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Lim Wei Jie, Teoh Poh Sen, , Mohammad Fadhil Abas
Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Volume 54, pp 435-443; doi:10.18280/jesa.540306

This work focuses on the implementation and design of a six degree of freedom, 6-DOF control of automatic color sorting and pick and place tasks for a robot arm using wireless controlling interface – Blynk apps. Based on the collaboration between the servo motor and input color sensor, this wireless control of automatic color sorting robot arm provides a powerful wireless control GUI (Graphics User Interface) and to enable the method for manual color sorting mode. The color sorting mode is performed once the mode is turned on by the user. The robot arm able to differentiate the colors of the object (input) and categorize or classify the object to the correct places automatically. It provides a stable, efficient, and precision results without any vibration of control as the main target for this project. In this work, six servo motors were used to realize the real robotic arm for industrial use. Five servos were operated to control the entire robot arm motion including the base, shoulder, and elbow as well as one servo is reserved for the positioning of the end effector. Two input variables namely TSC3200 Color Sensors & HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensors were employed as the input for the robot arm. The output variable mainly focused on the servo motor as the links for the robot arm to reposition and change the motion for the entire system.
, Aissa Ameur, Aissa Rebai
Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Volume 54, pp 381-394; doi:10.18280/jesa.540301

Diabetes is one of the most important diseases that researchers have focused on in scientific research since the time, because of the seriousness of this disease if it is not properly dealt with, especially with the emergence of some global epidemics such as Corona Virus (COVID 19), as the pancreas is the organ responsible for regulating sugar in the blood by secreting the insulin enzyme, insulin is widely used to control blood sugar. Therefore, it is important that the required insulin value is constant and controlled. The aim of this study is to control the blood glucose value that is achieved as a desired value and to maintain it as a constant value using a proportional, integral, and derivative control unit (FOPID) fractional order of the control parameters. In this research, the new control unit is applied to Bergman's mathematical model as a non-linear and simple model that simulates the mechanism of the interaction of glucose and insulin in the blood, and based on this, a closed control loop was designed to regulate the level of blood sugar to be an automatic control of blood glucose using the measured data from Special sensor. The contribution in this scientific paper is to define the (FOPID) parameters according to the closed loop responses of the system, and these parameters were adjusted using new meta-heuristic algorithms including the Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO), the PSO Particle Swarm optimization, the Genetic Algorithm (GA), The bat optimization algorithm (BA) and (ACO). As a result, the results of the five modern algorithms were compared based on several criteria to find out which one was better using MATLAB / SIMULINK simulation. It was found that the IWO algorithm performs better than PSO. The simulation results of the closed-loop system of this controller at the time of settling, overshoot and control inputs indicate very positive results compared to previous results. In addition, a new method has been proposed which is to design a pump in the form of a valve to control insulin pumping by controlling it with the fuzzy logic control unit, which in turn, we obtained better results, compared to the results of other previous studies.
Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Volume 54, pp 445-452; doi:10.18280/jesa.540307

This paper presents the analysis of steady state behavior of a single switch non-isolated Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC) topology for achieving high DC voltage gain using diode-capacitor voltage multiplier. A voltage boosting module consisting of inductor and capacitor in addition with two diodes is introduced in the conventional SEPIC configuration in order to derive the DC-DC conversion technology proposed in this work. The voltage gain of the converter is extended using a diode-capacitor voltage multiplier cell. The converter suggested in this work has a single controlled switch. Hence, the conduction losses and the control complexity of the switch are very much reduced. The open loop configuration of the proposed non-isolated converter is described under continuous inductor current mode. The voltage boosting capability of the presented converter is compared with that of the existing modified SEPIC structure. The presented positive output converter topology has low switch voltage-current stress compared to the existing modified SEPIC topology given in the literature. The inductor and capacitor components of the suggested converter are so chosen that the DC output voltage and current waveforms show very low percentage of ripples. A DC voltage level of 24 V is given as input to the proposed converter. The DC voltage obtained across the load terminals is around 370 V which is achievable with low duty ratio (= 0.7) of the active switch. The voltage conversion ratio is very much influenced by the variation of the duty cycle of the power switch. In this work, the converter topology is presented and its various modes of operation are explained with equivalent circuits. The PSIM software platform is effectively and efficiently utilized to validate the performance of the converter. The obtained results convey that the proposed DC-DC conversion technology with extended voltage gain has the capability to maintain the steady-state output voltage and current profiles with almost negligible amount of ripples owing to the use of suitably designed non-dissipative elements in LC filter.
, Abdelhak Benheniche
Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Volume 54, pp 495-502; doi:10.18280/jesa.540313

This work proposes a sensorless control strategy for the induction motor (IM) using a Backstepping control and a nonlinear observer based on the circle-criterion approach. The Backstepping is a powerful control strategy that deals with nonlinear higher-order systems and includes non-measurable parameters related to the (IM). The nonlinear observer approach is intended to determine these important parameters. The circle-criterion approach is employed to determine the observer gain matrices as a solution of LMI (linear matrix inequalities) that guarantee the stability conditions of the designed observer. The main objective of this method is to solve the problem of the nonlinearities of the system which ensure the global asymptotic convergence of the observed dynamics and to improve the performance of the induction motors. The efficiency and correctness of the proposed scheme are proven by several numerical simulations.
, Farid Benhamida, Riyadh Bouddou
Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Volume 54, pp 423-434; doi:10.18280/jesa.540305

