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Senka Mesihovic-Dinarevic
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2021.1194

Abstract:
Most children with a proven coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. However, a small number of children have been identified in the past 2 months with developed significant multisystem inflammatory response. All children were treated according to standard protocols. Children with this disease may require hospitalization in pediatric intensive care unit with a multisystem team approach to the disease, which includes pediatricians, infectologists, cardiologists, rheumatologists, immunologists, and epidemiologists. This extremely rare disease is curable if diagnosed in time. This rare syndrome has features in common with other pediatric inflammatory diseases including Kawasaki syndrome, staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, bacterial sepsis, macrophage activation syndrome, and may present with unusual abdominal pain including elevated inflammation markers. Early recognition of this disease by a pediatrician or family doctor specialist is crucial for the timely treatment and outcome of the disease.
Mia Elhidsi, Fanny Fachrucha, Rizky Yudha Irawan
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.1156

Abstract:
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection or known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease that has been declared as a world pandemic by WHO. Although the majority of patients only experience mild symptoms, older patients and those with comorbidities are in the risk of falling into critically ill and even death. This is thought to correlate with systemic inflammatory response and oxidative stress imbalance. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized as a potent mucolytic, yet its lesser-known function as an antioxidant is a precursor of glutathione. Basic aspects and either in vivo or in vitro studies showed various mechanisms of NAC acting as a counterbalance in viral infections and its role in decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress. High-dose NAC is reported to be effective as an antioxidant in pneumonia, influenza, sepsis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Early evidence in COVID-19 patients showed that NAC could be beneficial. This review gives the scientific background in considering NAC as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19.
Nejc Mekiš, Rebeka Viltužnik
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.1112

Abstract:
Introduction: General radiography is a common imaging technique and X-ray examinations of the thoracic and lumbar spine are among the most frequent procedures undertaken. The aim of this research was to investigate the success rate, dose-area product (DAP), and effective dose values of 1st and 2nd cycle radiographer students performing X-ray imaging of the thoracic and lumbar spine using a phantom. Methods: The students were divided into four groups according to the year of study (1st, 2nd, and 3rd years of 1st cycle degree, and all 2nd cycle degree students). They were asked to perform imaging of thoracic and lumbar spine on the phantom in both anteroposterior and lateral projections where IQ and DAP measurements were collated. The study was blind, so they did not know about the purpose of the study. Results: First, we have inspected the acceptability rate of the images performed. The highest success rate of performing an optimal image was discovered with the 2nd cycle degree students where the 1st year students had the most difficulties there. In the second part, DAP and effective dose values were compared, only for the acceptable images in which case the 1st and 2nd years, students of the 1st cycle degree were most successful. Conclusion: Based on that, we can conclude, that the 2nd cycle degree students had the lowest rejection rate regarding the optimal image quality, which was the price of using a larger primary X-ray field which leads to higher dose values.
Šeila Cilović-Lagarija, Nino Hasanica, Sanela Tukulija, SuadA Branković, Jasmina Mahmutović, Dragana Galić, Kristina Perić, Selma Čajdrić, Senada Mujačić, Salih Slijepčević, et al.
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.1086

Abstract:
Introduction: Aim of the study is to piloting nursing documentation to obtain comments based on the experience of nurses/medical technicians from the primary, secondary, and tertiary health care about the documentation before it is published and starts being used.Methods: A questionnaire was designed in the electronic form to be used for the evaluation and suggestions by nurses/medical technicians on the piloted form and content of nursing documentation for all levels of health care. A piloting sample was prepared to make 10% of nurses/medical technicians from health care institutions from the territory of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.Results: A total of 94.3% of examinees at the primary health care level and only 17.2% of the examinees in the secondary and tertiary health care fill out nursing documentation both manually and electronically. All examinees at all levels of health care understand the purpose and importance of nursing documentation. A total of 27.7% of the examinees at the primary and 40.9% of the examinees at the secondary and tertiary level of health care pointed out that filling out nursing documentation was too time-consuming.Conclusion: A total of 51.2% of the examinees at the primary and 64.2% at the secondary and tertiary level of health care agreed that submitted nursing documentation was adequate for use. It is suggested that after the adoption of nursing documentation at all levels of health care, piloting of its use should be conducted to evaluate the quality and quantity of all nursing documentation.
Redžo Čaušević, Irmelina Karić, Sanela Salihagić, Indira Prguda, Dženana Hrustemović
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.930

