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Stefania Albanesi, Jiyeon Kim
Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 35, pp 3-24; doi:10.1257/jep.35.3.3

Abstract:
The economic crisis associated with the emergence of the novel corona virus is unlike standard recessions. Demand for workers in high contact and inflexible service occupations has declined while parental supply of labor has been reduced by lack of access to reliable child care and in-person schooling options. This has led to a substantial and persistent drop in employment and labor force participation for women, who are typically less affected by recessions than men. We examine real-time data on employment, unemployment, labor force participation and gross job flows to document the impact of the pandemic by occupation, gender and family status. We also discuss the potential long-term implications of this crisis, including the role of automation in depressing the recovery of employment for the worst hit service occupations.
ثرياء بنت سليمان الشبيبية
ARID International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities pp 227-244; doi:10.36772/arid.aijssh.2021.3610

Abstract:
The study aimed to identify the role of the family plays in e- learning framework, discuss the most prominent challenges the family faces during the process of enabling its children to effectively access e- learning, and to provide some solutions in light of schools’ closure due to the Corona pandemic (COVID19). The study applied the descriptive approach, and the study sample consisted of (45) parents in the Sultanate of Oman, who were randomly selected. In order to achieve the aim of the study, the researchers used a parent interview card. The study revealed that there is a variety of roles parents and families play in this type of learning, including: Providing the necessities of e- learning and distance learning, such as devices and internet service, creating the suitable environment for learning, following up their kids’ homework, continuous follow-up and understanding challenges, creating solutions, and Resolving technical problems and issues that may arise.It’s worth mentioning here that the family faces several challenges in applying e- learning at home. These challenges include the poor condition of Internet network and the financial demands such as: providing devices for more than one student in the family. Parents also struggle to provide a place that is specially prepared for each student. Besides, the lack of time as parents are busy with other responsibilities and the difficulty of following up more than one student in the family. The study members provided a number of suggestions to overcome the challenges facing the family in applying e-learning at home. These suggestions include the following: downloading the explained lessons in students’ devices, training parents and students on how to use the educational platforms and implementing a cooperation between the Ministry of Education and the community institutions to support families in providing the necessities of e-learning. Based on the results found, the study highly recommended educating parents and raising their awareness about their roles in the e- learning framework. The study also suggested providing training workshops for parents and students on how to use the educational platforms. In addition to the importance of enhancing the network infrastructure to facilitate access to the Internet.
Michal Beno
Journal of Educational and Social Research, Volume 11, pp 76-76; doi:10.36941/jesr-2021-0078

Abstract:
Due to Covid-19, many working parents are facing new challenges. The aim of this paper is to share their personal experiences and the best recommendations for resolving their difficulties. We summarise their complex thoughts on the subject of the home office in relation to the household, homeschooling and the education of all concerned. In order to address this question, a qualitative research paradigm using WhatsApp as a medium in order to explore the following research questions was used: 1) How are employees able to manage the home office, homeschooling and the household under one roof? and 2) Will WFH and homeschooling disadvantage working mothers more than working fathers? Data were collected from 10 working parents (five males and five females) in Austria. According to coding, four major themes were explored: 1) Compatibility, 2) Work/home space, 3) Work week separation and 4) Suggestions and organisational recommendations. It was determined that at the beginning of the lockdown drawing a clear boundary between the home, office and school environments caused some difficulties. Especially parents with younger children experienced problems of compatibility. Secondly, flexibility and housing in relation to the home-office-school environment was a common topic throughout the interviews. Furthermore, before Covid-19 all participants had a more classic separation of roles. Roles and expectations changed as all the family members stayed at home day in and day out. Finally, in privileged situations (more living space, jobs that could be done remotely or support of the entire family), it was often easier to deal with the current challenges. This pandemic has brought many changes in everyday life and in terms of performing old tasks and new ones. This includes work at home and homeschooling. The obtained data provide important insights into how to deal with the impact of Covid-19 on work, home and school while emphasising the importance of these questions as well as of future research for support and information. Received: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 May 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021
Published: 1 July 2021
by MDPI
Vaccines, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/vaccines9070713

Abstract:
Despite vaccines’ effectiveness in reducing the rate of preventable diseases, vaccine hesitancy has threatened public health and economies worldwide. Healthcare providers’ (HCP) communications and behavior strongly influence patient receptivity and uptake. The goal of this review was to examine HCP vaccine perceptions, knowledge, and reservations and how these attitudes affect their recommendations and vaccination practices. Primary research studies published by 16 September 2020 were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. A 14-item scale was developed for survey study and risk of bias appraisal (SSRBA). In total, 96 papers from 34 countries were included, covering 17 vaccines (HPV and influenza vaccines the most studied). Recommendation was positively associated with provider knowledge and experience, beliefs about disease risk, and perceptions of vaccine safety, necessity, and efficacy. HCP vaccination attitudes and practices varied across specialties, vaccines, and countries; demographic impact was inconclusive. Barriers included anticipation of patient/parental concerns or refusal, lacking clear guidelines, time constraints, and cost. For HPV, vaccines were more often recommended to older, female adolescents and by physicians who discussed sexual health. HCPs are vital advocates for patients and the public, but studies indicated a prevalence of provider hesitancy pertaining to inadequate knowledge, low vaccine confidence, and suboptimal uptake themselves. Improving HCP knowledge and assuring their access to information they deem trustworthy are essential to supporting HCPs‘ role as “trusted messengers” to promote vaccine acceptance.
, Ofir Ben-Yaakov, Miriam Chasson
Published: 1 July 2021
Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 117; doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105080

Abstract:
The outbreak of COVID-19 has forced parents to deal with a challenging crisis, which may have increased their stress levels, negatively affecting their parenting and putting their infants at risk of abuse. To examine the contribution of the pandemic to parenting stress, exploring differences in parenting stress among new parents before and during the crisis, the role of background and personal variables, and the possibility that the study phase moderated the associations of gender and personal resources with parenting stress. Israeli parents (n = 1591) whose first child was 3–12 months old were recruited twice through social media: in 2019, before the spread of COVID-19 (n = 985); and in March 2020, during the pandemic (n = 606). Sociodemographic variables, perception of the childbirth as traumatic, lower meaning in life, higher search for meaning, less marital satisfaction, and study phase all contributed to greater parenting stress. In addition, the association between gender and stress was moderated by study phase, with fathers reporting a greater increase in stress during the pandemic. Moreover, only during the pandemic did fathers report higher parenting stress than mothers. The findings highlight the vulnerability of new parents of young infants to parenting stress during the crisis, and the special attention which should be paid to fathers. They indicate the value of strengthening meaning in life and preserving good marital relationships as resources that help to cope with the heightened parenting stress at this time.
Muya Syaroh Iwanda Lubis, Cut Alma Nuraflah, Azizah Hanum
Journal of Education, Humaniora and Social Sciences (JEHSS), Volume 4, pp 140-144; doi:10.34007/jehss.v4i1.536

Abstract:
Communication has an important role in every family especially. Imagine what happens when in a family far from the word communication, of course misunderstandings will continue to occur. Because there is no good communication between each other. Family communication exists to provide order and help overcome stress levels in children, especially in doing online learning at home after the Covid-19 pandemic. Where the child also feels that his freedom in learning is limited without any friends in class. Information provided if this online learning period will be permanent. This is certainly homework for parents in dealing with stress on children. The Technology Readiness Level (TKT) in this study is expected that parents can receive suggestions from the author to make alternative learning at home by bringing some of their friends, teaching parents to use video call technology in the learning process with the child's teacher and school friends, if all this time learn only to use WA (whatsapp) only. This research was conducted in Si Rotan Village, to be precise Dusun I and Dusun II, because in these areas there are more than other hamlets. From the research conducted it shows that the role of family communication in overcoming the stress of online learning can be done well by parents.
Miriam S. Johnson, Nora Skjerdingstad, , Asle Hoffart,
Published: 24 June 2021
PLoS ONE, Volume 16; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0253087

Abstract:
Background In these unpredictable times of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, parents worldwide are affected by the stress and strain caused by the physical distancing protocols that have been put in place. Objective In a two‐wave longitudinal survey, we investigated the levels of parental stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of parents at two time points; during the implementation of the strictest physical distancing protocols following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (T1, N = 2,868) and three months after the discontinuation of the protocols (T2, N = 1,489). Further, we investigated the relationships between parental stress and anxiety and depression relative to relationship quality and anger toward their children at the two aforementioned time points, including subgroups based on age, parental role, cultural background, relationship status, education level, number of children, employment status and pre-existing psychiatric diagnosis. Methods and findings Parents were asked to fill out a set of validated questionnaires on the two measurement points. Parental stress significantly decreased from T1 to T2, indicating that the cumulative stress that parents experienced during the implementation of the distancing protocols declined when the protocols were phased out. The decrease of perceived parental stress was accompanied by a significant decrease in the symptoms of both depression and anxiety among the participating parents. Symptoms meeting the clinical cut-offs for depression (23.0%) and generalized anxiety disorder (23.3%) were reported among participating parents at T1, compared to 16.8% and 13.8% at T2, respectively. The reduction in depression and anger toward their child(ren) from T1 to T2 was associated with a reduction of parental stress. Relationship quality and anger toward their child(ren) at T1 further predicted a change in the level of parental stress from T1 to T2. Conclusions The study underlines the negative psychological impacts of the implementation of the distancing protocols on parents’ health and well-being. Uncovering the nature of how these constructs are associated with parents and families facing a social crisis such as the ongoing pandemic may contribute to the design of relevant interventions to reduce parental distress and strengthen parental coping and resilience.
Giantomi Muhammad
FASTABIQ : JURNAL STUDI ISLAM, Volume 2, pp 14-29; doi:10.47281/fas.v2i1.31