The cost of electricity for the reverse osmosis desalination process is up to 50% of the cost per cubic meter of water produce. Currently, the reduction of energy consumption is the main objective of the research on reverse osmosis plants. This document presents a power system analysis of the seawater desalination plant in Algeria with different load scenarios with a power of 50 MW made available by the electricity company Sonelgaz and a distribution level of 220/11/0.69/0.4 kV and a 2 MW diesel generator at the 0.4 kV level. The objective of this study is to analyze and dimension a general distribution network of an industrial customer through the power flow with different load and contingency scenarios (full load, full load N-1, low load, emergency system) to know and control its optimal and flexible operation. In a second step, the dimensioning of different protective devices is planned through a short circuit analysis of this network in order to evaluate the performance of the system. The ETAP program is used to carry out our simulation of this industrial plant and the effectiveness of the results is proven by comparisons with real measurements for the power flow analysis on the one hand and on the other hand with the results obtained by the builder for the short circuit analysis.
Giulio Lorenzini, , Ahmed Amin Ahmed Solyman
Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Volume 54, pp 395-402; doi:10.18280/jesa.540302

Tracking maximum power in photovoltaic applications is considered a major issue. Because of the change in the output power of solar cells by changing the radiation and temperature, it is required to receive the maximum power from solar array to be achieved the maximum efficiency using maximum power tracking methods. A large number of the maximum power methods have been introduced so far, but each has difficulty in terms of tracking speed and accuracy, and in practice, they have not been able to improve both of these factors. Among the commonly used methods, the incremental conductance method has a good tracking speed and accuracy, but at the same time, it cannot reach both to a desirable value. In this paper, a new method is proposed based on the above method that improves the mentioned factors simultaneously to an acceptable limit. The result of the simulation confirms the correctness of the claim of the proposed method.
Phat Nguyen Huu, Hoan Nguyen Duc
Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Volume 54, pp 453-460; doi:10.18280/jesa.540308

The underwater environmental monitoring system applying IoT is now developing for 4.0 industry. It helps not only to simplify work but also to increase efficiency and reduce costs and execution time as well as ensure health to avoid contact with toxic solutions. In this paper, we first model the process of measuring NH3 concentration manually to automate. Secondly, the proposed model is combined with the process of processing output image automatically and displaying the results on the server. Thirdly, the system is able to measure the concentration by VNC viewer connecting with Raspberry pi4 via WiFi. The result of the NH3 concentration parameter is sent to users quickly to alert promptly when it reaches a dangerous threshold. Experiments show that the system not only ensures fast processing time (less than 5 minutes) but also improves accuracy (up to 80%) comparing with real devices.
, Said Hassaine, Morsli Sbaa, Kamel Haddouche, Azeddine Bendiabdellah
Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Volume 54, pp 511-517; doi:10.18280/jesa.540315

This article proposes a digital control strategy of the RST type combined with a PI regulator of a synchronous servomotor with permanent magnets supplied by a voltage inverter controlled by the vector PWM technique whose robustness of the regulators is studied by the µ-analysis technique, and the estimation of the mechanical quantities is carried out using an observer by the Kalman filter. This study presents a detailed theoretical analysis and the simulation and experimentation results obtained clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Alexis Cordovés García, Carlos A. Pérez Alban, Jorge R. Terán Benalcázar, Alexis Cordovés Rodríguez, Leandro L. Lorente-Leyva, Arlys M. Lastre Aleaga
Journal Européen des Systèmes Automatisés, Volume 54, pp 469-474; doi:10.18280/jesa.540310

The goal of this paper is to obtain an automated system for the control of the quality of the combustion gases of a boiler. The concentration of oxygen present in the combustion gases is detected by means of a lambda sensor, and a proportional PID controller automatically regulates, through an actuator, the air inlet to the boiler, thus ensuring the emission of CO2 and other polluting gases into the atmosphere within the parameters established by the current environmental regulations. The control system has an HMI display and a modular PLC. The results achieved also ensure the reduction of fuel consumption of the boiler.
Iman I. Gorial
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 425-430; doi:10.18280/mmep.080312

The aims of this paper are to propose approach of explicit finite difference mathod (EFDM), clarify the problem the mixed fractional derivative in one-dimensional fractional percolation equation (O-DFPE), and the study of consistency, stability, and convergence methods. Use of estimated Grunwald estimation in the analysis of mixed fractional derivatives. However, the given method is successfully applied to the mixed fractional derivative classes with the initial condition (IC) and derivative boundary conditions (DBC). To illustrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed algorithm, examples are given and the results are compared with the exact solution. From the figures shown for the examples in this work, the approximate solution values given by the EFDM for the various grid points are equivalent to the exact solution values with high-precision approximation. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, where the error between the EFDM and the exact method is zero, the fractional derivative was used with various and random values. Using the package MATLAB and MathCAD 12 Figures were introduced.
Shibam Manna, Tanmay Chowdhury, Asoke Kumar Dhar,
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 447-452; doi:10.18280/mmep.080315

An attempt to model the human hair industry in the post-COVID-19 pandemic situation using mathematical modelling has been the goal of this article. Here we introduce a novel mathematical modelling using a system of ordinary differential equations to model the human hair industry as well as the human hair waste management and related job opportunities. The growth of human hair in the months of nationwide total lockdown has been taken into account and graphs have been plotted to analyze the effect of Lockdown in this model. The alternative employment opportunities that can be created for collecting excessive hair in the post-pandemic period has been discussed. A probable useful mathematical model and mechanism to utilize the migrant labours who became jobless due to the pandemic situation and the corresponding inevitable lockdown situation resulting out of that crisis has been discussed in this paper. We discussed the stability analysis of the proposed model and obtained the criteria for an optimal profit of the said model. Graphs have also been plotted to analyze the impact of the control parameter on the optimal profit.
, Manoj Soni
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 347-355; doi:10.18280/mmep.080303

