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Vera Rajičić, Vera Popović, Dragan Terzić, Dragan Grčak, Marijana Dugalić, Andreja Mihailović, Milosav Grčak, Vladan Ugrenović
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2134-2152; doi:10.15835/nbha48412106

Abstract:
In order to determine the effect of fertilization, environment, and their interactions on the yield and oats yield components. Five fertilization treatments (T1-control, T2-80 kg N ha-1, T3-120 kg N ha-1, 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 80 kg K2O ha-1, T4-N120P80K80 + 5 t ha-1 of lime and T5-N120P80K80 + 5 t ha-1 of lime + 30 t ha-1 of farmyard manure) were examined during three growing seasons in Kraljevo location in Western Serbia. Grain yield (GY), 1000 grain weight (TGW), hectolitre weight (HW), plant height (PH), panicle length (PL), number of grains per panicle (NGP) and protein content (PC) were analysed. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of organic and mineral fertilization and calcification on the yield and oats yield components. On average, for all fertilizer variants, during the three-year trial, the highest yield of oats 3802 kg ha-1 was obtained in the fertilizer variant with the combined application of NPK fertilizers, lime and manure. Positive highly significant correlation, during in the study trial were found between yields with PH, PL and NGP. Negative and highly significant dependencies were found between protein content with GY, PH and NGP. The results of these studies indicate the importance of rational introduction of adequate quantities of fertilization, calcification and humization in order to make oats as profitable as possible in the agro-ecological conditions in Pannonian Environments.
Caner Koc , Dilara Gerdan, Maksut B. Eminoğlu , Uğur Yegül , Bulent Koc , Mustafa Vatandaş
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2316-2327; doi:10.15835/nbha48412041

Abstract:
Classification of hazelnuts is one of the values adding processes that increase the marketability and profitability of its production. While traditional classification methods are used commonly, machine learning and deep learning can be implemented to enhance the hazelnut classification processes. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of machine learning frameworks to classify hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars (‘Sivri’, ‘Kara’, ‘Tombul’) using DL4J and ensemble learning algorithms. For each cultivar, 50 samples were used for evaluations. Maximum length, width, compression strength, and weight of hazelnuts were measured using a caliper and a force transducer. Gradient boosting machine (Boosting), random forest (Bagging), and DL4J feedforward (Deep Learning) algorithms were applied in traditional machine learning algorithms. The data set was partitioned into a 10-fold-cross validation method. The classifier performance criteria of accuracy (%), error percentage (%), F-Measure, Cohen’s Kappa, recall, precision, true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN), false negative (FN) values are provided in the results section. The results showed classification accuracies of 94% for Gradient Boosting, 100% for Random Forest, and 94% for DL4J Feedforward algorithms.
Foteini Angelopoulou, Eleni Tsiplakou, Dimitrios Bilalis
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2153-2166; doi:10.15835/nbha48412056

Abstract:
The importance of Camelina sativa has lessened substantially over the last half century, however its unique oil composition and the beneficial agronomic attributes with regard to sustainable agriculture have recently reignited interest in this oilseed crop. Notwithstanding the great interest in camelina, the potential to be cultivated organically has not received prominent attention from researchers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of organic camelina to different tillage systems and compost types, based on differences in yield parameters, oil content, seed crude protein and fatty acid profile. The field experiments, conducted during the 2014, 2015 and 2016 growing seasons, were laid out in a split plot design with three replicates, two main plots (conventional tillage and minimum tillage) and three sub-plots (vermicompost, compost, unamended control). It is consequential from the results that the effect of the type of organic amendment was highly significant on camelina’s productivity. Particularly, compost treatment resulted in higher seed and oil yield (1132 and 446 kg ha-1, respectively) compared to the vermicompost (682 and 269 kg ha-1, respectively) and the unamended control (554 and 220 kg ha-1, respectively). Regarding the fatty acid profile, both organic amendments increased linoleic and palmitic acids, while they presented disparate effects on a-linolenic acid. Furthermore, tillage system influenced significantly only thousand seeds weight, protein content and gondoic acid, enabling the use of reduced tillage to be comparably effective on organically grown camelina performance. Further experimentation is needed to match crop needs with the appropriate cropping techniques in order to ensure an effective organic cultivation.
Mounira Mkaddem Guedri, Mehrez Romdhane, Ahmed Lebrihi, Florence Mathieu, Jalloul Bouajila
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1929-1940; doi:10.15835/nbha48412145

Abstract:
Essential oil (EO) of Laurus nobilis, from Tunisian, France and Austrian were screened for their chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and compared. GC-MS analysis showed that leaves of Tunisian L. nobilis had camphor (34.43%), 1,8-cineole (20.21%) and α-terpineol (7%) as major components. France and Austrian EOs had a high content of 1,8-cineole (45.8% and 43.4%, respectively) followed by bornyl acetate (13.8% and 17.7% respectively) and methyl eugenol (7.7% and 10.9% respectively). Antioxidant potential was measured by ABTS and DPPH tests. Tunisian L. nobilis EO showed greater radical scavenging by ABTS activity (IC50=44.8±0.1 mg/L) than the France and Austrian EOs (76.4±3.2 mg/L and 81.4±4.0 mg/L, respectively). However, for DPPH test system, French and Austrian EOs activities were excellent (IC50=176.1±5.1 mg/L and 236.3±2.9 mg/L respectively) then Tunisian L. nobilis EO (IC50=2859.7±99.0 mg/L). A good Antimicrobial activity was observed on the yeasts and fungi for all EOs. Tunisian laurel EO show a better antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonial, E. coli and Salmonella enterica CMI: 0.004 mg/ml) than gram-positive ones (Bacilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes CMI: 0.01 mg/ml). A significant antifungal activity of Tunisian EO was also observed against fungi and yeasts species (CMI: 0.004 mg/ml). France essential oil shows better activities against all organisms tested wail Austrian oil activity is more important against yeasts species tested and Mucor ramannianus (fungi). Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Tunisian L. nobilis essential oil, were different from that of France and Austrian and it give the opportunity for its uses in new pharmaceuticals and natural therapies of infectious diseases.
Tugce Ozsan, Ahmet N. Onus
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1873-1884; doi:10.15835/nbha48412089

Abstract:
Globe artichoke’s [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] leaves are rich in polyphenols and due to health-promoting properties artichoke growing has been gaining interest. Optimization and development of valuable bioactive components, which are not in the standard amount in raw material can be achieved and increased with the assistance of in vitro techniques such as callus and subsequently cell suspension cultures. Therefore, in the present study in vitro callogenesis optimization of three globe artichoke cultivars was studied by using 29 different media combinations, based on basic Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with various concentrations of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and Kinetin. Comparisons were made on the basis of using in vivo and in vitro leaves as explant material. In the experiment several parameters such as leaf explants development (%), callus formation (%), and callus weight (g) were assessed for each related cultivar. Results revealed that having auxin: cytokinin concentrations together at enough and well-balanced, having equal amounts or 10:1 concentrations of auxin: cytokinin, concentrations in media combinations are indispensable for stimulating the callogenesis in globe artichoke. The findings of the present study clearly revealed that, there were differences among cultivars regarding callus induction by using in vivo and in vitro leaf explants while in vivo leaf explants came into prominence regarding callus formation and weights. It is assumed that the findings of the present study may play a complementary and auxiliary role in several areas such as pharmaceutical engineering of globe artichoke.
Chun-Yan Liu, Yu-Juan Wang, Qiang-Sheng Wu, Tian-Yuan Yang, Kamil Kuča
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1993-2005; doi:10.15835/nbha48412066

Abstract:
A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the response of leaf antioxidant enzyme systems to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Clariodeoglomus etunicatum in tea (Camellia sinensis cv. ‘Fuding Dabaicha’) seedlings under drought stress (DS). Root AMF colonization was significantly decreased after an eight-week soil drought treatment. Plant growth performance (plant height, stem diameter, leaf number and root biomass), leaf relative water content, and leaf water potential were notably decreased under DS conditions, whereas these variables exhibited significantly higher responses in mycorrhizal seedlings than in non-mycorrhizal seedlings. The DS treatment markedly increased leaf superoxide anion concentration but did not affect malondialdehyde content, whereas both were reasonably decreased by AMF colonization regardless of water status. The seedlings colonized by AMF showed substantially higher antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase than the non-AMF colonized seedlings under both well-watered and DS conditions. DS markedly upregulated the relative expression of CsSOD in both AMF and non-AMF seedlings and the relative expression of CsCAT in AMF seedlings. Meanwhile, AMF-colonized seedlings represent markedly higher relative expressions of CsSOD and CsCAT than non-AMF seedlings, irrespective of water status. It concludes that mycorrhizal tea plants had higher antioxidant enzyme activity and corresponding gene expression under DS, indicating a stronger ability to alleviate the oxidative damage of drought.
Alondra Salcido-Martínez, Esteban Sánchez, Lorena P. Licón-Trillo, Sandra Pérez-Álvarez, Alejandro Palacio-Márquez, Nubia I. Amaya-Olivas, Pablo Preciado-Rangel
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2167-2181; doi:10.15835/nbha48412090

