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Myriam Kaszap, Dave Holmes
Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, Volume 2, pp 54-75; doi:10.25071/2291-5796.78

La situation actuelle en milieux de psychiatrie légale ne permet pas aux patients d’exprimer pleinement leur sexualité durant leur hospitalisation. Dans certains cas, les relations sexuelles sont tout simplement interdites. Non seulement, les politiques institutionnelles en place briment, en partie, les personnes dans l’exercice de leurs droits fondamentaux elles manquent aussi de clarté au regard de la façon dont le personnel infirmier devrait gérer les besoins des patients. Une étude ethnographique critique a été conduite dans un centre de psychiatrie légale canadien. La collecte de données a inclus des entrevues semi-structurées, la collecte de documents institutionnels et l’observation du milieu. Nos résultats s’articulent autour de trois thèmes: situer la sexualité en contexte médico-légal, faire l’expérience de la sexualité en tant que patient et gouverner la sexualité des patients. Les données récoltées permettent de constater que ces discours façonnent les croyances et les actions des patients, des infirmières et des autres professionnels tels que les psychiatres, les éducateurs et les psychologues.
Dave Holmes, Amélie Perron
Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, Volume 2, pp 1-2; doi:10.25071/2291-5796.85

Michelle Danda
Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, Volume 2, pp 29-53; doi:10.25071/2291-5796.75

While there is a growing body of research available on general restraint intervention in acute adult psychiatric settings, relatively little is known about nurses’ experiences of administering chemical restraint. The research question explored in this study was: what are mental health nurses’ experiences of using chemical restraint interventions in times of behavioural emergency on adult inpatient acute mental health units? Through this Canadian study understanding of direct care nurses’ first-hand experiences of the use of chemical restraint interventions was sought. Eight adult acute inpatient mental health nurses were interviewed using hermeneutic phenomenological method. Two major themes that emerged from data analysis are explored to illuminate the existing tension between therapeutic, person-centred care and coercive control to maintain safety: taking control to maintain safety and working within constraints. Integral ways that nurses make meaning from administering chemical restraint were found, as well as some of the complex clinical and ethical decision-making aspects involved in psychiatric nursing care. Implications for practice, education, and policy are discussed. Research findings indicated a need for further focus on medication best practice, policy development and nurse education. These exploratory research findings can be used to both inform and challenge dominant inpatient mental health practice to guide nurses, health care leaders, and policy makers by increased understanding of the complex ethical decision making required for use of chemical restraint interventions.
Josephine Etowa, Bagnini Kohoun, Egbe B. Etowa, Getachew Kiros, Ikenna Mbagwu, Mwali Muray, Charles Dabone, Lovelyn Ubangha, Hilary Nare
Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, Volume 2, pp 124-130; doi:10.25071/2291-5796.84

Despite the universal healthcare system in Canada, Canadians of African Descent (CAD) still face numerous problems that place them at higher risk to pandemics such as COVID-19. From the struggles of working as frontline workers, to challenges compounded by pre-existing chronic medical conditions such as Diabetes, CAD may face unique issues, further weighing on their existing and potential health outcomes. This situation calls for closer attention to the specific needs of CAD who may be at greater risk of late diagnosis and delayed treatment for COVID-19. Historically, marginalized communities such as CAD must be included in healthcare considerations and planning, so as to avoid further leaving them behind during and after the storm. Past evidence has shown that structural inequities shape who is affected by disease and its economic fallout. Therefore, the unique needs of CAD must be considered in healthcare planning with the ongoing COVID-19 response. Keywords: pandemic, marginalized, healthcare, COVID-19, Canadians of African Descent
Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, Volume 2, pp 104-123; doi:10.25071/2291-5796.62

Despite advancements in research and medicine, health inequities and disparities among First Nations peoples (FN) in Canada are well documented and continue to grow. Once virtually unheard of, cancer now is a leading cause of death among FN. Many factors contribute to cancer disparities, but FN face unique challenges in accessing healthcare. In this critical review and analysis, we explore potential links between cancer disparities and poor access to cancer care among FN. Research suggests FN experience difficulty accessing cancer services in several ‘places’ of care, including screening, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship and palliative care. Furthermore, there are notable ‘spaces’ or gaps both within and between these ‘places’ of care likely contributing to cancer disparities among First Nations. Gaps in care result from jurisdictional ambiguities, geographical location, unsafe social spaces, and marginalization of FN ways of knowing, and can be linked to colonial and neocolonial policies and ideologies. By drawing attention to these broader structural influences on health, we aim to challenge discourses that attribute growing cancer disparities among FN in Canada solely to increases in ‘risk factors’.
C. Susana Caxaj , Amy Cohen, Bonar Buffam, Oudshoorne Abe
Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, Volume 2, pp 92-103; doi:10.25071/2291-5796.69