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is anatomically the most intricate joint which connects the lower jaw to the upper jaw and regulates jaw movements. It significantly deals with mastication and speech. It is hence imperative to study the mechanics and functioning of the jaw joint to devise alternative solutions for its replacement whenever required. Further, human skulls are anthropologically categorized into three types – African, Asian and European. Out of these, the Indian skull is also a bit different than its Asian counterparts because of its osteology and skeletal biology. Hence, a comprehensive biomechanical and computational study is essential to provide customized solutions. For the present study, four different loading conditions are selected to perform finite element analysis on the human skull, Anonymized and unidentifiable CT scan data sets from open-source web platforms are converted to STL and then 3D models using 3D slicer. Finite element analysis of jaw joint is carried out. Results based on Von Mises stress studies show significant behavioral differences under varying load conditions. Hence, it is crucial to identify solutions for TMJ disorders of the Indian population.
Rehab A. Khudair, Ameera N. Alkiffai, Ahmed S. Sleibi
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 441-446; doi:10.18280/mmep.080314

In this article, a fuzzy Tarig evolve (T-n-transform) is implemented. Similar theorems and properties have been proven. To explain the technique of this fuzzy transform in differential equations, examples in real life are presented. This study shows the applicability of this interesting fuzzy transform for solving differential equations with constant coefficients also for its computational power. It is desirable to use it as a new technique, to not only solve “nonlinear fractional differential equations", and to analyze prelocal system information. Moreover, significant theorems are presented to explain the properties of T˜-transform as well as a suggested method is validated with two reality examples.
, Abderrahim Bentaallah, Antonio J. Marques Cardoso, Youcef Djeriri, Imed Jlassi
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 323-332; doi:10.18280/mmep.080301

This paper presents a field-oriented control (FOC) of a dual star induction generator (DSIG) applied in a grid-connected wind energy conversion system. Currently, the dual star induction machine (DSIM) is increasingly used among multiphase machines. The machine has two star-connections, sharing the same stator offset, by an electrical angle of 30° and fed by two parallel converters. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is illustrated in a first stage, in order to extract a maximum of power under fluctuating wind speed. In a second stage, vector control of a DSIG with FOC is described. Finally, voltage oriented control (VOC) is used to ensure the power factor unity on the grid side. The main contribution of the presented paper is the application of a simple architecture of an artificial neural network (ANN) controller in order to improve the robustness and stability of the system, especially against the parameter change. In comparison with the conventional control, which is known by its sensitivity, the proposed neural MPPT with neural FOC (NMPPT-NFOC) presents better performance under normal and abnormal conditions. The robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control has been validated through illustrative simulation results with different functional zones, and for fixed and variable wind speed.
Minakshi Mohanty, , Satya Kumar Misra
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 409-417; doi:10.18280/mmep.080310

In this work three integral transforms through modified Adomian decomposition method (ADM) are proposed to obtain the approximate analytical solution of different types of mathematical models arising in physical problems. These transformations are applied for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous linear differential equations. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed methods are implemented through higher order non-homogeneous ordinary differential equations. Numerical tests are reported for applicability of the current scheme based on different transformations and compared with exact solutions.
, Seelam Sreekanth, G. Sankara Sekhar Raju
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 418-424; doi:10.18280/mmep.080311

Incompressible 2-D Navier-stokes equations for various values of Reynolds number with and without partial slip conditions are studied numerically. The Lid-Driven cavity (LDC) with uniform driven lid problem is employed with vorticity - Stream function (VSF) approach. The uniform mesh grid is used in finite difference approximation for solving the governing Navier-stokes equations and developed MATLAB code. The numerical method is validated with benchmark results. The present work is focused on the analysis of lid driven cavity flow of incompressible fluid with partial slip conditions (imposed on side walls of the cavity). The fluid flow patterns are studied with wide range of Reynolds number and slip parameters.
Stylianos Z. Kolidakis, George N. Botzoris
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 393-402; doi:10.18280/mmep.080308

The paper delivers an assessment of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) forecasting ability for short- and medium-term forecasting horizon, on real time traffic volume data. The key study goal is to estimate forecasting pertinency for daily traffic volume, based upon measurements at toll station. The suggested methodology is tested on real data from Moschohorion and Pelasgia Toll Station – Greece, utilizing custom developed forecasting software toolbox. Applied research results confirm an advanced forecasting ability of proposed methodology for short-term forecasting horizon against medium term forecasting horizon, when performance is compared upon the statistical criteria of the coefficient of determination R2. The obtained results present that SSA forecasting model could provide a competent forecasting methodology for road traffic volume data.
Alaa M. Hamad,
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 477-484; doi:10.18280/mmep.080319

Lomax distribution, a large-scale probabilistic distribution used in industry, economics, actuarial science, queue theory, and Internet traffic modeling, is the most important distribution in reliability theory. In this paper estimating the reliability of Restricted exponentiated Lomax distribution in two cases, when one component X strength and Y stress R=P(Y
Saktipada Nanda, , Samarpan Deb Majumder, Ramesh Kumar Karthick, Sagar Suman, Sahil Sonkar
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 485-491; doi:10.18280/mmep.080320