Abstract:
One of the most significant challenges humanity will face is food production. In order to preserve the output, mineral fertilizers are essential. However, it's not a suitable option in the long term. Magnesium is a crucial macronutrient, but it is the most limiting element in agriculture. Nanotechnology, with the implementation of nanofertilizers, is an excellent alternative since it provides nutrients, supports growth, and improves production; this in low amounts is more sustainable than conventional fertilizers. Although there is a piece of limited information regarding the proper foliar application of this macronutrient, the study helped to validate the effect of the foliar application of Magnesium nano fertilizer on the physiological, biochemical responses and yield of bean plants. Bean plants ejotero cv. ‘Strike’ and magnesium nanoparticles were applied at doses of 0, 50, 100, and 200 ppm. The biomass accumulation, yield, activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase, and photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. The foliar application of Mg nanoparticles at 50 ppm generated the highest amount of biomass and photosynthetic pigments. The 100 ppm dose improved pods yield and allowed the increased activity of the Nitrate Reductase enzyme. The results obtained suggest that, when increasing the dose of magnesium in plants, the amount of carotenes decreases.
Hossam S. El-Beltagi , Faten Dhawi, Ihab S. Ashoush, Khaled Ramadan
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1941-1956; doi:10.15835/nbha48412151

Abstract:
Due to the excessive impact of synthetic drugs, unravelling and employing safe, natural alternatives are now needed to resolve a number of diseases. In this research, we have evaluated hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Spirulina platensis and pomegranate juice in rats against hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Spirulina crude carotenoid extract was screened by UPLC-MS / MS. Activities of liver marker enzymes; measured aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and determined lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status as reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver homogenate. The infusion of CCl4 (2 ml/kg b.wt) greatly increases levels of liver marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation, resulting in depletion of antioxidants. Treatment of Spirulina platensis (Sp), pomegranate juice (Pj)or mixture (PJSP) of Spirulina water extract 10% and pomegranate juice 90% (1 ml/100 g b.wt) to CCl4-disrupted rats resulted in decreased activity of liver marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation with increased antioxidant status. Chromatographic separation showed that ß-carotene is the predominant carotenoid extract. This carotenoid extract was tested for colon carcinoma (HCT-116), liver carcinoma (HepG2) and intestinal carcinoma cell lines (CACO) LC50 for 21.8, 14 and 11.3 ug / ml, respectively. Total phenolic phytochemicals, total carotenoids and total flavonoids were also measured in Spirulina. Our study clearly demonstrates that Spirulina platensis and pomegranate juice had hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-caused hepatotoxicity in rats through its antioxidant activity.
Zsolt Szekely-Varga, Sara González-Orenga, Maria Cantor, Monica Boscaiu, Oscar Vicente
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1980-1992; doi:10.15835/nbha48412150

Abstract:
Drought and salinity are amongst the most damaging environmental stressors that can affect a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. In the present study were analysed the responses to salinity and drought in greenhouse-controlled conditions of two varieties of Lavandula angustifolia. Three-month-old lavender seedlings were subjected to water deficit and salt stress (100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl) during a 30-day period. Complementing a previous analysis focused on stress tolerance mechanisms based on the regulation of ion transport and the synthesis of osmolytes, we have now evaluated the effects of the water deficit and salt treatments on the generation of secondary oxidative stress, by measuring malondialdehyde levels, and the activation of antioxidant systems, both non-enzymatic and enzymatic, determining total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents and calculating superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase specific activities, respectively, in extracts of control and stressed plants. The results obtained confirm that both lavender varieties react in the same way to the applied stress treatments, activating the same antioxidant responses. However, some differences were observed when comparing the specific mechanisms triggered by each type of stress. Thus, the oxidative stress induced under drought conditions was counteracted by accumulation of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, without apparent involvement of antioxidant enzymes. Salt stress, on the other hand, in addition to an increase in flavonoid levels also induced superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These antioxidant responses are likely to contribute to the relatively high tolerance (as compared to most crops) of lavender to drought and salinity.
Ioannis Manthos, Dimos Rouskas, Evangelos Karagiannis, Thomas Sotiropoulos, Athanasios Molasiotis, Mihai Botu
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2343-2358; doi:10.15835/nbha48412097

Abstract:
The present study aimed to evaluate the pomological and phenological traits, as well as kernel antioxidant potential of the dominant Greek pistachio cultivars, ‘Aegina’ and ‘Pontikis’ (Pistacia vera L.). Blooming of ‘Aegina’ cultivar occurred from early to mid of April, and nut maturation at middle to late of August. Production started at 6 to 7 years from grafting and full production observed at year 13. Blooming and nut maturation of ‘Pontikis’ occurred about 1 to 2 days later than ‘Aegina’ and production started 6 to 7 years from grafting, with full production observed in the 14th year. Mean tree yields reached 18.0 ± 1.0 kg and 17.4 ± 1.1 kg of dry nuts, in ‘Aegina’ and ‘Pontikis’ cultivar, respectively. ‘Aegina’ cultivar presented intermediate tree vigour and spreading growth habit, whereas ‘Pontikis’ high tree vigour and semi-erect growth habit. ‘Aegina’ nut had a narrowly cordate shape and the percentage of split nut was found at 78.5 ± 6.5. ‘Pontikis’ nut had ovoid shape and the percentage of split nut was 84.1 ± 6.2. In ‘Aegina’ cultivar 100 nuts weighted 101.0 g and in ‘Pontikis’ 114.4 g. Color of kernel was green externally and green to green-white internally, greener in ‘Pontikis’. The antioxidant potential of pistachio kernel measured by FRAP assay, total polyphenolic substances, flavonoids, flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids content, did not differ (P > 0.05) between cultivars. Evaluation of ‘Aegina’ and ‘Pontikis’ pistachio cultivars revealed that both are high yielding, with large nut sizes of acceptable appearance and high quality.
Namphueng Moolphuerk, Wattana Pattanagul
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2072-2084; doi:10.15835/nbha48412018

Abstract:
Drought is a critical environmental constraint limiting plant growth and productivity. Chitosan has been utilized as a potential biostimulant and proven to be effective against drought stress in many plant species. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with different molecular weight (MW) chitosans on some physiological characteristics of rice seedlings under drought stress. Rice seedlings were treated with low (50-190 kDa), medium (190-310 kDa) and high (310-375 kDa) MW chitosans by seed priming and foliar spray. The seedlings were subjected to drought by withholding water for four days. The relative water content (RWC) was reduced from 93% in the control plants to 74% in the droughted plants. The results revealed that treating with chitosan, especially with low MW chitosan, promoted root growth under drought stress. All chitosan treatments led to higher relative water content and photosynthetic pigment under drought condition. Pretreatment with chitosan also induced sugar accumulation, and treating with low MW chitosan significantly increased starch accumulation under drought stress. In addition, chitosan treatments alleviated the effects caused by drought stress as represented by the decreases in electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), corresponding with the increases in activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity.
Radu L. Sumalan , Cornelia Muntean, Ana Kostov, Daniel Kržanović, Noemi L. Jucsor, Sorin I. Ciulca, Renata M. Sumalan, Marius Gheju, Mariana Cernicova-Buca
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2095-2113; doi:10.15835/nbha48412160

Abstract:
Heavy metal pollution, manifested by the accumulation, toxicity and persistence in soil, water, air, and living organisms, is a major environmental problem that requires energetic resolution. Mining tailing areas contain metal minerals such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd in high concentrations that pollute the environment and pose threats to human health. Phytoremediation represents a sustainable, long-term, and relatively inexpensive strategy, thus proving to be convenient for stabilizing and improving the environment in former heavy metal-polluted mining sites. This study presents the bioremediation potential of Silphium perfoliatum L. plants, in the vegetative stages of leaf rosette formation, grown on soil polluted with heavy metals from mining dumps in Moldova-Noua, in the Western part of Romania. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), translocation factor (TF), metal uptake (MU) and removal efficiency (RE) of Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb by S. perfoliatum plants were determined in a potted experiment in controlled environmental conditions. The reference quantities of heavy metals have been determined in the studied soil sample. The experiment followed the dynamics of the translocation and accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, in the various organs of the silphium plants, during the formation of the leaf rosette (13-18 BBCH). The determination of the amount of heavy metals in soil and plants was achieved by the method of digestion with hydrochloric and nitric acid 3/1 (v/v) quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The obtained experimental results demonstrate that the substrate has a high heavy metal content being at the alert threshold for Zn (260.01 mg kg-1 in substrate compared with alert threshold 300 mg kg-1) and at intervention thresholds for other metals (Cu -234.66 mg kg-1/200 mg kg-1; 299.08 mg kg-1/300 mg kg-1 and Pb-175.18 mg kg-1/100 mg kg-1). The average concentration of the metals determined in dynamics in the dry biomass of plants varied between roots, petioles, and laminas. The root is the main accumulator for Cu and Cr (Cu – 37.32 mg kg-1 -13 BBCH to 43.89 mg kg-1-15 BBCH and 80.71 mg kg-1 – 18 BBCH; Cr – 57.43 mg kg-1 – 13 BBCH to 93.36 mg kg-1 -18 BBCH), and for Zn and Pb the lamina seems to carry the same function. Preliminary results show that Silphium perfoliatum may be a viable alternative in the bioremediation and treatment of heavy metal-contaminated area.
Emine Ayaz Tilkat, Nesrin Haşimi, Ibrahim S. Kuru, Veysel Süzerer
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1885-1900; doi:10.15835/nbha48412016