Abstract:
Introduction: Rhinoplasty is an esthetic and functional nasal reconstruction surgery. The elimination of physical disabilities directly affects mental health and leads to a better psychological balance. Therefore, patient satisfaction is considered a valuable measure of medical service outcomes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate subjective patient satisfaction 1 year after surgery and its influence on the quality of life.Methods: This was a clinical, retrospective, randomized, and single-blinded study in which patients were randomly questioned by the same examiner. All subjects underwent pre-operative preparation and post-operative flow at Eurofarm Centre from 2007 to 2010. The survey was conducted through anonymous questionnaires that were provided to each respondent at least 1 year after discharge from the hospital.Results: Overall, 20 (50%) patients had esthetic and 20 (50%) had functional nasal surgery. Most respondents were born between 1971 and 1980 (52.5%) and between 1981 and 1991 (40%), with the least born between 1951 and 1960 (2.5%). Regarding the education level, 27 had university degrees (67.5%), 1 had postgraduate education (2.5%), and 12 (30.0%) were secondary school graduates. In addition, 25 (62.5%) were unmarried and 15 (37.5%) were married.Conclusion: No statistically significant correlation was found between the subjective assessment of patient’s health based on eight dimensions of health assessment and variables such as type of surgery, age, level of education, and marital status 1 year after undergoing rhinoplasty. A statistically significant difference was found between the type of surgery and physical pain (p = 0.004 < 0.05, Mann–Whitney U test). Based on the research findings, we can conclude that patient satisfaction after undergoing rhinoplasty was moderately correlated positively with the quality of life (r = 0.180-0.345, p < 0.05).
Goran Kolarevic, Dražan Jaroš, Bojan Pavičar, Tatjana Ignjć, Aleksandar Kostovski, Goran Marosevic, Branko Predojević, Dragoljub Mirjanić
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.1085

Abstract:
Introduction: Using computed tomography (CT) and treatment planning systems (TPS) in radiotherapy, due to the difference in photon beam energy on CT and linear accelerator, it is necessary to convert Hounsfield units (HU) to relative electron density (RED) values. The aim of this dosimetric study was to determine whether there is a significant effect of potential in the CT tube, field of view size (FOV), and phantom dimensions on the CT conversion curve CT-RED. The second aim is whether there are significant differences between the CT-RED obtained by the Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS) Thorax 002LFC phantom and the “reference” curve in the TPS, obtained by the CIRS 062M pelvis phantom, at the same CT conditions.Methods: Heterogeneous CIRS 062M and CIRS Thorax 002LFC phantoms were used, which anatomically and dimensionally represent the human pelvis, head, and thorax, with a set of known RED inserts. They were scanned on a CT LightSpeed GE simulator and obtained CT-RED.Results: The high voltage in the CT tube had a significant effect on the HU (t = 10.72, p < 0.001) for RED values >1.1, while FOV as a parameter did not show statistical significance for the 062M pelvis phantom. Comparing the slopes (062M pelvis and head) of the CT-RED for RED ≥ 1.1, the obtained value is t = 1.404 (p = 0.163). In the case of a 062M pelvis and a 002LFC phantom, we have seen a difference in RED values (for the same HU value) of 5 % in the RED region ≥ 1.1 (bone).Conclusion: Patients should be imaged on a CT simulator only at the potential of the CT tube on which the conversion curve was recorded. The influence of the FOV and scanned phantom dimensions is not statistically significant on the appearance of the calibration curve (RED ≥ 1.1).
Daniel Maestro, Sabina Šegalo , Dinko Remić, Arzija Pašalić, Anes Jogunčić
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.1073