The research work explores blood flow into a stenosed artery, or one with abnormal growth within it. At the throats and at the critical height of the stenosis, mathematical and computational models have been developed to calculate the various associated parameters such as flow rate, pressure gradient, impedance, and wall shear stress. Modeling blood as a power law fluid showed the dependency of these quantities on temporal and spatial variables, as well as the frequency of the flow oscillation in time and the key parameters of the flow mechanism. The exponential curve is the geometry of the stenosis studied in this analysis. Analytical expressions for axial velocity, volumetric flow rate, pressure gradient, blood flow resistance, and shear stress have been computed and simulated in ANSYS to generate useful results with respect to variation of flow parameters with power law indices and also for comparison between Newtonian and Non- Newtonian models of blood. Upon investigation, it was found that wall shear stress (WSS) increases with stenosis depth and therefore, plays a crucial role in affecting other flow parameters. At power law index 0.6, the highest shear stress and flow velocity were encountered at approximately 7 Pa and 0.5 m/s respectively.
Ahmed Hashim Yousif, Hakim T. Kadhim, Kadhim K. Idan Al-Chlaihawi
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 386-392; doi:10.18280/mmep.080307

In this paper, a numerical simulation is performed to study the effect of two types of concave vortex generators (VGs), arranged as fish-tail locomotion in a rectangular channel. The heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics with and without VGs are examined over the Reynolds number range 200≤Re≤2200.The two proposed types of the VGs are selected based on the speed of the fish movement which is arranged in different distances between them (d/H=0.6, 1, 1.3). The results show that the use of VGs can significantly enhance the heat transfer rate, but also increases the friction factor. The heat transfer performance is enhanced by (4-21.1%) reaching the maximum value by using the first type of the VGs at (d/H=1.3) due to better mixing of secondary flow and the new arrangement of the VGs which lead to decreasing the friction factor with an easy flow of fluid.
, Ahmed Alchalaby, Hassan Ahmed Hassan
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 453-460; doi:10.18280/mmep.080316

Underwater Optical Wireless Communication (UWOC) becomes an emerging underwater communication technology, with high-data rates over relatively medium transmission ranges. When optical wireless signal transmitted in ocean water channel, it will suffer from drastic scattering and absorption due to water molecules, dissolved particles, air bubbles, and turbulence. Absorption and scattering of the transmitted wireless optical signal in underwater channel led to attenuation in optical signal power. Optical signal attenuation over underwater channel is an aggregate of` different parameters effects that changed frequently, then practical measuring of this attenuation is complicated, difficult, expensive, and time-consuming process. In this work, improved neural network optimized with future search algorithm (FANN) was proposed, as an efficacious solution to obtain an accurate, relabel values of attenuation coefficient in different water types and conditions. The proposed FANN model provides a good much results to the practical measured values. The performance of the proposed FANN model was evaluated using mean square error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) error indices. The errors in attenuation coefficient values obtained by the proposed FANN model had been calculated and its values are very acceptable which are lie lower than 10-4. The performance of the proposed FANN model shows excellent results which indicate the superior performance of the proposed FANN model.
, Juan José Cabello Eras, Alexis Sagastume Gutiérrez
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 431-440; doi:10.18280/mmep.080313

The limited availability of local climatological stations and the limitations to predict the wind speed (WS) accurately are significant barriers to the expansion of wind energy (WE) projects worldwide. A methodology to forecast accurately the WS at the local scale can be used to overcome these barriers. This study proposes a methodology to forecast the WS with high-resolution and long-term horizons, which combines a Fourier model and a nonlinear autoregressive network (NAR). Given the nonlinearities of the WS variations, a NAR model is used to forecast the WS based on the variability identified with the Fourier analysis. The NAR modelled successfully 1.7 years of wind-speed with 3 hours of the time interval, what may be considered the longest forecasting horizon with high resolution at the moment.
, Sarojini Jajimoggala
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 461-466; doi:10.18280/mmep.080317

The laser beam welding process is a promising technology because of its reliability and ability to automate the process easily. This study aims to analyze distortion for dissimilar laser weld joints. Hastelloy C276 and SS321 plates are joined by using the CO2 Laser beam welding. Welding current, welding speed and shielding gas flow are chosen as process parameters for preparing butt joints. Each of the factors has two levels to control the parameters of the output. Experimentation was conducted with four trails by using an L4 orthogonal array. The quality of the welds and bead geometry are verified through macrostructure examination. The Vernier height gauge was used for the measurement of distortion in the weldments. Lower the better-quality characteristic is chosen for the response. ANOVA studies identified laser power at 81%, the weld speed at 16% parameters is a contribution with a statistical of about 95%. Full penetration was observed for all the experimental trails.
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 333-346; doi:10.18280/mmep.080302

The Fourier integral method was used in this work to determine the stress fields in a two dimensional (2D) elastic soil mass of semi-infinite extent subject to line and strip loads of uniform intensity acting on the boundary. The two dimensional plane strain problem was formulated using stress-based method. The Fourier integral was used to transform the biharmonic stress compatibility equation to a fourth order linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) in terms of the stress function. The ODE was solved subject to the boundedness condition to obtain the bounded stress function. Cartesian stress components were obtained using the Love stress functions. Application of the stress boundary conditions for the case of line load of uniform intensity and the cases of uniformly distributed load on a strip of finite width gave the respective unknown constants of the Love stress functions; and hence the complete determination of the Cartesian stress components for the two cases considered. Inversion of the Fourier integral expressions obtained for the normal and shear stresses in the Fourier parameter gave respective expressions for the normal and shear stress fields for line and finite strip loads of finite width in the physical domain variables. The results obtained agreed with the results from previous studies which used displacement based methods.
Rysbek Baimakhan, Zhanar Kadirova, Assima Seinassinova, Aigerim Baimakhan, Zukhra Abdiakhmetova
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 467-476; doi:10.18280/mmep.080318