Abstract:
P. khinjuk Stocks, known as Bıttım or Buttum in Turkey, is a member of the Anacardiaceae family. The essential oil of khinjuk pistachio has been used to treat various illnesses because of their anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antibacterial, anthelmintic, antiviral effects in various folk medicines. At the same time, fruits of khinjuk pistachio are used as edible wild fruits. In this study, it was aimed to determine and compare the antibacterial, antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid amounts of different parts (root, stem and leaf explants) of in vivo (grown naturally) and in vitro derived khinjuk pistachio plants under salt (NaCl) stress. Ethanol extracted explants were used for performing biological and chemical parameters. According to the results, generally, in vivo samples shows higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activity besides the higher number of phenolic compounds than their counterparts in vitro. We have also determined that the biological activity of in vitro salt elicited explants was higher than in vitro control explants. Generally, both female and male in vivo samples have higher antioxidants (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC) and antimicrobial activities than in vitro samples. The various plant parts (root, stem, leaf) belonging to both in vivo and in vitro samples have different biological activity level. In terms of antimicrobial activity, female plant extracts are more active than all other tested extracts. As a result, although increased salinity values significantly reduced antimicrobial activity, it is determined that 100 mM NaCl applications to in vitro leaf extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans.
Kawsar Hossen, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2050-2059; doi:10.15835/nbha48412104

Abstract:
Plants possessing allelopathic potential could be used as a source of bio-herbicide to help decrease the use of synthetic herbicides. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd., a deciduous tree from the Mimosaceae family, has been reported to have medicinal properties. However, there have been no reports on the allelopathy of this tree. Therefore, the leaf extracts of A. catechu were examined for allelopathic potential using six concentrations: 0.001, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 g dry weight equivalent extract mL-1. The aqueous methanol extracts of A. catechu significantly suppressed the seedling growth of six test plants such as alfalfa, cress, lettuce, barnyard grass, Italian ryegrass, and timothy. The extracts inhibited the six test plants in a concentration-dependent manner. The shoot and root growth of all the test plant species were completely inhibited from the concentration of 0.3 g of dry weight equivalent extract mL-1, except the shoot growth of barnyard grass. Concentrations needed for 50% growth inhibition (I50 values) ranged from 0.004 to 0.043 g dry weight equivalent extract mL-1 for shoot growth, and 0.003 to 0.019 g dry weight equivalent extract mL-1 for root growth. Moreover, the I50 values indicated that the root growth of all the test plants was more susceptible to the A. catechu extracts than the shoot growth. The inhibitory effects of the extracts of A. catechu suggest that the extracts may contain allelopathic potential and, therefore, may be a potential candidate for the isolation and characterization of allelochemicals to develop an ecofriendly bio-herbicide.
Raweerat Rukkhun, Kesinee Iamsaard, Sayan Sdoodee, Nipon Mawan, Nuttapon Khongdee
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2359-2367; doi:10.15835/nbha48412045

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of high-frequency tapping system (1/3S 3d/4) on latex yield, biochemistry and its impact on the Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) of young RRIM600 hillside tapping rubber. The experiment was conducted at three different hillside rubber plantations (NM 1 - 3) at Na-Mom district, Song Khla province, Thailand. Eight-year-old rubber RRIM 600 clones was used in the experiment starting from 2008 until 2009. The rubber trees were investigated for latex yield production, bark consumption, and TPD. In addition, latex diagnosis (sucrose, inorganic phosphorus (Pi), and thiol levels) was measured. The results demonstrated that high-frequency tapping system positively affected the rubber latex yield formation. However, site-specific condition of rubber plantation altered latex yield production. NM 3 provided the highest latex yield (fresh and dry weight) as compared to other plantations. Tapping frequency was highly correlated to latex yield (fresh and dry weights) in all investigated rubber plantations (R2 > 0.75). Using high-frequency tapping system increased bark consumption and stimulated TPD. Moreover, results of latex diagnosis (sucrose, Pi, and thiol levels) showed relatively unhealthy rubber tree as impacted by high-frequency tapping system. Therefore, the farmer should consider it for better decision-making for tapping system application.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2085-2094; doi:10.15835/nbha48412138

Abstract:
Investigating the correlation between biodiversity and ecosystem function in natural environments using carbon-isotope composition (δ13C) allows distinguishing the nutrient cycling pattern and anthropogenic effects incorporation in plants and soil processes. The mechanisms behind the isotopic composition of soil organic matter (SOM) and parent vegetation in relation to the context of site-specificity was approached in this work. Formation of SOM can be affected by the presence of a high concentration of heavy metals in soils. Still, no systematic studies were performed in most of the industrial sites to support this hypothesis. In order to explore this incomplete understood influence, investigation of carbon isotope signatures (d13C) variations in soil organic matter were performed in two industrial areas from Romania (Copșa Mică industrial platform and Baia Sprie mining zone). The current study, also, investigated the C:N ratio variation, as well as the influence of N speciation regarding d13C values of SOM. The decrease in C:N ratio indicated an increasing effect of the microbial products on SOM matter at increasing depth, for both regions, while an increase of the denitrification processes with depth was found for both areas. For the most appropriate depth (20-40 cm), the soil from Baia Sprie region was more enriched in 13C comparing with the soil from Copsa Mica region, and this higher isotope fractionation of SOM might be due to a higher carbon content, respectively a higher nitrogen content of Baia Sprie soil. It was concluded that the SOM of the surface soil in the two investigated regions has an 13C isotopic composition similar to the plant remains from which it was formed, offering an integrated value of plant material, time and the local origin and providing useful markers of tree isotopic composition.
Peiman Zandi, Beata Barabasz-Krasny, Alina Stachurska-Swakoń, Joanna Puła, Katarzyna Możdżeń
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2060-2071; doi:10.15835/nbha48412081

Abstract:
Solidago canadensis belongs to highly invasive species in Europe, it is established in ruderal, semi-natural and natural communities. To test the traits related to invasiveness, the experiment with the potential of allelopathic compounds produced by the species was conducted. The aqueous extract from the goldenrod leaves was used to examine the germination and early stages of development of Trifolium pratense, the species as an example of fodder plant common in meadows and pastures. Three types of aqueous extract were used: decoction, infusion, and macerate. All extracts of Canadian goldenrod had a negative influence on the germination process of red clover, however, the effect changed in time and type of extract. The most inhibiting influence was documented for the macerate type of aqueous extract. Similarly, the negative influence of macerate was the highest for the length and weight of the seedlings, the content of chlorophyll a and b, and electrolyte leakage. As the procedure of obtaining the macerate is the most like the process of natural extraction of allelopathic substances in nature, there is the practical conclusion to remove the moved biomass of the goldenrod during the restoration process of areas colonised by the species.
Piyanan Pipatsitee, Apisit Eiumnoh, Rujira Tisarum, Kanyarat Taota, Sumaid Kongpugdee, Kampol Sakulleerungroj, Suriyan Cha-Um
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2385-2398; doi:10.15835/nbha48412134

Abstract:
Rice is an important economic and staple crop in several developing countries. Indica rice cultivars, ‘KDML105’ and ‘RD6’ are clear favourites, popular throughout world for their cooking quality, aroma, flavour, long grain, and soft texture, thus consequently dominate major plantation area in Northeastern region of Thailand. The objective of present study was to validate UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle)-derived information of rice crop traits with ground truthing non-destructive measurements in these rice varieties throughout whole life span under field environment. Plant height of cv. ‘KDML105’ was more than cv. ‘RD6’ for each respective stage. Whereas, number of tillers per clump in ‘KDML105’ exhibited stability at each developmental stage, which was in contrast to ‘RD6’ (increased continuously). Moreover, 1,000 grain weight, total grain weight and aboveground biomass were higher in ‘KDML105’ than in ‘RD6’ by 1.20, 1.82 and 3.82 folds. Four vegetative indices, ExG, EVI2, NDVI and NDRE derived from UAV platform proved out to be excellent parameters to compare KDML105 and RD6, especially in the late vegetative and reproductive developmental stages. Positive relationships between NDVI and NDRE, NDRE and total yield traits, as well as NDVI and aboveground biomass were demonstrated. In contrast, total chlorophyll pigment in cv. ‘RD6’ was higher than in cv. ‘KDML105’ leading to negative correlation with NDVI. ‘KDML105’ reflected rapid adaptation to Northeastern environments, leading to maintenance of plant height and yield components. Vegetation indices derived from UAV platform and ground truth non-destructive data exhibited high correlation. ‘KDML105’ was rapidly adapted to NE environments when compared with ‘RD6’, leading to maintenance of physiological parameters (detecting by UAV), the overall growth performances and yield traits (measuring by ground truth method). This study advocates harnessing and adopting the approach of UAV platform along with ground truthing non-destructive measurements of assessing a species/cultivars performance at broad land-use scale.
Hossam S. El-Beltagi, Faten Dhawi, Amina A. Aly, Abeer E. El-Ansary
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2114-2133; doi:10.15835/nbha48412115

