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Published: 16 October 2020
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.983
Introduction: Normative data on handgrip strength (HGS) and body mass index (BMI) are scarce among adolescents in the Nigerian context. The aims of this study were to evaluate patterns of HGS in relation to gender and age in Nigerian adolescents and its correlation with BMI.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 1966 participants (1275 males) and (691 females) aged 12–20 years in Northern Nigeria. Body mass and height were measured. HGS was assessed using a dynamometer.Results: The right HGS (RHGS) was significantly higher than the left HGS (LHGS) (t = 21.337, p < 0.05). There were significant age differences in the RHGS and the LHGS (p < 0.05); however, no significant difference occurs at 12–14 years. Males participants aged 16–20 years had significantly higher RHGS values than females of the same age (p < 0.0038). Conversely, males aged 15–20 years had significantly higher LHGS values than females of the same age (p < 0.0038). There was a significant interaction between gender and age for the RHGS (F = 72.2, p < 0.05) and the LHGS (F = 92.1, p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the BMI and RHGS (r = 0.480, p < 0.01) and the LHGS (r = 0.465, p < 0.01).Conclusion: There are gender and age difference in the HGS of Nigerian adolescents, with the dominance of the RHGS in both genders. HGS correlated with BMI. This normative data on HGS may serve as baseline data for future comparative studies assessing HGS among the adolescent population in Nigeria.
Published: 12 October 2020
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.969
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Published: 10 October 2020
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.1064
Introduction: Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD) is one of the main causes of low back pain (LBP). Standardized diagnostic algorithms for adequate estimation and classification of changes of lumbar discs are mandatory before starting with therapy.Methods: One hundred patients who were indicated for lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in the study. Pfirrmann grading system was used for the determination of IDD, while the visual analog scale (VAS) is used for evaluation of the intensity of LBP. To quantification of disability for LBP, we used the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).Result: Results showed higher Pfirrmann grades II and III for L2/L3 and L3/L4 lumbar levels and lower scores at L4/L5 and L5/S1. The analysis also showed low scores at the L2/3 and L3/4 lumbar level for Pfirrmann grades IV and V, and there was an increased at more inferior lumbosacral levels L4/5 and L5/S1. There was a significant correlation between Pfirrmann grades and ODI (p = 0.24) as well as VAS (p = 0.16).Conclusion: Higher Pfirrmann grades correlated with increased ODI and VAS. Therefore, MRI can be used as a strong indicator of clinical appearance, but it is important to take into consideration that LBP should be correlated with clinical features. By summing Pfirrmann grades of all lumbar intervertebral levels in each patient, we can get more accurate insight for the status of the lumbar spine.
Published: 1 October 2020
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.1031
Introduction: Sarajevo is the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the population in Canton Sarajevo of 438,443 people. The first cases of COVID-19 in Canton Sarajevo were on 20th March. On that day, we had three positive cases. These days at the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic in Canton of Sarajevo around 2500 citizens were in self-isolation at home. The aim of this paper is to show the journey of Canton Sarajevo in the fight against COVID-19 infection, the impact of measurements that were taken to stop the infection spreading and to compare pre- and post-lockdown stats.Methods: During the period March-July 2020, we have analyzed daily newly cases and followed them through the period of at least 14 days. All data were analyzed using SPSS 25.0 (IBM Corp. Released in 2019. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, NY: IBM Corp.) and MS Office 2019 suite (Excel). For comparison, we have used the Chi-square test.Results: In the period of 10 weeks from the beginning of March to the 25th of May in Canton of Sarajevo, we had a total of 113 cases of COVID-19 infection. The number of conducted tests was 7515. In total, with positive retests, we had only 161 positive tests, which is 2.14% of all analyzed tests. From that number of patients, 58 (51.3%) were male and 55 (48.7%) were female. Regarding age distribution, under 65 years were 91.1% of patients.Conclusion: Choosing the best method to fight against COVID-19 is hard to determine. Staying at home would decrease the infection rate, but in the long term, it is not sustainable. Perhaps the mix of methods that we had in Sarajevo is the best option. Fighting against one epidemic cannot be the source for other epidemics.