The purpose of this article is to present the developed methodology, a brief algorithm of mechanical-and-mathematical modeling to investigate the causes and mechanism of soil disruption from the hillsides and the results of its use for restoring the pre-landslide stress state using the example of one of the tragic landslides. The numerical finite element algorithm of studying the stress–strain state (SSS) of soil deposits of slopes of the inclined-layered structure is briefly described, with specific features of the use of isoparametric elements of the quadrangular shape with four nodes of arbitrary shape. For detailed studying the SSS, the cover soils of the steep slope of the inclined-layered structure, in height from the arch to the foot, are conventionally divided into three zones, each of which has layered structures. Studies of the geometry of its area and the angle of inclination of the slope showed that the two-layer structure of its original structure made a curved path repeating the outline of the gorge. The finite element method helped to model the soil deposits of the slope with the granite-basalt rock as close as possible to the landslide initial shape. The proposed methodology, the mechanical-mathematical model, algorithms and calculation examples allow predicting the possible occurrence of landslides on other countless hillsides of the Northern Tien Shan by determining stress concentration zones.
, Mimouna Oukli, Mohamed Khadraoui
Mathematical Modelling of Engineering Problems, Volume 8, pp 403-408; doi:10.18280/mmep.080309

The aim of this work is to simulate correctly in 3D space the phenomena that govern relaxation semiconductors. To avoid the relevant constraints of inadequate mesh a new technique for refining irregular meshing has been creating. Each length of the sample will be considered as a partial sum of a geometric series, the calculation of the argument of this series, will allow to calculate the distance between the nodes. In this paper we proposed to use an algorithm combined between Gummel and Newton Raphson algorithms to solve the partial differential equations, the linearization of transport equations is obtained by applying the finite difference method, which allowed us to calculate the relaxation time, life time and recombination rate. The results revealed appearance of a limited region called recombination front instead of charge space region, an improvement in computational time with a big precision for a 3D simulation, by letting to the user the choice of the distance to be discreet and the number of points wished without saturate the memory. This type of meshing is simple to apply and can be used to be applied as a solution to correctly simulate phenomena in structures at different areas for all the dimensions.
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 591-601; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160320

This study aims to analyze the signs associated with social issues in school spaces by using the Linguistic Landscape approach. Data were obtained from 10 public and private schools in Great Malang, Indonesia through photography. The study reports several findings, namely (1) Indonesian schools are monolingual, bilingual, and multilingual with the dominant use of Bahasa, English, Arabic and Javanese, (2) phrases and clauses dominate the appearance of data in linguistic aspects, compared to words. Therefore, they are very effective in mediating messages conveyed in signs, (3) it comprises of eight themes, namely environment, juvenile delinquency, health, discipline, motivation, attitude and behavior, religion, and nationalism, (4) there are 9 out of 18 values of character education, namely hard work, creative, discipline, national spirit, religious, honest, environmental care, reading hobby, and love for peace. In conclusion, Bahasa Indonesia is associated with the symbol of nationalism and language policy, where English, Arabic and Javanese symbolize modernization, Islam, and the local culture, respectively. Furthermore, the themes and values of character education that emerge represent the conditions of the problems faced by students. This finding suggest education through signs, evoke perceptions and attitudes which is used to strengthen character education in schools to solve social problems.
Mansiya Yessenamanova, Zhanar Yessenamanova, Anar Tlepbergenova, Gaukhar Batyrbayeva
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 479-483; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160308

This study is aimed at analyzing the content of hydrogen sulfide in the air of the city of Atyrau, located in the northern part of the Caspian Sea of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The analysis was carried out on the basis of monitoring the indicators of the Republican State Enterprise "Kazhydromet" from 8 points located in different directions from the Atyrau oil refinery. Measurements of atmospheric air pollution are made by the GANK-4AR gas analyzer designed for continuous automatic measurement of concentrations of pollutants in the atmospheric air. Hydrogen sulfide was selected as an indicator air pollutant. Atyrau oil refinery is the main object of pollution of the territory of the city of Atyrau, located in the western part of the Republic of Kazakhstan, on the shore of the Caspian Sea. The results obtained show that the content of hydrogen sulfide in the territory of the city of Atyrau in most places shows an excess of the maximum permissible concentration. Especially the excess is observed in the north-western part up to 4-8 maximum permissible concentrations. At two points (in the north-eastern and western parts), the content of hydrogen sulfide did not exceed the maximum permissible concentration.
, Fernando Morante-Carballo, Josué Briones-Bitar, Paúl Herrera-Borja, Miguel Chávez-Moncayo, Juan Arévalo-Ochoa
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 515-523; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160312