Abstract:
The current pandemic condition means that the learning process is carried out using a remote system. Children learn from home and are guided by their parents, the educational process must not stop even though it is a pandemic. With this, the role of parents at this time is prioritized especially in implementing character education for children during the distance learning period and parents are required to play their current role during the pandemic in implementing character education at home. This research is in the form of qualitative with the literature study method in finding related data and a descriptive-analytic process is carried out. The results of this study suggest three roles of parents in implementing character education, namely the role of parents as educators, motivators for their children, and providing strong role models. This needs to be done with strong intentions and a frequent habituation process.Keywords: Role, Parents, Education, CharacterAbstrakKondisi pandemi saat ini menjadikan proses pembelajaran dilakukan dengan sistem jarak jauh. Anak belajar dari rumah dan dibimbing oleh orang tuanya, proses pendidikan tidak boleh berhenti meskipun sedang masa pandemi. Dengan hal tersebut peran orang tua pada masa ini sangat diprioritaskan khusnya dalam mengimplementasikan pendidikan karakter kepada anak pada masa pembelajaran jarak jauh dan orang tua dituntut perannya saat ini dikala pandemi dalam pengimplementasian pendidikan karakter di rumah. Penelitian ini berbentuk kualitatif dengan metode studi pustaka dalam menemukan data-data terkait dan dilakukan proses deskriptif analitik. Hasil pada penelitian ini mengemukakan tiga peran orang tua dalam mengimplementasikan pendidikan karakter yakni peran orang tua sebagai pendidik, motivator bagi anaknya dan memberikan keteladan yang kuat. Hal tersebut perlu dilakukan dengan niatan yang kuat dan proses pembiasaan yang sering dilakukan.Kata Kunci: Peran, Orang Tua, Pendidikan, Karakter
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/ijerph18126642

Abstract:
It is mainly children and adolescents who are involved in video gaming. The lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may have further increased their use of video games and, consequently, the risk of gaming disorder (GD) symptoms. However, currently, we do not have exhaustive knowledge of this issue. To fill this gap, the current study aims to analyze video gaming habits in children and adolescents during the lockdown, starting in March 2020 in Italy, the first European country affected by the pandemic. Specifically, we aim to understand how variables related to parents—for instance, knowledge of their offspring’s life, the monitoring of their video gaming habits, and parental use of video games—are related to their offspring’s time spent on video games and GD symptoms. A web-based survey involving parents (n = 554, 79% mothers, mean age = 45.39) of 554 children and adolescents (73% males, mean age = 11.11) was utilized. The results showed that they were involved in video games, particularly boys and adolescents, with high rates of GD symptoms. The parents also spent a considerable amount of time playing video games. A path model that explained the mechanisms through which parental variables were related to their offspring’s time spent on video games and GD symptoms, controlling for gender and age, was verified. Overall, the findings indicate the importance of educating parents to behave effectively with respect to video games and monitor their offspring’s video gaming habits.
Fadillatul Nisa
AGENDA: Jurnal Analisis Gender dan Agama, Volume 3, pp 43-51; doi:10.31958/agenda.v3i1.2615

Abstract:
This quantitative descriptive field study aims to determine the level of teachers’ anxiety in facing the Covid-19 pandemic from a gender perspective. It is urgently needed to be conducted since teachers has dual roles during the Covid-19 pandemic, in which they have to be educators as well as parents who help children in online learning process. At the same time, the learning system keeps changing, lack of students’ awareness in implementing health protocols, and many students who do not do school tasks are some reasons why teachers have anxiety in the pandemic Covid-19 era. The population of this study were 39 civil servant teachers at MTsN 2 Pesisir Selatan consists of 30 female teachers and 9 male teachers. Samples were taken by using total sampling technique. Data were collected through a questionnaire developed from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRS-A). The data analysis technique used is descriptive statistical analysis. The results showed that female teachers had high anxiety level with a percentage of 62.76%. Meanwhile, male teachers had medium anxiety level with a percentage of 57.82%. It reflects that female teachers had higher anxiety level than male teachers by a difference of 4.94%.
, Nicole R. van Veenendaal, Karel O’Brien, Neil Patel, for the International Steering Committee for Family Integrated Care
Published: 18 June 2021
Pediatric Investigation, Volume 5, pp 148-154; doi:10.1002/ped4.12277

Abstract:
Family integrated care (FICare) is a collaborative model of neonatal care which aims to address the negative impacts of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment by involving parents as equal partners, minimizing separation, and supporting parent-infant closeness. FICare incorporates psychological, educational, communication, and environmental strategies to support parents to cope with the NICU environment and to prepare them to be able to emotionally, cognitively, and physically care for their infant. FICare has been associated with improved infant feeding, growth, and parent wellbeing and self-efficacy; important mediators for long-term improved infant neurodevelopmental and behavioural outcomes. FICare implementation requires multi-disciplinary commitment, staff motivation, and sufficient time for preparation and readiness for change as professionals relinquish power and control to instead develop collaborative partnerships with parents. Successful FICare implementation and culture change have been applied by neonatal teams internationally, using practical approaches suited to their local environments. Strategies such as parent and staff meetings and relational communication help to break down barriers to change by providing space for the co-creation of knowledge, the negotiation of caregiving roles and the development of trusting relationships. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the vulnerability within programs supporting parental presence in neonatal units and the profound impacts of parent-infant separation. New technologies and digital innovations can help to mitigate these challenges, and support renewed efforts to embed FICare philosophy and practice in neonatal care during the COVID-19 recovery and beyond.
Published: 15 June 2021
Journal of Enabling Technologies, Volume 15, pp 108-116; doi:10.1108/jet-12-2020-0053

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the abrupt transition from attending school face-to-face to participating in online learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic as reported by a parent of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Design/methodology/approach A phone interview was conducted with the parent of a child with ASD. The semi-structured interview focused on how the child’s family was impacted when classes shifted to virtual from face-to-face learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings A total of four themes emerged from the interview. Three of these included adjustments to changes in routines and roles, instruction, and social interactions. A final theme involved the benefits and challenges that emerged following the transition to online learning for students with ASD. While we are in an unprecedented time with the COVID-19 global pandemic presenting understandable challenges, opportunities for and examples of effective virtual learning environments for students with ASD were reported in the parent interview and supported by the literature. Practical implications This research provides insight regarding the impact of COVID-19 and highlights elements that should be considered involving technology for students with ASD. Increased awareness regarding the benefits and contraindications of technology while teaching students with ASD can minimize the adverse effects and enhance the positive impact of technology in students with ASD. Originality/value This paper shares the experiences of one parent of a child with ASD and their experiences with technology and learning during COVID-19.
Published: 15 June 2021
Family Relations; doi:10.1111/fare.12558

Abstract:
Objective This work aimed to analyze parental burnout (PB) and establish a comparison between the times before (Wave 1) and during (Wave 2) the COVID-19 pandemic. Background The COVID-19 pandemic brought additional stress to families. The pandemic could be particularly difficult for parents experiencing parental burnout, a condition that involves four dimensions: an overwhelming sense of exhaustion, emotional distancing from the child, saturation or a loss of fulfillment with the parental role, and a sharp contrast between how parents used to be and how they see themselves now. Method A quasi-longitudinal research design was adopted, comparing two cross-sectional studies among Portuguese parents (N = 995), with an interval of 2 years between each wave of data collection. Participants were surveyed voluntarily through an online questionnaire located on the institutional web platform of the universities involved in the study. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to take into account the associations among variables, alongside controlling the possible confounding effects. Results Parents have overall higher parental burnout scores in Wave 2 than Wave 1, with increased exhaustion, emotional distancing, and contrast, but decreased saturation. Although parental burnout levels remain higher for mothers across the two Waves, the growth is greater for fathers than for mothers. Conclusion Reconciling childcare with paid work is a stressful and new experience for many fathers. However, results suggest that even amid a crisis, some parents had the opportunity to deeply bond with their children. Implications We expect this work to encourage stakeholders to consider proper intervention strategies to address potential parental burnout. Also, initiatives that strengthen gender equity within parenting context are needed.
, , Andreia Borges, Yiqing Xu, Jinrui Zhang
Published: 12 June 2021
Psychology & Health pp 1-23; doi:10.1080/08870446.2021.1934470

Abstract:
This study aims to explore quarantined individuals’ emotional well-being over time and how personal response and life activity predict emotional well-being and its change. Daily data were collected from 134 participants with 71 having 14 consecutive days’ data. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and General Linear Model (GLM) were used to examine the primary tests. Overall, positive and negative emotions declined significantly during the surveyed period. Meanwhile, differences were observed in the level of positive, depressed, and negative emotions and/or patterns of change among different population categories. The personal response of worrying about work and life was positively related to depressed and negative emotions at baseline, but was negatively related to the development of both depressed and negative emotions over time. Among life activities, family stressor was a significant predictor for both depressed and negative emotions while social support predicted positive emotions. Moreover, health & hygiene activity was positively related to positive emotions at baseline. The results provide scientific evidence for public health policymakers on quarantine policies and inform the general public about quarantine life. They highlight the importance of addressing the needs of vulnerable groups (parents with young children, divorcees, clinicians) during the pandemic, and demonstrate the benefits of promoting healthcare and hygiene activity, having a sense of worry and access to social support.
Vladislav I. Terentyev
PRIMO ASPECTU; doi:10.35211/2500-2635-2021-2-46-60-68