In 2018, over 70% of the 69,775 temporary migrant agricultural labourers arriving in Canada participated in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP). Despite having legal status in Canada, these individuals are often systematically excluded from community life and face barriers when accessing health and social services. SAWP workers’ exclusion from many public spaces and their incomplete access to the benefits of Canadian citizenship or residency provide us a unique opportunity to examine social and political mechanisms that construct (in)eligibility for health and protection in society. As individuals seeking to care for the sick and most marginalized, it is important for nurses to understand how migrant agricultural workers are positioned and imagined in society. We argue that the structural exclusion faced by this population can be uncovered by examining (1) border politics that inscribe inferior status onto migrant agricultural workers (2) nation-state borders that promote racialized surveillance and; (3) everyday normalization of exclusionary public service practices. We discuss how awareness of these contextual factors can be mobilized by nurses to work towards a more equitable health services approach for this population.
Michelle Danda
Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, Volume 2, pp 20-28; doi:10.25071/2291-5796.71

In recent decades scholars have begun to question the value of mental health nursing. The term has lost both conceptual and explanatory power in the modern globalized world in which multidisciplinary teams now carry out many functions once unique to the specialization, yet its distinction persists. The purpose of this paper is to explore an emerging research methodology, duoethnography, as an avenue to revive mental health nursing, by subverting the dominant post-positivist, scientifically driven, medically framed, evidence-based practice perspective, to gain greater understanding of the nuances of mental health nursing practice. Duoethnography offers promise in challenging nursing research norms embedded in an empirically based medical model, however the newness of the method poses potential methodological issues. Duoethnography is a methodology well-suited to explore the question of whether mental health nursing is an outmoded tradition too deeply entrenched in the institutional past, or an emerging profession leading mental health care.
Margaret Lebold, Judith MacDonnell
Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, Volume 2, pp 76-91; doi:10.25071/2291-5796.76

The advent of “the abortion pill” (Mifegymiso) in 2015 has shaped the contemporary context of access to abortion in Canada. In this paper, we highlight findings of a literature review that uses a gender and intersectional lens and critical discourse analysis to explore contemporary abortion access and implications for nursing. The discursive dynamics influencing nurses’ understandings of abortion, that is, the contexts in which some discourses are privileged over others yet often operate at the unconscious level to influence everyday knowledge and practices, are important to discern to work towards social justice goals. Findings suggest that normative and contradictory features of discourses such as women’s health, motherhood, and abortion access are relevant. Given the relative silence of abortion in nursing literature and prevailing gender normativity in nursing, there are compelling reasons to apply a critical feminist lens to deepen nurses’ understandings and critical reflection about abortion. There are implications for current education, research, and nursing practice.
Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, Volume 2, pp 3-19; doi:10.25071/2291-5796.72

In this article, our aim is to provide a critical analysis of the phenomenon of judiciarization of people suffering from a mental illness and its impact on nursing practice. To explore the issues inherent to this phenomenon, we employed the methodology of discursive analysis greatly inspired by the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault. The results of this analysis push our reflection on the experiences and practices that take place at the psychiatric and judicial interface, engaging in a critic of underlying goals of public protection, social control, and coercion being incorporated to nursing practice. While acting in seemingly humanistic and therapeutic roles of care, nurses are simultaneously and inevitably fulfilling a mandate to social control which, to date, remains relatively under documented.
Maha Shuayb, Maurice Crul
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 1-80; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40843

Kyle Reissner, Gül Çalışkan
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 73-74; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40834

Kathryn Tomko Dennler
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 71-72; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40833

Julia Morris
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 75-76; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40835

Natasha Saunders
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 77-78; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40836

Lama Mourad
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 69-70; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40832

Cathrine Brun, Maha Shuayb
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 20-30; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40717

The article unpacks and analyzes the potentials and short- comings of a humanitarian framework for educational response during protracted displacement. Humanitarianism is concerned with the immediate, while education is future oriented. Calls to shift the humanitarian discourse from relief and survival to development have contributed to include education as part of the humanitarian response. The article analyzes potentials and limitations in Lebanon’s edu- cation provision and policies for Syrian refugees. We discuss the impact and implications of the humanitarian response and reflect on what principles should be formulated for pro- vision of a socially just, inclusive, and more developmental education for refugees in protracted displacement.
Jo Kelcey, Samira Chatila
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 9-19; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40713