Abstract:
Celery seed oils can help in detoxification processes of the body as it facilitates the elimination of toxins and other harmful substances out of the body. This study aimed to assess biological activity of essential oils extracted from un-irradiated and irradiated celery seeds by gamma rays. Celery seeds were irradiated with different dose levels of gamma radiation; control, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 kGy. The highest increase of essential oil extracted was registered with a dosage level of 10.0 kGy (2.42%). The GC-MS analysis showed that, there were new compounds detected in the irradiated samples and others compounds were increased or decreased. The FTIR spectra showed alterations in functional groups of essential oils extracted from celery seeds upon gamma-irradiation. Total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity increased proportional to the increase in the irradiation dose level and the maximum increase obtained in the irradiation dose level 10.0 kGy. This may be an evidence on the biological value, there were anticancer activity against 2 cell lines, breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and lung cancer cell line (A549). The best IC50 in A549 was 145 µg/ml in sample with irradiation dose level 5.0 kGy while the best IC50 in MCF-7 was 124 µg/ml in irradiated sample with dose 5.0 kGy. Also, the highest inhibition zone of S. aureus, B. subtilis and K. pneumoniae were obtained with the oil extracted from seeds irradiated with 5 kGy dose level, where E. coli and C. albicans were more pronounced for the oil gotten from the seeds irradiated with 10.0 kGy. The irradiation process for celery seeds may be promising for biological value of celery oils.
María T. Martínez-Damián, Omegar Cruz-Arvizu, Oscar Cruz-Alvarez
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2292-2305; doi:10.15835/nbha48412076

Abstract:
Ficus carica L. has fruits with an exquisite flavour, colour and aroma. However, due to its morphological characteristics, it has a limited shelf life. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on nutraceutical quality and the overall appearance of figs stored at 1 °C. The experimental design used was completely randomized with four replications. The combined use of packaging and cold allowed to observe fruits with less weight loss and firmness, maintaining the values of citric acid and VC without significant changes. With the exception of the last evaluation period, no statistical variation was found in the content of TAn, TP and AC. On the other hand, it was also possible to observe a significant impact on the reduction of respiration and ethylene production, which could be corroborated with the conservation of sensory aspects of the fruit (texture, colour, appearance, marketing level, aroma and flavour) from very good to good. The generation of passive atmospheres (packaging) and the use of cold (1 °C) are useful tools in maintaining the nutraceutical quality and appearance of fig fruits, aspects highly appreciated by consumers and marketers of this fruit.
Mufang Sun, Ding Yuan, Xianchun Hu, Dejian Zhang, Yeyun Li
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2006-2020; doi:10.15835/nbha48412082

Abstract:
High temperature and strong light could induce bitterness and astringency of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in summer. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and shading could change tea growth surroundings and improve its quality. The present study evaluated the inoculated effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus etunicatum, on plant growth, root morphology, leaf nutrient status, phytohormones and the relative expression of root CsCPC, CsTTG1, CsAUX1, CsYUCCA1, CsNCED2, CsGA3OX1, CsDWF4 and CsAOS genes in Camellia sinensis ‘Xinyang population’ seedlings in sands under shading conditions. After 14 weeks of AMF inoculation, root mycorrhizal colonization ranged from 18.5% to 48.00%. AMF inoculation and shading heavily increased plant height, shoot and root biomass, total root length and volume, leaf nutrients content (except Fe), respectively. Both mycorrhizal inoculation and shading significantly increased root hair growth respectively, in company with up-regulation gene CsCPC and down-regulation gene CsTTG1. Root auxin level and its transport gene CsAUX1 was both up-regulated by mycorrhizal inoculation and shading. Interestingly, auxin biosynthesis gene CsYUCCA1 has not been affected, which suggested that both mycorrhizal and shading mainly regulate auxin transport but not biosynthesis pathway. The contents of gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) in root were notably increased by mycorrhizal inoculation and shading, accompanied with up-regulation of its biosynthesis genes, CsGA3OX1 and CsDWF4. With regard to the growth inhibiting phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA), mycorrhizal inoculation and shading significantly decreased their levels in root, in company with down-regulation of biosynthesis genes, CsNCED2 and CsAOS. These results implied that both AMF inoculation and shading could enhance the tea plant stress resistance and increase nutrient absorption, root biomass and the contents of root phytohormones by up-regulating its transport and biosynthesis pathway.
Maryam Esmaili, Sasan Aliniaeifard, Mahmoud Mashal, Parisa Ghorbanzadeh, Mehdi Seif, Miguel U. Gavilan, Francisca F. Carrillo, Oksana Lastochkina, Tao Li
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2244-2262; doi:10.15835/nbha48411835

Abstract:
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and light intensity are the two main environmental drivers known to play important roles in crop growth and yield. In the current study, lettuce seedlings were exposed to four different light intensities [(75, 150, 300 and 600 Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD)] and four different concentrations of CO2 (400, 800, 1200 and 1600 ppm). By increasing light intensity and CO2 concentration growth parameters such as fresh weight, dry weight and leaf area were stepwise increased from 75 to 300 PPFD and from 400 ppm to 1200 ppm CO2 concentration. Maximum fresh weight was observed in 300 PPFD under both 1200 ppm and 1600 ppm CO2 concentrations. Highest dry weight was obtained in plants exposed to 300 and 600 PPFD under both 1200 and 1600 ppm CO2 concentrations. Highest leaf area was detected in 300 PPFD under both 1200 and 1600 ppm CO2 concentrations. Widest stomatal pore aperture was detected in 600 PPFD under 400 ppm and 800 ppm CO2 concentrations. Evapotranspiration increased in a light intensity and CO2 concentration-dependent manner; higher light intensity or higher CO2 concentration, more evapotranspiration. Highest water use efficiency (WUE) was achieved in plants exposed to 300 PPFD under 1200 ppm CO2 concentration. In conclusion, to achieve best growth performance and WUE, lettuce should be produced under 300 PPFD light intensity and 1200 ppm CO2.
Witsarut Chueakhunthod, Wanploy Jinagool, Kantima Meecharoen, Rungrapee Khwanman, Pattaradol Pattanaram, Natchaya Jantarat, Pratthana Palaphon, Sumana Ngampongsai, Piyada A. Tantasawat
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1845-1861; doi:10.15835/nbha48412114

Abstract:
Genetic identification is at the base of parental selection in varietal development programs. Agronomic and photosynthetic characters and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were analyzed for two legume species which included 23 mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) and four blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes. The results revealed that the seeds/pod, plant height, pods/plant, pod length, days to flowering, and all photosynthetic characters studied had a significant correlation with the yield/plant. Using UPGMA analysis with phenotypic data, five clusters and two individuals were identified. Twenty-five SRAP primer combinations generated 562 amplified bands, of which 507 were polymorphic (90.2%). The average numbers of scorable and polymorphic bands/primer pair were 22 and 20, respectively. Two major clusters coincided with two species having a 100% bootstrap value. Within the mungbean cluster, there were two subclusters containing 12 and 11 mungbean genotypes. Mantel’s test demonstrated that the polymorphisms given by SRAPs were associated with agronomic and photosynthetic variability (r = 0.734, p < 0.01). These results allow promising mungbean genotypes to be identified through genetic diversity and field performance which can be utilized as potential parents towards future breeding programs. Moreover, the factors which contribute most to yield/plant can be simultaneously used as selection criteria for yield improvement.
Xiaodong Zhang, Caixia Li, Chonlong Chio, Ayyappa K. S. Kameshwar, Tianxiao Ma, Wensheng Qin
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1802-1831; doi:10.15835/nbha48412044