Published: 29 September 2020
Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 23-26; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2017.425
Introduction: Lumbar puncture is a procedure frequently used in anesthetic practice. For the success of the procedure, prediction of skin to subarachnoid space distance (SSD) is valuable. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between SSD with age and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients, ASA physical status I, II, and III scheduled to undergo elective surgery under spinal anesthesia, were studied. Spinal anesthesia was induced in the sitting position at the L3–4 vertebral level using a midline approach. Furthermore, the level of L3–L4 was identified by palpation, using Tuffier’s line as a guide. Following an intrathecal injection, the spinal needle was grasped between the thumb and the index finger during its removal from the patient’s back. From the grasping point, SSD was measured using rulers. Results: Mean values of SSD at the L3-4 interspace were 55.43±6.47 mm (range 35-74). Statistically significant correlations were observed between SSD with BMI and body weight (ρ=0.650, P
Published: 21 September 2020
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.972
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is a pandemic disease that is today a global public health problem caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). COVID-19 is a disease of middle and old age, but clinical expression may also be present in childhood. Asymptomatic and mild clinical forms are most often present in persons aged 0-19, but severe clinical forms such as, among others, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multisystem inflammatory syndrome may occur. In addition to presenting the epidemiology, clinical symptomatology of COVID-19, the authors consider certain specifics of COVID-19, that is, possible reasons for the lower incidence of the disease as well as unusual and rare clinical forms of the disease in children. The current activities of health professionals in the supervision of COVID-19 are mainly focused on early detection, isolation and treatment of patients, isolation of contacts, the regular and thorough practice of respiratory hygiene, hand hygiene, and physical distancing. Future efficient and safe vaccination will solve the biggest global medical challenge caused by the new coronavirus in the best possible manner.
Published: 22 July 2020
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.903
Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a rare disorder common among postmenopausal females that involve increased volume and porosity of the frontal bone. Depending on the size, it could be symptomatic or asymptomatic. With a little report on the pathophysiology of HFI, we present a peculiar case of HFI with speculations that could shed more light on the already established literature and pose questions for future research.
Published: 22 July 2020
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.886
Introduction: Gated tangential field-in-field (FIF) technique is used to lower the dose to organs at risk for breast cancer radiotherapy (RT). In this study, the authors investigated the accuracy of the delivered treatment plan with and without gating using a two-dimensional detector array for patient-specific verification purposes.Methods: In this study, a 6MV beams were used for the merged FIF RT (forward Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy). The respiration signals for gated FIF delivery were obtained from the one-dimensional moving phantom using the real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). RPM system used for four-dimensional computed tomography scanner light-speed, GE is based on an infrared camera to detect motion of external 6-point marker. The beams were delivered using a Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with the multileaf collimator Millennium 120. The MapCheck2 (SunNuclear, Florida) was used for the evaluation of treatment plans. MapCheck2 was validated through a comparison with measurements from a farmer-type ion chamber. Gated beams were delivered using a maximum dose rate with varying duty cycles and analyzed the MapCheck2 data to evaluate treatment plan delivery accuracy.Results: Results of the gamma passing rate for relative and absolute dose differences for all ungated and gated beams were between 95.1% and 100%.Conclusion: Gated FIF technique can deliver an accurate dose to a detector during gated breast cancer RT. There is no significance between gated and ungated patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA); one can use ungated PSQA for verification of treatment plan delivery
Published: 14 July 2020
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.950
Introduction: This paper fulfills an identified need to study the mental health status of the population under situations like lockdown, thereby helping fill a persistent gap in Indian research on this issue, and present research on the impact of lockdown on mental health during epidemics is limited, especially in India. This study aims to scale the association between anxiety and sociodemographic factors during the coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown among the general Indian population.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional nationwide study designed to enroll the general population. The inclusion criteria for this study were Indian citizens aged 18 years and above. The study was conducted from March 29, 2020, to April 12, 2020, using an online google questionnaire. The anxiety among respondents was detected and measured using a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Scale, which consists of seven questions (in English), that is, GAD-7.Results: Responders were 392, and from these participants, the prevalence of anxiety was 25.3%. The predictors of anxiety were gender, religion, occupation as business/self-employed, marital status, family size, health status, and sleep deprivation based on the bivariate logistic regression analysis.Conclusion: This study reports the early prevalence of anxiety among the Indian population who were grounded at their homes during lockdown due to coronavirus pandemic in the country.
Published: 28 June 2020
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.912
Introduction: A hotspot is a geographical location having evidence of high STIs/HIV prevalence, and/or behaviors that put people at high risk of becoming infected. Therefore, Nigeria, with almost two million people living with HIV, could be considered a giant “hotspot.” The main aim was to describe how the geospatial clustering of newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Cross River State helps define new “hotspots.”Methods: Secondary data collected between January 2020 and March 2020, identified and mapped around a presumed hotspot’s radius of influence (ROI), were analyzed using a “Hotspot Analysis” plugin in QGIS software. With a sample size of 3019, both seropositive and seronegative results were geo-referenced and the resultant map was analyzed to determine HIV-positive clusters.Results: From the 3019 spatial locations mapped, 720 (23.9%) were positive cases. Of these, 328 (45.6%) were thus estimated as being associated with the presumed hotspots. The remaining 392 (54.4%) were positive cases identified outside of the ROI of the originally presumed hotspots. The total number of mapped HIV testing services (HTS) points (both negative and positive cases) within the hotspot ROI was 1319, while those outside of the hotspot ROI were 1700.Discussion: Collectively, the clustering of the HTS points into various groups indicating that hard-to-reach communities along the borders with the Republic of Cameroon on the east and Akwa Ibom State on the southwest had a majority of the new clusters.Conclusion: Unique hotspots where social gatherings occur tended to have a wider ROI. Targeted testing in these hard-to-reach communities is recommended.