Abstract:
The article examines the social effects of distance learning in Mongolia introduced in connection with the quarantine measures. The Mongolian education system was quite successfully transferred into an online format from the start. A positive factor in this regard was the unified system of textbooks operating throughout the country. Gradually, negative trends became noticeable - a decrease in quality of education. Special qualitative and quantitative international studies on this topic appeared in a remote format almost a year later. They testified the existence of colossal technical and intellectual inequalities and the dissatisfaction of most parents with the existing system. A large role in attitude change towards e-learning has played its lengthy duration. For University students, the prolonged distance learning has caused dissatisfaction in education quality which led them to demand lower tuition fees. The most negative effects of distance education in Mongolia includes a drop in the real quality of knowledge, formation of technical and intellectual inequality. Due to the implementation of distance learning for such a long time, Mongolia's educational system is in a serious downfall. The situation becomes is even more fragile as a result of its continuous reforms combined with prolonged distance learning according to some Mongolian researchers.
Published: 7 June 2021
Abstract:
COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has been declared a pandemic by the WHO in March 2020. This outbreak poses serious concerns to the global education system. Many educational institutions around the world have closed their campuses and moved to online teaching-learning mode. After the approval from UGC, the validation of online courses has increased in India. The digital initiatives of MHRD for secondary as well as higher education during COVID-19 are the Diksha portal covers e-Learning content for students, teachers, and parents associated with the program, video lessons, worksheets, textbooks, and assessments. It has been almost 15 months since the Indian education system under lockdown. All education bodies including private/Government have started or trying to start is online classes/webinars for students. As today is the era of technology, it provides plenty of opportunities: innovation in learning, ease of creation, embracing international social context, providing new resources and understanding, and increased access to information. Information and communications technology have a vital role in human life as oxygen. The use of technology is a means that the technology replaces traditional learning approaches, it is just to support the new learning skills and approaches. The current prospective cross-sectional study emphasizes discussing the educational spectrum during digital literacy at times of pandemic and lockdown and also evaluates the stress levels of students due to e-learning.
Rizky Tri Murwani, Ayu Niza Machfauzia
Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Arts and Arts Education (ICAAE 2020) pp 209-214; doi:10.2991/assehr.k.210602.042

Abstract:
Online learning as one of the COVID-19 pandemic impacts tends to make school-age children spend more time on gadgets and the Internet. The negative impact of online learning during the pandemic is the tendency for children to abuse internet access excessively out of control with inadequate parental supervision on the use of devices while studying. This will damage the younger generation characters due to the negative influence of the Internet. Many inappropriate contents, online games, and social media with unlimited open access can affect the mental development of school-age children. Art plays an important role in education and human life to build the characters because it can provide a stimulus or stimulation that affects human emotionally. If arts education is carried out according to its concept and aims, it can be employed to teach and foster a sense of sensitivity. Also, art is able to provide stimuli that affect emotions. The government is responsible for ensuring quality education. Arts education must be maximized in addition to developing learning materials. The government must be able to encourage teachers to further optimize learning, by not only pursuing material quantity but also focusing on the learning quality. The teachers play an important role in carrying out learning as a facilitator and activator to direct the students to experience how to process feelings which then form characters as the students’ personalities.
Pediatria i Medycyna Rodzinna, Volume 17, pp 111-115; doi:10.15557/pimr.2021.0018

Abstract:
Currently, there is a heated debate in society around the topic of vaccination. The views of supporters and opponents of vaccinations clash, which is particularly visible on the Internet and social media. Clearly, the discussions are particularly lively at this time due to the challenge facing countries around the world to immunise large numbers of people with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in order to contain the raging pandemic. Although the dispute over vaccination undoubtedly contributes to an increase in public awareness of this issue, it also brings a large dose of chaos and disinformation. The discussion about vaccinations is often accompanied by a lack of substantive content and presentation of scientifically verified arguments, while mutual hostility, threats and dissemination of untrue information dominate. This situation negatively affects parents who, as a consequence, have a problem with making an informed decision about their child’s vaccination. It is also a source of high stress: on the one hand, there is the obligation to vaccinate, while on the other hand, there is a fear of adverse reactions to vaccines, which is framed in psychology as the so-called approach–avoidance conflict and the phenomenon of cognitive dissonance. Many parents deal with this conflict by looking for information, e.g. by asking their paediatrician. However, they do not always find understanding with them either, which deepens their anxiety and frustration. The aim of the article is to draw attention to the above problem, to characterise the social discussion on vaccination, to emphasise the special role of the doctor and doctor–patient communication in this regard, and to provide recommendations on how to effectively conduct this kind of communication.
, Giulia Segre, Massimo Cartabia, Michele Zanetti, Rita Campi, Antonio Clavenna, Maurizio Bonati
Published: 2 June 2021
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-11026-x

Abstract:
Background School closure created difficulties for parents, who were asked to care for their children and help them with schooling, while working at home. We aimed to explore the experiences in organising school for children at home and its implications on children’s psychological well-being and educational progress during the quarantine for the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A nationwide online survey of mothers of primary and middle school students was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Demographic data and information on distance learning organisation and children’s attitudes and behavioural changes were collected. Results 2149 mothers completed the survey, with a final sample of 1601 subjects. Large differences between primary and middle school emerged: lessons were less organised and routines were more instable for the youngest, who could not pay attention for more than 20 min (28.3%) and needed breaks every 10 min (21.6%), with lower quality of learning (40.6%), increased restlessness (69.1%), and aggressiveness (33.3%). A large use of screens was reported, with an abuse in screen time in 2%. Two thirds of mothers did not approve of distance learning (72.2%) because of their role in replacing teachers (77.8%), the effort required (66%), and the great commitment required (78.3%). Conclusions Distance learning increased educational deprivation and social inequalities, especially for the youngest children, who lost almost one year of school. The situation was even worse for children with disabilities, who were neglected by the institutions. This period should be considered as an opportunity to correct the weaknesses of our school system.
Published: 1 June 2021
Social Science & Medicine, Volume 279; doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114025

Abstract:
In spring 2020, many states in the United States enacted stay-at-home orders to limit the spread of COVID-19 and lessen effects on hospitals and health care workers. This required parents to act in new roles without much support. Although studies have asked parents about stress before and during the pandemic, none have examined how stress may have fluctuated throughout the day and the characteristics related to those daily changes. Our study assesses how time-varying (e.g., presence of a focal child) and day-varying (e.g., weekend vs. weekday) factors were related to parents’ level of stress. We use Ecological Momentary Assessment to examine stress three times a day (10 a.m., 3 p.m., and 9 p.m.) for 14 days. We include two different dates hypothesized to be related to parents’ stress levels: (1) when Ohio announced schools would go virtual for the rest of the academic year and (2) when most retail businesses were allowed to re-open. Our sample of 332 individuals, recruited via Facebook, Craigslist, and word of mouth, completed 13,360 of these brief surveys during April–May 2020. Data were analyzed using generalized ordered logit models. Parents report lower levels of stress when completing the 9 p.m. survey, but higher levels when they were at work, during weekdays (compared to weekends) or when they were with the focal child. COVID-19 milestone dates were not related to stress levels. Parents need some form of respite (e.g. child care, child-only activities) to reduce stress, especially during the week when parents are juggling their outside employment and their child(ren)'s schooling. Providing parents with skills and tools to identify and reduce stress, such as apps monitoring heart rate or providing deep breathing techniques, may be one way of helping parents cope with extremely stressful situations.
Published: 1 June 2021
Journal of Neonatal Nursing, Volume 27, pp 220-222; doi:10.1016/j.jnn.2020.09.001

Abstract:
Infants needing the support of a neonatal unit have unique, individual needs that require a Synactive approach to enable effective management of both the environment and the infant themselves (Als, 1986). Parents working in partnership with neonatal colleagues play an essential role in developing competent skills to appraise an infant's function. For parents, learning to care and interact with their infant on a neonatal unit presents unexpected complications including learning to cope and be close to their baby in an unfamiliar setting (Cardin, 2020). The current COVID -19 pandemic has challenged all aspects of neonatal work causing anxiety and stress for all involved in infant care. Neonatal teams have been working together to continue to provide excellent care, and to make adaptations in a difficult and unfamiliar situation. A major change to practice has been the need to limit parent visiting time and access to the cot -side. This is further complicated by the need for practitioner use of face - masks and personal protective equipment when treating infants on neonatal units which has inevitably altered the traditional developmental care approaches undertaken in the UK (Altimier et al., 2015).
David A. Green, Ali Karimirad, Gaëlle Simard-Duplain, Henry E. Siu
Canadian Public Policy, Volume 47, pp 265-280; doi:10.3138/cpp.2021-002

