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(searched for: Utilizing Discoveries in Microbiology)
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Current HIV/AIDS Reports pp 1-7; doi:10.1007/s11904-020-00514-1

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Sciprofile linkGermain Bayon, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Jean-Alix Barrat, Xudong Wang, Sciprofile linkDong Feng, Sébastien Duperron
Published: 19 August 2020
Chemical Geology; doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2020.119832

Abstract:
A major breakthrough in the field of rare earth element (REE) geochemistry has been the recent discovery of their utility to microbial life, as essential metalloenzymes catalyzing the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Lanthanide-dependent bacteria are thought to be ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments, but direct field evidence of preferential microbial utilization of REE in natural systems is still lacking. In this study, we report on the REE and trace element composition of the tube of a siboglinid worm collected at a methane seep in the Gulf of Guinea; a tube-dwelling annelid that thrives in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems. High-resolution trace element profiles along the chitin tube indicate marked enrichments of lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce) in its oxic part, resulting in REE distribution patterns that depart significantly from the ambient seawater signature. Combined with various geochemical and microbiological evidence, this observation provides direct support for an active consumption of light-REE at cold seeps, associated with the aerobic microbial oxidation of methane. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we also re-examine the available set of REE data for modern seep carbonates worldwide. While most carbonate concretions at cold seeps generally display REE distribution patterns very similar to those for reduced pore waters in marine sediments, we find that seafloor carbonate pavements composed of aragonite commonly exhibit pronounced light-REE enrichments, as inferred from high shale-normalized La/Gd ratio (>~0.8), interpreted here as possibly reflecting the signature of lanthanide-dependent methanotrophic activity. This finding opens new perspectives for revisiting REE systematics in ancient seep carbonates and other microbialites throughout the Earth's history. In particular, the geochemical imprint of aerobic methane oxidation could be possibly traced using REE in Archaean stromatolites and other archives of Precambrian seawater chemistry, potentially providing new insights into the oxygenation of early Earth's oceans and associated microbiogeochemical processes.
Published: 8 August 2020
by MDPI
Membranes, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/membranes10080181

Abstract:
Following their initial discovery in the 1940s, polymyxin antibiotics fell into disfavor due to their potential clinical toxicity, especially nephrotoxicity. However, the dry antibiotic development pipeline, together with the rising global prevalence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have both rejuvenated clinical interest in these polypeptide antibiotics. Parallel to the revival of their use, investigations into the mechanisms of action and resistance to polymyxins have intensified. With an initial known effect on biological membranes, research has uncovered the detailed molecular and chemical interactions that polymyxins have with Gram-negative outer membranes and lipopolysaccharide structure. In addition, genetic and epidemiological studies have revealed the basis of resistance to these agents. Nowadays, resistance to polymyxins in MDR Gram-negative pathogens is well elucidated, with chromosomal as well as plasmid-encoded, transferrable pathways. The aims of the current review are to highlight the important chemical, microbiological, and pharmacological properties of polymyxins, to discuss their mechanistic effects on bacterial membranes, and to revise the current knowledge about Gram-negative acquired resistance to these agents. Finally, recent research, directed towards new perspectives for improving these old agents utilized in the 21st century, to combat drug-resistant pathogens, is summarized.
Science, Volume 369, pp 592-592; doi:10.1126/science.369.6503.592