Abstract:
Stems and roots of Kadsura plant species were the significant ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine. Kadsura heteroclita is one of the popular medicinal plants used in Tujia and Yao nationalities of China. Antioxidant compounds like lignan, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid are the major active components of K. hetroclita. Mass cultivation and bio-manufacturing strategies were being proposed to meet the increasing demand of Kadsura species plant parts. Therefore, it is important to reveal the molecular networks involved in biosynthesis of these highly efficient medicinal compounds. Here, transcriptomes of roots, stems and leaves in K. heteroclite seedling were sequenced by Hiseq2000 and unigenes involved in biosynthesis of lignan, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis were mined. As a result, 472 million clean reads were obtained which after aligning resulted in 160,248 transcripts and 98,005 genes. 191 and 279 unigenes were expected to be involved in biosynthesis of lignan, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways respectively. Lignan, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway genes were highly significant and differentially upregulated in roots and stems and downregulated in leaves. Also, genes encoding for MYB and bHLH transcription factors possibly involved in regulation of lignan, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis were discovered. These results provide the fundamental genomic resources for dissecting of biosynthetic pathways of the active components in K. hetroclita.
Abdullah Beyaz
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2328-2342; doi:10.15835/nbha48411966

Abstract:
Olive tree is an important portion of the human history of Mediterranean nations. On the other hand, local varieties are important for each producer regions and even countries. So, olive cultivars are important for agricultural production for these people. The traditional pomological identifiers of the olive trees based on fruits and leaves, also morphometric analysis of size, additionally shape elliptic analysis of endocarp. Because of this reason, in this study, for the ‘Picual’ olive cultivar identification, a fast and easy method was presented. For this aim, ‘Picual’ olive leaf, fruit, and stone dimension measurement values obtained from real-time video images. ‘Picual’ olive fruit, stone, leaf samples evaluated by using real-time computer vision measurements. Regression analysis was applied to the data which was obtained from real-time video and caliper measurements. According to the regression coefficient results, the regression between caliper length measurement (OLLM) and computer vision video length measurement (OLLCV) found as 98.9%, also the regression between caliper width measurement (OLWM) and computer vision video width measurement (OLWCV) found as 97.9% at ‘Picual’ leaves, additionally, the regression between caliper length measurement (OFLM) and computer vision video length measurement (OFLCV) found as 98.5% the regression between caliper width measurement (OFWM) and computer vision video width measurement (OFWCV) found as 98.1 % at ‘Picual’ fruits, at last, the regression between caliper length measurement (OSLM) and computer vision video length measurement (OSLCV) found as 86.2%, the regression between caliper width measurement (OSWM) and computer vision video width measurement (OSWCV) found as 75.3% at ‘Picual’ stones.
Morvarid Koochani, Ahmad Majd , Sedigheh Arbabian, Faezeh Ghanati, Sayeh Jafari Marandi
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1915-1928; doi:10.15835/nbha48411669

Abstract:
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a popular vegetable crop of the family Cucurbitaceae, is cultivated in different parts of the world and is of great economic importance. Ultrasound is known as a physical stimulus that can affect living systems. At the right frequency and exposure period, these waves have desired effects. In the present study, 2-week-old plants, were put in an ultrasonic bath with a nominal frequency of 40 kHz, a central frequency of 34/722 kHz and a bandwidth of 320 Hz for 0, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Hypocotyl pieces were used as explants and cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0/5 mg/l each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-Naphthalene acetic acid, kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine. The use of ultrasonication at a nominal frequency of 40 kHz for 10 minutes showed better results as compared with the samples treated for 0, 5 and 15 minutes, in terms of the shape, maturity of the embryos, and also the germination of artificial seeds and maturing to flowering stage. Since the cucumber of Esfahan is very famous for its aroma and taste and it is somewhat at risk of extinction, we studied the production of artificial seeds of this valuable plant using somatic embryos and apical buds. This research is the first report on investigation of the positive effect of ultrasound on somatic embryogenesis and artificial seed production. our results clearly showed that this method is a practical method to accelerate seed germination and flowering stage.
Jegatheswaran Ratnasing, Hazirah A. Latib, Neelakandan Paramjothy, Lim C. Liat, Mathivanan Nadarajah, Florin Ioras
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1789-1801; doi:10.15835/nbha48412167

Abstract:
With reducing supply of logs from the sustainably managed natural forest to meet the processing demand of the large wood products industry in Malaysia, plantation forestry has been gaining importance since the early 1970s. Despite the government’s efforts through the provision of financial support and incentives, investments in plantation forestry has been slow. The promising start of the large-scale forest plantation programs in the early 1970s, followed by the 1980s and then the latest program in early 2000, appear to have been a mixed bag of failures and limited success. The rather below-par performance of the forest plantations has been attributed to several factors, such as insufficient good planting stock, poor species-site matching, poor soil quality, pest and diseases and the overall poor silvicultural and management regime laid out for forest plantations. Further, plantation forestry appears to be dominated by larger companies, while small and medium companies, have limited financial resources to overcome the prevailing challenges faced. Despite the poor performance until to date, the adoption of intensive research based silvicultural and management regime for the plantation forests, which are maturing in the next years, will hopefully produce better results and serve as the sunrise for plantation forestry in Malaysia.
Omar A.A.I. Al-Elwany, Gamal F. Mohamed, Hamdi A. Abdurrahman, Mostafa M. Rady, Arafat A. Abdel Latef
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1957-1979; doi:10.15835/nbha48412126

Abstract:
As an important medicinal plant used in traditional and modern medicine, chili peppers are sensitive or moderately sensitive to drought or salt stress, respectively. Therefore, potential changes due to foliar-applied glutathione (GSH; 0, 0.4 and 0.8 mM) response on growth, yield, and physio-biochemical attributes, as well as water use efficiency (WUE) and fruit alkaloid capsaicin of chili pepper plants were investigated when grown under deficit irrigation in salt-affected soil (EC = 6.74 dS m–1). Two deficit irrigation water (DiW) regimes (80% and 60% of soil field capacity; FC) were used versus 100% of FC as a control. Both DiW treatments negatively affected growth and yield parameters, SPAD chlorophyll index, nutrient status, K+/Na+ ratio, and plant anatomical features. In contrast, osmoprotectants, ascorbate, glutathione, capsaicin, and phenolic contents, as well as WUE were increased in association with higher Na+ and Cl– contents. However, exogenously-applied GSH caused significant increases in the above-mentioned parameters along with an additional increase in osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and capsaicin contents, and a decrease in Na+ and Cl– levels compared to corresponding controls. The highest WUE, growth, and fruit yield responses were recorded at 0.8 mM GSH applied to plants under DiW at 80% FC + salinity (6.74 dS m–1). Therefore, this study suggested the use of leafy-applied GSH at 0.8 mM for satisfactory growth and yield with the highest WUE of chili pepper plants grown under salt-affected conditions with deficit irrigation.
Adnan Rasheed, Muhammad U. Hassan, Muhammad Aamer, Maria Batool, Sheng Fang, Ziming Wu, Huijie Li
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1756-1788; doi:10.15835/nbha48412128

Abstract:
Abiotic stresses are the primary threat to crop production across the globe. Drought stress is primary abiotic stress which is considerably limiting the global rice production and putting the food security at higher risks. Drought tolerance (DT) is a multigene trait which is influenced by various stages of development in rice plant. Tolerance as well as susceptibility of rice to drought stress is carried out by different drought-response genes and other components of stress. Plant researchers have used various methods such as, genetic manipulation and marker-assisted techniques for development of new rice cultivars with improved tolerance to drought stress. The aims of this review are to present recent advancements and illustrate current approaches to breed a robust drought-resistant rice genotypes by using classical breeding and advanced molecular techniques. We also shed light on all available information regarding the role of significant hormones in DT, QTL for drought-related traits, QTL for rice yield, global strategies for the improvement of DT in rice, DT genes, and selection supported by markers.
Ebrahim Kakolvand, Khosro Azizi, Mohsen Adeli
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2215-2227; doi:10.15835/nbha48411929

Abstract:
The present study was conducted aiming at the protection of the shallot (Allium altissimum Regal) in natural habitat, which is endangered due to excessive harvesting. In order to increase the sustainability of this product, its wild ecotypes were planted in agricultural land and the effect of bio-fertilizers (nitroxin and phosphate) and sulfur on quantitative (yield and yield components) and qualitative (the active ingredient, allicin, crude protein, and the amount of phosphorus and potassium) traits were investigated. The results showed that the amount of allicin, crude protein, phosphorus, potassium, and yield in the planted ecotypes were significantly higher than the wild type in the studied natural habitat. The results of this study indicated a significant difference respecting quantitative and qualitative trait of cultivated shallot with proper nutritional management compared to wild shallot. Therefore, the expansion and development of this method can lead to the sustainability of the production of shallot and will conserve diversity of its populations in natural habitat.
Michał Fecowicz, Katarzyna Możdżeń, Beata Barabasz-Krasny, Alina Stachurska-Swakoń
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2032-2049; doi:10.15835/nbha48412148