Abstract:
The extent to which elementary and secondary (K–12) schools should remain open is at the forefront of discussions on long-term pandemic management. In this context, little mention has been made of the immediate importance of K–12 schooling for the rest of the economy. Eliminating in-person schooling reduces the amount of time parents of school-aged children have available to work and therefore reduces income to those workers and the economy as a whole. We discuss two measures of economic importance and how they can be modified to better reflect the vital role played by K–12 education. The first is its size, as captured by the fraction of gross domestic product produced by that sector. The second is its centrality, reflecting how essential the sector is to the network of economic activity. Using data from Canada’s Census of Population and Symmetric Input–Output Tables, we show how accounting for this role dramatically increases the importance of K–12 schooling.
, A.A. Adjei, J. Bajpai, S. Banerjee, A.S. Berghoff, S.P. Choo, E. Felip, A.J.S. Furness, E. Garralda, J. Haanen, et al.
Published: 1 June 2021
ESMO Open, Volume 6; doi:10.1016/j.esmoop.2021.100131

Abstract:
Background European Society for Medical Oncology Women for Oncology (ESMO W4O) research has previously shown under-representation of female oncologists in leadership roles. As early reports suggested disproportionate effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on women, the ESMO W4O Committee initiated a study on the impact of the pandemic on the lives of female and male oncologists. Methods A questionnaire was sent to ESMO members and put on the ESMO website between 8 June 2020 and 2 July 2020. Questions focused on the working (hospital tasks, laboratory tasks, science) and home (household management, childcare, parent care, personal care) lives of oncologists during and after COVID-19-related lockdowns. Results Of 649 respondents, 541 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 58% reported that COVID-19 had affected their professional career, 83% of whom said this was in a negative way (85% of women versus 76% of men). Approximately 86% reported that COVID-19 had changed their personal life and 82% their family life. Women were again significantly more affected than men: personal life (89% versus 78%; P = 0.001); family life (84% versus 77%; P = 0.037). During lockdowns, women reported increased time spent on hospital and laboratory tasks compared with men (53% versus 46% and 33% versus 26%, respectively) and a significantly higher proportion of women than men spent less time on science (39% versus 25%) and personal care (58% versus 39%). After confinement, this trend remained for science (42% versus 23%) and personal care (55% versus 36%). Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the professional and home lives of oncologists, especially women. Reduced research time for female oncologists may have long-lasting career consequences, especially for those at key stages in their career. The gender gap for promotion to leadership positions may widen further as a result of the pandemic.
Published: 1 June 2021
Appetite, Volume 161; doi:10.1016/j.appet.2021.105130

Abstract:
COVID-19 triggered widespread disruption in the lives of university students across the United States. We conducted 9 online focus groups with 30 students from a large public university to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the food choices of those displaced from their typical residences due to the pandemic. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first qualitative research to examine the changes in food choice for US university students due to COVID-19 and offer insight into why these changes occurred. Students in this study reported significant, and often negative, changes in food choices during the pandemic compared to when on campus. Many students described changes in the foods they ate, the amount consumed, and increased snacking behaviors. We found food availability and household roles to be powerful factors influencing food choices. Most students had returned to family homes with many students taking a passive role in activities that shape food choices. Parents usually purchased groceries and prepared meals with students eating foods made available to them. Increased free time contributed to boredom and snacking for some students, while for a few students with increased skills and/or agency, additional free time was used to plan and prepare meals. About a third of the students attributed eating different foods at home to food availability issues related to the pandemic such as groceries being out of stock, purchasing non-perishable foods, or the inability to get to a store. This information may be helpful to researchers and health promotion professionals interested in the effects of COVID-19 on student nutrition and related food behaviors, including those interested in the relationship between context and food choice.
Mustafa Içen
Sosyal Bilimler ve Eğitim Dergisi, Volume 4, pp 1-10; doi:10.53047/josse.919643

Abstract:
COVID-19, which started in China in January 2020, spread almost all over the world in a short time and turned into a global pandemic. This pandemic also affected the education systems, and schools were closed in 194 countries from preschool to higher education at the beginning of April, and approximately 1.5 billion students were affected by this situation. In many countries of the world, face-to-face education was paused from preschool to higher education. It can be said that although this process has compelling effects for all children who are in social isolation, these effects can be much greater in children with disabilities and children who do not have a private space in their houses, physical and mental stimulations, materials to trigger their interests and curiosity, supportive parents, and a safe and affectionate environment. Additionally, the responsibilities of children to continue their learning during their stay at home due to distance education increase both children and their parents' anxiety and stress for this process. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects and reflections of the pandemic on education and solution suggestions to the problems. The digital world has changed student roles as well as teacher-family roles. Children and young people benefit from digital education starting from pre-school period, which will contribute to the education benefit level of the term population.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/ijerph18115549

Abstract:
In March 2020, the Italian Government imposed mandatory home confinement to limit the spread of COVID-19. Few studies assessed the psychophysical impact of COVID-19 on chronically ill children. This study examined these effects on children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D) and their caregivers. Seventy-one patients (7–13 years) with T1D and their caregivers were administered a survey created ad hoc and some standardized questionnaires, assessing psychological well-being and anxiety. Medical data (physical and biochemical characteristics) were recorded before (T0, January–February) and after (T1, May–June) the lockdown. Paired Student t-test, Spearman two-tailed correlations, and a linear regression model were used for statistical analysis. Children at T1 showed higher BMI (body mass index), daily total and basal insulin dose, and time spent in therapeutic range, and they showed lower HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), time spent above the therapeutic range, and standard deviations of the mean glucose values than at T0. A total of 32.9% scored in the clinical range for separation anxiety. The increase in separation anxiety was predicted by younger age, female gender, more recent T1D diagnosis, less time spent in therapeutic range at T1, and higher perceived fear of COVID-19 infection. In a pandemic context, separation anxiety may be stronger in younger females, with more recent T1D diagnosis and poor metabolic control, thus affecting the parent’s ability to manage diabetes and to support children’s autonomy.
Ririk Woro Hapsari
JURNAL PAJAR (Pendidikan dan Pengajaran), Volume 5; doi:10.33578/pjr.v5i3.8310

Abstract:
Covid-19 virus has an impact on various field, one which is in education field, so that the Indonesian Goverment made a policy of replacing face to face learning with distance learning or known as online learning. In online learning, parents have a double role as a parent and as a teacher for children in accompany childrend in online learning during Covid-19 pandemic. Lack of understanding of the importance of accompanying children to learn during online learning causes parents to pay less attention to their role in accompanying children during online learning. The aim of this reasearch is to know the role of parents to accompanying children in online learning during Covid-19 pandemic. The research use qualitative methods with case study research type. This research was conducted in Temulus Village, Mejobo District, Kudus Regency, with 5 parents and 5 children who attend 1 Temulus Elemantary School, who living around in environment researcher. Data collection techiques in this research was observation, interviews and documentation. This research use descriptive qualitative data analysis with triangulation methods as a validity test. The step of data analysis is reduction, presentation of data, and conclusions. The result of the role of parents in online learning during th eCovid-19 pandemic is a.) the role as caregivers and educators; b) the role as mentors; c) the role as motivators; d) the role as facilitators. Therefore, parents should provide time and attention in accompanying children to leaen during online learning.
Eko Sulistiono, Mustakim, Deti Nudiati
Proceedings of the First Transnational Webinar on Adult and Continuing Education (TRACED 2020) pp 6-12; doi:10.2991/assehr.k.210508.002

Abstract:
Lifelong education starts from the time in the womb to the end of life. Parents during the Covid-19 pandemic became the main educators at home. Parenting patterns, child learning assistance, and informal education in the family become real experiences, which must be lived by fathers, mothers and children everyday. Currently all individuals in all parts of the world are faced with a period of global health crisis due to coronavirus (Covid 19) which has an impact on the realm of education. The pattern of implementing education changes rapidly, which requires parents to play a full role in the continuation of the early childhood learning process. This article aims to explore the views of parents, especially fathers, in providing tutoring for children during a pandemic. The method used was mixed methods research design using an explanatory sequential design approach, namely by collecting information data using qualitative and quantitative approaches. The final result of the research is the pattern of father’s mentoring while at home playing three figures at once in parenting, both as educators, mentors and nurses in a socio-ecological perspective.
Nursariani Simatupang
Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Law and Human Rights 2020 (ICLHR 2020) pp 308-313; doi:10.2991/assehr.k.210506.041

