Galina V. Zhukova
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 205-208; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-22

Abstract:
The non-academic education as the development of socio-cultural experience that takes place outside the pedagogically organized process is considered in the article. The freedom of human cognitive activity, the expansion of the range of his hobbies, the enrichment of the spiritual world is ensured through a network of institutions of non-academic education. Non-academic education institutions transfer the knowledge and skills necessary in the field of work, which does not belong directly to the scientific content of professional activity. The term “non-academic education” is not yet widespread, it is used mainly by practitioners in the field of solving general problems of education, based on human educational needs. However, the reality it reflects is well known to all, it is learning in the process of daily life. In essence and content, it is the same process of acquiring knowledge and skills, deepening worldview and enriching personal potential, which is in academic education. The difference is that it takes place outside the walls of institutions that are part of the education system. Non-academic education takes place in social institutions that perform other functions in the social division of labor: in the family, in the field of work, in various formal and informal groups and associations. A clear training goal is not necessary. Non-academic education is spontaneous, without time limits, not certified, unlike academic. Non-academic education may have some kind of documentary evidence, albeit of a non-state type. A teacher in academic education is necessarily an employee of an educational institution, and in non-academic education it is an employee, a coach, and a teacher. Training in non-academic education can be carried out on the educational portal through social services, distance learning courses of various organizations, mass open courses.
Kateryna S. Rassudina
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 157-164; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-17

Abstract:
One of the key problems facing bioethics concerns those cases where, due to the limited human and technical resources of medicine, patients are in fact doomed to die. The reason for withdrawing treatment may be the futility of using the available means, as well as the burden of certain procedures. In the contemporary world, euthanasia is offered as an alternative to withdrawing treatment, that is, direct causing the death of a patient, killing. They distinguish these two types of practice by analyzing the duties of the physician, the intentions of all subjects, the differences between action and inaction. The obligation to save the patient at all costs should be rejected because of the non-humanity of this principle. That is why, however, the doctor faces a dilemma: to leave the patient to natural processes (it can cause, however, his or her additional suffering), or to kill him or her directly. The intention in both cases is to solve a problem in which the treatment of the patient becomes futile, and the withdrawing sooner or later leads to death. Euthanasia in its passive form may procedurally coincide with the withdrawing treatment. Withdrawing treatment is the decision, and therefore, it is more an action than inaction. It seems that the choice between euthanasia and withdrawing treatment is purely technical. The author of the article suggests comparing the mechanisms of decision making in the application of euthanasia and withdrawing treatment, looking at the purpose of these decisions and the means of its reaching. In the case of euthanasia, the purpose of action or inaction is to relieve suffering (a certain good), and the means is to cause death. In the case of withdrawing treatment, instead, the goal is also the good of the patient, but death is not a means but a side effect. Therefore, the author recognizes that withdrawing treatment is a more moral practice than euthanasia, which is a direct killing and is justified by the low value of one’s life.
Marianna P. Plakhtiy
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 99-107; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-11