Abstract:
The allelopathic potential of medicinal plant Filipendula vulgaris Moench, originated from two natural habitats: calcareous grasslands and humid meadows, was investigated using radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula Pers.) as a model plant. Suppression influence of aqueous extracts at concentrations: 1%, 5%, 10%, obtained separately from under and aboveground parts of the species, was studied testing germination capacity, biomass and biometry of seedling, and electrolyte leakage. Additionally, two cultivars of the radish were used to test the sensitivity of frequently used plant in the laboratory tests. This study revealed the inhibiting effect of high concentration aqueous extracts from F. vulgaris organs on the germination of radish. It was significant for seed vigour index, speed emergence, germination stress tolerance index, and mean germination time. However, the stimulating effect of 1% of aqueous extracts from dropwort roots and shoots on the germination indexes was documented. Similarly, low concentration extracts had a positive effect on seedling elongation which was visible in biometric analyses and inhibition percentage index but it was not so obvious in the biomass analyses. In general, the aboveground extracts from dropwort grown on calcareous grassland demonstrated higher allelopathic potential than extracts from underground parts and meadow habitat.
Wei-Jin Cheng, Yong-Jie Xu, Guang-Ming Huang, Mohammed M. Rahman, Zhi-Yan Xiao, Qiang-Sheng Wu
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2021-2031; doi:10.15835/nbha48412144

Abstract:
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can benefit many plants, but their effects on walnuts are not yet known. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of five AMF species, namely, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Diversispora spurca, Glomus etunicatum, G. mosseae and G. versiforme on biomass production, chlorophyll contents, sugar fraction contents, and mineral element contents of walnut (Juglans regia L.) seedlings. The five AMF species colonized roots of walnut, established mycorrhizas in roots and hyphae in soil, and released easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein into soil, whilst D. spurca exhibited the best effect. All the AMF inoculations, except A. scrobiculata, stimulated shoot and root biomass production. Mycorrhizal fungal inoculations collectively increased leaf chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll a+b concentrations, and thus promoted leaf sucrose accumulation, which provides an important mycorrhiza-carbon source to roots. AMF inoculations conferred a positive effect on leaf N, P, K, Mg, Fe, B, Zn and Cu contents, while they reduced leaf Mn contents. These results concluded that AMF were beneficial to the growth and physiological activities of walnut, which gives the support for the AMF application in walnut.
Giampaolo Blanda, Maria J. Rodriguez-Roque, Patrizia Comandini, Maria A. Flores-Cordova, Nora A. Salas-Salazar, Oscar Cruz-Alvarez, Mayra C. Soto-Caballero
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2306-2315; doi:10.15835/nbha48412108

Abstract:
The ripening of fruits is a determinant factor on the composition of phytochemical compounds such as phenolic compounds. In this study the phenolic profile of quince fruits was determined as a function of its maturity index. Based on the total soluble solids (TSS) and the acidity (TA) of the fruits, four maturity indexes were established (12.55, 14.56, 21.86 and 24.77), using the ratio of TSS/TA. The phenolic profile of quince fruits with different maturity indexes were obtained by a reversed-phase HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/MS. A PCA loading plot was generated to explain the relationship between physicochemical parameters and the phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds identified in the quince fruits were 3-0-caffeoylquinic acid, catechin, 4-0-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-0-caffeoylquinic acid, coumaric acid, quercetin-3-0-rutinoside and quercetin-3-0-glycosides. The maturity index increase caused in general a reduction of phenolic compounds, these compounds were also influenced by pH and acidity of fruits. Quince is a valuable source of natural phenolic antioxidants, and can be used as raw material to elaborate diverse food products, providing important functional properties.
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2368-2384; doi:10.15835/nbha48411993

Abstract:
This paper presents an updated version of our previous GIS-based method developed for indexing the forest surfaces by their wildfire ignition probability (WIPI) and wildfire spreading capacity (WSCI). The previous study relied on a multi-criteria approach including a variety of factors of social, hydro-meteorological, and geo-physical character of the context. However, this study is challenging the drawbacks of the previous work, by introducing three new criteria regarding the vegetation properties in the area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Tree Cover Density (TCD), and land cover type are launched as indicators of fuel properties of the forest being indexed. The materials and software utilized here belongs to different open sources. CORINE Land Cover (CLC), Open Street Map (OSM), TCD via Copernicus high resolution data, and multispectral satellite images via Landsat 8 (Semi-Automatic Classification Plugin- SCP) are utilized as raw materials in a workflow in QGIS software. At this stage, the study area is the territory of Montenegro. Following the inventory stage, the indexing method relies on a normalizing procedure in QGIS and the assignment of weighted impact factor to each criterion via analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The WSCI value is derived as the sum of the products between the normalized class and the respective weighted impact factor of each criterion. Besides the methodological improvements the results of this work deliver tangible outputs in support of forest fire risk reduction in disaster risk management and fire safety agendas.
Yong Zhou, Mingyuan Xu, Wei Lai, Lianghai Chen, Yingui Yang, Shiqiang Liu
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1832-1844; doi:10.15835/nbha48411960

Abstract:
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-heme iron enzymes that play crucial roles in many developmental processes during plant life, and defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a lipoxygenase gene (CsLOX1) was cloned and characterized from cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The coding sequence (CDS) of CsLOX1 was 741 bp, and encoded an 878 amino-acid residue protein, which was predicted to be located in the cytoplasm. CsLOX1 contained the conserved LH2/PLAT and lipoxygenase domains, as well as the representative 38 amino acids motif [His-(X)4-His-(X)4-His-(X)17-His-(X)8-His]. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsLOX1 was closely related to other dicot 9-LOXs and posesess the essential conserved residues involved in the binding of the iron atom. Promoter analysis suggested that several development-, stress-, and hormone-related cis-acting regulatory elements were present in the promoter region of CsLOX1. The function of CsLOX1 was assessed by overexpression it in Arabidopsis, and the transgenic plants were male sterile and displayed obviously increased floral shoots. These results provide some clues for revealing the biological roles of CsLOX1 in cucumber.
Jaber Khordadi Varamin, Farzad Fanoodi, Jafar Masoud Sinaki, Shahram Rezvan, Ali Damavandi
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2228-2243; doi:10.15835/nbha48411852

Abstract:
Applying elicitors and nano-fertilizer has been recommended to enhance the growth and yield of secondary metabolites in herbs and medicinal plants under water-limited stress. However, less information is available on the effects of chitosan and nano-magnesium fertilizers on sesame seed yield, oil content, and physiological traits in the presence of nano-magnesium chelate (nano-Mg) under water-limited supply. In this regard, field experiments as a split-factorial experiment was performed based on randomized blocks in three replicates in Varamin city, south of Tehran, Iran, during 2015-2016 to evaluate the impact of chitosan and nano-Mg on physiological, seed, and oil traits of sesame. Irrigation cut-off based on BBCH scale was considered as the main factor including normal irrigation (I1), irrigation cut-off in 75 (I2), and 65 BBCH (I3) stages. Secondary factors as the subplot included ‘Oltan’ (C1) and ‘Dashtestan-2’ (C2) sesame cultivars, and foliar application of nano-Mg (application and non-application) and chitosan (control (CH1), foliar application of 4.8 g L-1 in 65 BBCH (CH2), and 6.4 g L-1 in 75 BBCH stages (CH3)). Further, free proline content, total sugars, the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), photosynthetic pigments content, seed yield, and oil content were evaluated in the next stage. Based on the results, irrigation cut-off in 65 BBCH stage (flowering) significantly increased free proline content, total sugars, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, CAT, POD, and APX. However, chlorophyll a, b, and total contents, seed yield, oil percentage, and yield decreased under water stress. ‘Dashtestan-2’ cultivar had the highest seed yield and oil content, and more tolerant cultivar under water-limited stress. Interestingly, the production of proline content and total sugars increased while the activity of antioxidant enzymes, CAT, POD, and APX decreased under application of nano-Mg and CH2, which influenced both sesame response and seed attributes. As a result, the production of some physiological traits in sesame cultivars may be regulated by adjusting the irrigating practices. Finally, the co-application of nano-Mg and CH2 increased the seed yield and oil content of sesame under limited water supply in the arid and semi-arid region.
Hang Zhou, Dianfeng Zheng, Naijie Feng
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2263-2278; doi:10.15835/nbha48411780

Abstract:
Spatial and temporal distribution of roots of mung bean and soybean originated from different geographical backgrounds is an important scientific issue. The aim of this study was to research the spatial and temporal distribution of roots system of soybean cultivar ‘Hefeng55’ and mung bean cultivar ‘Jilv7’ which can elucidate differences between soybean roots and mung bean roots in the key spatial and temporal locations. The roots at V6, R2, R4, R5, R6, and R7 stages were collected to acquire data of root length, root surface area, root volume and root dry weight. 49.8%, 11.7%, 13.2%, 14.7% and 10.6% of soybean roots and 57.8%, 10.7%, 11.2%, 11.9% and 8.4% of mung bean roots were in 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-25 cm horizontal soil layers, respectively; 79.2%, 11.5%, 4.3%, 1.8%, 1.1%, 1.0% and 1.1% of soybean roots and 70.0%, 12.3%, 8.0%, 3.0%, 1.6%, 1.7% and 3.4% of mung bean roots were in 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-120 and 120-140 cm vertical soil layers, respectively. Compared with mung bean, soybean had a much larger root system during development. In horizontal direction, soybean root tended to be more laterally developed, but the distribution of mung bean root was more uniform in vertical direction. With a greater root surface area to weight ratio (AWR), mung bean had a finer root system than soybean. These findings can help to clarify the four-dimensional spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of legumes and may provide reference for production practice of soybean and mung bean in the future.
Rujira Tisarum, Thapanee Samphumphuang, Wittaya Prommee, Chareerat Mongkolsiriwatana, Suriyan Cha-Um
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1901-1914; doi:10.15835/nbha48412034