Abstract:
Before the covid 19 pandemic, children studied at school and interacted directly with their friends including the practice of direct bullying. Children can not learn and interact directly, because they have to learn online from home. Learning online using information technology devices such as smartphones. Means that children are also given an option to access social media, as a means of interacting with their friends. This can cause problems because in their use they can be involved in cyber bullying, as a result of not being able to meet in person. During the covid 19 pandemic, the children continue with their smartphone without the full supervision of parents. The lack of parental supervision, gives them chances to easily insults or taunts at someone they do not like through social media. Bullying has a negative effect especially on victim. Seeing these negative impact the role of parents in the prevention of bullying by children in the covid 19 pandemic should be optimized. The purpose of the research is to analyze the impact of cyber bullying by children and analyze the role of parents in the prevention of cyber bullying in the covid 19 pandemic. The research is normative juridical research. Documentation study was used as the technique to collect the data. The research discovered cyber bullying causes negatively affects to a child, and can traumatize a child as a victim. The trauma make the children become lazy, such as the feeling of being ashamed to meet his friends, lazy to learn, and even depressed. On the other hand, bullying has legal consequences for the perpetrator. Children can not be left alone to use their gadgets on the learning online in the time of the covid 19 pandemic. Full parental assistance and supervision of the child are required in the use of gadgets. Despite being busy with their work, parents should always keep an eye on all children’s activities. Parents should always accompany and know what the child is doing, especially when the child uses his/her smartphone in online learning activities.
, Leah Adams, Kathi Huddleston, Grace N. Lawrence, Alyssa N. Wilson, Cheryl Oetjen, Edward Maibach
Published: 6 May 2021
Abstract:
Background: Parental attitudes about vaccinating themselves against COVID-19 may offer insights into their attitudes about vaccinating their children when the time comes. The objective was to identify parents with high COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy to prioritize for vaccine education interventions.Methods. We conducted multiple logistic regression on data from a nationally representative sample to estimate the association between socio-demographic factors and COVID-19 vaccine intention and history of refusal to vaccinate a child. Results. In the adjusted model, parents who were Black, female, Republican, and lower income had a significantly lower odds of COVID-19 vaccine intention (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]=0.47, 0.73, 2.59, 0.50, respectively). Only age was associated with previous vaccine refusal. Conclusions. The results highlight the politicization of the pandemic and the possibility of continued disparities in COVID-19 health outcomes among those unlikely to get COVID-19 vaccination. Overall, a high proportion of parents and children may ultimately go unvaccinated given that parents’ vaccine behavior is closely tied to that of their children. This is concerning given the role that younger adults and pediatric populations play in sustaining SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
Chelsea L. Kracht, Peter T. Katzmarzyk,
Published: 4 May 2021
BMC Public Health, Volume 21, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10909-3

Abstract:
Background The home environment is an important facilitator of young child movement behaviors, including physical activity (PA), sleep, and screen-time. Household chaos, characterized by crowding, noise, and disorder in the home, may hinder efforts to obtain adequate amounts of movement behaviors. The COVID-19 outbreak impacted many families, and social distancing during this time may create conditions for more household chaos. Family routines can help establish order in the home and encourage an appropriate balance of movement behaviors, such as less screen-time and more sleep. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between household chaos and young child movement behaviors during the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States, and the role of family routines in this relationship. Methods A national online survey including 1836 mothers of preschoolers (3.0–5.9 years) was conducted during May 2020. Mothers reported demographic characteristics, household chaos, family routines, and the preschooler’s movement behaviors during the outbreak. Mothers completed a household chaos questionnaire and were grouped into chaos categories (low, moderate/low, moderate/high, and high) for analysis. Linear regression was used to assess the association between chaos category, family routines, and movement behaviors with adjustment for covariates. Results Mothers were 35.9 ± 4.1 years of age, middle income (47.8%), and preschoolers were 3.8 ± 0.8 years of age. Most mothers reported their preschooler was less physically active (38.9%), slept the same amount of time (52.1%), and increased their screen-time (74.0%) after the COVID-19 outbreak. Preschoolers in the high chaos households performed less total PA (β = − 0.36 days/week, 95% CI:-0.62 to − 0.09, p = 0.008), slept less (β = − 0.42 h, 95% CI:-0.59 to − 0.25, p = 0.001) and had more screen-time (β = 0.69 h, 95% CI:0.45 to 0.92, p = 0.001) compared to those in low chaos households. In most chaos categories, having a bed-time ritual was related to more child sleep, and mothers who viewed routines as “less/not important” reported more preschooler screen-time compared to mothers who viewed routines as “very important”. Conclusion Promoting bed-time rituals and prioritizing routines, even somewhat, may be related to an improved balance of child movement behaviors. Innovative measures are needed to support families during periods of disruption such as that experienced in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Asri Insani, Yufiarti, Elindra Yetti
JPUD - Jurnal Pendidikan Usia Dini, Volume 15, pp 22-40; doi:10.21009/jpud.151.02

Abstract:
The pandemic that occurred this year created conditions that changed the activities of parents and children, the role of parents working outside the home often led to a lack of parental involvement in child development, especially the development of independence. The conditions of the Covid-19 pandemic have caused parents and children to be in one place at the same time. This study aims to determine the effect of parental involvement and maternal employment status on the independence of children aged 7-8 years in the Covid-19 pandemic situation. This quantitative research uses a comparative causal ex-post facto design, with groups of working mothers and groups of non-working mothers. The sample of each group was 60 people who were randomly selected. The findings of the study with the calculation of the two-way ANOVA test obtained the value of Fo = 4.616> F table = 3.92 or with p-value = 0.034 <α = 0.05, indicating that there is an interaction between parental involvement and maternal employment status on children's independence, and Based on the results of hypothesis testing, there is no effect of parental involvement and mother's work status on the independence of the child even though there are differences in the average results of children's independence. Keywords: Children's Independence, Parental Involvement and Mothers' Employment References: Areepattamannil, S., & Santos, I. M. (2019). Adolescent students’ perceived information and communication technology (ICT) competence and autonomy: Examining links to dispositions toward science in 42 countries. Computers in Human Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.04.005 Benner, A. D., Boyle, A. E., & Sadler, S. (2016). Parental Involvement and Adolescents’ Educational Success: The Roles of Prior Achievement and Socioeconomic Status. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(6), 1053–1064. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0431-4 Chusniatun, Kuswardhani, & Suwandi, J. (2014). Peran ganda pengembangan karier guru-guru perempuan. Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Sosial, 24(2), 53–66. Cohen, J. (1994). The earth is round (p < .05). (Vol. 49). American Psychologist,. DeLuca, C., Pyle, A., Braund, H., & Faith, L. (2020). Leveraging assessment to promote kindergarten learners’ independence and self-regulation within play-based classrooms. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 27(4), 394–415. https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2020.1719033 Dong, C., Cao, S., & Li, H. (2020). Young children’s online learning during COVID-19 pandemic: Chinese parents’ beliefs and attitudes. Children and Youth Services Review. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105440 Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Morris, A. S., Fabes, R. A., Cumberland, A., Reiser, M., Gershoff, E. T., Shepard, S. A., & Losoya, S. (2003). Longitudinal relations among parental emotional expressivity, children’s regulation, and quality of socioemotional functioning. Developmental Psychology, 39(1), 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.3 Gassman-Pines, A., Ananat, E. O., & Fitz-Henley, J. (2020). COVID-19 and parent-Child psychological well-being. Pediatrics, 146(4). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-3211 Grolnick, W. S., Benjet, C., Kurowski, C. O., & Apostoleris, N. H. (1997). Predictors of Parent Involvement in Children’s Schooling. 11. Gürbüztürk, O., & Şad, S. N. (2010). Turkish parental involvement scale: Validity and reliability studies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.049 Gusmaniarti, G., & Suweleh, W. (2019). Analisis Perilaku Home Service Orang Tua terhadap Perkembangan Kemandirian dan Tanggung Jawab Anak. Aulad : Journal on Early Childhood. https://doi.org/10.31004/aulad.v2i1.17 Hatzigianni, M., & Margetts, K. (2014). Parents’ beliefs and evaluations of young children’s computer use. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. https://doi.org/10.1177/183693911403900415 Hornby, G., & Lafaele, R. (2011). Barriers to parental involvement in education: An explanatory model. Educational Review, 63(1), 37–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2010.488049 Iftitah, S. L., & Anawaty, M. F. (2020). Peran Orang Tua Dalam Mendampingi Anak Di Rumah Selama Pandemi Covid-19. JCE (Journal of Childhood Education), 4(2), 71. https://doi.org/10.30736/jce.v4i2.256 Jeynes, W. H. (2005). Effects of Parental Involvement and Family Structure on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents. Marriage & Family Review, 37(3), 99–116. https://doi.org/10.1300/J002v37n03_06 Kadir. (2017). Statistika Terapan. PT Raja Grafindo Persada. Komala. (2015). Mengenal dan Mengembangkan Kemandirian Anak Usia Dini Melalui Pola Asuh Orang Tua dan Guru. Tunas Siliwangi, 1(1), 31–45. Kumpulainen, K., Sairanen, H., & Nordström, A. (2020). Young children’s digital literacy practices in the sociocultural contexts of their homes. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 20(3), 472–499. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468798420925116 Levitt, M. R., Grolnick, W. S., Caruso, A. J., & Lerner, R. E. (2020). Internally and Externally Controlling Parenting: Relations with Children’s Symptomatology and Adjustment. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29(11), 3044–3058. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-020-01797-z Lie, A., & Prasasti, S. (2004). Menjadi Orang Tua Bijak 101 Cara Membina Kemandirian dan Tanggung Jawab Anak. PT. Alex Media. Livingstone, S., Mascheroni, G., Dreier, M., Chaudron, S., & Lagae, K. (2015). How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: The role of income, education and parental style. 26. Mikelić Preradović, N., Lešin, G., & Šagud, M. (2016). Investigating Parents’ Attitudes towards Digital Technology Use in Early Childhood: A Case Study from Croatia. Informatics in Education, 15(1), 127–146. https://doi.org/10.15388/infedu.2016.07 Moonik, P., Lestari, H. H., &...
Małgorzata Dankowska
Published: 30 April 2021
Problemy Opiekuńczo-Wychowawcze, Volume 599, pp 32-40; doi:10.5604/01.3001.0014.8503