Abstract:
The first half of the twentieth century was marked by the simultaneous development of logic and mathematics. Logic offered the necessary means to justify the foundations of mathematics and to solve the crisis that arose in mathematics in the early twentieth century. In European science in the late nineteenth century, the ideas of symbolic logic, based on the works of J. Bull, S. Jevons and continued by C. Pierce in the United States and E. Schroeder in Germany were getting popular. The works by G. Frege and B. Russell should be considered more progressive towards the development of mathematical logic. The perspective of mathematical logic in solving the crisis of mathematics in Ukraine was noticed by Professor of Mathematics of Novorossiysk (Odesa) University Ivan Vladislavovich Sleshynsky. Sleshynsky (1854 –1931) is a Doctor of Mathematical Sciences (1893), Professor (1898) of Novorossiysk (Odesa) University. After studying at the University for two years he was a Fellow at the Department of Mathematics of Novorossiysk University, defended his master’s thesis and was sent to a scientific internship in Berlin (1881–1882), where he listened to the lectures by K. Weierstrass, L. Kronecker, E. Kummer, G. Bruns. Under the direction of K. Weierstrass he prepared a doctoral dissertation for defense. He returned to his native university in 1882, and at the same time he was a teacher of mathematics in the seminary (1882–1886), Odesa high schools (1882–1892), and taught mathematics at the Odesa Higher Women’s Courses. Having considerable achievements in the field of mathematics, in particular, Pringsheim’s Theorem (1889) proved by Sleshinsky on the conditions of convergence of continuous fractions, I. Sleshynsky drew attention to a new direction of logical science. The most significant work for the development of national mathematical logic is the translation by I. Sleshynsky from the French language “Algebra of Logic” by L. Couturat (1909). Among the most famous students of I. Sleshynsky, who studied and worked at Novorossiysk University and influenced the development of mathematical logic, one should mention E. Bunitsky and S. Shatunovsky. The second period of scientific work of I. Sleshynsky is connected with Poland. In 1911 he was invited to teach mathematical disciplines at Jagiellonian University and focused on mathematical logic. I. Sleshynsky’s report “On Traditional Logic”, delivered at the meeting of the Philosophical Society in Krakow. He developed the common belief among mathematicians that logic was not necessary for mathematics. His own experience of teaching one of the most difficult topics in higher mathematics – differential calculus, pushed him to explore logic, since the requirement of perfect mathematical proof required this. In one of his further works of this period, he noted the promising development of mathematical logic and its importance for mathematics. He claimed that for the mathematics of future he needed a new logic, which he saw in the “Principles of Mathematics” by A. Whitehead and B. Russell. Works on mathematical logic by I. Sleszynski prompted many of his students in Poland to undertake in-depth studies in this field, including T. Kotarbiński, S. Jaśkowski, V. Boreyko, and S. Zaremba. Thanks to S. Zaremba, I. Sleshynsky managed to complete the long-planned concept, a two-volume work “Theory of Proof” (1925–1929), the basis of which were lectures of Professor. The crisis period in mathematics of the early twentieth century, marked by the search for greater clarity in the very foundations of mathematical reasoning, led to the transition from the study of mathematical objects to the study of structures. The most successful means of doing this were proposed by mathematical logic. Thanks to Professor I. Sleshynsky, who succeeded in making Novorossiysk (Odesa) University a center of popularization of mathematical logic in the beginning of the twentieth century the ideas of mathematical logic in scientific environment became more popular. However, historical events prevented the ideas of mathematical logic in the domestic scientific space from the further development.
Olena G. Hudzenko
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 117-127; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-13

Abstract:
In the article the author tries to analyze the vision of the path of spiritual formation in the philosophical and religious views of the Ukrainian Middle Ages and the early modernism representatives in the context of the doctrine of theosis. It is noted that the doctrine of deification is considered fundamental to the theology of holiness. Theosis, the idea of which is to renew the image and the likeness of God in a person, is the main goal of life from the standpoint of the Eastern Church. After all, the combination of the Divine and human natures opens the way to God for a person. As a state of subjective experience of a human person, theosis is considered in hesychasm, which interprets it as synergy - an interacting combination of energies of man and God. The path to the development of knowledge about God is connected with the ascetic rejection from the worldly life, and the path to the union with Him is connected with the union of the Divine and human natures in a person. Followers of hesychasm believe that theosis is the practice of the subjective experience of a human person; synergy is the interacting combination of the energy of man and God. The main task of austerity is the attainment of divine grace. It dissolves the will of man in the process of a human being transformation. The doctrine of theosis had an impact on the formation of the theocratic idea in the culture of Kiev Rus, in which love of wisdom played an important role in human understanding themselves as the image of God. Analyzing the views of the Ukrainian Middle Ages and early modernism representatives on the path of spiritual development of man, the author concludes that they were characterized by the vision of deification as a person’s approach to God through self-exploration and moral improvement. Theosis is the final result on the path of spiritual growth for the representatives of the Middle Ages and early modernism philosophical conception, who attached great importance to gaining inner mystical experience and sought to experience spiritual ecstasy as the ultimate goal in the mystical path to deification.
Oleksandra I. Stebelska
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 165-173; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-18