Abstract:
Introduction: Worldwide, COVID-19 pandemic caused millions of infected people and thousands of deaths. Due to enormous pressure on health-care systems and its inadequate preparedness, utter collapse is expected. In the current epidemic response, healthcare workers’ (HCWs) knowledge and practice are crucial, while the impact on their mental health is still unknown.Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs redeployed to COVID points in the Public Institution Health Centre of Sarajevo Canton. According to guidelines and information provided by the World Health Organization and Ministries of Health, a questionnaire was developed. In addition, General Anxiety Disorder-7 as a screening tool for anxiety disorders was used.Results: Of 180 respondents, 26 (14.4%) were in direct contact with the sick patient. In total, 79 (43.9%) respondents consider their personal protective equipment is in accordance with the guidelines of the world health authorities. A total of 72 (39.7%) of respondents used the same mask for several days. In general, the danger from new coronavirus was considered minimal by 59 (32,6%) HCWs. Based on the achieved score for assessing the anxiety disorder, in 63 (35%) subjects, the presence of severe symptoms was detected.Conclusion: This study found that most HCWs do not have enough knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic. We identified that there are differences in the sources of information and gap in perceptions of the native origin of the virus. Considering the frequency of anxiety symptoms among HCWs, interventions are necessary in order to preserve their mental health.
Ilijaz Pilav, Orhan Čustović, Arijana Horman-Leventa, Alma Alihodžić-Pašalić, Safet Mušanović, Alen Pilav, Kemal Grbić, Kenan Kadić, Meho Dapčević, Ademir Hadžismailović, et al.
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.1041

Abstract:
Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare, life-threatening form of mediastinitis caused by odontogenic, pharyngeal, or cervical infections. The retropharyngeal space is the most common primary site of infection. Given the fulminant course and high mortality rate, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are important predictors of survival in patients with DNM. Appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment, prompt surgical intervention, and proper management of patients in the intensive care unit can be of vital importance. We present the case of a previously healthy 20-year-old male patient who was successfully cured and discharged from the Clinical Center University of Sarajevo after suffering from a severe form of mediastinitis as a complication of the retropharyngeal abscess caused by anaerobes.
Vedran Đido , Aida Pilav, Marijan Marjanović, Jenny Phillips, Deana Švaljug, Sandra Boskovic , Hadžan Konjo, Đemil Omerović
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.1072

Abstract:
Introduction: Insufficient physical activity is one of the leading public health problems in the world, but also in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Modern civilization is characterized by a significant decrease in physical activity, and the number of people whose lifestyle can be called sedentary has never been higher, which is especially emphasised among children and adolescents. Aim of the study is to examine public health significance of physical activity on the occurrence and the degree of obesity in children and adolescents in primary and secondary schools and to determine the applicability of the Fels questionnaire on physical activity of children in rural areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: We used a transversal research method of a cross-sectional study at a one-time point, and for obtaining results we used the Fels physical activity questionnaire for children and measurement protocol. Results: 276 primary and secondary school students in two cities participated in this survey. Respondents in Busovača are more physically active than their peers in Sarajevo. One-third of the total number of respondents is overweight and obese, and respondents in Sarajevo are significantly more nourished than their peers in Busovača. The Fels questionnaire is conditionally applicable, especially in rural areas. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the Fels questionnaire for assessing the level of physical activity for children and young people, which is the general instrument for research of physical activity in children, is too generalized because it is based on a homogeneous urban population.
Journal of Health Sciences; doi:10.17532/jhsci.2020.983

Abstract:
Introduction: Normative data on handgrip strength (HGS) and body mass index (BMI) are scarce among adolescents in the Nigerian context. The aims of this study were to evaluate patterns of HGS in relation to gender and age in Nigerian adolescents and its correlation with BMI.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 1966 participants (1275 males) and (691 females) aged 12–20 years in Northern Nigeria. Body mass and height were measured. HGS was assessed using a dynamometer.Results: The right HGS (RHGS) was significantly higher than the left HGS (LHGS) (t = 21.337, p < 0.05). There were significant age differences in the RHGS and the LHGS (p < 0.05); however, no significant difference occurs at 12–14 years. Males participants aged 16–20 years had significantly higher RHGS values than females of the same age (p < 0.0038). Conversely, males aged 15–20 years had significantly higher LHGS values than females of the same age (p < 0.0038). There was a significant interaction between gender and age for the RHGS (F = 72.2, p < 0.05) and the LHGS (F = 92.1, p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the BMI and RHGS (r = 0.480, p < 0.01) and the LHGS (r = 0.465, p < 0.01).Conclusion: There are gender and age difference in the HGS of Nigerian adolescents, with the dominance of the RHGS in both genders. HGS correlated with BMI. This normative data on HGS may serve as baseline data for future comparative studies assessing HGS among the adolescent population in Nigeria.
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