Abstract:
The subject of the article is to learn about the new dimension of children's everyday life during the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic. This study presents the results of empirical research conducted in a group of eighteen students aged 10–11 in the initial period of the pandemic in Poland in 2020. Due to the specifics of the research and difficult access to the interviewees, a semi-structured interview (SSI) was used. The analysis of conversations with children shows that the different everyday life of children in the times of the pandemic is characterized by the presence of school in their homes, the special role of parents, siblings and relatives in this new dimension of children's unusual everyday life.
, Alexandra Zizzi, Lilianna Suarez, Elizabeth Erickson, William E. Kraus, Jennifer S. Li, , Mary Story, Nancy Zucker, Sarah C. Armstrong
Childhood Obesity; doi:10.1089/chi.2021.0038

Abstract:
Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, children and families have had to adapt their daily lives. The purpose of this study was to describe changes in the weight-related behaviors of children with obesity after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: Semistructured interviews (n = 51) were conducted from April to June 2020 with parents of children with obesity. Families were participants in a randomized trial testing a clinic-community pediatric obesity treatment model. During interviews, families described their experience during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a particular emphasis on children's diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen time behaviors. Rapid qualitative analysis methods were used to identify themes around changes in children's weight-related behaviors.Results: The mean child age was 9.7 (±2.8) years and the majority of children were Black (46%) or Hispanic (39%) and from low-income families (62%). Most parent participants were mothers (88%). There were differences in the perceived physical activity level of children, with some parents attributing increases in activity or maintenance of activity level to increased outdoor time, whereas others reported a decline due to lack of outdoor time, school, and structured activities. Key dietary changes included increased snacking and more meals prepared and consumed at home. There was a shift in sleep schedules with children going to bed and waking up later and an increase in leisure-based screen time. Parents played a role in promoting activity and managing children's screen time.Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unique lifestyle challenges and opportunities for lifestyle modification. Clinical Trials ID: NCT03339440.
Jaena Clarice C. Teng, Angela Dionne F. Hilario, Lauren Marie A. Sauler, Ma. Cristina M. De Los Reyes,
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, Volume 3, pp 19-32; doi:10.32996/jhsss.2021.3.4.3

Abstract:
Parentification refers to parent-child role reversal wherein the child adopts the parent's role instrumentally or emotionally. This role reversal practice between the parent and the child is not uncommon in certain cultures. The cultural dynamics and familial obligations at play have positive and negative outlooks with varying effects. This study focused on the effects of instrumental parentification experiences on psychological resilience and interpersonal relationships among selected Filipino young professional daughters during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using purposive sampling, 19 Filipino young professional daughters from Metro Manila, Philippines, were selected for the study. Online interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was employed to process the data. Findings showed that most of the daughters, with “utang na loob” (indebtedness) value system, wholeheartedly accepted instrumental parentification. Thus, more tasks and responsibilities were shouldered by them due to the COVID-19 lockdown wherein older parents need to stay at home due to the fear of contracting the disease. Almost all shared that the COVID-19 pandemic tested their parent-child relationship. A few expressed that it made them let go of personal growth opportunities and experienced problems with their parents' relationship, given the uncertainties brought by the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, they shared that they could not leave their ageing parents in this time of COVID-19 pandemic and that with proper balancing of tasks and responsibilities at home and at work, parentification made them to become more self-reliant, mature faster, and responsible daughters.
Muassomah Muassomah, Irwan Abdullah
Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Social Science (ICONETOS 2020) pp 840-846; doi:10.2991/assehr.k.210421.120

Abstract:
Technology, which was previously considered a negative influence on children, has turned out to be the only solution for the education sector during the Covid-19 pandemic. The education system has experienced a shift from face-to-face learning at school to technology-based home learning as a result of social and physical distancing policies implementation. This study aims to describe the experience of elementary school children during online learning without the presence of professional teachers and peer community who can instigate their competitive spirit. This paper describes the parents’ difficulties and obstacles as they are demanded to substitute the role of professional teachers for their children. A qualitative descriptive approach is applied in this study with offline and online interview techniques as data collection instruments. The data were collected from elementary school children with different backgrounds to explore their experiences of online learning. This paper focuses on the perspective of children in learning online during the pandemic in several schools in one city, as well as the experiences of their parents who are demanded to become teachers. This study concludes that technology, which is a prerequisite for online learning, actually creates hindrance for children. Children are stressed, refuse to study, lose enthusiasm for learning, and lose structured time dimension. All of those are because they learn individually and not communally. Further research is needed to explore the perceptions of students at different levels of education during the pandemic.
Published: 22 April 2021
Canadian Journal of Pain, Volume 5; doi:10.1080/24740527.2021.1914213

Abstract:
Symposium Chair: Sitara de Gagne, Patient Partner, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, [email protected] Symposium North America is in the midst of a public health emergency related to opioid use, referred to as the “opioid crisis”. Opioids play an important role in the management of cancer pain. However, the crisis and subsequent mitigation efforts (e.g., dose restrictions, forced tapers) have had unintended consequences, such as reluctance of patients to take and clinicians to prescribe opioids, and stigma felt by patients and expressed by providers. With the current global pandemic, cancer patients are faced with a crisis within a crisis, with increased opioid-related harms, re-routed cancer services resulting in fragmented or diminished access to care, and reduced opioid prescribing. This workshop will describe the nature and extent of the problem of inadequate cancer pain management amidst the dual public health emergencies of the North American opioid crisis and COVID-19 pandemic across contexts (e.g., United States, Canada), age groups (e.g., children to older adults) and perspectives (e.g., providers, researchers, patients and caregivers). First, J. Paice will discuss the challenge of cancer pain management within the United States opioid epidemic and COVID-19 and evidence-based strategies to mitigate opioid-related risks. Then, L. Gauthier will describe the Canadian response, including the outcomes of 2 national stakeholder meetings and findings from a Delphi study to identify key research questions to drive this field forward. Next, P. Tutelman will present quantitative and qualitative data outlining barriers to pediatric cancer pain management amidst the crises. Finally, S. de Gagne will provide a patient perspective as the parent of a childhood cancer survivor. Speaker 1: Judith A. Paice, PhD, RN, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Cancer Pain Program, Chicago, IL, USA, [email protected], @JPaicePhD Speaker 1 Abstract Title: Balancing Cancer Pain Management During the Time of an Opioid Epidemic Speaker 1 Cancer pain is a complex, bio-psycho-social-spiritual phenomenon with causes ranging from the direct effects of the tumor, to the consequences of cancer treatment, along with pre-existing painful conditions. Throughout the trajectory of cancer care, opioid use is often indicated and in fact, it may be unethical to limit or prohibit the use of opioids when pain is severe. While many patients can safely use these agents, the intersection of the unprecedented opioid epidemic, COVID-19 pandemic, and cancer pain further complicates care. Although prescription opioids were originally the source of diversion and misuse during the early years of this epidemic, currently monthly initial prescriptions are decreasing. This is in part due to enhanced education of prescribers but an unintended consequence of attention to this epidemic is that a large number of prescribers are no longer prescribing opioids, potentially limiting access to opioids for those in pain, including people with cancer. Oncologists face the significant challenge of providing cancer pain control that is safe and effective, while limiting individual risk for abuse or overdose and keeping the community free of diverted substances. Most oncology providers report inadequate training in chronic pain principles and in managing addiction. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated the challenge of cancer pain management by reducing access to integrative and interventional therapies and yielding pain drug shortages. Risk assessment and mitigation measures can be incorporated within oncology care to enhance effective pain management while reducing the potential for harm. Speaker 2: Perri Tutelman, BHSc. (Hons), Dalhousie University, Psychology and Neuroscience, Halifax, NS, Canada, [email protected], @PerriTutelman Speaker 2 Abstract Title: Children’s Cancer Pain Management in the Era of the Opioid Crisis: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Barriers to Effective Treatment Speaker 2 Children and their parents consistently report that pain is one of the most common and distressing symptoms of a cancer diagnosis. While there are effective pharmacological, psychological, and physical strategies to alleviate cancer-related pain, many children continue to report undertreated pain across the cancer continuum. This presentation will provide an overview of the problem of poorly managed pain in children with cancer and the unique pain management barriers this population faces in the era of an opioid crisis and global pandemic. First, data outlining the prevalence and characteristics of pain in children with cancer across the disease trajectory, and the state of the evidence for managing pain in this population, will be presented. Next, the role of family-level factors in the management of children’s cancer-related pain will be reviewed, including results on parents’ concerns regarding the use of pain medication for the treatment of their child’s cancer pain (over 60% agreed that pain medication was addictive and approximately 20% believed that children who take pain medication may learn to take drugs to solve other problems). Unique barriers to cancer pain management in the survivorship phase will be highlighted using data from a qualitative study of childhood cancer survivors (ages 8-18 years) and their parents. Areas for future work, including patient and family education and the need for high quality pain trials in this area will be discussed. Speaker 3: Lynn Gauthier, PhD, Université Laval, Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Québec, QC, Canada, [email protected], @docpeper Speaker 3 Abstract Title: Managing cancer pain amidst the opioid crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic: The Canadian response to advancing the state of the evidence and safeguarding access to care Speaker 3 The opioid crisis is fuelling inadequate cancer pain...
Chao-Ying Chen, I-Hua Chen, Amir H. Pakpour, , Mark D. Griffiths
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking; doi:10.1089/cyber.2020.0497