Abstract:
This article is dedicated to understanding the nature of conscience, its essential manifestations and features. Conscience is the “core” of a person’s moral life. The conscience acts activate and accumulate the internal energies of the person, which help him/her to be fully connected with the world and to carry out a thorough evaluation of both his/her actions and Others. Therefore, the phenomenon of conscience is inextricably linked to the freedom of a person and his/her efforts to exercise himself/herself as a Human, to find his/her own inner voice. Despite its intimacy, conscience never closes within the limits of individual existence, but has unconditional openness to the world, is a keen awareness of responsibility for our actions. Conscience is a testament of the fact that, at a deep (implicative) level, we are rooted in, and inextricably linked to, one Reality. As a result of critical analysis, it is argued that conscience emerges as an internal potentiality of a person, a continuous process of self-determination and formation. Conscience is dialectic in nature, combining internal/external, individual/social, subjective/objective, rational/irrational aspects. The complexity of the phenomenon is manifested in the attempts to symbolically identify it as Call, Witness, Demon, Worm, Judge, etc. Conscience is impossible outside the dialogue of the person with himself/herself and Others, because in the communication process the inner growth and formation of the person take place. Conscience defines a “coordinate system” within which a person’s life moves and divides the line between Good and Evil, Real and Ideal, Existent and Desired. Accordingly, conscience is ideal in essence and is an indispensable structure of human consciousness, linked to the boundary questions of a person regarding his/her own nature.
Semen A. Honcharov
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 139-147; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-15

Abstract:
The article dealt with the question of the ratio of Yuri Mamleev’s I-utrism to Tradition. The problem is in the contradiction between two positions, which Mamleev notes in different places of “The Destiny of Being” – a view of the I-utrism as a new approach within the framework of Tradition, and as going beyond it with the introduction of extraneous elements. Based on the connection between the I-utrism and the “Last Doctrine”, which clearly lies outside the Tradition, the author of the article concludes that the I-utrism should not be considered as a new approach within the framework of the Tradition, but as an autonomous construction to it. According to the author, the I-utrism due to its own radicalism contains two key problems that lead not only to a break with Tradition but also to a violation of the inner integrity of Mamleev’s philosophy itself. These two problems are defined as the radicalization of the Vedanta formula “Atman = Brahman” and the absence of the figure of the Other. I-utrism forms unified I, which the author of the article proposes to call “I-total”, because it displaces everything but itself, including the classical concept of the Absolute. Hence the lack of a topos for Mamleev’s concepts such as “Abyss” and “Eternal Russia”. It is compounded by the prevention of the metaphysical event of the Other, which is especially important for the idea of a metaphysical and mysterious Russia that requires intersubjectivity. In the process of analyzing these problems and issues, the article compares the philosophical positions of Stirner and Mamleev, as well as addresses the topic of demonic I-utrism. After all, the author concludes that the I-utrism needs to be revised and softened. This would allow it to exist organically in the overall picture of Mamleev’s worldview and not lose touch with Tradition despite the inevitable exit from it.
Yuliia Yu. Brodetska
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 174-181; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-19