Manglaralto parish communities are supplied with drinking water extracted from shallow aquifers (associated with alluvial terraces) recharged by seasonal rivers. The companies responsible for extracting and distributing water are the Manglaralto Regional Drinking Water Administration Board (JAAPMAN, for its acronym in Spanish) and Olon Regional Board of Drinking Water (JRAPO, for its acronym in Spanish). However, due to population growth and tourism (floating population) of Manglaralto parish, water demand has increased. This has meant that, during the dry season, the water stored in these underground reservoirs is not enough to meet the growing demand. The case study presented is that of the Manglaralto community. The aim is to design, in a technical way, an artisanal dyke (tape) by performing geological-geotechnical studies that allow optimal surface storage and artificial recharge of aquifers for the provision of water to communities. The methodology is as follows: i) Analysis of the technical starting information, ii) Recognition of the study site and the choice of sampling sites, iii) Conducting laboratory tests and analysis of information obtained in the field, and iv) Technical design of the tape. According to laboratory results and the field data analysis, the design of a spillway dyke equipped with a dentellon was defined, which acts as a screen to block the subsurface flow. The rescue of ancestral knowledge, used as a solution to current problems in this coastal community, allows storing a volume of 4,641.88 m3 and an artificial recharge of 15%, with low costs and great social acceptance.
, Ali Najah Ahmed
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 497-501; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160310

Sustainable management of water supplies faces a comprehensive challenge due to global climate change. Improving forecasts of streamflow based on erratic precipitation is a significant activity nowadays. In recent years, the techniques of data-driven have been widely used in the hydrological parameter’s prediction especially streamflow. In the current research, a deep learning model namely Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and two conventional machine learning models namely, Random Forest (RF), and Tree Boost (TB) were used to predict the streamflow of the Kowmung river at Cedar Ford in Australia. Different scenarios proposed to determine the optimal combination of input predictor variables, and the input predictor variables were selected based on the auto-correlation function (ACF). Model output was evaluated using indices of the root mean square error (RMSE), and the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE). The findings showed that the LSTM model outperformed RF and TB in predicting the streamflow with RMSE and NSE equal to 102.411, and 0.911 respectively. for the LSTM model. The proposed model could adopt by hydrologists to solve the problems associated with forecasting daily streamflow with high precision. This study may not be generalized because of the geographical condition and the nature of the data for each location.
Alexandros Bartzokas-Tsiompras, Yorgos N. Photis
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 413-426; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160302

To date, several macro-level walkability measures have been proposed, but microscale and audit-based walkability approaches prove to be highly effective to support realistic, quick and cheap mechanisms for pedestrian-friendly environments. Yet, walkability audits are time- and cost-intensive solutions, because they require several streetscape observations. This study aims to investigate whether a multiple linear regression model of urban form- and function-related variables can effectively predict an audit-based average walkability indicator. For this purpose, we use a virtual, brief and reliable audit tool (MAPS-Mini) in Athens city centre in order to collect street-level data and in turn to construct a microscale walkability indicator (dependent variable). Moreover, our approach suggests a flexible statistical model of open-source data, with six exploratory variables of the macro-level built environment: angular integration, population density, transit stop density, pedestrian street density, retail and entertainment activity density, and building height. The results indicate that audit-based average walkability scores can be effectively estimated, as the regression model can explain about 82% of the variation. Furthermore, the density of retail and entertainment activities was indicated as the strongest correlate of more walking-friendly streetscapes, while some urban policy implications include the promotion of footpath repairs and better-engineered crossings.
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 551-556; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160316

Landscape architecture is the connection between human and nature, which enhance human health and comfort. It contributes to water conservation and natural resource preservation since it is a part of the global ecosystem. The geographical location, which represents the climatic and terrestrial features, is one of the essential considerations of the landscape design due to its cruciality of design impacts. In this research, new landscape classification has been revealed that categorizes the landscape into two main categories: natural landscape and built landscape, and each category has been followed by subcategories which have demonstrated in this paper. One of the landscape architecture objectives is to optimize the design for human needs and comfort, thus how will the landscape design optimize in different climate conditions? There are many environmental design strategies that respond to any climate type conditions.
, Teresa Cunha-Ferreira, Santiago Sánchez-Beitia
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 569-578; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160318

This article seeks to analyze the methodology and principles underlying the intervention of the Portuguese architect and professor Fernando Távora (1923-2005) in the renovation of manor houses in the north of Portugal. Throughout his renowned professional career, Távora designed the refurbishment of numerous country houses, managing to adapt uses and spaces to the new requirements without undermining their strong identity in the landscape and their historical and architectural values. Thus, the study of his particular methodology can provide design guidelines to approach the adaptive reuse of this cultural legacy with respect for its heritage values, especially in rural areas undergoing a severe process of depopulation and agro-productive transformation. Three case studies have been selected in order to determine the evolution and consolidation of his practice: The Casa da Igreja in Mondim de Basto (1958-1961), the Casa da Covilhã (1963-1988) and the Casa da Breia (1984-1985). These renovation projects reveal careful analysis of the preexistence, supporting sensitive introduction of new elements with subtle contemporary expression in respectful continuity with the forms and atmospheres of the past.
Sadeq Oleiwi Sulaiman, Abu Baker A. Najm, Ammar Hatem Kamel,
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 457-462; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160306

, Abdelkabir Charkaoui, Abdelwahed Echchatbi
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 525-533; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160313

Recently, Environmental Customer collaboration has gained a considerable attention among researchers and Industrial enterprises. Many studies highlight that organizations can achieve a good performance level while considering customer collaboration and environmental regulation. However, the literature in the Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) suggests having a more structured collaboration and information exchange process based between Supply Chain partners on new technologies. Towards this end, a hybrid approach based on Multi Agent Systems and Multi Objective Linear Programming is proposed as mean of automating and facilitating the environmental customer collaboration process. This research shows that MAS can be utilized to reduce the complexity and facilitate communication in the GSCM context. The applicability of the developed MAS approach is demonstrated using an industrial case study in the automotive spare parts sector.
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 485-495; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160309