Abstract:
Plant micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis is a powerful technique for rapid mass propagation, especially in para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.). However, somaclonal variations are the major limitation of this process. To date, DNA fingerprinting, i.e., RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA), Star Codon Targeted (SCoT), and SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), is one of the most successful technologies to detect the genetic fidelity in the somatic embryos. The aim of present study was to induce somatic embryos from inner integument explants of para rubber cv. ‘RRIM 600’ at different developmental stages and subsequent acclimatization and transplantation (under greenhouse and field conditions) of the propagated seedlings. The genetic stability of the plants derived from somatic embryos was also analysed in comparison to the mother plant using RAPD, SCoT and SSRs markers. Somatic embryos derived from inner integuments of 5-week-old immature seeds after pollination were more efficient than older and younger seeds. In addition, para rubber mother plants cv. ‘RRIM600’ and plants derived from somatic embryogenesis demonstrated the same pattern of DNA fragments, as confirmed by three PCR-based techniques, RAPD, SCoT and SSRs, whereas these in the pattern were different from ‘RRIT 226’, ‘PB 235’, ‘PB 251’, ‘PB 255’ and ‘BMP 24’. Interestingly, T2 plant was found to possess somaclonal variations when compared with mother plant. Based on the results, we confirm that the plants derived from somatic embryogenesis of para rubber cv. ‘RRIM 600’ were true-to-type to that of ‘RRIM 600’ master stock.
Abdulselam Karaozan, Mustafa Usta
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1862-1872; doi:10.15835/nbha48411985

Abstract:
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a natural host of many viruses. Yellow dwarf viruses belonging to the Luteoviridae family are important virus species that cause economic loss by restricting wheat production worldwide. Surveys were conducted in 2017 to determine Yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV-PAV, BYDV-MAV, BYDV-SGV, BYDV-RMV, and CYDV-RPV) and their infection rates in wheat production areas in Mardin province. 400 fresh leaf samples collected were tested by Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (m-RT-PCR). The overall infection rate was found to be 3%. BYDV-PAV has been identified as the most widespread virus with a 2.5% presence rate. It was found out that BYDV-SGV, CYDV-RPV, and BYDV-RMV infections were lower, with rates of 1.75%, 0.5% and 0.25% respectively. In the current study, double infections were detected in 8 samples. The overall infection rate of the detected viruses (BYDV-PAV, BYDV-SGV, CYDV-RPV, BYDV-RMV) was found to be lower than the records reported in previous similar studies. No BYDV-MAV infection was found in any of the wheat samples tested. The cDNA of the coat protein (CP) gene of a BYDV-PAV isolate randomly selected from virus-positive samples was cloned, bidirectionally sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship revealed. According to the phylogenetic analysis with 19 different isolates in the NCBI database of BYDV-PAV Mardin isolate, it showed the highest genetic similarity by 95.52% with the Germany isolate (KY634926) while the lowest similarity rate was 89.22% with the Germany and Pakistan isolates (KY634886 and JQ811489). The presence of BYDV-PAV, BYDV-SGV, CYDV-RPV, and BYDV-RMV were reported for the first time with this survey study conducted in Mardin.
Radu E. Sestras
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48; doi:10.15835/nbha48412198

Abstract:
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca (NBHA): The papers published in Issue 4, Volume 48, 2020 represent new exciting researches in different topics of life science, respectively in plant science, horticulture, agronomy and crop science. Among the interesting articles we invite you to find news about: Exploring Artemisia annua L., artemisinin and its derivatives, from traditional Chinese wonder medicinal science; A critical review on the improvement of drought stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.); Plantation forestry in Malaysia: an evaluation of its successes and failures since the 1970; Transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in lignan, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis in medicinal plant Kadsura heteroclite; Molecular cloning and characterization of a lipoxygenase gene (CsLOX1) from cucumber; Genetic relationship of mungbean and blackgram genotypes based on agronomic and photosynthetic performance and SRAP markers; Callogenesis optimization of some globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] cultivars based on in vivo and in vitro leaf explants; Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian, France and Austrian Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) essential oils etc. The new Impact Factor communicated by ISI Clarivate, June 29, 2020, is IF 2019 = 1.168 (position 149 of 234 journals, Q3 in Plant Sciences). New metrics in Scopus – Elsevier (June 22, 2020): CiteScore 1.40 (#43/84 in Horticulture); SJR 0.35 - Q2, #41/90 in Horticulture (SJR Scimago Journal).
Santina R. Santana, Derly J. H. Da Silva, Leonardo L. Bhering, Ronaldo S. Gomes, Renato D. S. Rosado, Paula C. C. Lima
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2198-2214; doi:10.15835/nbha48412043

Abstract:
Fruits of Capsicum chinense, a native species of Amazon Basin, express high levels of bioactive components such as vitamin C and carotenoids; some of them with pronounced pro-vitamin A activity such as β-carotene, which confers high economic potential to this species. The characterization of C. chinense germplasm helps in its management and conservation. Therefore, this practice is considered crucial for the identification of genotypes with superior characteristics, especially in relation to agronomic aspects and chemical-nutritional characteristics of fruits. This study aimed to characterize 55 C. chinense accessions collected from the Brazilian Amazon in terms of their agronomic and chemical-nutritional descriptors aiming to identify superior genotypes for these traits. The characterization was performed in a completely randomized design with 5 replications in non-heated environment. There was significant difference for all descriptors, confirming the variability among accessions. High heritability estimates for descriptors, such as fruit yield (95.1%) and vitamin C content of fruit (92.4%), was found to be associated with high CVg/CVe ratios of these traits, indicating a favorable condition for the selection of superior genotypes for these characteristics. A considerable part of the accessions expressed averages higher than the checks, notably for the fruit yield and the content of vitamin C. The cluster analysis resulted in the formation of 11 groups, corroborating the high variability of accessions for the agronomic and chemical-nutritional aspects of fruits. The evaluated C. chinense germplasm thus expressed high fruit yield and vitamin C content in the fruits, which makes it a promising source for the selection of superior genotypes.
Mohamad H. Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun, Qi Cheng
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1719-1741; doi:10.15835/nbha48412002

Abstract:
Artemisia annua L. (Chinese wormwood herb, Asteraceae) synthesizes artemisinin, which is known as qinghaosu, considers as a unique sesquiterpene endoperoxide lactone. In traditional Chinese medicine, it has been used for the treatment of fevers and haemorrhoides. More researches on Artemisia annua L. and its derivatives, especially artemisinin and other metabolites will help to increase the knowledge and value of A. annua and its constituents. Phenolics from Artemisia annua consists of coumarins, flavones, flavonols, phenolic acids, and miscellaneous. Artemisinin has attracted much attention from scientists due to its potent antimalarial properties as secondary metabolites. Moreover, more attentions are focusing on the roles of artemisinin and its derivatives in treating obesity and metabolic diseases. They also have anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-protozoa, anti-helminthic, anti-fungal, anti-angiogenic and antiproliferation properties. The most important derivatives of Artemisia annua L. are arteether, artemether, artemiside, artemisinin, artemisone, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin. Artemisinin also use against some cancers such as liver cancer, brain glioma, leukemia, nasopharyngeal cancer, gallbladder cancer, gastric cancer, cervical cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer and colon cancer. This important gift from ancient Chinese traditional medicine can guarantee health of people all around the world. Further researches should be done on the new advances and development of artemisinin and its derivatives as potential natural medicine in the global fight against so many diseases, malaria included.
Mustafa Ceritoglu, Figen Ceritoglu, Murat Erman, Harun Bektas
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2182-2197; doi:10.15835/nbha48412054

Abstract:
Grain legumes known as “Pulse crops” are economically and nutritionally one of the most important crop families after cereals. Climate change and abiotic stress factors are limiting yield potential in these crops. Root system architecture, a neglected field, is promising for improved environmental adaptability and higher growth potential. Genotypes with deep and dense root system may cope better with water and nutrient limitations. This study aimed to evaluate 12 common cultivars from six different legume species. Root system architectures were evaluated under controlled conditions in a plexiglass system at the early vegetative stage. Roots were divided into four depth zones (0, 5, 10, 15> cm), and inter and intra species diversity were analysed. Significant diversity was obtained within and between the species. Bean, chickpea, and broad bean constituted deeper and dense root systems while lentil, soybean, and pea formed non-dense and shallower root systems. There was a significant correlation between earliness and early vegetative root vigour. The results of the study may provide a better understanding of the root system architectures of each species-genera. The results presented here may shed light on the selection of root traits in legume breeding programs.
Abbas Mirzakhani, Mojdeh Farazmandi, Nour A. Sajedi, Mohammad Nasri, Masoud Gomariyan
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 2279-2291; doi:10.15835/nbha48411790