Abstract:
This study assessed the mediating roles of problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic smartphone use in the associations between psychological distress and screen time use among primary school children during the school hiatus due to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Students (n = 2,026; mean [standard deviation] age = 10.71 years [1.07]; 1,011 [49.9 percent] girls) in Sichuan, China completed a cross-sectional online survey, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (IRB ref: HSEARS20190718001). The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, and Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale were used to assess problematic gaming, social media use, and smartphone use. The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 was used to assess distress, and an item rated on a 0–10 scale was included to assess fear of being infected by COVID-19. Fear of being infected by COVID-19 was assessed because this could be a confounding variable in the association between psychological distress and screen time use. Increased time spent on gaming, social media, and smartphones was associated with greater problematic gaming, problematic social media use, problematic smartphone use, and psychological distress, but was not associated with fear of COVID-19 infection. Mediation analyses showed that problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic smartphone use were significant mediators in the association between psychological distress and increased time spent on Internet-related activities during the COVID-19 outbreak period. Children who had psychological distress during COVID-19 outbreak might have spent longer time on Internet-related activities due to the school hiatus and problematic use of Internet-related activities. Parents/caregivers are recommended to monitor their children's use of Internet while encouraging children to engage in positive activities to ease the concern of negative psychological responses during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Catherine Bushill, Jessica Slater
Published: 18 April 2021
by BMJ
Abstracts, Volume 5; doi:10.1136/bmjpo-2021-rcpch.137

Abstract:
Background A 10 year old only child of Polish parents was referred via the concerning behaviours pathway to assess her for developmental impairment. Her medical history was complex, beginning with being born prematurely at 23+4 weeks of gestation. Despite follow up until the age of 5 years she did not meet criteria for further investigation or follow up at the time. Investigations by community paediatrics revealed significant organic neurological abnormalities as well as important psycho-social issues, culminating in a diagnosis of both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Objectives Interesting case highlighting important aspects of Community Paediatrics. Methods The child was seen by the community paediatrician, who listened to concerns of her parents, looked back in depth at the patient’s history and referred onto the relevant teams for assessment of her needs. Results The community paediatrician was an advocate for the patient and parents in obtaining the support she needed for her education and development. When requests were denied for an Education, Health and Care Plan (EHCP), and a speech and language assessment referral rejected due to the child being bilingual, the community paediatrician was able to work alongside a Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) advocate to access these for the patient. Despite support from her parents, she had struggled in mainstream school - not only with impairment in gross and fine motor skills, but also with cognition. She had low self-esteem and found making friends hard. Due to the Covid19 pandemic she had home-schooling and the combination of increased supervision, working at her own pace and reduced pressure on social skills she had been thriving. However the pandemic has delayed assessment by speech and language, occupational and physical therapy. Following discussion of parental concerns regarding cerebral palsy, and having a grossly normal neurological examination, an MRI was requested which showed almost complete absence of the left cerebellar hemisphere thought to be as a result of perinatal insult. Armed with MRI results the child was found to have an abnormal cerebellar examination. Conclusions This important case highlights the benefits of a multi-disciplinary team working closely with school and family. This case demonstrates the central role of the community paediatrician in providing holistic care of patients and how they are well placed to advocate for such patients and their families. This patient was referred for ASD assessment, but for this patient ADHD and ASD are part of her picture, but not the only concern. Importance of investigating based on new assessment is highlighted. Despite MRI previously being felt unnecessary, it revealed important findings which will help to more thoroughly understand her needs. Previous assessment may lack vital information or the patient‘s presentation may have evolved. This case also illustrates possible health inequalities for patients for whom English is not their first language. Language barriers are associated with inequalities in access to and quality of healthcare delivered and may have contributed to the late diagnosis of cerebellar hypoplasia. It would be interesting to see if cultural differences could also have had an impact.
Yngve Troye Nordkvelle
Seminar.net, Volume 17; doi:10.7577/seminar.4388

Abstract:
None of the papers presented here reflects on the Pandemic situation. In due time, journals will be filled with research papers on the effects and workings of the Pandemic for academics, students and organizations in higher education. One general theme will be if the changed contexts for teaching and learning we have seen in the time span from February/March 2020 until the present situation will throw significant light into how the future will be. In a report presented by the US organization EDUCAUSE, well before the pandemic, the following trends were foreshadowed: In the social domain, wellbeing and mental health, demographic changes and equity and fairness will be high on the agenda. In the technological domain, AI, new digital learning environment, and leaning analytics and privacy questions will cause concern. In the economic domain, cost, adjustment to the labour market and climate change will take foreground. In the political domain, decreasing funding, estimation of value of higher education and political polarization will need attention. Finally, the dynamics of higher education itself will influence our path to the future: changes in student population, alternative pathways to education and online education. None of these forecasts anticipated the demands of a rapidly evolving pandemic globally. The latter points of the list provided by EDUCAUSE have been the focus of this journal over the last 17 years. We have seen trends come and pass, and watched trends oscillate with the shifts of fashion. In our experience we see that global actors take over the market: Blackboard, Moodle and Canvas. ZOOM and Webex are winning similar positions and a host of add-ons and potentially brilliant contenders try to gain the same advantages. One example comes to mind: one software – no name mentioned – cost a Norwegian institution nkr 30 000 for a license for a studentbody of 40 000 – before the pandemic. After the pandemic, the price for a smaller institution with a studentbody of 15 000, has risen to nkr. 350 000. Another example: the realization of strict GDPR regulations in Europe hampers the use of software in significant ways. The main VLE/LMS-configurations are affected by the different GDPR-arrangements in US vs. other continent and states. The global market for educational software are seriously affected by the globalization and the escalating disharmonies in international collaboration. It does not help that some providers act like profiteers at this time and age. In this edition of our seventeenth volume we offer five articles. In the first, Marcia Håkansson Lindqvist of Mid Sweden University, contributes with an analysis of one Swedish one-to-one laptop initiative. Her take is on how parents conceive of this phenomenon. She describes how the initiative was a mixed blessing, and one sees easily its applicability to the present condition for most student. In the second paper, Rob Miles, of the United Arab Emirates University, has written the paper: “Identifying the contradictions in the technology enhanced language classroom”. It contains an account of a theoretically sophisticated – and highly critical research project in a region not often reported from in Northern academic journals. The paper questions the positive impact of a 1:1 laptop initiative in a context quite different from the Swedish example. Tor Jørgen Schjelde and Ingrid Nilsen Lie of Tromsø University, the Arctic University, present the third paper: “The impact of emotions on learning and motivation in producing and presenting digital stories.” Digital stories have been a strong interest for this journal over the years, and their paper opens new avenues of research into the role of emotional engagement in the production – and reception of digital stories. Three authors, Reidun Lied, Hanne Maria Bingen of VID specialized University and Simen A. Steindal of Lovisenberg Diaconal University College present the paper: “Collaborative Online Learning Using a Blended Learning Design for a Physiology Course in Nursing Education”. It describes an implementation of Salmon’s model for online collaborative learning in a blended learning context for part-time nursing students. Salmon’s model is widely used and is here contesting its applicability for this group of students. Last, Brita Bjørkelo of Norwegian Police University College/University of Bergen, Aslaug Grov Almås of Western Norway University of Applied Sciences and Ingrid Helleve of the University of Bergen present their joint paper: “Perceived adequate education in ethics:A way to tap into ethical Social Networking Sites awareness?”. It provides a very good argument for applied training in ethical issues in teacher training also will prepare them for counteracting illegitimate student use of Social Network Sites.
, , Kalaivani Ramachandran
The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, Volume 30, pp 299-310; doi:10.1007/s40299-021-00572-y

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced school closure thus shifting teaching and learning towards full home-based learning (HBL). Technology plays a key role but the considerations to design online learning environments that meaningfully engage students are complex. This exploratory, qualitative study attempted to elicit eight mathematics teachers’ considerations and perspectives in designing online home-based learning lessons for the engagement of elementary and secondary students. Data were gathered through interviews. Ground-up thematic analyses were conducted. The following implications are derived—(1) student engagement in online learning context is paramount to their learning, (2) there is no one software application for all the learning activities, (3) teacher professional development is necessary to keep them up-to-date, (4) online social networking platforms may be necessary for students’ discussion beyond official online lesson time, and (5) students need to be inculcated with more self-directed skills and habits for learning in online and face-to-face contexts. This study gathers evidence-informed considerations for teachers to design lessons and engage students meaningfully in a unique, online HBL environment. While this is an exploratory study, future studies can inform this area of work by including more teachers across subjects, grades, schools, and geographical contexts. Studies involving students and parents would also be meaningful.
Open Access Indonesia Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 331-344; doi:10.37275/oaijss.v4i2.57