This study presents a multi-criteria strategic approach of decision-making in sustainable adaptive reuse by evaluating cultural heritage assets and identifying potential alternatives. For effective preservation, adaptive reuse of heritage buildings is a strategic decision. Whereas adaptive reuse decisions are based on several, sometimes contradictory criteria, in addition to decisions from multiple parties and stakeholders are potentially inconsistent. This research finds that the reuse process should consider many important criteria to expand and enhance the knowledge base. This paper presents a systematic application and analytical method in decision-making for adaptive reuse of heritage Cordahi complex in Alexandria, Egypt. The A'WOT analysis application was used as an analytical tool to obtain results through the integration of a SWOT matrix and an Analytical Hierarchy (AHP) process. The SWOT technique was used to examine the internal and external factors and identify the important strategic factors, then apply the AHP method to prioritize these factors to make them measurable. Then, SWOT priority factors were used to formulate strategies using the TOWS Matrix. The proposed strategy relates to protecting and promoting the importance of heritage and the context, enhance the tourism potential, economic development for the population, interpretation strategy, community engagement, sustainable management, partnerships.
Allan Sriratana Tabucanon, Alisa Sahavacharin, San Rathviboon, Husna Lhaetee, Dhitiya Pakdeesom, Wenchao Xue,
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 503-514; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160311

Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), by and large, have increasingly committed to integrate sustainable development (SD) into their policies, practices, and programs. Recently, there have been several sustainability assessment tools specifically developed for HEIs. Many HEIs, especially small-to-middle sized HEIs in Thailand, are planning to enhance SD but are reluctant due to resource requirements. This study was conducted to investigate important sustainability implementation issues, including the effect of HEI sizes and UI GreenMetric participation. A weighting approach on sustainability dimensions and issues was utilized, and HEI’s sustainability reports and official websites were reviewed to evaluate their sustainability performance of large-, middle-, and small-sized HEIs as well as UI GreenMetric participants and non-participants in Thailand. The findings reveal that the issues of the sustainability-integrated vision and strategy, safety and well-being, waste, and the SD-enhancing educational system were fundamentally critical for HEI sustainability. Moreover, most of the large-sized HEIs in Thailand that participated in UI GreenMetric were evaluated to have higher sustainability performance than others, apparently in administration, environment, and education/research dimensions. This study supports the necessity for a sustainability assessment tool for HEIs.
Wahyu Lazuardi, Ridwan Ardiyanto, , Bachtiar Wahyu Mutaqin, Denny Wijaya Kusuma
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 557-568; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160317

The growth of human occupations in coastal areas and climate change impact have changed the dynamics of seagrass cover and accelerated the damage to coral reefs globally. For these reasons, coastal management measures need to be developed and renewed to preserve the state of seagrass beds and coral reefs. An example includes the improvement of spatial and multitemporal analyses. This study sought to analyze changes in seagrass cover and damages to coral reefs in Gili Sumber Kima, Buleleng Regency, Bali based on multitemporal Sentinel 2A-MSI imagery. The algorithms of a machine learning, Random Forest (RF), and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the benthic habitats (seagrass beds and coral reefs). Also, a change detection analysis was performed to identify the pattern and the extent to which seagrass beds had changed. The multispectral classification of, particularly, coral reefs was used to explain the condition of this benthic habitat. The results showed +-70% to +-83% accuracies of estimated seagrass cover, and the change detection analysis revealed three directions of change, namely an increase of 27.9 ha, a decrease by 86 ha, and a preserved state in 157 ha of seagrass cover. The product of coral reefs mapping had an accuracy of 42%, and the coral reefs in Gili Sumber Kima were split almost equally between the good (1505 ha) and damaged ones (1397 ha). With the spatial information on seagrass beds and coral reefs in every region, the ecological functions of the coast can be assessed more straightforwardly and appropriately incorporated as the basis for monitoring the dynamics of resources and coastal area management.
, Imam Santoso, Susinggih Wijana, Sucipto, Ahmad Fudholi
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 543-550; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160315

The improvement of tapioca production system is one of the solutions to improve the economy of rural communities through the development of cassava inventory as an inexpensive tapioca raw material that can be obtained throughout the year, using appropriate management and strategies. This study aims to determine the order of priority criteria that are influential in determining the steps to improve production system performance. The method used is analysis PLS using six criteria, namely local potential, empowerment capital, social community, empowerment process, community empowerment, the ability of actors. The empirical results of the study show that the highest R-square value is the empowerment process at 61.0 percent. This value indicates that local potential, empowerment capital, social community, and the ability of the actors are able to contribute to the explanation of the empowerment process by 61.1 percent, while 38.9 percent is influenced by other variables. The R-square value on the community empowerment variable is lower than the R-square value for the empowerment process, which is only 42.4 percent. This shows that the variables of local potential, empowerment capital, social community, the ability of empowerment actors, and the empowerment process do not adequately explain community empowerment. From the results of the exploration of the overall influence factors with the PLS analysis mentioned above, it is used to invite people to understand themselves and formulate ideas for developing Gaplek SMEs in the form of a vision with a strategy for achieving them. Based on the empirical results of research through testing the accepted hypothesis with the intervening variable having a significant positive relationship, appropriate mentoring is carried out to focus on the mentoring process with the Participatory Rural Appraisal approach.
Mohammed Ali S. Ali, , Çimen Özburak
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 463-478; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160307