The UNHCR strategy to include refugee students in host state education systems is intended to promote refugees’ access to quality education. However, numbers of out-of-school refugees far exceed the global average. To understand these persistent barriers, we examine how Lebanese teachers and school principals understand and enact inclusion for school-age Syrian refugees. We find that inclusion has been pursued in ways that reproduce education inequities in Lebanon. Our findings underscore the importance of account- ing for the internal complexities that shape the implementation and appropriation of policies within refugee host states and the ways in which these complexities interact with aid structures.
Christoph Homuth, Jörg Welker, Gisela Will, Jutta Von Maurice
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 45-57; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40715

During the so-called refugee crisis of 2015, approximately 300,000 underage asylum seekers came to Germany. We examine whether their legal status and their subjective perception of their status are equally important for their educational integration. On the basis of rational choice theory, we hypothesize that refugees’ legal status should affect their educational outcomes. Our study finds no differences among students with different legal statuses in school placement. However, students who perceive their status as insecure report significantly worse GPA than students who feel rather secure. Concerning the objective legal status, we do find that students with an insecure legal status report better grades than those with a granted refugee status. These contrary results show the importance of addition- ally considering status perception in understanding and explaining educational outcomes of immigrants in further research. Educators should be aware of the potential divergence between objective and subjective status and their corresponding effects on educational trajectories.
Maha Shuayb, Maurice Crul
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 3-8; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40831

Annette Korntheuer, Ann-Christin Damm
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 31-44; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40719

Enabling the successful integration of refugee students into the German schooling system poses a crucial challenge for the coming years. Drawing from the human rights frame- work of the Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies standards, we applied a rights-based approach to policy analysis on educational provisions for refugee students from 2012 to 2018. According to international and European law, Germany is obliged to grant similar access to education for nationals as well as refugee children and youth. In reality, the realization of educational rights varies from state to state. This will be highlighted and discussed in this article, using the example of two very different German states, Hamburg and Saxony. The sudden rise of numbers of refugees led only slowly to an increase in educational policy density and intensity on federal state and national levels in 2016 and 2017. We find that the differences in compulsory schooling, models of integration into schooling, and the asylum and settlement policies in both states shape the educational participation of refugee children and youths. Both states implemented parallel integration models that might bear risks of stigmatization and limit educational possibilities. However, transition and language support concepts in both contexts contain integrative phases offer- ing language supports in the regular classrooms. Asylum policies and state-specific settlement policies have profound implications for the rights and access to education. Further, vocational education and training programs play a crucial role, especially in Saxony, to tackle demographic challenges.
Rachel Burke, Caroline Fleay, Sally Baker, Lisa Hartley, Rebecca Field
Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees, Volume 36, pp 58-68; doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40658

Higher education remains unattainable for many people seeking asylum in Australia, where temporary visa status renders individuals ineligible for a range of government services including assistance with financing tertiary study. Many universities have responded by offering scholarships and other essential supports; however, our research indi- cates the challenges associated with studying while living on a temporary visa can affect the success of educational assistance. Here we highlight the importance of scholarships and other supports for facilitating access to tertiary study, particularly given the continuation of restrictive government policies, and identify the need for people seeking asylum to inform institutional and community responses.
Hannah Anneliese Bailey
Left History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Historical Inquiry and Debate, Volume 23; doi:10.25071/1913-9632.39578

This article looks at the eugenic sterilization in the United States in the twentieth century through the lens of race and property ownership. In Kansas specifically, sterilization was sensationalized in the media amidst two events that showcased contradictory understandings of white girlhood in the liberal eugenic era. Sterilization was championed in 1917 after a young white girl was raped and murdered, and then decried two decades later in 1937 when a senator uncovered a (legal) sterilization campaign at a girls' reformatory. I argue that these competing representations of white girlhood resulted from larger-scale societal anxieties about womens' expanding property ownership and voting rights in the twentieth century. Further, I analyze representations of race in the Girls' Industrial School in Beloit, Kansas to show how Black girls in the institution were understood as inherently criminal in a way that validated the ultimate "reformability" of white girls from eugenecist understandings of class and sexuality amongst white youth.
Adam Tomasi
Left History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Historical Inquiry and Debate, Volume 23; doi:10.25071/1913-9632.39577

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the preeminent organization of the American New Left, is understood by scholars to have led resistance to the Vietnam War up until the split between the Maoist Progressive Labor (PL) and Revolutionary Youth Movement (RYM) at the 1969 convention. Countercultural anarchist participation in non-student chapters of SDS during the late 1960s, and the organization’s civil rights coalition that included anarchists during the early 1960s, remain under-studied. The New Left’s major project, globally, was the search for new answers to ongoing revolutionary questions by returning to – and reinventing – radical traditions from the past, such as anarchism. This essay argues that countercultural anarchism had a formative influence on SDS’s early history, radical evolution, and coalitions outside the campus, and consequently helped define the New Left as a whole.
Dalton Rawcliffe
Left History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Historical Inquiry and Debate, Volume 23; doi:10.25071/1913-9632.39582