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Published: 29 June 2020
Abstract:
Stable protein complexes, including those formed with RNA, are major building blocks of every living cell. Escherichia coli has been the leading bacterial organism with respect to global protein-protein networks. Yet, there has been no global census of RNA/protein complexes in this model species of microbiology. Here, we performed Grad-seq to establish an RNA/protein complexome, reconstructing sedimentation profiles in a glycerol gradient for ~85% of all E. coli transcripts and ~49% of the proteins. These include the majority of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) detectable in this bacterium as well as the general sRNA-binding proteins, CsrA, Hfq and ProQ. In presenting use cases for utilization of these RNA and protein maps, we show that a stable association of RyeG with 30S ribosomes gives this seemingly noncoding RNA of prophage origin away as an mRNA of a toxic small protein. Similarly, we show that the broadly conserved uncharacterized protein YggL is a 50S subunit factor in assembled 70S ribosomes. Overall, this study crucially extends our knowledge about the cellular interactome of the primary model bacterium E. coli through providing global RNA/protein complexome information and should facilitate functional discovery in this and related species.
Daiyong Deng, Dung Ngoc Pham, Fei Li, Sciprofile linkMengyan Li
Applied and Environmental Microbiology; doi:10.1128/aem.01163-20

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Matthew Phanchana, Tanaporn Phetruen, Phurt Harnvoravongchai, Ponlawoot Raksat, Puey Ounjai, Surang Chankhamhaengdecha, Sciprofile linkTavan Janvilisri
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-8; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-63199-x

Abstract:
Drug resistance in Clostridioides difficile becomes a public health concern worldwide, especially as the hypervirulent strains show decreased susceptibility to the first-line antibiotics for C. difficile treatment. Therefore, the simultaneous discovery and development of new compounds to fight this pathogen are urgently needed. In order to determinate new drugs active against C. difficile, we identified ticagrelor, utilized for the prevention of thrombotic events, as exhibiting potent growth-inhibitory activity against C. difficile. Whole-cell growth inhibition assays were performed and compared to vancomycin and metronidazole, followed by determining time-kill kinetics against C. difficile. Activities against biofilm formation and spore germination were also evaluated. Leakage analyses and electron microscopy were applied to confirm the disruption of membrane structure. Finally, ticagrelor’s ability to synergize with vancomycin and metronidazole was determined using checkerboard assays. Our data showed that ticagrelor exerted activity with a MIC range of 20–40 µg/mL against C. difficile. This compound also exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation and spore germination. Additionally, ticagrelor did not interact with vancomycin nor metronidazole. Our findings revealed for the first time that ticagrelor could be further developed as a new antimicrobial agent for fighting against C. difficile.
Ahmed Elkashif, Sciprofile linkMohamed N.Seleem
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 5602-9; doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62696-3

Abstract:
Neisseria gonorrhoeae represents an urgent public health threat due to the rapid emergence of resistance to current antibiotics and the limited number of anti-gonococcal agents currently in clinical trials. This study utilized a drug repositioning strategy to investigate FDA-approved gold-containing drugs against N. gonorrhoeae. Auranofin, sodium aurothiomalate and aurothioglucose inhibited 48 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae including multidrug-resistant strains at a concentration as low as 0.03 µg/mL. A time-kill assay revealed that auranofin exhibited rapid bactericidal activity against N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, both sodium aurothiomalate and aurothioglucose did not inhibit growth of vaginal protective commensal lactobacilli. Auranofin, in combination with azithromycin, ceftriaxone, cefixime or tetracycline showed an additive effect against four N. gonorrhoeae strains, suggesting the possibility of using auranofin in dual therapy. Moreover, auranofin reduced the burden of intracellular N. gonorrhoeae by over 99% outperforming the drug of choice ceftriaxone. Auranofin was found superior to ceftriaxone in reducing the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by endocervical cells infected with N. gonorrhoeae. Furthermore, auranofin exhibited a prolonged post-antibiotic effect over 10 h, as well as inability to generate resistant mutants. Overall, the current study suggests that repurposing gold-containing drugs, like auranofin, for treatment of gonorrhea warrants further investigation.
Sciprofile linkTomo Kondo, Shigehiko Yumura
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Volume 104, pp 3825-3834; doi:10.1007/s00253-020-10430-4

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Wanderson Marques Da Silva, Nubia Seyffert
Pan-genomics: Applications, Challenges, and Future Prospects pp 357-369; doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-817076-2.00019-6

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