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the consideration of the good nature existential foundations. Good, as a transcendental phenomenon, reveals itself in a person as a powerful mechanism of its internal development – spiritual needs. Need, unlike desire, is not just a requirement of the human body. Need is a way of relationship, that is, communication with objective reality. This life aspiration is responsible for the personality realization as an active, creative, responsible part of co-existence. Therefore, all aspects of human life and communication, and productivity, and harmony, depend on the state of the needs system satisfaction. It is these existential conditions that correspond to the principles of ethical absolutism. Thus, the intersection point of ethics and human (ethical and anthropological principles), the condition for the interaction and implementation of the principles of ethics is concentrated in the development of our soul needs. The soul seeks to go beyond the egoistic desires of the flesh. Therefore, to hear the “voice” of the soul (both one’s own and that of a loved one), to respond to its call, a person can only when the desire to know the world around him conquers the desire to possess this world. In this regard, we are talking about the fact that the basis for the spiritual needs of humans is the need for love. The need to love resonates with the basic ethical principle “love of one’s neighbor”. Therefore, working on our own egoism, we realize the whole complex of spiritual needs: in knowledge, communication, freedom, creativity. So, the need to love is the highest metaphysical force in which the nature of good is concentrated, both on the ontological and existential levels.
Serhii V. Hulevskyi
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 148-156; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-16

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problem of ambiguity in the assessment of the mythological characteristics of the TV series. The purpose of the article is to establish functions inherent in the TV series, which reveal its mythological potential. Methodological approach of post-structuralism was applied to various cultural forms as texts to be interpreted, therefore, TV series were considered as signifiers representing mythological significance. The audience usually perceives TV series as the traditional myth, emotionally experiencing it as a holistic semantic system in which meaning is inextricably linked to the form, therefore it is perceived as a reality. It is established that the regular repetition of the series in the broadcast TV networks demonstrates its paradigmatic level of signification and gives it a normative function. The novelty of the study is to identify the functional strength of the mythology of TV series, which consists not only in creating an atmosphere of aesthetic exchange of values in the communicative process but also in the norming of living space (symbolic-normative function), creating a virtual space for fantasy experience of unconscious meanings and desires (social-compensatory function) and socialization of individuals (integration function). We can conclude that the mythology of the series can be enhanced in two ways – due to the normative-ritual function of series, which is achieved by regular repetition, and, in turn, affects the integrative function and due to the fantasy content of the TV series. This feature largely reveals the socio-compensatory function of the TV series, which is most realized in fantasy series, and given that the spectator is experiencing their own desires, we can talk about the experience of individualized myth.
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 25-32; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-3

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the consideration of the image of zombie in two contexts, which are, firstly, the transformation of capitalist figures of production and consumption, and secondly, the transformation of desire and sensuality. Two models of socio-philosophical interpretation of zombies related to the development of capitalism are revealed: the consumer and the proletarian. They concern the discourse of the economic crisis and the disgust to “irrational consumption” and the discourse of the exploitation of the worker by dead labor. It is noted that the image of zombie embodies total alienation, loss of social connection, which is based on emotional affinity, intimacy and affectivity. The figure of zombie is seen as the opposite of the Enlightenment model of human existence, which is characterized by a fundamental multiplicity, sensitivity and taste, which became the basis of a market economy. The image of zombie represents the fear of dissolving human diversity in the identity of desire and corporeality, which is destroyed and appears as “the same”. Zombies embody the instinct and infectivity of being. They denote “naked life”, the signs of which are the right to kill or exploit them. On the other hand, zombies are the embodiment of Use value: an empty post-capitalist, post-proletarian and post-consumer “life” reduced to pure need. Zombies figure represents the inner contradiction of (post)capitalism: on the one hand, the fear of renewing a Labour power that is no longer able to work, and on the other, the fear of losing sensual diversity that suspends the endless process of consumption. Thus, the fear of zombie is a defensive reaction to capitalist existence. On the other hand, it is an adjustment of consciousness, when the coercion to work and consume is based on the fear of becoming a zombie, in the presence of an unconscious willingness to destroy those whom capitalism excludes as zombies.
Olha O. Chystotina
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 47-52; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-5