Donald Yacovone
Left History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Historical Inquiry and Debate, Volume 23; doi:10.25071/1913-9632.39579

Because of its place in American and world literature, The Education of Henry Adams has become enormously influential, but we have not fully understood the full scope of its impact, its subversive contexts, and Adams’s role in sustaining and furthering white supremacy. Indeed, although most of the text is devoted to the era of the American Civil War and Reconstruction, Adams never employed the term. More importantly, because of the intensity of his racism and anti-Semitism, he dismissed the era that was dominated by strife over the nation’s future and the African American role in it as one simply overwhelmed with sordid political corruption, which had its origins in alleged Jewish intrigue both in the United States and Europe. By examining the background to Adams’s work and his brilliant ingenuity, we can more fully understand what Adams sought to accomplish and how. Neither an autobiography nor a history, Adams crafted a “trickster” novel to devalue African Americans and attack Jewish life. He wrote, perhaps, the most ingenious and dangerous book of the fin de siècle.
Mack Penner
Left History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Historical Inquiry and Debate, Volume 23; doi:10.25071/1913-9632.39580

Ravi Malhotra
Left History: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Historical Inquiry and Debate, Volume 23; doi:10.25071/1913-9632.39581

CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40384

CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40369

Janneka Guise, Bryan Martin, James Mason, Rebecca Shaw
CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40376

The Stratton-Clarke collection consists of approximately 200 linear feet of 78 and 33 1/3 rpm records, and thousands of digitized recordings that represents a comprehensive history of early twentieth century recorded Western sound, specifically opera -- its artists, roles, and early legacy from 78 rpm to early long play records. Along with someephemera and several pieces of historic playback equipment, a large financial gift will offset the costs of processing, preserving and providing access to the various formats represented in the collection. As the largest music research collection in Canada, the University of Toronto Music Library is fortunate to have the capacity to manage a donation of this magnitude. Each of our four authors has an important role to play to make the project a success. In this article we present a history and background of John Stratton, Stephen Clarke, and the collection itself, and document the many facets of a library taking on a donation of this size: donor relations and collaboration with the University’s advancement team and other stakeholders; the project management involved in making space and designing workflow for cataloguing, processing, and storage; archival description of the 78s and ephemera; preservation of the digital objects and digitization strategies for the analog recordings; the challenges and opportunities of working with large financial gifts; teamwork and managing students; and future plans for physical and online exhibitions of the collection.
CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40378

The COVID-19 pandemic caused many conference cancellations, while others moved to the virtual environment. Below are reports from five virtual conferences: New England Chapter of the MLA by Marci CohenMountain-Plains Chapter of the MLA: Two Perspectives by Christine Edwards and Ellwood P. ColahanTeaching Music Online in Higher Education by Kevin MadillAssociation for Recorded Sound Collections by Rebecca ShawMusic Encoding Conference by Emily Hopkins, Yaolong Ju, Juliette Regimbal and Martha Thomae
Janneka Guise, Jada E. Watson
CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40371

James K. Wright
CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40380

Trevor Deck
CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40379

Joan Colquhoun McGorman
CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40373

Lucinda Johnston
CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40377

Digital and streaming audio and video (A/V) content have usurped the primacy of physical media materials and their playback technology within institutional music libraries, notwithstanding throwbacks to and resurgences of physical media in commercial and personal contexts. Music libraries are challenged with the conflicting responsibilities of maintaining legacy format materials that are not digitally available, continuing to collect physical resources that are not available either digitally or through institutional streaming subscriptions, and acquiring born-digital and digitized resources. They must also reconcile these responsibilities with the fact that many streaming A/V resources are freely available to individual consumers. In an era of dwindling resources and appreciation for curated music collections, how will libraries ensure that their A/V resources, in all formats, remain relevant to current and future users? This paper presents the results of an A/V usage survey administered to affiliates of the University of Alberta’s Music Department to learn about the attitudes, preferences and experiences of music library users’ practises for accessing recorded music.
Diana Wu
CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40381

CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40370

CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40372

Carolyn Doi, Raquel Mann
CAML Review / Revue de l'ACBM, Volume 48; doi:10.25071/1708-6701.40374

In the inaugural Spotlight on Music Collections column, Carolyn Doi interviews Raquel Mann, Digital Public Spaces Librarian at the Edmonton Public Library. In this interview, Mann speaks about the EPL's “Capital City Records: Edmonton Local Music” digital public space, as well as “Voices of Amiskwaciy”, a space for sharing and celebrating local Indigenous content, “Edmonton Stories: A Canada 150 Digital Storytelling Project” and “Open Data at EPL”.
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