Abstract:
+prolonging vase life and decreasing post-harvest losses are considered a basic strategy towards sustainable development of agriculture, and the application of growth regulators, e.g. benzyl adenine(BA) and 1-metylcylcopropane(1-MCP), is one of the practical methods for them. The effects of benzyl adenine(BA) and 1-metylcylcopropene(1-MCP) on some biochemical characteristics and vase life of rose cv. ‘Royal Baccara’ (Rosa hybrida L. cv. ‘Royal Baccara’), were explored in a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2017. The factors included BA at three levels of 0 (control), 75 and 150 ppm and 1-MCP in three levels of 0 (control), 1 and 2 µl/L-1. The results showed that the maximum soluble protein content was observed in 150 (ppm) BA+ 2 (µl.L-1) 1-MCP treatments on the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth days. The results of this research revealed that BA at the rates of 75 and 150 ppm and 1-MCP at the rates of 1 and 2 (µl.L-1) enhanced soluble protein content by 10.49, 13.37, 15.18, and 18.18 percent as compared to the control, respectively. The results showed that the maximum proline content was related to the control and the minimum content was observed in the plants treated with 150 (ppm) BA+ 2 (µl.L-1) 1-MCP. The endoproteases enzyme content was slightly decreased on the eighth day, indicating the efficacy of BA and 1-MCP in inhibiting the senescence process and prolonging vase life of rose flowers. The results showed that the application of 1 or 2 μl.L-1 1-MCP and 150 mg L-1 BA can improve the vase life of cut roses
Miguel Garcia-Parra, Roman Stechauner-Rohringer, Diego Roa-Acosta, Daniel Ortiz-González, Jorge Ramirez-Correa, Nubia Plazas-Leguizamón, Andres Colmenares-Cruz
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, Volume 48, pp 1742-1755; doi:10.15835/nbha48412059

Abstract:
Photosynthetic activity is a fundamental process in the physiology of plants, and its regulation plays an important role in determining the effect of abiotic factors. Quinoa is a plant species of agronomic and nutritional interest that has been recognized for its adaptability to extreme environmental conditions, however, climate change may result in unfavorable conditions capable of affecting the natural development of this species, which is of great interest culture and research in South America. To evaluate the response of quinoa to stress, techniques could be used that quantify the loss of light energy through its dissipation in the form of heat. However, the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence is the most widely used and accessible technique for field research, which allows to recognize the relationships between the plant and agroclimatic factors. This review summarizes the physiological effects of heat, radiation, salinity, and nutrient and water availability, as well as their possible interactions on quinoa.
Felicia Cornescu, Gheorghe Achim, Sina Cosmulescu
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 836-841; doi:10.15835/nsb12410752

Abstract:
Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L) is one of the most valuable fruit shrubs of the Cornaceae family, and therefore the vegetative propagation of the valuable selections is necessary because the material obtained must be used for the future. 4 genotypes were studied (2 perspective selections: H1 and H3 and two cultivars used as a control: ‘De Bucovăț’ (B) and ‘De Orhei’ (O) and propagated by grafting (the grafting method used was improved copulation. Biometric observations were focused on diameter below the point of graft (mm), diameter at the graft point (mm), diameter above the graft point (mm), height of graft (cm), number of anticipated, average length of the anticipated (cm), the sum of the anticipated length (cm), the growth increase (cm). Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the grafting method, enhanced copulation, within vegetative propagation, can be successfully used in the production of cornelian cherry planting material next to the other known methods; the growth of the anticipated shoots on plant could cause the appearance of flowering buds and implicitly earliness in fruit-setting.
S. Ravi Shankar, P. Dayanandan
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 852-868; doi:10.15835/nsb12410714

Abstract:
Anatomical and histochemical studies of ovary and caryopsis of sorghum reveal the importance of the chalazal complex in transporting nutrients from maternal sources to the filial diploid embryo and triploid endosperm. The presence of starch, protein, lipid, Ca, K, Mg, and Fe in various tissues at different stages of development can be revealed by a variety of histochemical techniques. Vascular supply ends at the base of the ovary and transport occurs through vascular parenchyma, pigment strand and nucellar projection where symplastic continuity is broken. Nutrients unloaded into an apoplastic placental sac then enter the endosperm and embryo through the aleurone transfer cells. The later possess characteristic wall ingrowth. The single layer of aleurone surrounding the endosperm may also help in transport during later stages of grain-filling. Grain-filling in C4 sorghum is compared with other C4 and C3 grasses showing the variety of strategies evolved to transport nutrients into filial tissues. Standardization of terminologies to describe the tissues of the crease region will help in further research and communication.
Martins S. Akogwu, Chukwuka N. Uchendu, Rita I. Odo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 773-780; doi:10.15835/nsb12410718

Abstract:
This study evaluated the influence of human chorionic gonadotropin on hormonal and haematological profile of postpubertal male albino rats exposed to chronic oral administration of alcohol. Twenty-four mature male albino rats were assigned to four groups (n=6). Group A was the control, given distilled water, Group B was given 30% ethanol (8 ml/kg) orally 3 times a week, Group C was given human chorionic gonadotropin (HcG) (50 IU/kg) subcutaneously 3 times a week and Group D was given HcG (50 IU/kg) subcutaneously + 30% ethanol (8 ml/kg) orally 3 times a week. The study was for 10 weeks, and hormonal profile and haematology were determined. The follicle stimulating hormone of Group B decreased significantly (P
Okechukwu S. Ezeh, Sifau A. Adejumo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 884-900; doi:10.15835/nsb12410651

Abstract:
Okra growth and yield are adversely affected by drought at different growth stages. This is aggravated by poor soil fertility. In this study, the roles of compost applied at 0, 5 and 10 t/ha on the tolerance and morpho-physiological response of okra (NHAe 47-4) exposed to varying levels of water stress (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% field capacity, FC), at different growth stages (vegetative, reproductive and vegetative-reproductive stages) for ten days duration were assessed. Data were collected on okra growth and yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC), leaf photosynthetic pigments (LPG) and proline accumulation. Results showed that drought stress reduced LRWC, LPG, growth and yield of Okra. This reduction was more evident in okra plants exposed to severe stress for 10 days and at the reproductive stage. Soil amendment with compost however, had cushioning effect on drought stressed okra. Compared to control, it increased the LRWC, LPG, growth and yield of okra. The ameliorative roles of compost were however, dependent on stress intensity, compost dosage, okra growth stage and stress duration. Though, okra plants stressed at 25% FC were more affected by drought stress, but compared to the un-amended soil, those grown on amended soil were more tolerant. Higher compost rate was superior to lower rates. Whereas, higher proline accumulation was recorded in plant exposed to 25% field capacity without amendment, proline accumulation was reduced in the plants grown on compost amended soil and exposed to drought which was an indication of stress reduction. Generally, okra stressed at vegetative growth stage only was able to recover rapidly and had better yield compared to those stressed at reproductive growth stage. It is concluded that addition of compost to soil could reduce the drought stress effect on okra.
Bhupendra S. Adhikari, Rahul Kumar
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 901-919; doi:10.15835/nsb12410716

Abstract:
The present study attempts to investigate the phenological changes of herbaceous plant species in early snowmelt microsite and late snowmelt microsite in treeline ecotone (3200-3300 m asl) at Tungnath, western Himalaya. Four sites, each with two microsites (early snowmelt: ES and late snowmelt: LS) were selected and within each microsite, 3 quadrats (1x1m each) were permanently laid and studied for phenology. Eighty-six species were recorded, of which the proportion of perennial forbs, hemicryptophytes and natives was 90, 84 and 70%, respectively. The early phenophase was noticed in the majority of species in ES microsite than that of LS microsite and the timing of different phenophases varied among microsites. The vegetative phase peaked July (75.6%), while flowering, fruiting and seed maturation phases peaked in August (72.1% and 23.3%, respectively) and 71% species attained the senescence during September. This indicates that species might adapt to the different adaptation to a warming climate. Immediately after the snowmelt 10 species were observed in flowering, while 11 species were in the bud development phase. Comparing 13 common species of the present study with those of past in same or similar study areas indicates that timing and duration of vegetative and flowering phenophase (77% and 69%, respectively) have advanced and lengthened, while fruiting and seed maturation have shortened. Furthermore, phenophase initiation has advanced for flowering (69% species), fruiting (46% species) and senescence (38% species) phases. It seems that the early snowmelt influences spring phenology of herb species on the microsite level and may continue to influence the overall phenology of species for the whole growing season in timberline.
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