Abstract:
The coronavirus epidemic has provoked changes in most spheres of public life and has given rise to many ways of rethinking in matters of security, economics, social philosophy, ethics and so on. Against the background of discussing global issues, some kind of simple but not problem-free perspective is being lost – the spectacle of an epidemic from the spectator’s point of view. This perspective is the most obvious, but requires further analysis. In quarantine conditions, spectator’s contact with the phenomenon is entirely mediated by the screen determining his perception of the epidemic as a media phenomenon. Dividing the existential experience caused by the epidemic (direct one) and the spectator’s experience (indirect one), we put the former in parentheses and focus only on the latter, not being interested in the epidemic as a phenomenon, but in the “phenomenon of the epidemic on the screen”. It is the representation of the epidemic that is the problem: despite real-time broadcasting and the unprecedented “visibility” of the epidemic, quarantine visuality is eventless. Discussion of the epidemic captures the information field and its totality makes a claim to an exceptional event. However, its exclusivity is refuted historically, and eventfulness has no place in the philosophical sense. The spectacle remains – but its mode is specific. The brilliant analysis of spectacle by Guy Deborah and Jean Baudrillard in the case of a modern epidemic is inappropriate: the usual way of experiencing a spectacle in the case of an epidemic is changing – this spectacle is non-spectacular. The spectacle of an epidemic is a “quarantine spectacle”: isolated from “what is” and / or isolating spectators from it. Without displaying death (except in the form of mortality curves that have nothing to do with a specific death), the screen does not reflect what is happening inside the epidemic itself. The fundamental representativeness of death is complemented by a number of invisibilities – the invisibility of the unceremoniously buried dead, the invisibility of isolated patients, the invisibility of physicians protected by their suits and, most importantly, the invisibility of the threat. However, since the screen cannot remain blank, it is filled with images of scarcity and absence: the image of an empty city is decisive for quarantine visuality. The representation of the epidemic, despite the fact that it is broadcast online as a constant update of statistics, avoids both eventness and entertainment.
Kateryna Yu. Kuznetsova
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 79-89; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-9

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to describe secularism, secularization and secularity in their relationship with the metaphysical and post-metaphysical philosophizing. The objective of the research is to analyze and compare the sense of the term secularism, secularization and secularity in metaphysical and post-metaphysical philosophizing. The scientific novelty of the research is that secularism is seen as an ideology derived from secularization and inextricably linked with the metaphysical constructions of modernism and secularity as a natural consequence of the ongoing process of secularization in the post-metaphysical paradigm of thinking. Post-secular philosophy is philosophy after secular ontology and epistemology have been criticized; after we have been aware of the secular as a framework that relentlessly dictates the specific outlines of our experience, but which we are free to deploy in any way that impresses us; after we have taken in quotation marks all the usual secular divisions and wondered whether it is possible to live, feel and think differently. Speaking of post-secular philosophy, it is impossible to avoid the question of what is meant by secular, which in this post-secular seems to be overcome. To answer this question, it is necessary to distinguish between secularism, secularization and secularity, because these concepts are not equivalent. The author understands secularism as an ideology that presupposes the disappearance of religion, the “disenchantment” of the world, the liberation of man and humanity from all sorts of charms, especially religious. Secularization is the positive way in which society responds to the call of its own religious tradition. Secularization does not eliminate religion as such, but only some forms of religiosity that are incompatible with the new vision of reality. Thus, by secularization the author means a certain process of changing the status of religious faith in the public consciousness. Secularism is an ideology according to which a person criticizes everything religious, including religious institutions, and also believes that non-religious and anti-religious principles should be the basis of human morality. The term secularity refers either to the state of consciousness of a modern subject who has ceased to be religious or for whom religious faith has been replaced by modern experience; or the state of modern institutions and practices that operate outside any connection with religion. Completion of metaphysics means loss of confidence in any metanarratives, including secularism. The prefix “post” applies to the present era, when we speak of the end of secularism, and by no means the end of secularity.
Svitlana M. Povtoreva, Oksana Yu. Chursinova
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 33-46; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-4