Abstract:
Teaching approach gives significant to the teaching-learning process for both teachers and students. Thus, the students’ learning depends on what the school’s application of most effective and attainable teaching approach especially in the time of covid-19 pandemic. With the implementation of the new normal education, the difficulties encountered among stakeholders because of an alternative learning delivery – modular distance learning being applied in order to facilitate and to continue to serve the good education in different schools in the country Philippines. With this, the study sought to determine the perceptions of the students in Mindanao State University –Sulu regarding their experiences during face-to-face learning approach and modular distance learning approach, to ascertain the factors that can affect face-to-face learning and modular learning as perceived by the students of Mindanao State University-Sulu. This also aimed to find out the significant difference of students’ perceptions in the two learning approach. This study utilized random sampling technique through launching a survey questionnaire in assessing the perceptions of the students in Mindanao State University –Sulu by at least ten percent of the total number of enrollees from the seven departments existing in the university campus academic year 2020-2021. The findings of this study revealed that students agreed that face-to-face learning approach gives significant and had much contribution to their learning while they have disagreed on modular distance learning approach. They also believed that there are factors can affect their learning either in face-to-face and during modular learning. There is a significant difference of students’ perceptions in face-to-face learning approach and modular distance learning approach that resulted to the rejection of the null hypothesis. This study recommended that principal/director should encourage and motivate the subordinates to achieve a certain task for the good of their school. He/she should conduct an orientation program to inform parents that they are partners of teachers in education in time of crisis. Principal/director should also be responsible for interacting with teachers, representative of other school, and other stakeholders to acquire the various materials and resources for the teachers and students. There should be a training/seminar programs for the benefits of his/her subordinates in achieving school’s goals. He/she should also give clear instructions to the teachers, parents that their primary role during Modular is to establish a connection and guide the students. Lastly, he/she should encourage teachers to adopt modular even during face-to-face classes.
Alexandra Harris
BSAVA Companion, Volume 2021, pp 24-25; doi:10.22233/20412495.0421.24

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has placed particular pressure on practitioners with small children – many have found it hard to balance the demands of their chosen career with the need to safeguard their own health and that of their own families. But if in these difficult times, there are members of the profession who feel that their parenting skills are not up to the job, then one of their colleagues may be able to help. She is Alexandra Harris (or McKenzie Johnston, as she was known to her classmates in Cambridge vet school’s 2007 graduate cohort). Alex combines her duties as a locum small animal vet in Hampshire with the unusual role of a parenting consultant.
, Usha Raman, Srividya Ramasubramanian
Frontiers in Human Dynamics, Volume 3; doi:10.3389/fhumd.2021.601239

Abstract:
The ubiquity of digital and social media has led to considerable academic debate regarding their role in the lives of children and adolescents. The Global North, especially United States and Europe, has largely led this discussion in matters of research methods and approaches, as well as on conversations around screen time, wellbeing, media literacy, and digital citizenship. However, it is not clear to what extent and how these Anglo-Eurocentric approaches to digital literacy and social connectedness translate to the various local realities of the Global South, where increasing numbers of young people have either direct or indirect access to social media and the internet, but occupy very different social contexts. In India, for instance, low cost mobile phones, cheap data plans, and vernacularization of content have furthered access cutting across socioeconomic strata. What specific research priorities might emerge in this context? Which methods can be employed to study these issues? How can we contextualize existing knowledge to help support young people and their parents maximize the benefits of this digital/social world even as we take into account the nuances of the local? In this paper, we mapped local stakeholders and shared insights from in-depth personal interviews with community leaders from civil society, research and advocacy as well as professionals working with young people and parents in India as their work addresses some of these important questions. A thematic analysis of interview data helped the researchers scope out issues like lack of child-centered-design, dearth of knowledge about the opportunities and risks of social media among parents, and confusion on how to navigate this digital/social world. Suggestions about children’s wellbeing, including what parents could do about this, the possibility of and the problems with regulation, and the need to focus on how parents can foster trust and a meaningful connection with young people that would frame their engagement with technology are made. Future research should consider these relationships within the new context of the COVID-19 pandemic and related issues such as degrees of digital connectivity and access, social isolation, virtual schooling, and parents working from home.
, Thenille Braun Janzen, Luisiana Passarini, Patrícia Vanzella
Published: 24 March 2021
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.633499

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had profound effects on all aspects of society. Families were among those directly impacted by the first measures imposed by health authorities worldwide to contain the spread of the Sars-CoV-2 virus, where social distancing and mandatory quarantine were the main approaches implemented. Notably, little is yet known about how social distancing during COVID-19 has altered families' daily routines, particularly regarding music-related behaviors. The aim of this study was 2-fold: (i) to explore changes in families' daily routine and caregivers' levels of well-being and stress during the COVID-19 outbreak in Brazil and (ii) to investigate whether musical behaviors of caregivers and the children under their care (aged from 3 to 6 years old) changed during social distancing. One hundred and eighty-eight caregivers residing in Brazil participated in an online cross-sectional study conducted between July and August 2020. Our findings suggest significant changes in families' dynamics during the COVID-19 outbreak, with parents (especially mothers) spending more time on childcare and a substantial decrease in caregiver's well-being. Regarding music-related behaviors, our results revealed considerable changes in caregivers' and children's musical activities at home during social distancing, including an increase in child-only musical behaviors and shared caregiver-child activities. Moreover, sociodemographic factors such as caregiver background and well-being as well as the child's disability status significantly influenced musical engagement at home during social distancing. This study captured some features of the home musical environment of middle-class families in Brazil in the first stages of social distancing restrictions during the pandemic and caregivers' role in providing an environment where musical experiences are nurtured. Further research is needed to better understand aspects such as the long-term impact of the changes of musical behaviors at home on musical parenting and families' well-being.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/ijerph18063324

Abstract:
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has been disrupting the daily lives of people across the world, causing a major concern for psychological well-being in children. This study aimed to examine (1) how life satisfaction and its potential predictors have been affected by the pandemic among school-aged children in Korea, and (2) which factors would predict their life satisfaction during the pandemic. We surveyed 166 fourth-graders in the Seoul metropolitan area to assess their psychological well-being and potentially related variables during the pandemic. The data were compared with those available from two pre-COVID-19 surveys, the 2018 Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (n = 1236) and the 2019 Korean Children and Youth Well-being Index Survey (n = 334). Higher levels of stress were observed in children during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the level of their life satisfaction remained unchanged when compared with data from the pre-COVID-19 surveys. The pandemic also affected peer relationship quality and susceptibility to smartphone addiction, but not perceived parenting style nor academic engagement. Interestingly, peer relationship quality no longer predicted life satisfaction during the pandemic; perceived parenting styles and parent-child conversation time predicted life satisfaction. The results suggest a central role of parent-child relationship in supporting the psychological well-being of school-aged children during the pandemic.
Emma Zang, Poh Lin Tan, Thomas Lyttelton, Anna Guo
Published: 22 March 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3809482

Abstract:
Widespread shifts to telecommuting, school closures, and job losses arising from the COVID-19 pandemic have affected gendered time use patterns globally. Major gaps in the literature are the lack of longitudinal data to compare time use before and during the pandemic, and the lack of studies examining mechanisms through which the pandemic affects gendered time use patterns. This study uses a panel dataset of 290 pairs of married parents interviewed before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown in the Asian city state of Singapore, and examines gender inequalities in time spent on paid labor market work, housework, childcare, and total time use on the three activities. Gender gaps in housework and total time use increased during and persisted after the lockdown, even as the negative gender gap in paid market work hours narrowed. The gap in time spent caring for children expanded among households with fewer resources but decreased among households with more resources. We investigate three mechanisms through which the pandemic may have affected time use: 1) time availability, 2) relative resources, and 3) gender norms. Our results highlight the critical role that gender norms play in putting women into a vulnerable position when a pandemic strikes, especially among less-resourced households.
Heejung Chung, Holly Birkett, Sarah Forbes, Hyojin Seo
Published: 19 March 2021
Gender & Society, Volume 35, pp 218-232; doi:10.1177/08912432211001304

Abstract:
We examine the role flexible working has for gender equality during the pandemic, focusing on arrangements that give workers control over when and where they work. We use a survey of dual-earning working parents in the United Kingdom during the peak of the first lockdown, namely, between mid-May and mid-June 2020. Results show that in most households in our survey, mothers were mainly responsible for housework and child care tasks both before and during the lockdown period, although this proportion has slightly declined during the pandemic. In households where fathers worked from home during the pandemic, respondents were less likely to say that mothers were the ones solely or mostly responsible for housework and child care. Fathers who worked from home were more likely to say that they were doing more housework and child care during the lockdown period than they were before. Finally, we explore what we expect to happen in the postpandemic times in relation to flexible working and gender equality. The large expansion of flexible working we expect to happen may help reduce some of the gender inequalities that have exacerbated during the pandemic, but only if we reflect on and change our existing work cultures and gender norms.
Published: 12 March 2021
by MDPI
Children, Volume 8; doi:10.3390/children8030219

Abstract:
The COVID-19 outbreak and related public health guidelines have changed the daily lives of Canadians and restricted opportunities for healthy movement behaviours for children. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents experienced the pandemic-related restrictions and how they impacted their children’s movement behaviours. Methods: Twenty-nine semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted (June–July 2020) with parents of children (5–11 years old) in Ontario and British Columbia. Interviews lasted between 24–104 min, were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. Results: Findings emphasized various individual (e.g., motivation), interpersonal (e.g., parent work schedule), built (e.g., closure of parks) and natural environment (e.g., weather) factors related to children’s movement behaviours. The findings highlighted the loss of structured activities and destinations for children’s physical activity, and restricted opportunities for outdoor play exacerbated by shrinking childhood independent mobility. Conclusion: Families are adapting to many pandemic-related challenges including adhering to public health restrictions, parents juggling multiple roles, conducting work and school from home, as well as exacerbating factors like weather. It will be important to continue to encourage outdoor time, support policies and practice that facilitate independent mobility, and develop centralized resources that help families in the maintenance of healthy movement behaviours.
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