A lot of energy is required to provide a comfortable interior with air conditioning systems. The use of high energy in buildings has made an essential contribution to climate change and air pollution. It is crucial for energy efficiency to reduce energy consumption. Applying the architectural principles of climatic design can provide thermal comfort in residential buildings. In this research, an analytical study was conducted on the climate factors that affect the energy consumption in the residential buildings in Al-Bayda, Libya. Eight buildings were randomly selected. The impact of solar energy, orientation, and wind factors that affect the climatic comfort on the selected residential buildings were considered as the leading indicators for improving energy consumption. These topics were studied comprehensively on the chosen buildings, and outcomes of the analysis were evaluated. Users gave answers to the questions regarding energy consumption, protection and utilization from the sun and air currents, and the physical insulation status of the building during the interviews. Independently of these, the results of airflow and shade analysis based on theories of passive design principles for each building have been revealed. It was observed that the answers of users and analytical results were consistent with each other. In the end, simple constructional applications that can prevent high energy use were recommended for future architectural designs. In this way, extensive use of air conditioners and thus air pollution, which has become one of the significant problems in Libya's cities, can be reduced to a certain extent.
, Manuel Francisco Polanco-Puerta, Miguel De Luque-Villa, Mauricio Mesa-Caro, Carlos Alberto Calderón-Ricardo
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 535-542; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160314

Climate change modifies the average climate behavior over a long period, generated by natural phenomena or anthropogenic causes. This change has an important impact on climate variables, such as temperature and precipitation, worldwide but also has various effects on the local scale. The purpose of this research was to determine climate behavior and the magnitude of climate change in the last 30 years in the municipality of Facatativá, Cundinamarca. Precipitation and temperature were analyzed using data from climatological stations around Facatativá, which belong to the Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales (IDEAM) and the Corporación Autónoma Regional de Cundinamarca. These data provided the average temperature in this municipality, between 9.2℃ and 14.0℃, with an increasing trend between 0.00℃/yr to the west and 0.03℃/yr to the east of the municipality. The Precipitation ranged between 781 mm/yr and 1200 mm/yr, with an increasing trend of between 3.0 mm/yr in the west and 12.0 mm/yr in the northwest.
, Midhat Tuhvatullin, Dinar Atnagulov, Andrey Linenko, Bulat Khalilov
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 403-412; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160301

As a source of alternative energy, solar energy has apparent advantages, including a renewable, inexhaustible, and environmentally friendly resource. However, it has not become widely spread in the Russian Federation. Among the disadvantages of using solar energy are high equipment cost, low efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells, the generated electrical energy instability. The spatio-temporal variability of solar access causes electrical energy instability. It is possible to increase solar photovoltaic plant efficiency by using a tracking system to change the plant sun's spatial orientation. The paper offers mathematical and simulation models of a solar photovoltaic plant with a solar tracking system that allows the plant to be automatically oriented to the sun by matching the production mode and the solar access level. The use of the azimuth plant control system on the sun will increase the power production of the solar PV plant by an average of 28%. The same value will increase by 40% when using the full plant control system.
Michael Mengisti, , Girma Birru
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 427-436; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160303

A proper development of railway transportation is critical for sustainable socio-economic and environmental benefits. Nonetheless, in Eritrea, a country that once had a vibrant railway system, it is currently nonfunctional. There are also ambitious sectoral investments in neighboring Ethiopia and Sudan, pressing Eritrea to revitalize its decimated railway transportation system. Therefore, this study used population settlement pattern, environmental and physical criteria as inputs to a least-cost multi-criteria decision-making for modeling the railway network for Eritrea. Accordingly, seven railway routes, covering a total of 1, 610 km distance, were modeled. Four are running in the north-to-south directions, while three are running in the east-to-west directions. This railway network will give services to 5 out of 6 Eritrean’s administrative regions, where 93% of the estimated 5.8 million people reside. Additionally, it will service the 21 urban centers, where an estimated population of 1,658,749 live; approximately 70% of Eritrea’s urban population. Besides, it shall boost regional integration, peace, and development thereof, in an otherwise conflict-ravaged geographical region.
Nourhan Aly Fawzy, Sammy Amin Ammer, Ebtehal Ahmed Abd Elmouety
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Volume 16, pp 579-590; doi:10.18280/ijsdp.160319

Egypt has many new areas, most of which are found outside the boundaries of urbanization in the valley and delta. Such areas contain capabilities and ingredients with special natural and environmental features that differ from the built-up areas. As development areas have been recently created by the development policies and strategies which were put forward by the country to accommodate sustainable development processes. There is an Availability of suitable areas for development according to resources and without limitations, which amount to 24% of the total area. There are, also, suitable areas for development according to resources with the presence of some limitations, which amount to an area of 16% of the total area. Sustainable development captures the world's attention during the past 15 years, at the level of the global economic, social and environmental field. Thus, development sustainability has become a global school of thought that spreads in most of the countries of the world, All UN member states adopted the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 as the main umbrella for balancing social, economic, and environmental sustainability by 2030. And also the plans put forward in Egypt The research discusses what are the Requirements for reaching the sustainable goals of development to plan new areas in Arab Republic of Egypt. By using qualitative methods Because these areas have a shortage of statistical data. To can reach, foundations and indicators for sustainable development, adopting a national sustainable development strategy that includes all entities, institutions, members of society and those affected by its results in the short and long term.
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