Abstract:
The article considers the features of gender researches in the context of significant changes taking place in the technical and technological sphere of modern society. The authors considered it their task to trace the evolution of the gender issue starting with the actual ignoring of scientific and technological progress realities in early feminism to the natural synthesis of this issue with the achievements of technoscience and information technology. The most modern form of such a synthesis was cyberfeminism. The authors were meticulous about the terminological apparatus of this problem, about the explication of the newest concepts, which, thanks to gender studies, have significantly enriched the modern humanitarian discourse. The peculiarity of this study is an attempt to identify the logic of gender research evolution, which adjusts to the formation of a new humanism, awareness of the identity of many strata of modern society (women, workers, people with disabilities, etc. – those who have traditionally been oppressed in the past) and the search for the ways to struggle for their rights and their future. The article outlines the methodological principles of gender studies, because it is the methodology that allows you to productively develop these studies in the context of postmodern humanities. As a result of the study, the constructive possibilities of gender research, the prospects of their methodology, which allows to form the foundations of modern humanism, to find upgrades as to solve existing problems so to anticipate new challenges of the XXI century. Basing on foreign sources, where the gender problem is being studied quite actively and is developing rapidly, the authors of the article also analyze the state of gender research in Ukraine, which takes into account the realities of technoscience and information technology.
Mark O. Ikeke
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 182-192; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-20

Abstract:
Sub-Saharan Africa like some other parts of the world is plagued by myriads of problems such as environmental degradation, climate change, illegal migration, human trafficking, terrorism, resources conflicts, bad and inept leadership, failing states, armed banditry, drug smuggling, youth restiveness, unemployment, etc. One of these problems, unemployment, has led to the devastation of many human lives and equally made some persons to live in degrading manner that affect environmental resources. Unemployment is not simply about statistics or numbers but about actual human lives who are holders of rights and dignity. Unemployment can impede the exercise of human rights and prevent people from living meaningful lives. In spite of the region’s enormous natural resources and human capital unemployment remains drastically unabated. Why is this situation so? This situation is problematized here. Consequently, this paper critically and analytically examines this problem of unemployment in Sub-Saharan Africa in the light of an ethics of solidarity. The paper hermeneutically interprets the concepts involved in the study. The grave reasons for unemployment in the region will be examined with likely solutions. Besides these possible solutions, the paper sees the issue as also bordering on ethical realities. Many of the factors that causes employment borders on human behaviours and morality. There are ethical dimensions to the issue then. This is why the paper takes the vantage point of an ethics of solidarity to argue for an additional solution to the problem. This is equally the theoretical frame from which the problem of unemployment is examined. Living in solidarity makes individuals to easily collaborate and overcome societal problems like unemployment. The paper finds that unemployment is a pervasive problem in the sub-continent and is causing grave consequences for both human lives and the environment. The paper concludes that an ethics of solidarity can help in mitigating the problem of unemployment in the sub-continent. And that when this is done it will help to create a happier and peaceful sub-continent.
Viktoriya V. Havrylenko
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 108-116; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-12

Abstract:
The article deals with the specifics of pagan and Christian beliefs in the worldview of Ukrainians of the 17–18 centuries. The term “interreligious dualism” has been proposed to refer to the phenomenon of synthesis of religious beliefs. The research is based on the analysis of samples of the spiritual culture of early modern Ukraine. The purpose is to outline the specifics of interreligious dualism in the worldview of Ukrainians of the 17th–18th centuries. The research has been conducted with the use of methods of analysis (concrete samples of combinations of Christian and pagan beliefs) and generalization (identification of main tendencies in the functioning of interreligious dualism). The phenomenon of interreligious dualism lies precisely in the parallel and synthetic existence of Christian and archaic points of view. Enlightened progressive clergy attempted to overcome magical mysticism, emphasizing the superstitious nature and the falsehood of man’s magical powers. From the standpoint of Christianity, the magical power of man and his attempts to manifest it condemned as sinful communications with the devil. And from a secular standpoint, magical abilities were perceived as the knowledge and skills of individual members of the community who can influence nature, the elements, the harvest, health, relationships. The average Ukrainians focused on preserving and using traditional pre-Christian beliefs in everyday life. Resistance was not caused by Christian ideas themselves, but by strict church formality and rituality. The phenomenon of interreligious dualism in the 17th and 18th centuries looks like the search for a non-conflictual combination and compromise between the archaic and the Christian views.
Darya A. Zakhlypa
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 128-138; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-14

Abstract:
Research on the negative foundations of time will not lose its relevance as long as the connection, stated by M. Heidegger in 1927, remains legitimate and systemically justified. Sein und Zeit do not look like the classical opposition of being and thinking, being and phenomenon, being and existence, which are shaped very antinomically according to the philosophical tradition. M. Heidegger’s “being and time”, in relation to which we are talking about the possibilities of temporal derivatives among the phenomenological and ontological “given”, we have to define as a Wende der Zeit, in other words, the “turn of time” for the philosophy of positive. What times are meant? On the one hand, times of modern metaphysical projects that sought to overcome the framework of existence without the slightest effort in the direction of its own autonomous disclosure. On the other hand, there will remain times that are only maturating: the destruction of philosophy under the onslaught of pointless “twisting of words”, which never had any special consequences. The main issues of the article will be devoted to the ontological and contextual thematization of time among two atypical dimensions for the concept of chronos (from the Greek Χρόνος – “time”): the eon and the retarded Nothing. The aim of the article is to describe the constitution of time on the basis of the negative copula of being and as a subject of radical ontology at the same time. The tasks we will focus on are as follows: first of all, we will conduct a phenomenological analysis of time in relation to the retarded Nothing concepts such as ἐνέργεια (from the Greek “action”, “activity”) of Aristotle, cairological παρουσία (from the Greek – “presence”) of Augustine, transcendental scheme of I. Kant and the absolute temporal flow of E. Husserl. Secondly, we will single out the negative copula of being from the field of essence within the framework of ontological differentiation. Finally, we will deduce the eon from the etymological primacy of “eternity” in favor of the epoch-making experience of active negation. In order for the passage of time to become proportionate to its carrier, and for the philosophy of positivity, which has reached its completion and has ceased to be an obstacle at the “turn of time”, we will critically analyze impersonal time. Orientation to Greek concepts is paradigmatic in this case.
The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series "Medicine" pp 15-24; doi:10.26565/2226-0994-2020-62-2

Abstract:
The article considers the narrative component of porn, in particular its temporal aspects. Pornography is defined as specific exonarrative, which is a form of disclosure/stimulation of sexual act as continuation of sex/narrative on the other side. The article determines out several moduses of time in the exonarrative of porn. In particular, it is argued that the sequence of variation and the sequence of scenes form the linear time of porn, which intersects the time delay. Emphasis is placed on continuation, repetition and delay as modus of time of porn/sex that are directly related to enjoyment. Finally, it is concluded that the chronotope of the pornographic exonarrative is (just)-here-being. Further, command/subjugation is considered as the main structural opposition in exonarrative of porn. In this context, porn and magic are compared. This is a magical time of magic, the action of which (just-here) to take place immediately, as soon as there is a command. Thus, the magic of porn expresses/exposes the power, the paradigm of which is sex. The magical function of sex is to perform immersion when a certain multiple of sexual attributes has multiple reflections. And the porno-narrative homeomorphism of sex is revealed in the obligatory reciprocity, no matter what the social positions of bodies and actors. Porn is a utopia in which any possible antagonism, any problem is removed by sex. Sex is solution or deviation from the problem. The pornographic exonarrative transposes the solution into another/external plane, on the other side of the problem. Finally, it is argued that enjoyment arises from the creation of tension between the urgency of nature, passion, flesh, on the one hand, and the (retro)projection of history, ritual, language, on the other.
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